Converter sentence example
The converter is then turned upright into the position shown in fig.
But no part of the Bessemer converter is of a shape easily affected by the heat, no part of it is exposed to the heat on more than one side, and the converter itself is necessarily cooler than the metal within it, because the heat is generated within the metal itself by the combustion of its silicon and other calorific elements.
In it the steel heats the converter, whereas in the open-hearth and crucible processes the furnace heats the steel.
It is in large part because of this shallowness, which contrasts so strongly with the height and roominess of the Bessemer converter, that the process lasts hours where the Bessemer process lasts minutes, though there is the further difference that in the open-hearth process the transfer of heat from flame to charge through the intervening layer of slag is necessarily slow, whereas in the Bessemer process the heat, generated as it is in and by the metallic bath itself, raises the temperature very rapidly.
But the oxygenated metal might be prepared easily in a Bessemer converter.Advertisement
In the duplex process the conversion of the cast iron into steel is begun in the Bessemer converter and finished in the openhearth furnace.
In the most promising form of this process an acid converter and a basic open-hearth furnace are used.
But if the conversion is only begun in the converter and finished on the open-hearth, then there is no need of regulating the temperature in the converter closely, and variations in the silicon-content of the pig iron thus become almost harmless in this respect.
But if the silicon of the pig iron is removed by a preliminary treatment in the Bessemer converter, then its presence in the pig iron is harmless as regards the open-hearth process.
Looking at the duplex process in another way, the preliminary desilicidizing in the Bessemer converter should certainly be an advantage; but whether it is more profitable to give this treatment in the converter than in the mixer remains to be seen.Advertisement
The melting can be done much more cheaply in a cupola or open-hearth furnace, and the first part of the purification much more cheaply in a Bessemer converter or open-hearth furnace.
Electric furnaces are at an advantage over others as regards the removal of sulphur and of iron oxide from the molten steel, because their atmosphere is free from the sulphur always present in the flame of coal-fired furnaces, and almost free from oxygen, because this element is quickly absorbed by the carbon and silicon of the steel, and in the case of arc furnaces by the carbon of the electrodes themselves, and is replaced only very slowly by leakage, whereas through the Bessemer converter and the open-hearth furnace a torrent of air is always rushing.
But tranquillity is clearly imp ssib'e in the Bessemer converter, in which the metal can be kept hot only by being torn into a spray by the blast.
In short the electric furnaces can be used to improve the molten product of the Bessemer converter and open-hearth furnace, essentially because their atmosphere is free from sulphur and oxygen, and because they can therefore remove sulphur, iron oxide and mechanically suspended slag, more thoroughly than is possible in these older furnaces.
They are not likely to displace either the open-hearth furnace or the Bessemer converter, because their normal work is only to improve the product of these older furnaces.Advertisement
When the former is used it is roasted with calcium sulphate or alkali waste to form a matte which is then blown in a Bessemer converter or heated in a reverberatory furnace with a siliceous flux with the object of forming a rich nickel sulphide.
In America the usual method is to roast ores or concentrates so that the matte yielded by either the reverberatory or cupola furnace will run from 45 to 50% in copper, and then to transfer to the Bessemer converter, which blows it up to 99%.
The only practical mode of doing this, as yet devised, is by lining the converter with a silicious mixture.
The other items of cost are labour, the quantity of which depends on the mechanical appliances provided for handling the converter shells and inserting the lining; and the blast, which in barrel-shaped converters is low and in vertical converters is high, and which varies therefore from 3 to is lb to the square inch.
The quantity of air consumed in a converter which will blow up about 35 tons of matte per day is about 3000 cub.Advertisement
The slag is then poured and skimmed, the blast turned on and converter retilted.
Pyritic smelting is a development of the Russian engineer Semenikov's treatment (proposed in 1866) of copper matte in a Bessemer converter.
With pyritic smelting a sulphuretted copper ore, fed into a cupola in the morning, can be passed directly to the converter, blown up to metal, and shipped as 99% bars by evening - an operation which formerly, with heap roasting of the ore and repeated roasting of the mattes in stalls, would have occupied not less than four months.
A large furnace and a Bessemer converter, the pair capable of making a million pounds of copper a month from a low-grade sulphuretted ore, will not occupy a space of more than 25 ft.
Fully controlled three-way catalytic converter with two oxygen sensors Six-speed gearbox with helical gears.Advertisement
The MOT regulations say nothing about a vehicle having a catalytic converter.
The new exhaust with a two-way catalytic converter is an efficient back up for a more evolved injection system.
The exhaust is made from stainless steel, with built-in catalytic converter.
The amplified sensor signals are converted to digital data with a microprocessor-controlled integrating A/D converter.
The function installs a forward type converter to convert string values to numerical representation type values.
At the moment I am building a Morse code reader to interface to my 64K ZX-81 using a tone decoder and A/D converter.
The website provides a free currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency.
Next problem to sort out was the torque converter.
Now you have a cool way to implement a DAC, a digital-to-analog converter.
The website provides a free currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency converter which will give you the current exchange rate from GBP to your own currency.
Most welcome is the simple, but remarkably efficient, currency converter.
Where no three-phase electricity is available and single-phase motors are unsuitable, a single to three-phase converter may be the only answer.
Ned Minns Ned is developing a novel floating oscillating water column wave energy converter.
It's a converter which changes two microphone inputs into a USB port.
It is a good solution if you have a very simple layout. latex There is a latex to pdf converter.
The result will be the converter power rating in Watts for 100% duty factor, often misnamed duty cycle.
Lists a currency converter, currency cheat sheet and a travel expense manager.
Pig iron is refined in a converter and then poured into molten iron silicate slag.
The hydraulic torque converter is an extension of the principle employed in a hydraulic coupling.
The gearbox was removed and rebuilt with tweaks and an uprated stall speed torque converter.
The wide converter optional lens features an ultra wide-angle 21 mm (when converted to 35 mm format camera ).
Century's converter can reach to a full 33% wider angle of view, delivering true widescreen.
Now in an acid-lined converter the slag is necessarily acid, because even an initially basic slag would immediately corrode away enough of the acid lining to make itself acid.
The carbon of the pig iron, burning as it does only to carbonic oxide within the converter, does not by itself generate a temperature high enough for the needs of the process.
If any individual blow proves to be too hot, it may be cooled by throwing cold " scrap " steel such as the waste ends of rails and other pieces, into the converter, or by injecting with the blast a little steam, which is decomposed by the iron by the endothermic reaction H20+Fe=2H+Fe0.
Wavegen 's Limpet, on the island of Islay is the first grid connected shoreline wave energy converter.
To circumvent this, you plug a step-down converter into the mains and then your imported console plugs into the converter.
This unique single to three-phase converter will produce up to 600% of maximum continuous power.
The control system acts through firing angle adjustments of the thyristor valves and through tap changer adjustments on the converter transformers.
The wide converter optional lens features an ultra wide-angle 21 mm (when converted to 35 mm format camera).
A controller in the synchronous buck converter switches the FETs according to the input voltage waveform to achieve rectification.
Century 's converter can reach to a full 33% wider angle of view, delivering true widescreen.
The least expensive option is to buy an HDTV signal converter.
A converter can give you HDTV pictures, but the quality will not be as high as the pictures received and displayed on a television that comes with the HDTV technology built into it.
Before you buy an HDTV converter, make sure the television you currently own has the necessary outlets for connecting to the converter.
Additional features include a calculator, clock, ecoRoute, custom points of interest, currency converter, JPEG picture viewer, 2D and 3D map perspectives, and more.
They can be used in their natural form as a fuel if the vehicle has a vegetable oil fuel converter.
A telephoto lens is highly desirable, as is a converter to supplement a lens.
This site also has a currency converter so you don't have to go through the trouble of determining what exactly $269.00 is equivalent to in your own currency.
Try Expedia.co.uk for a package special (be sure to have a currency converter handy before you book!), and a travel agency in the UK region can also be of assistance.
Unfortunately, there is no folder designated for video, but this is easy to fix.Now if you don't have MP4 files, then you will need to download a converter.
One of the easiest ones to use, which is designed to convert files that can be directly read by the PSP, is 3GP Converter.
When you first load 3GP Converter, you'll notice that everything is in Japanese.
These can be converted through 3GP Converter, but remember that a two hour movie will take up a good amount of space.
Sony sells one for $24.99 or you can grab the 3GP Converter off of virtually any freeware site.
Whichever console you end up choosing, if you wind up playing with a bunch of other people who have varying systems, it might be worth it to buy a controller converter as well.
The free video converter by Seabyrd Tech fits the bill to a tee.
Key features include a calendar, to-do list, wake-up call, alarm, notepad, unit converter and stopwatch, as well as voice functions.
One of the best free Blackberry applications for this purpose is MediaCell Blackberry Video Converter.
If you want to include feng shui characters on your webpage use the Unicode converter at Chinese-tools.com.
RootsWeb's Soundex Converter can help you search for alternative spellings of your surname.
Use this currency converter to get the price of the purse in your native currency.
The average price for a sticky mat is $20 U.S. For a current exchange rate, check the Universal Currency Converter.
Many basic car problems, such as a clogged catalytic converter or air intake issue, can cause the car to either run very badly or not at all.
It can also be a sign of catalytic converter issues.
To find your exact European size use Conde Nast's handy size converter.
Use a currency converter to be sure you know just how many U.S. Dollars you are spending.
The PDF converter widget instantly converts your documents into PDFs.
When the converter is full the pressure is raised somewhat, and the heating continued until the conversion is complete.
On its way from the blast furnace to the converter or open hearth furnace the pig iron is often passed through a great reservoir called a " mixer," which acts also as an equalizer, to lessen the variation in composition of the cast iron, and as a purifier, removing part of the sulphur and silicon.
Further, the point at which the process should be arrested is recognized by the appearance of the flame which issues from the converter's mouth, and variations in the silicon-content of the cast iron treated alter this appearance, so that the indications of the flame become confusing, and control over the process is lost.
There are two distinct varieties of this process, the original undephosphorizing or " acid " Bessemer process, so called because the converter is lined with acid materials, i.e.
Hence phosphorus cannot be removed in an acid-lined converter.
Though all this is elementary to-day, not only was it unknown, indeed unguessed, at the time of the invention of the Bessemer process, but even when, nearly a quarter of a century later, a young English metallurgical chemist, Sidney Gilchrist Thomas (1850-1885), offered to the British Iron and Steel Institute a paper describing his success in dephosphoriz ing by the Bessemer process with a basic-lined converter and a basic slag, that body rejected it.
In carrying out the acid Bessemer process, the converter, preheated to about 1200 0 C. by burning coke in it, is turned into the position shown in fig.
The oxygen of the blast having been thus taken up by the molten metal, its nitrogen issues from the mouth of the converter as a pale spark-bearing cone.
Part of the carbon of this spiegeleisen unites with the oxygen occluded in the molten iron to form carbonic oxide, and again a bright flame, greenish with manganese, escapes from the converter.
The lining of the converter is made of 90% of the mixture of lime and magnesia which results from calcining dolomite, (Ca,Mg)CO i, at a very high temperature, and 10% of coal tar freed from its water by heating.
In either case such a lining is expensive, and has but a short life, in few works more than 200 charges, and in some only loo, though the silicious lining of the acid converter lasts thousands of charges.
Further objections to the presence of silicon are that the resultant silica (1) corrodes the lining of the converter, (2) makes the slag froth so that it both throws much of the charge out and blocks up the nose of the converter, and (3) leads to rephosphorization.
But Massenez and Richards, following the plan outlined by Pourcel in 1879, have found that even 3% of silicon is permissible if, by adding iron ore, the resultant silica is made into a fluid slag, and if this is removed in the early cool part of the process, when it attacks the lining of the converter but slightly.
Whatever be the form into which the steel is to be rolled, it must in general first be poured from the Bessemer converter in which it is made into a large clay-lined ladle, and thence cast in vertical pyramidal ingots.