When the convention met and the balloting began, the contest along these factional lines started in earnest.
The convention of Sutri of 1 i i i between Pope Paschal II.
A convention was signed in 1849, which secured the free navigation of the Parana and the independence of the Banda Oriental.
The Convention was reconvened on the 12th of February 1863, and the demand of Congress was met.
In the course of the proceedings it was announced that Queensland desired to come within the proposed union; and in view of this development, and in order to give further opportunity for the consideration of the bill, the convention again adjourned.
In 1799 Alkmaar gave its name to a convention signed by the duke of York and the French general Brune, in accordance with which the Russo-British army of 23,000 men, which was defeated at Bergen, evacuated Holland.
Analogous to this convention was the concordat concluded between Nicholas IV.
Between the casting of the first and the thirty-third ballot, Garfield, who was the leader of Sherman's adherents in the convention, had sometimes received one or two votes and at other times none.
Finally, under a convention of the 17th of April 1896, these conflicting claims were submitted to arbitration.
In 1779-1780 about 4000 of Burgoyne's troops, surrendered under the "Convention" of Saratoga, were quartered here; in October 1780 part of them were sent to Lancaster, Pa., and later the rest were sent north.
They have the perpetuity of conventions which contain no time limitation; but, like every human convention, they can be denounced, in the form in use for international treaties, and for good reasons, which are summed up in the exigencies of the general good of the country.
The constitution of the state was framed by a convention that sat at Denver from December 1875 to March 1876.
The " Second Wheeling Convention" met according to agreement (11th June), and declared that, since the Secession Convention had been called without the consent of the people, all its acts were void, and that all who adhered to it had vacated their offices.
The Convention refused, and the anti-revolutionary party, encouraged by this refusal, took action.
A majority of the members elected to each house may submit the question of calling a convention to the people; and if a majority of the votes cast approve, an election for members of a convention shall be held, and all acts of the convention must be submitted to the people for ratification or rejection.
Pierpont was chosen governor of Virginia, other officers were elected and the convention adjourned.
Shortly afterwards another convention was held at Edinburgh, and it was resolved that the delegates sent to Jedburgh should again meet the king at Linlithgow and repeat their former instructions.
A convention on the religious orders was concluded in 1904, but had not received the assent of the Senate in 1908.
In the session of 1907 he introduced an Irish Councils bill, a sort of half-way house to Home Rule; but it was unexpectedly repudiated by a Nationalist convention in Dublin and the bill was promptly withdrawn.
From the Trentino he returned to Caprera to mature his designs against Rome, which had been evacuated by the French in pursuance of the Franco-Italian convention of the 15th of September 1864.
Though votes were often cast for ten names, there were but two real candidates before the convention, Grant and Blaine.
In accordance with the understanding arrived at, the various Australasian parliaments appointed delegates to attend a national convention to be held in Sydney, and on the 2nd March 1891 the convention held its first meeting.
It was selected by the French convention of 1886 as the seat of the overland trade between Tongking and Yunnan, and opened two years later.
Whatever the obligations of the state towards the ecclesiastical society may be in pure theory, in practice they become more precise and stable when they assume the nature of a bilateral convention by which the state engages itself with regard to a third party.
On the 15th of July, in spite of the order of the Convention, he was brought before the criminal tribunal of the Rhone-et-Loire, condemned to death, and guillotined the next day.
He was a member of the Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1820, and was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1820 and to the state Senate in 1822, serving one term in each house.
For an account of the Virginia convention of 1861, which adopted the Ordinance of Secession, see Virginia.
He was present at the September massacres and saved several prisoners, and on the 7th of September 1792 was elected one of the deputies from Paris to the convention, where he was one of the promoters of the proclamation of the republic. He suppressed the decoration of the Cross of St Louis, which he called a stain on a man's coat, and demanded the sale of the palace of Versailles.
The censors, being elected on a general ticket, were always more progressive than the convention, which was chosen on the principle of equal township representation.
This conference adopted an address to the queen expressing its loyalty and attachment, and submitting certain resolutions which affirmed the desirability of an early union, under the crown, of the Australasian colonies, on principles just to all, and provided that the remoter Australasian colonies should be entitled to admission upon terms to be afterwards agreed upon, and that steps should be taken for the appointment of delegates to a national Australasian convention, to consider and report upon an adequate scheme for a federal convention.
The convention met in Adelaide on the 22nd of March 1897, and, after drafting a bill for the consideration of the various parliaments, adjourned until the 2nd of September.
On the formation of the Wirth ministry in May 1921 he was appointed Minister of Reconstruction, and in that capacity negotiated with the French minister, Loucheur, a convention for supplying German materials for the restoration of the devastated area in France, and thus paying in kind part of the reparation which the German Reich had undertaken to pay in gold.
When this " First Wheeling Convention" met, four hundred and twenty-five delegates from twenty-five counties were present, but soon there was a division of sentiment.
In 1894 an unofficial convention was held at Corowa, at which the cause of federation was strenuously advocated, but it was not until 1895 that the movement obtained new life, by reason of the proposals adopted at a meeting of premiers convened by Mr G.
The convention was attended by Sir George Grey, who was publicly welcomed to the colony by New Zealanders resident in Sydney, and by other admirers, and his reception was an absolute ovation.
Almost immediately after the adoption of the ordinance a mass meeting at Clarksburg recommended that each county in north-western Virginia send delegates to a convention to meet in Wheeling on the 13th of May 1861.
Although the bill drawn up by the convention of 1891 was not received by the people with any show of interest, the federation movement did not die out; on the contrary, it had many enthusiastic advocates, especially in the colony of Victoria.
He resigned his seat in the Convention on the 20th of January.
At this meeting all the colonies except New Zealand were represented, and it was agreed that the parliament of each colony should be asked to pass a bill enabling the people to choose ten persons to represent the colony on a federal convention; the work of such convention being the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval by means of the referendum.
In 1821 he was president of the state constitutional convention.
2 Yet no summary of 2 In 1795 the National Convention gruffly declared that the Republic would no longer subsidize any form of worship or furnish buildings for religious services.
In 1915 he was chosen a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, taking an active part in its proceedings.
Enjoy the city's natural wonders, historical significance and popularity as a centrally-located meeting and convention destination.
No boundary westward had been indicated in the Sand River Convention.
The Sand river, on whose banks the convention recognizing the independence of the Transvaal Boers was signed in 1852, is a tributary of the Vet and passes through the centre of the country.
The intervention of Pretorius resulted in the Sand River Convention of 1852, which acknowledged the independence of the Transvaal but left the status of the Sovereignty untouched.
A convention recognizing the independence of the country was signed at Bloemfontein on the 23rd of February by Sir George Clerk and the republican committee, and on the r 1 th of March the Boer government assumed office and the republican flag was hoisted.
By the Sand River Convention, independence had been granted to the Boers living " north of the Vaal," and the dispute turned on the question as to what stream constituted the true upper course of that river.
entered into a Customs. _ Union Convention with them.
The convention was the outcome of a conference held at Cape Town in 1888, at which delegates.
It was on this occasion that President Kruger, referring to the London Convention, spoke of Queen Victoria as a kwaaje Vrouw, an expression which caused a good deal of offence in England at the time, but which, to any one familiar with the homely phraseology of the Boers, obviously was not meant by President Kruger as insulting.
In 1898 the Free State also acquiesced in the new convention arranged with regard to the Customs Union between the Cape Colony, Natal, Basutoland and the Bechuanaland Protectorate.
In view of the dissolution of the intercolonial council a convention was signed at Pretoria on the 29th of May which made provision for the division of the common property, rights and liabilities of the Orange Colony and the Transvaal in respect to the railways and constabulary, and established for four years a joint board to continue the administration of the railway systems of the two colonies.
The colony took part during this month in an inter-state conference which met at Pretoria and Cape Town, and determined to renew the existing, customs convention and to make no alteration in railway rates.
These decisions were the result of an agreement to bring before the parliaments of the various colonies a resolution advocating the closer union of the South African states and the appointment of delegates to a national convention to frame a draft constitution.
In the National Republican Convention in 1860, not being sent by the Republicans of his own state on account of his opposition to William Seward as a candidate, he was made a delegate for Oregon.
In 1867 he was a delegate-at-large to the convention for the revision of the state constitution, and in 1869 and 1870 he was the Republican candidate for controller of the state and member of Congress respectively, but in each case was defeated.
He was dissatisfied with General Grant's administration, and became its sharp critic. The discontent which he did much to develop ended in the organization of the Liberal Republican party, which held its National Convention at Cincinnati in 1872, and nominated Greeley for the presidency.
It was first checked by the action of his life-long opponents, the Democrats, who also nominated him at their National Convention.
Many Republicans who had sympathized with his criticisms of the administration, and with the declaration of principles adopted at the first convention, were repelled by the coalition.
Hobart's zeal for the General Seminary and the General Convention led him to oppose the plan of Philander Chase, bishop of Ohio, for an Episcopal seminary in that diocese; but the Ohio seminary was made directly responsible to the House of Bishops, and Hobart approved the plan.
In 1884 he was a delegate of the Republican party to the convention in Chicago which nominated James G.
In 1900, although he wished to serve another term as governor in order to complete and establish certain policies within the state, he was nominated for the vice-presidency of the United States on the ticket with President McKinley by the Republican National Convention in Philadelphia in spite of his protest.
It was his frankly expressed wish to be nominated and elected president in 1904, and he was nominated unanimously by the Republican National Convention at Chicago, and was elected in November of that year by the largest popular majority ever given to any candidate in any presidential election.
Blaine in 1884, when he had vigorously opposed his nomination in the convention on moral grounds.
On the 7th of February 1867 a military convention was signed with Prussia which, while leaving to Saxony a certain control in matters of administration, placed the army under the king of Prussia; from the 1st of July it formed the XII.
1003 et seq.); and a convention (8th of July 1899) between France and Belgium regulates, inter alia, the mutual enforcement of awards.
The legislature may propose amendments to the constitution by a majority vote of all members elected to each of the two houses, or may issue a call for a constitutional convention by a two-thirds' majority.
A primary law enacted in 1905 authorizes the county convention of any party to provide for the nomination of candidates for county offices and the state legislature by direct vote.
The inhabitants of the south of the territory held a convention at Sioux Falls in 1885, adopted a state constitution on the 3rd of November, and applied for admission into the Union.
In accordance with the Enabling Act, which received the President's approval on the 22nd of February 1889, a convention met at Sioux Falls on the 4th of the following July and re-adopted, with some slight verbal changes, the constitution of 1885.
In 1801 he presided over the state constitutional convention, and from 1808 to 1810 was again in the Assembly.
In 1818 he was again elected to the Assembly; in 1819 he became a regent of the State University of which he was for a time chancellor; and in 1821 he was a delegate to the New York constitutional convention.
In 1792 he was elected deputy to the Convention, and took his place among the Girondists.
He demanded the formation of a national guard from the departments to defend the Convention against the populace of Paris.
Proscribed with the Girondists on the 2nd of June 1793, he succeeded in escaping, and took refuge in Normandy, where he contributed to organize a federalist insurrection against the Convention, which was speedily suppressed.
He was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779-1780, became the first governor of the state, and served from 1780 to 1785 and again from 1787 until his death.
Although at first unfriendly to the Federal Constitution as drafted by the convention at Philadelphia, he was finally won over to its support, and in 1788 he presided over the Massachusetts convention which ratified the instrument.
He presided over the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal constitution in June 1788.
The convention that framed the constitution, the Wyandotte Constitution, under which Kansas was admitted to the Union, met here in July 1859.
In the elections to the Convention, Marat was elected seventh out of the twenty-four deputies for Paris, and for the first time took his seat in an assembly of the nation.
The Girondins conquered at first in the Convention, and ordered that Marat should be tried before the Revolutionary Tribunal.
But their victory ruined them, for on the 24th of April Marat was acquitted, and returned to the Convention with the people at his back.
In accordance with the Enabling Act, which received the president's approval on the 22nd of February 1889, a constitutional convention met at Bismarck on the 4th of July following, and drafted a frame of government for the state of North Dakota.
A further convention afterwards provided for a second British consular district in northern Siam, while England and France have both appointed vice-consuls in different parts of the country.
These negotiations bore important fruit in the Anglo-French convention of 1896, the chief provision of which was the neutralization by the contracting parties of the central portion of Siam, consisting of the basin of the river Menam, with its rich and fertile land, which contains most of the population and the.
In 1907 a further convention was made with France, Siam returning to the French protectorate of Cambodia the province of Battambang conquered in 181r, and in compensation receiving hack from France the maritime province of Krat and the district of Dansai, which had been ceded in 1904.
This convention also modified the extra-territorial rights enjoyed by France in Siam, and disclosed an inclination to recognize the material improvements of the preceding years.
It was Czartoryski also who framed the Convention of the 6th of November 1804, whereby Russia agreed to put 115,000 and Austria 235,000 men in the field against Napoleon.
In 1856 he drew up a plan of action, and he prosecuted it with untiring perseverance until he saw it embodied in an international convention seven years later.
Geneva Convention >>
Girondins), the name given to a political party in the Legislative Assembly and National Convention during the French Revolution (1791-1793).
These deputies were twelve in number, six of whom - the lawyers Vergniaud, Guadet, Gensonne, Grangeneuve and Jay, and the tradesman Jean Francois Ducos - sat both in the Legislative Assembly and the National Convention.
As strictly party designations these first came into use after the assembling of the National Convention (September 20th, 1792), to which a large proportion of the deputies from the Gironde who had sat in the Legislative Assembly were returned.
It was they who proposed the suspension of the king and the summoning of the National Convention; but they had only consented to overthrow the kingship when they found that Louis XVI.
Thus the Girondists, who had been the Radicals of the Legislative Assembly, became the Conservatives of the Convention.
The Girondists, who had a majority in the Convention, controlled the executive council and filled the ministry, believed themselves invincible.
the bulk of them had voted for the "appeal to the people," and so laid themselves open to the charge of "royalism"; they denounced the domination of Paris and summoned provincial levies to their aid, and so fell under suspicion of "federalism," though they rejected Buzot's proposal to transfer the Convention to Versailles.
Pache had twice been minister of war in the Girondist government; but his incompetence had laid him open to strong criticism, and on the 4th of February he had been superseded by a vote of the Convention.
Finally, in the trial of the king he demanded, with the Girondists, that the sentence should be pronounced by a vote of the whole people, and not simply by the Convention.
In 1868 the International Bureau of Telegraphic Administrations was constituted at Berne, and a convention was formulated by which a central office was appointed to collect and publish information and generally to promote the interests of international telegraphy.
International service regulations have been drawn up which possess equal authority with the convention and constitute what may be regarded as the law relating to international telegraphy.
His brother Thomas made some mark as a Constitutional bishop and member of the Convention.
Returning from this mission, he pronounced an eloquent discourse in favour of the republic. His simple manners, easy speech, ardent temperament and irreproachable private life gave him great influence in Paris, and he was elected president of the Commune, defending the municipality in that capacity at the bar of the Convention on the 31st of October 1792.
He was one of the promoters of the worship of Reason, and on the 10th of November 1793 he presented the goddess to the Convention in the guise of an actress.
On the 23rd of the same month he obtained a decree closing all the churches of Paris, and placing the priests under strict surveillance; but on the 25th he retraced his steps and obtained from the Commune the free exercise of worship. He wished to save the Hebertists by a new insurrection and struggled against Robespierre; but a revolutionary decree promulgated by the Commune on his demand was overthrown by the Convention.
He was vigorous in his denunciations of the intrigues of the court and of the "Austrian committee"; but the violence of the extreme democrats, culminating in the events of the 10th of August, alarmed him; and when he was returned to the National Convention, he attacked the Commune of Paris (October 24 and 25).
As a member of the Committee of General Defence, and as president of the Convention (March 7-21,1793), he shared in the bitter attacks of the Girondists on the Mountain; and on the fatal day of the 2nd of June his name was among the first of those inscribed on the prosecution list.
In 1860 he presided over the National Democratic Convention which met first at Charleston and later at Baltimore, until he joined those who seceded from the regular convention; he then presided also over the convention of the seceding delegates, who nominated John C. Breckinridge for the presidency.
The present constitution also provides that the question, "Shall there be a convention to revise the constitution and amend the same?"
a convention was called, a constitution framed and application for admission made.
From July 16 to September 28 he acted as president of the Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania.
In May 1787 he was elected a delegate to the Convention which drew up the Federal Constitution, this body thus having a member upon whom all could agree as chairman, should Washington be absent.
He opposed over-centralization of government and favoured the Connecticut Compromise, and after the work of the Convention was done used his influence to secure the adoption of the Constitution.'
These ended in their accepting his terms under the famous convention of Vergara, which secured the recognition of their ranks and titles for nearly loon Carlist officers.
This led to the calling of the Annapolis convention of 1786, which in turn led to the calling of the Federal convention of 1787.
As a member of the legislature Clinton was active in securing In 1801 a state convention adopted an amendment to the constitution giving the council an equal voice with the governor in the matter of appointments; but Clinton, who is often represented as the father of this movement, though chosen as a member of the convention, did not attend its meetings.
In 1896 he was a candidate for the presidential nomination in the Republican national convention.
The provocative actions of the French Convention, especially their setting aside of the rights of the Dutch over the estuary of the Scheldt, had brought the two nations to the brink of war, when the execution of Louis XVI.
Education and similar matters are thus all conducted on the Prussian model; a previous convention had already handed over military affairs to Prussia.
WEN-CHOW-FU, a prefectural city in the province of Chehkiang, China, and one of the five ports opened by the Chifu convention to foreign trade, situated (28° 1' N., 120° 31' E.) on the south bank of the river Gow, about 20 m.
In 1801 he was elected to the state constitutional convention, in 1803 was a member of the state assembly, and in 1804 was elected to the national House of Representatives, but became a judge of the state supreme court, and served as such until 1807.
He was nominated for vice-president on the ticket with Woodrow Wilson at the Democratic National Convention in 1912 and was elected.
A convention of delegates representing the malcontents of numerous towns in Worcester county met at Worcester on the 15th of August 1786 to consider grievances, and a week later a similar convention assembled at Hatfield, Hampshire county.
New England's discontent culminated in the Hartford Convention (Dec. 1814), in which Massachusetts men predominated.
In the autumn of 1852 he was an unsuccessful candidate for nomination for the presidency by the Whig National Convention, and he went out of office on the 4th of March 1853.
In 1880 he received sixty-five votes on the first ballot for the presidential nomination at the Democratic National Convention at Cincinnati.
Toward the end of his second term the president became very much out of accord with his party on the free-silver question, in consequence of which the endorsement of the administration was withheld by the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896.
The success of his sketch for the picture of the "Oath of the Tennis Court," and his pronounced republicanism, secured David's election to the Convention in September 1792, by the Section du Museum, and he quickly distinguished himself by the defence of two French artists in Rome who had fallen into the merciless hands of the Inquisition.
In the January following his election into the Convention his vote was given for the king's death.
David's revolutionary ideas, which led to his election to the presidency of the Convention and to the committee of general security, inspired his pictures "Last Moments of Lepelletier de Saint-Fargeau" and "Marat Assassinated."
He was a delegate to the National Republican Convention in 1892; chairman of the Republican State Convention in 1895, 1900, and 1908; and chairman of the Republican National Committee in 1906.
At the Republican National Convention of 1908 he was nominated vicepresident on the first ballot and was elected on the ticket with William Howard Taft.
Gouverneur served in the New York Provincial Congress in 1776-1777, was perhaps the leading advocate in that body of a declaration of independence, and after the Congress had become (July 1776) the "Convention of the Representatives of the state of New York," he served on the committee of that body which prepared the first draft of the state constitution.
Morris was one of Pennsylvania's representatives in the constitutional convention of 1787, and took an active part in the debates.
He also gave able support to the nationalistic and anti-slavery factions in the convention.
In the House of Representatives seats were to be distributed in proportion to the population, and the convention, foreseeing rapid changes of population, ordained an enumeration of the inhabitants and a redistribution or reapportionment of seats in the House of Representatives every ten years.
The convention which drafted the Constitution of the United States attempted to secure a balance of interests by apportioning both representatives in Congress and direct taxes according to population.
This implies the treatment of a plane or solid figure as being wholly comprised between two parallel lines or planes, regarded by convention as being vertical; the figure being generated by an ordinate or section moving at right angles to itself through a distance which is called the breadth of the figure.
A compromise was arrived at by two assemblies, the first a convention of ministers held at Boston in 1657, the second a general synod of the churches of Massachusetts in 1662.
In the early days of this expansion Congregationalism and Presbyterianism worked hand in hand, but the so-called "Plan of Union" (1801) was successively abandoned by the Conservative Presbyterians in 1837 and by the Congregationalists through the "Albany Convention" in 1852.
In 1894 he was president of the New York state constitutional convention.
The first state constitution, adopted by a convention at Kingston, made few changes in the provincial system other than those necessary to establish it on a popular basis, but the powers of the governor were curtailed, especially his powers of appointment and veto.
A constitutional convention met and proposed a new constitution in 1867, but every article was rejected by the people save one relating to the judiciary, which was adopted separately as an amendment in 1869.
The third modified this provision by requiring the approval of only a majority of the members elected to each house of the second legislature, and directed that the legislature should call a convention to revise the constitution at least once in twenty years if the people requested it.
The patriots met this refusal by calling a provincial convention to choose the delegates.
When a majority of the constitutional convention of 1787 had approved of the new constitution Hamilton alone of the three New York delegates remained to sign it; and when, after °its ratification by eight states, the New York convention met at Poughkeepsie (June 17, 1788) to consider ratification, two-thirds of the members were opposed to it.
Politically, the anti-rent associations which were formed often held the balance of power between the Whigs and the Democrats, and in this position they secured the election of Governor John Young (Whig) as well as of several members of the legislature favourable to their cause, and promoted the passage of the bill calling the constitutional convention of 1846.
Tweed, forced the Democratic state convention to nominate its henchman, John T.
C. Lacretelle's chief work is a series of histories of the 18th century, the Revolution and its sequel: Précis historique de la Revolution francaise, appended to the history of Rabaud St Etienne, and partly written in the prison of La Force (5 vols., 1801-1806); Histoire de France pendant le X VIII' siecle (6 vols., 1808); Histoire de l'Assemblee Constituante (2 vols., 1821); L'Assemblee Legislative (1822); La Convention Nationale (3 vols., 1824-1825); Histoire de France depuis la restauration (1829-1835); Histoire du consulat et de l'empire (4 vols., 1846).
During the Revolution he was elected by the department of Meurthe deputy to the Legislative Assembly and the Convention, where he attached himself to the Mountain and voted for the death of Louis XVI.
He was elected president of the Convention on the 30th of May 1793, and by his weakness during the crisis of the following day contributed much to the success of the insurrection against the Girondists.
convention by frankly introducing his native folk-music, and by writing many of his own tunes in the same direct, vigorous.
Since the country was considered to be of little value the question of boundaries was not pressed either by Great Britain or the United States after the War of 1812, and by a treaty concluded on the 10th of October 1818 it was agreed that " any country that may be claimed by either party on the north-west coast of North America, westward of the Stony (Rocky) Mountains shall be free and open for the term of ten years from the date of the signature of the present convention to the vessels, citizens and subjects of the two powers."
On the 6th of August 1827 the convention was continued in force indefinitely with the proviso that either party might abrogate the agreement on twelve months' notice.
In this convention Mr Steyn took a leading and conciliatory part, and subsequently the Orange River legislature agreed to the terms drawn up by the convention for the unification of the four self-governing colonies.
The requirements for amending this constitution are: an affirmative vote in each house of the legislature of two-thirds of its members, followed, not less than three months later, by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting thereon at a general election; or, by a like vote of each house of the legislature and of the electorate, a convention may be called to revise or amend it, a revision or amendment in this manner requiring the ratification of the electorate not less than two months nor more than six months after the adjournment of the convention.
The Convention attended his funeral, and placed his bust in the hall where it held its sessions.
Grattan was a reformer and a patriot without a tincture of democratic ideas; Wolfe Tone was a revolutionary whose principles were drawn from the French Convention.
Military School (1908) on " Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing," and articles in Quarterly Review (April 1903) on " Imperial Telegraphs," and in Edinburgh Review (April 1908) on " The International RadioTelegraphic Convention."
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
At Vienna the war party was in the ascendant; the convention for disarmament had been signed, but so far from its being carried out, the reserves were actually called out on the 12th of April; and on the 23rd, before Cavours decision was known at Vienna, an Austrian ultimatum reached Turin, summoning Piedmont to disarm within three days on pain of invasion.
The convention was kept secret, pital but the last clause leaked out and caused the bitterest arr as- feeling among the people of Turin, who would have asf red to been resigned to losing the capital provided it were La ~rence, transferred to Rome, but resented the fact that it was un to be established in any other city, and that the conntion was made without consulting parliament.
Under La Marmoras ad- be ~rznora ministration the September convention was ratified, de:
Italy the convention seemed like a betrayal; to ~ poleon it was a set-back which he tried to retrieve by Italian gesting to Austria the peaceful cession of Venetia to ~t1t~u,ce Italian kingdom, in order to prevent any danger of of 1866.
This was a violation of the letter as well as of the spirit of the September convention, and a stronger and more straightforward statesman than Rattazzi would have declared Italy absolved from its provisions.
On the 3rd of September the news of Sedan reached Florence, and with the fall of Napoleons empire the September convention ceased to have any value.
On that occasion Jules Favre had recognized the September convention to be dead, and, while refusing explicitly to denounce it, had admitted that unless Italy went to Rome the city would become a prey to dangerous agitators.
Although Cairoli, upon learning of the Anglo-Ottoman convention in regard to Cyprus, had advised Count Corti of the possibility that Great Britain might seek to placate France by conniving at a French occupation of Tunisia, neither he nor Count Corti had any inkling of the verbal arrangement made between.
An effort to encourage the development of the mercantile marine was made in the same year, and a convention was concluded with the chief lines of passenger steamers to retain their fastest vessels as auxiliaries to the fleet in case of war.
On the 20th of September 1881 Beheran formally accepted Italian protection, and in the following February an Anglo-Italian convention established the Italian title to Assab on condition that Italy should formally recognise the suzerainty of the Porte and of the khedive over the Red Sea coast, and should prevent the transport of arms and munitions of war through the territory of Assab.
This convention was never recognized by the Porte nor by the Egyptian government.
Mangash, seeing further resistance to be useless, submitted to Menelek, who at the end of February ratified at Makall the additional convention to the treaty of Uccialli, but refused to recognize the Italian occupation of the Mareb.
Eritrea has now approximately the same extent as before the revolt of Bath-Agos, except in regard (I) to Kassala, which was transferred to the Anglo-Egyptian authorities on the 25th of December 1897, lfl pursuance of the above-mentioned Anglo-Italian convention; and (2) to slight rectifications of its northern and eastern boundaries by conventions concluded between the Eritrean and the Anglo-Egyptian authorities.
With characteristic foresight, Visconti Venosta promoted an exchange of views between Italy and France in regard to the Tripolitan hinterland, which the Anglo-French convention of 1899 had placed within the French sphere of influencea modification of the status quo ante considered highly detrimental to Italian aspirations in Tripoli.
For this reason the Anglo-French convention had caused profound irritation in Italy, and had tended somewhat to diminish the cordiality of Anglo-Italian relations.
Visconti Venosta is believed, however, to have obtained from France a formal declaration that France would not transgress the limits assigned to her influence by the convention.
Famous for his speeches at the Jacobin club, he was elected a member of the municipality of Paris, then of the Legislative Assembly, and later of the National Convention.
He was one of the three Massachusetts delegates in Congress in 1785 who refused to present the resolution of the General Court proposing a convention to amend the articles.
Early in 1787 King was moved by the Shays Rebellion and by the influence of Alexander Hamilton to take a broader view of the general situation, and it was he who introduced the resolution in Congress, on the 21st of February 1787, sanctioning the call for the Philadelphia constitutional convention.
In 5788 he was one of the most influential members of the Massachusetts convention which ratified the Federal Constitution.
He was a judge of the New Hampshire Court of Common Pleas in 17761 777, a member (and speaker) of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1776 until 1782, a member of the state Constitutional Convention of 1778 and of the state Senate in 1784-1785, and in1783-1784was again a member of Congress.
No "grant" was necessary; it was assumed by all and sundry who had occasion to use it, though a reasonable convention forbade one man to assume the device of another.
Alexander insisted still more strongly on this claim, and in the convention which he concluded with the First Consul in October 1801 it was agreed that the maintenance of a just equilibrium between Austria and Prussia should be Napoleon.
Under a Ottoman threat of war he obtained in 1826 the Convention of empire.
In view of this contingency the Russian and French military authorities studied the military questions in common, and the result of their labours was the preparation of a military convention, which was finally ratified in 1894.
The forward movement of Russia was thus stopped in the direction of Herat, but it continued with great activity farther east in the region of the Pamirs, until another Anglo-Russian convention was signed in 1895.
On national the 30th of July 1907 she signed a convention with position Japan of mutual respect for treaty and territorial of Russia.
In 1771, however, Spain yielded the islands to Great Britain by convention.
In 1902 the king of Sweden, as arbitrator under a convention signed at Washington in 1899, decided that Great Britain and the United States were liable for injuries due to action taken by their representatives during the military operations of 1899.
In 1858 Carson City was laid out, and in the following year the people of Carson county held a mass meeting and chose delegates to a constitutional convention, which met at Genoa on the 18th of July 1859, and in ten days drafted a constitution.
Delegates to a constitutional convention accordingly drafted a frame of government, which on the lath of January 1864 was submitted to a popular vote and overwhelmingly defeated.
The third constitutional convention in its history now met at Carson City and drew up a constitution which was duly ratified.
At the Republican National Convention in 1920 he received a few votes on all ten ballots for president.
At the Republican convention held in Chicago, in June, Mr Taft was nominated on the first ballot, receiving 702 out of 980 votes cast.
He was made president of the council in February 1660, and in the Convention Parliament sat for Carmarthen borough.
In the Virginia convention of 1776 he favoured the postponement of a declaration of independence, until a firm union of the colonies and the friendship of France and Spain had been secured.
In the same convention he served on the committee which drafted the first constitution for Virginia, and was elected governor of the State - to which office he was re-elected in 1777 and 1778, thus serving as long as the new constitution allowed any man to serve continuously.
Moreover, in the state convention called to decide whether Virginia should ratify the Federal Constitution he led the opposition, contending that the proposed Constitution, because of its centralizing character, was dangerous to the liberties of the country.
He served in the Virginia house of delegates in 1823-1827, in the state constitutional convention of 1829-1830, and from 1831 to 1837 in the National House of Representatives, being chairman of the committee on foreign affairs in 1835-1836.
He was president of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1851, and from 1853 until his death at Paris on the 3rd of October 1859, was United States minister to France.
Dr Park's sermon, "The Theology of the Intellect and that of the Feelings," delivered in 1850 before the convention of the Congregational ministers of Massachusetts, and published in the Bibliotheca sacra of July 1850, was the cause of a long and bitter controversy, metaphysical rather than doctrinal, with Charles Hodge.
Eventually the Cretan chiefs invoked the mediation of England, which Turkey, exhausted by her struggle with Russia, was ready to accept, and the convention known as the Pact of Halepa was drawn up in 1878 under the auspices of Mr Sandwith, the British consul, and Adossides Pasha, both of whom enjoyed the confidence of the Cretan population.
The firman was undoubtedly illegal, as it violated a convention possessing a quasi-international sanction, but the Christians were unable to resist, and the powers abstained from intervention.
There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".
In 1865 President Johnson appointed as provisional governor William Lewis Sharkey (1797-1873), who had been chief justice of the state in 1832-1850, and a convention which assembled on the 14th of August recognized the "destruction" of slavery and declared the ordinance of secession null and void.
North Carolina has been governed under the charters of 1663 and 1665 (1663-1729), under commissions and instructions from the crown (1729-1776), and under the state constitutions of the 18th of December 1776 (amended in 1835, in 1856, and in the Secession Convention of 1861) and of April 1868 (amended in 1872-1873, 1875, 2 1819 i 1888 and 1899).
The present constitution, as amended, prescribes that no convention of the people of the state may be called by the legislature unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house followed by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting on the question; and that an amendment to the constitution may be adopted only by a three-fifths vote of each house followed by an affirmative vote of the majority of electors voting on the question.
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.
North Carolina sent delegates to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787, but the state convention, at Hillsboro, called to pass upon the constitution for North Carolina, did not meet until the 21st of July 1788, when ten states had already ratified.
On the first day of this convention the opponents to the constitution, among whom were most of the delegates from the western counties, were ready to reject it without debate, but yielded to a proposal for discussing it clause by clause.
At the conclusion of the debate the convention by a vote of 184 to 84 declared itself unwilling to ratify the constitution until a bill of rights had been added and it had been amended in several other particulars so as to guarantee certain powers to the states.
A second convention met at Fayetteville in November 1789 and the constitution was speedily ratified (on the 13th) by a vote of 195 to 77.
In 1823 the West called an extra-legal convention to meet at Raleigh, and delegates from 24 of the 28 western counties responded, but those from the far West, in which there were practically no slaves, wished free white population to be made the basis of representation, while those from the Middle West demanded the adoption of the basis for the national House of Representatives and the convention made only a divided appeal to the people.
Ten years later, however, at the election of assemblymen, 33 of the western counties polled an extra-legal vote on the question of calling a constitutional convention, and 30,000 votes were cast for it to only l000 against it.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
When the popular vote was taken, in the following April, every eastern county gave a majority against the convention, but the West, even with the limitation which was decidedly xix.
The number of senators was reduced to 50, the number of commoners to 120, and the manner of choosing senators and commoners was changed as directed in the act providing for the convention.
Caldwell (1818-1874), there was some improvement in the condition of affairs, and in 1875 a constitutional convention, in session at Raleigh, with the Democrats slightly in the majority, amended the constitution, their work being ratified by the people at the state election in 1876.
Republican State Convention.
In 1861 he was a member of the Texas secession convention, served in the Confederate provisional Congress, and on the 6th of March was appointed postmaster-general in President Davis's cabinet.
He was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1876.
We are not here concerned with understandings as to " spheres of influence," or with arrangements such as the AngloRussian Convention of 1907 concerning Persia.
When Lyons was taken by the army of the Convention in 1793, the father of Ampere, who, holding the office of juge de paix, had stood out resolutely against the previous revolutionary excesses, was at once thrown into prison, and soon after perished on the scaffold.
He must then go towards the interior of France to a provincial capital, best of all to Rouen, and there he must appeal to the people and summon a great convention.
When this great convention met the king must show himself ready to recognize that great changes have taken place, that feudalism and absolutism have for ever disappeared, and that a new relation between king and people has arisen, which must be loyally observed on both sides for the future.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
St John's Episcopal church, built in 1740 (and sub sequently much enlarged), is noted especially as the meetingplace of the Virginia Convention of March 1775, before which Patrick Henry made a famous speech, ending, " I know not what course others may take, but as for me, Give me liberty, or give me death !"
Aaron Burr was tried for treason and then for misdemeanour in this building in 1807, the Virginia secession convention met here in 1861, and during the Civil War the sessions of the Confederate Congress were held here.
Told off to serve in the army of Nice, he was detained by a special order of the commissioners of the Convention, Saliceti and Gasparin, who, hearing of the severe wound sustained by Dommartin, the commander of the artillery of the republican forces before Toulon, ordered Bonaparte to take his place.
The result was the massing of some 30,000 National Guards to coerce the Convention.
Confronted by this serious danger, the Convention entrusted its defence to Barras, who appointed the young officer to be one of the generals assisting him.
The vigour and tactical skill of Bonaparte contributed very largely to the success of the troops of the Convention over the Parisian malcontents on the famous day of 1 3 Vendemiaire (October 5th, 1795), when the defenders of the Convention, sweeping the quays and streets near the Tuilleries by artillery and musketry, soon paralysed the movement at its headquarters, the church of St Roch.
Improving upon the procedure of the Convention in Vendemiaire 1795, Bonaparte procured the nomination of three consuls in an article of the new constitution; they were Bonaparte (First Consul), Cambaceres and Lebrun.
Lack of central control over the virtually independent communes (over forty thousand in number) led to a sharp rebound under the Convention, when all matters of importance were disposed of by commissioners appointed by that body.
On the 27th of October 1807 he signed with a Spanish envoy at Fontainebleau a secret convention with a view to the partitioning of Portugal between France and Spain.
Another convention of the same date allowed him to send 28,000 French troops into Spain for the occupation of Portugal, an enterprise in which a large Spanish force was to help them; 40,000 French troops were to be cantonned at Bayonne to support the first corps.
Still worse was the prospect when Sir Arthur Wellesley with a British force landed in Portugal, gained the battle of Vimiero (21st of August), and brought the French commander, Junot, by the so-called convention of Cintra, to agree to the evacuation of the country by all the French troops.
The revenge of the autocrat was characteristic. Besides driving Stein from office, he compelled Prussia to sign a convention(8th of September) for the payment to France of a sum of 140,000,000 francs, and for the limitation of the Prussian army to 42,000 men.
in the south, but at Valence it melted away in front of Grouchy's command; and the duke, on the 9th of April, signed a convention whereby they received a free pardon from the emperor.
On the 8th of September he was elected one of the deputies for Paris to the National Convention, where, however, he was not successful as an orator.
Yet the role of Desmoulins during the Convention was of but secondary importance.
On the 7th of January 1 794 Robespierre, who on a former occasion had defended Camille when in danger at the hands of the National Convention, in addressing the Jacobin club counselled not the expulsion of Desmoulins, but the burning of certain numbers of the Vieux Cordelier.
2 The accused were prevented from defending themselves; a decree of the Convention denied them the right of speech.
Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Legislative et de la Convention (Paris, 1905, 2nd ed.): G.
Before the Georgia legislature in November 1860, and again in that state's secession convention in January 1861, he strongly opposed secession, but when Georgia seceded he "followed his state," assisted in forming the new government, and was elected vice-president of the Confederate States.
His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth.
In 1861 he was a delegate from Maryland to the peace convention at Washington; in1861-1862he was a member of the Maryland House of Delegates.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
In 1916 he was delegate-atlarge from Ohio to the Republican National Convention, of which he was chosen permanent chairman.
At the Republican National Convention in 1920 he was not at first among the prominent candidates for president.
On the eighth ballot he received 1331 votes, on the ninth 3742 votes, and on the tenth he secured the nomination with 6922 votes, the result being due largely to the support of certain influential U.S. Senators, delegates to the convention, who hoped that as president he would be amenable to the Senate.
Under the RussoJapanese treaty of August 1905, after the war, supplemented by a convention between Japan and China concluded in December of the same year, Japan took over the line from Port Arthur as far as Kwang-cheng-tsze, now known as the Southern Manchurian railway (508 m.).
Eventually a Manchurian convention was arranged between China and Russia, by which Russia was to evacuate the province; but no actual ratification of this convention was made by Russia.
It became a convention of diplomacy, designed to cover any particularly sharp piece of policy which needed some excuse; and the treaty of Granada, formed between Louis XII.
They, therefore, through a convention at Buhler's Plains (July 17, 1810), formulated plans for a more effective government.
When it was found that the Spanish governor did not accept these plans in good faith, another convention was held on the 26th of September which declared West Florida to be an independent state, organized a government and petitioned for admission to the American Union.
On the 10th of January 1861 an ordinance of secession, which declared Florida to be a " sovereign and independent nation," was adopted by a state convention, and Florida became one of the Confederate States of America.
A factional strife in the dominant party, the Republican, now began; fifteen delegates withdrew from the convention; the others framed a constitution, and then resolved themselves into a political convention.
16-18, be not over-righteous (over-attentive to details of ritual and convention) or over-wicked (flagrantly neglectful of established beliefs and customs); here "righteous" and "wicked" appear to be technical terms designating two parties in the Jewish world of the 2nd and 1st centuries B.C., the observers and the non-observers of the Jewish ritual law; these parties represent in a general way the Pharisees and the Sadducees; viii.
Nevertheless in 1792 the new department of Herault, in which Montpellier is situated, sent him as one of its deputies to the Convention which assembled and proclaimed the Republic in September 1792.
At first he protested against the erection of the Convention into a tribunal in these words: "The people has chosen you to be legislators; it has not appointed you as judges."
Nevertheless, when the trial proceeded, he voted with the majority which declared Louis to be guilty, but recommended that the penalty should be postponed until the cessation of hostilities, and that the sentence should then be ratified by the Convention or by some other legislative body.
At the close of 1794 he also used his tact and eloquence on behalf of the restoration of the surviving Girondins to the Convention, from which they had been driven by the coup d'etat of the 3 1st of May 1793.
He was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790, and of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and rose with surprising rapidity, despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak English with correctness or fluency.
Peace was his reward; on the 24th of December 1814 the treaty was signed; and after visiting Geneva for the first time since his boyhood, and assisting in negotiating a commercial convention (1815) with England by which all discriminating duties were abolished, Gallatin in July 1815 returned to America.
He voted for the death of Louis XVI., without appeal or delay, but played no noticeable part in the Convention.
He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.
In September 1831 the party at a national convention in Baltimore nominated as its candidates for the presidency and vice-presidency William Wirt of Maryland and Amos Ellmaker (1787-1851) of Pennsylvania; and in the election of the following year it secured the seven electoral votes of the state of Vermont.
Its last act in national politics was to nominate William Henry Harrison for president and John Tyler for vice-president at a convention in Philadelphia in November 1838.
Under the name of "Anti-Masons" able leaders united those who were discontented with existing political conditions, and the fact that William Wirt, their choice for the presidency in 1832, was not only a Mason but even defended the Order in a speech before the convention that nominated him, indicates that simple opposition to Masonry soon became a minor factor in holding together the various elements of which the party was composed.
Identifying himself with the Democratic party, he served in the state House of Representatives in 1848, and was a prominent member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850-1851, a representative in Congress (1851-18s5), commissioner of the United States General Land Office (1855-1859), a United States senator (1863-1869), and governor of Indiana (1873-1877).
From 1868 until his death he was put forward for nomination for the presidency at every Democratic convention save that of 1872.
Both in 1876 and 1884, after his failure to receive the nomination for the presidency, he was nominated by the Democratic National Convention for vice-president, his nomination in each of these conventions being made partly, it seems, with the hope of gaining "greenback" votes - Hendricks had opposed the immediate resumption of specie payments.
At the Democratic Convention for the nomination of a presidential candidate held at Baltimore in 1912, he led on 27 ballots, and had a clear majority on eight, but he was finally defeated by Woodrow Wilson of New Jersey.
He took his part in the theological disputations of the time, at Marburg (1529), the Concordia at Wittenberg (1536), the Convention at Schmalkalden (1537), the discussions at Hagenau and Worms (1540).
Returned to the Convention in September 1792 he developed moderate, even reactionary views, becoming one of the fiercest opponents of the Mountain, though he never wavered in his support of republican principles.
Carrier, who was sent to stamp out resistance in the west, he lay hidden until some time after the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794), but he was readmitted to the Convention on the 8th of March 1795.
Aulard, Les Orateurs de la Legislative et de la Convention (Paris, 1885-1886).
In July 1774 he wrote for a convention in Fairfax county a series of resolutions known as the Fairfax Resolves, in which he advocated a congress of the colonies and suggested non-intercourse with Great Britain, a policy subsequently adopted by Virginia and later by the Continental Congress.
He was a member of the Virginia Committee of Safety from August to December 1775, and of the Virginia Convention in 1775 and 1776; and in 1776 he drew up the Virginia Constitution and the famous Bill of Rights, a radically democratic document which had great influence on American political institutions.
He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1776-1780 and again in 1787-1788, and in 1787 was a member of the convention that framed the Federal Constitution, and as one of its ablest debaters took an active part in the work.
He objected to the large and indefinite powers given by the completed Constitution to Congress, so he joined with Patrick Henry in opposing its ratification in the Virginia Convention (1788).
The conflict between her passionate fascination and her disgust at her father's vulgarity is finely realized both in music and drama; but, if we are able to appreciate it, then the operatic convention by which Senta avows her passion becomes crude.
Buonarroti, the ex-members of the Convention, Robert Lindet, J.
He served as a Free Soiler in the Massachusetts house of representatives from 1849 to 1853, and was speaker in 1851 and 1852; he was president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1853, and in the same year was elected to the national House of Representatives as a coalition candidate of Democrats and Free Soilers.
In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution, and thereafter he retired from public life, and gave himself up wholly to medical practice.
The frontier towards Abyssinia was fixed by a convention of March 1897 with the Negus Menelik.
By this arrangement (ratified by a convention dated the 16th of May 1908) the Benadir coast obtained a suitable hinterland.
There was a convention between Great Britain and Brazil in 1826 for the abolition of the slave trade, but it was habitually violated in spite of the English cruisers.
Then came the passing by the Convention on the 3rd of May 1793 of the absurd "maximum."
Attempts by the Convention to increase the value of the assignats were of no avail.
In November 1811 a convention met at New Orleans and framed a constitution under which, on the 30th of April 181 2, the Territory of Orleans became the state of Louisiana.
By 1863 two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives.
The former prevailed, and by a convention that assembled in April 1864 a constitution was framed closely following that of 1852 but repudiating the debt incurred by Louisiana as one of the Confederate states and abolishing slavery.
They, therefore, wanted still another constitutional convention.
A clause in the constitution of 1864 provided for the reconvening of the convention in certain circumstances, but this clause referred only to necessities prior to the establishment of a government, and had therefore determined.
Nevertheless, the radicals, because it was impossible to call a convention through the medium of the state government, took advantage of this clause to reconvoke the old convention at New Orleans.
Intervention by the United States seemed probable, but did not come, and after alternations in the fortunes of war, Martinez Campos in January 1878 secured the acceptance by the rebels of the convention (pacto) of Zanjon, which promised amnesty for the war, liberty to slaves in the rebel ranks, the abolition of slavery, reforms in government, and colonial autonomy.
A constitutional convention sat at Havana from the 5th of November 1900 to the 21st of February 1901.
The Anatolian railway company, apparently unable to handle the concession above described, initiated fresh negotiations which resulted in the Bagdad railway convention (March 5, 1903).
This convention caused much excitement and irritation in Great Britain, owing to the encroachment of German influence sanctioned by it on territories bordering the Persian Gulf, hitherto considered to fall solely within the sphere of British influence.
The line was to be constructed in sections of zoo kilometres (125 m.) each, and as the complete plans and drawings of each were presented at the times and in the order specified in the convention, the government was to deliver to the concessionnaires government securities representing the capitalization of the annuity accruing to that section.
On the 2nd of June 1908 a fresh convention was signed between the government and the Bagdad Railway Company providing, on the same financial basis, for the extension of the line from Bulgurlu to Helif and of the construction of a branch from Tel-Habesh to Aleppo, covering a total aggregate length of approximately 840 kilometres, The principle of equal sections of 200 kilometres was thus set on one side.
Negotiations for peace were now opened and on the 21st of July - chosen by the Russian plenipotentiary as the anniversary of the humiliating convention of the Pruth - the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji was signed.
The Porte, unable to resist, was obliged to consent to the convention of Ainali Ka y ak (March 10, 1779) whereby the Russian partisan, Shahin Girai, was recognized as khan of the Crimea, the admission of Russian vessels to navigate Turkish waters was reaffirmed and Russia's right of intervention in the affairs of the Danubian principalities was formally recognized.
Five years later Potemkin induced the chiefs of the Crimea and Kuban to hold a meeting at which the annexation of their country to Russia was declared, Turkey giving her consent by a convention, signed at Constantinople, on the 8th of January 1784, by which the stipulations as to the liberty of the Tatars contained in the treaty of Kuchuk Kainarji and the convention of Ainali Ka y ak were abrogated.
Russia, desirous of deriving some return for the support which she had given the sultan during his rupture with the French, induced the Porte to address to her a note in which the right of intervention in the affairs of the principalities, conferred on her by the treaty of Kainarji and reaffirmed in the convention of Ainali Ka y ak, was converted into a specific stipulation that the hospodars should be appointed in future for seven years and should not be dismissed without the concurrence of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople.
On the 7th of October, accordingly, these were conceded by the Convention of Akkerman.
Ibrahim, taking this as a breach of the convention, set sail from Navarino northwards, but was turned back by Sir Edward Codrington, the British admiral.
In July 1828 France had been commissioned to oust Ibrahim from the Morea; and though by a convention, concluded on the 9th of August by Codrington with Mehemet Ali, the principle of evacuation by the Egyptian troops had already been settled before the arrival of the French expedition, the Morea remained for the time in French occupation.
The intervention of the powers, based on the convention of London of the i 5th of July 1840, led to the withdrawal of Ibrahim from Syria, and the establishment by the firman of the 13th of February 1841 of Mehemet Ali as hereditary pasha of Egypt under conditions intended to safeguard the sovereign rights of the Ottoman sultan.
had been deliberately given up, and by the secret convention.
As the Russians withdrew from the Danubian principalities, Austrian troops occupied them, and by a convention with the Porte the Austrian government undertook to resist by arms any attempt of the Russians to return.
interested had arrived at an understanding as to the modifications to be introduced in the treaty, and by a convention concluded with Turkey on the 4th of June 1878 England had undertaken to defend the Asiatic dominions of the sultan by force of arms, provided that his majesty carried out all the necessary reforms, to be agreed upon later, and assigned to England the island of Cyprus, which was however to be restored if Turkey fulfilled her engagements as to reforms and if Russia gave back to her Kars, Ardahan and Batum.
the Drummond-Wolff convention of 1887) by the action of other powers.
His successor in the grand vizierate, Kiamil Pasha, was soon called upon to deal with Armenian unrest, consequent on the non-execution of the reforms provided for in the Treaty of Berlin and the Cyprus Convention, which first found vent about 1890.
The Convention of Tauroggen became the starting-point of Prussia's regeneration.
A provisional convention was granted to a German company by the Porte, and an irade was obtained in 1902.
the notification of adhesion to a treaty, of the re-establishment of diplomatic relations after a war, &c. Sometimes, by agreement, a mere exchange of notes has the force of a convention.
THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, in France, the constitutional and legislative assembly which sat from the 10th of September 1792 to the 26th of October 1795 (the 4th of Brumaire of the year IV.).
On the 10th of August 1792, when the populace of Paris stormed the Tuileries and demanded the abolition of the monarchy, the Legislative Assembly decreed the provisional suspension of the king and the convocation of a national convention which should draw up a constitution.
At the same time it was decided that the deputies to that convention should be elected by all Frenchmen 25 years old, domiciled for a year and living by the product of their labour.
The National Convention was therefore the first French assembly elected by universal suffrage, without distinctions of class.
of the French Republic. The Convention was destined to last for three years.
At the same time as the Convention prolonged its powers it extended them considerably in order to meet the pressing dangers which menaced the Republic. Though a legislative assembly, it took over the executive power, entrusting it to its own members.
This "confusion of powers," which was contrary to the philosophical theories - those of Montesquieu especially - which had inspired the Revolution at first, was one of the essential characteristics of the Convention.
It is thus necessary to distinguish, in the work of the Convention, the temporary expedients from measures intended to be permanent.
The Convention held its first session in a hall of the Tuileries, then it sat in the hall of Manege, and finally from the 10th of May 1793 in that of the Spectacles (or Machines), an immense hall in which the deputies were but loosely scattered.
Many of the original deputies died or were exiled during the Convention, but not all their places were filled by suppleants.
The members of the Convention were drawn from all classes of society, but the most numerous were lawyers.
According to its own ruling, the Convention elected its president every fortnight.
Sometimes in exceptional circumstances the Convention declared itself in permanent session and sat for several days without interruption.
For both legislative and administrative purposes the Convention used committees, with powers more or less widely extended and regulated by successive laws.
The work of the Convention was immense in all branches of public affairs.
The Convention published a Prods-verbal of its sessions, which, although lacking the value of those published by assemblies to-day, is an official document of capital importance.
Guillaume, Proces-verbaux du comitc d'Instruction Publique de la Convention Nationale (Paris, 1891-1904, 5 vols.
In 1904 he visited Canada and the United States, and was present at the triennial general convention of the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States and Canada.
For the revision of the constitution it is necessary that two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature vote for the call of a constitutional convention, that a majority of all electors voting at the next general election approve the call for the convention, and that the convention consist of as many members as the house of representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after the general 1 At International Falls on Rainy River and at Duluth on the St Louis immense water-power is utilized for manufacturing.
On the 26th of August a convention met at Stillwater, where measures were taken for the formation of a separate territorial government, and Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891) was sent to Congress as a delegate of " Wisconsin Territory."
In July 1857 a convention chosen to form a state constitution was found on assembling to be so evenly divided between the Republican and Democratic parties that organization was impossible, and the members proceeded to their work in two separate bodies.
The constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1875, and the state convention which issued the call for the National Liberal Republican convention at Cincinnati in 1872, met here, and so for some of its sessions did the state convention of 1861-1863.
On the 2nd of August Junot, knowing of the approach of Moore with reinforcements, and afraid of a revolt in Lisbon, opened negotiations, which resulted in the Convention of Cintra 2 (Aug.
The two latter were recalled from the Peninsula; Sir Arthur Wellesley had proceeded to London upon leave, and had only signed the armistice with Junot, not the convention itself.
On the 13th of April 1814 officers arrived with the announcement to both armies of the capture of Paris, the abdication of Napoleon, and the practical conclusion of peace; and on the 18th a convention, which included Suchet's force, was entered into between Wellington and Soult.
The attempts of Ali Pasha of Iannina to make himself master of the place were thwarted partly by the presence of a French garrison in the citadel and partly by the heroic attitude of the Pargiotes themselves, who were anxious to have their city incorporated with the Ionian Republic. To secure their purpose they in 1814 expelled the French garrison and accepted British protection; but the British Government in 1815 determined to go back to the convention of 1800 by which Parga was to be surrendered to Turkey, though no mosque was to be built or Mussulman to settle within its territory.
The failure of the war, which intensified popular hatred of the Austrian queen, involved the king; and the invasion of the Tuileries on the 10th of June 1792 was but the prelude to the conspiracy which resulted, on the 10th of August, in the capture of the palace and the "suspension" of royalty by the Legislative Assembly until the convocation of a national convention in September.
On the 21st of September 1792 the Convention declared royalty abolished, and in January it tried the king for his treason against the nation, and condemned him to death.
He was an earnest advocate of the adoption of the Federal constitution, was a member of the Massachusetts convention which ratified that instrument, and was one of the most influential advisers of the leaders of the Federalist party.
After gaining recognition as one of the most prominent members of the Suffolk bar, he became associated in 1848 with the Free Soil movement, and took a prominent part in the Buffalo convention of that year.
In 1853 he took a prominent part in the state constitutional convention.
By article 6 of the Anglo-French convention of the 8th of April 1904, the islands were ceded to France.
On the 21st of May 1760 a fresh convention was signed between Russia and Austria, a secret clause of which, never communicated to the court of Versailles, guaranteed East Prussia to Russia, as an indemnity for war expenses.
Subsequently he was governor of South Carolina in 1787-1789; presided over the state convention which ratified the Federal constitution in 1788; was a member of the state legislature in 17 9 1; and was United States minister to Great Britain in 1792-17 9 6.
Before taking his seat he served also as a member of the state constitutional convention, where he opposed the grant of universal suffrage.
In May the Democratic convention, the first held by that party, had nominated him for vice-president on the Jackson ticket, notwithstanding the strong opposition to him which existed in many states.
In May 1835 Van Buren was unanimously nominated by the Democratic convention at Baltimore.
In the Democratic convention, though he had a majority of the votes, he did not have the twothirds which the rule of the convention required, and after eight ballots his name was withdrawn.
He was chairman of the Republican State Committee (1892, 1896), candidate for the U.S. Senate (1894, 1900), member of the Republican National Committee (1896, 1900), and a delegate to the Republican National Convention on four occasions.
In this year he was also a member of the convention which framed the first constitution for the state of Maryland.
After serving in the Maryland convention which ratified for that state the Federal Constitution, and there vigorously opposing ratification, though afterwards he was an ardent Federalist, he became in 1791 chief judge of the Maryland general court, which position he resigned in 1796 for that of an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
He arranged the collective guarantee of the neutrality of Luxemburg in 1867, negotiated a convention about the " Alabama," which, however, was not ratified, and most wisely refused to take any part in the Cretan troubles.
In the Democratic national convention at Chicago in 1896, during a long and heated debate with regard to the party platform, Bryan, in advocating the "plank" declaring for the free coinage of silver, of which he was the author, delivered a celebrated speech containing the passage, "You shall not press down upon the brow of labour this crown of thorns; you shall not crucify mankind upon a cross of gold."
This speech made him the idol of the "silver" majority of the convention and brought him the Democratic nomination for the presidency on the following day.
In 1904 although not actively a candidate for the Democratic nomination (which eventually went to Judge Parker), he was to the very last considered a possible nominee; and he strenuously opposed in the convention the repudiation by the conservative element of the stand taken in the two previous campaigns.
According to the recognized convention, the unit pole is that which acts upon an equal pole at unit distance with unit force: a north pole is reckoned as positive (+) and a south pole as negative (-).
But Prussia was not ripe for a struggle with Austria, even had Frederick William found it in his conscience to turn his arms against his ancient ally, and the result was the humiliating convention of Olmtitz (November 29th, 1850), by which Prussia agreed to surrender her separatist plans and to restore the old constitution of the confederation.
21, 1793), the chief French diplomatic agent, Chauvelin, was ordered to leave England, while the French Convention declared war (Feb.
The establishment of a permanent tribunal at the Hague, pursuant to the Peace convention of 1899, marks a momentous epoch in the history of international arbitration.
The result was embodied in the following articles of the Convention, signed on behalf of sixteen of the assembled powers on the 29th of July 1899.
Each of the signatory powers is to designate within three months from the ratification of the convention four persons at the most, of recognized competence in international law, enjoying the highest moral consideration, and willing to accept the duties of arbitrators.
Not the least of the benefits of the Hague convention of 1899 (strengthened by that of 1907) is that it contains rules of procedure which furnish a guide for all arbitrations whether conducted before the Hague court or not.
As the London Convention had stipulated that there should be no trespassing on the part of the Boers over their specified boundaries, and as Natal had been the basis for those operations against the Zulus on the part of the British in 187 9, which alone made such an annexation of territory possible, a strong feeling was once more aroused in Natal.
The gg Y divergent interests of the various colonies threatened indeed a tariff and railway war when the Customs Convention (provisionally renewed in March 1906) should expire in 1908.
The movement for union rapidly gained strength, and a National Convention to consider the matter met in Durban in October 1908.
On retiring from Congress he began the practice of law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, was chosen a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787, and in 1788 was a member of the state convention which ratified for Virginia the Federal constitution.
In 1826 he became a regent of the university of Virginia, and in 1829 was a member of the convention called to amend the state constitution.
As deputy to the Convention, Saliceti voted for the death of Louis XVI., and was sent to Corsica on mission to oppose the counter-revolutionary intrigues.
Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
So early as March 1908 Mr Hallo had laid a formal proposal before the House that the charter of the AustroHungarian bank, which was to expire on the 31st of December 19 10, should not be renewed; that negotiations should be opened with the Austrian government with a view to a convention between the banks of Austria and Hungary; and that, in the event of these negotiations failing, an entirely separate Hungarian bank should be established.
This rule as to using brackets is not always observed, the convention sometimes adopted being that multiplications or divisions are to be performed before additions or subtractions.
The convention is even pushed to such an extent as to make " 1 2 " " 2 ";, 42+33 of 7+5 mean 41+(3 3 of 7)+5 though it is not clear what " rind the value of 42+33 times 7+ 5" would then mean.
(vii.) In order to make the formula (5) hold for the extreme values n (o) and n (n) we must adopt the convention that o !
In the Republican national convention of 1876 Conkling sought nomination for the presidency, and after the disputed election of this year he took a prominent part in devising and securing the passage of a bill creating an electoral commission.
The military organization of Hamburg was arranged by convention with Prussia.
When Pretorius conducted the negotiations which led to the signing of the Sand River Convention he did so without consulting the volksraad, and Potgieter's party accused him of usurping power and aiming at domination over the whole country.
However, the volksraad, at a meeting held at Rustenburg on the 16th of March 1852, ratified the convention, Potgieter and Pretorius having been publicly reconciled on the morning of the same day.
Whatever their internal dissensions the Boers were united in regard to what they considered their territorial rights, and in the interval between the signing of the Sand River Convention and the death of Pretorius an incident occurred significant alike of their claims to jurisdiction over enormous areas and of their manner of treating the natives.
Within a few weeks of the signing of the convention Pretorius had asked the British authorities to close the " lower road " to the interior, that is the route through Bechuanaland, opened up by Moffat, Livingstone and other missionaries.
The Sand River Convention of 1852 had not defined the western border of the state, and the discovery of gold at Tati to the northwest, together with the discovery of diamonds on the Vaal in 1867, offered Pretorius every inducement to extend his boundary.
The terms agreed upon were drawn up in the form of a convention and signed (Aug.
In later years, when the Boers desired to regard the whole of this convention (and not merely the articles) as cancelled by the London Convention of 1884, and with it the suzerainty, which was only mentioned in the preamble, Mr Chamberlain, a member of the cabinet of 1880-1885, pointed out that if the preamble to this instrument were considered cancelled, so also would be the grant of self-government.
The new volksraad had scarcely been returned and the Pretoria Convention ratified (Oct.
Simultaneously with this " irresponsible " movement for expansion, President Kruger proceeded to London to interview Lord Derby and endeavour to induce him to dispense with the suzerainty, and to withdraw other clauses in the Pretoria Convention on foreign relations and natives, which were objectionable from the Boer point of view.
The result was the London Convention of the 27th of February 1884.
In this document a fresh set of articles was substituted for those of the Pretoria Convention of 1881.
In the articles of the new convention the boundaries were once more defined, concessions being made to the Transvaal on the Bechuanaland frontier, and to them the republic was bound to " strictly adhere."
Notwithstanding the precise fixing of the boundaries of the republic by the London Convention, President Kruger endeavoured to maintain the Boer hold on Goshen and Stellaland, but the British government on Efforts.
A convention to this Africa.
This result was not, however, achieved before President Kruger had done his utmost to induce Sir Henry Loch to promise some revision in favour of the Transvaal of the London Convention.
The British government rejoined by commissioning a flying squadron and by calling attention to the London Convention, reserving the supervision of the foreign relations of the Transvaal to Great Britain.
Instead of discussing grievances, as before the Johannesburg disarmament he had led the high commissioner to believe was his intention, he proceeded to request the withdrawal of the London Convention, because, among other things, " it is injurious to dignity of independent republic."
In January 1899 Mr Chamberlain pointed out in a despatch to President Kruger that the dynamite monopoly constituted a breach of the London Convention.
The franchise, again, was an internal affair, in which the convention gave Great Britain no right to interfere, while if Great Britain relied on certain definite breaches of the convention, satisfaction for which was sought in the first place in such a guarantee of amendment as the Uitlander franchise would involve, the Boer answer was an offer of arbitration, a course which Great Britain could not accept without admitting the South African Republic to the position of an equal.
There were in the Transvaal some ro,000 British Indians, whose right to " enter, travel or reside " in the country was secured by the London convention of 1884.