Convection sentence example

convection
  • Gerdien's estimate of the convection current is for fine weather conditions.
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  • The nearly vertical vanes is balanced by the convection currents.
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  • This will be composed of a conduction and a convection current, the latter due to rising or falling air currents carrying ions.
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  • In these waters a vertical circulation is kept up by convection currents.
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  • The surface of the calorimeter and the enclosure should be permanently blackened so as to increase the loss of heat by radiation as much as possible, as compared with the losses by convection and conduction, which are less regular.
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  • The penetration of warmth from the surface is effected by direct radiation, and by convection by particles rendered dense by evaporation increasing salinity.
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  • Wilson considers that convection currents in the upper atmosphere would be quite inadequate, but conduction may, he thinks, be sufficient alone.
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  • A closed stove acts mainly by convection; though when heated to a high temperature it gives out radiant heat.
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  • As will be seen later, modern experiments have confirmed the entire absence of any effect, such as convection would produce, to very high precision.
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  • In the vast majority of cases the bacilli are in the lymphatic or the circulatory system, and aerial convection, even for a short distance, seems highly improbable.
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  • In measuring conduction of heat in fluids, it is possible to some extent to eliminate the effects of molar convection or mixing, but it would not be possible to distinguish between diffusion, or internal radiation, and conduction.
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  • Cooking in a convection toaster oven can be quick and convenient.
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  • This is termed convection, and is most important in the case of liquids and gases owing to their mobility.
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  • A popular small appliance is the convection oven.
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  • It uses state-of-the-art technology that combines three cooking methods - the conventional oven element (conduction), convection cooking and infrared cooking.
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  • When searching for a small convection oven, consider how you will use the unit.
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  • Indeed it seems that, in the final distribution of density throughout the part which is not subject to violent convection currents, it must increase slightly from the centre outwards, since the currents would cease altogether as soon as 'a uniform state was restored.
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  • Ice forms over fresh water if the temperature of the air has been for a sufficient time at or below the freezing-point; but not until the whole mass of water has been cooled down to its point of maximum density, so that the subsequent cooling of the surface can give rise to no convection currents, is freezing possible.
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  • In this case, however, in order to account for the phenomenon of the Peltier effect at the junctions, it is necessary to suppose that there is a real convection of heat by an electric current, and that the coefficient P or pT is the difference of the quantities of heat carried by unit quantity of electricity in the two metals.
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  • At higher pressures the effect of conduction was masked by convection currents.
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  • It is not difficult in such compact species to distinguish between superficial cells, whose chief function is assimilation, subjacent cells charged with reserve material, and a core of tissue engaged in the convection of elaborated material from part to part.
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  • Fertilization is effected by the passive convection of a spermatium from the antheridium to the trichogyne, to which it adheres, and to which it passes over its nucleus through an open communication set up at the point of contact.
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  • The coefficient of heating of a calorimeter when it is below the temperature of its surroundings is seldom, if ever, the same as the coefficient of cooling at the higher temperature, since the convection currents, which do most of the heating or cooling, are rarely symmetrical in the two cases, and moreover, the duration of the two stages is seldom the same.
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  • Since the only cause for these convection currents is the statical instability produced by radiation, and the rapid stifling of radiations within the body produces there a temperature gradient falling very slowly, they would be for the most part extremely slight.
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  • The quantity of heat liberated by convection as the current flows from hot to cold is represented in the equation by dP=d(pT).
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  • The Peltier effect, on the other hand, may be ascribed entirely to convection.
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  • Corresponding diagrams for the same metals on the convection theory are given in fig.
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  • Probably adding atmospheric convection would help to even things out.
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  • Aime estimated this depth at 150-200 fathoms, while the observations of the Austrian expedition in the eastern Mediterranean found it to be from 200 to nearly 400 fathoms. In the Red Sea, where a similar seasonal change occurs, the depth to which the surface layer warms up is about 275 fathoms. The great difference in salinity between the surface and the deep water excludes the possibility of effective convection in the seas of northern Europe, and in the open ocean the currents which are felt everywhere, and especially those with a vertical component, must exercise a very disturbing influence on convection.
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  • In these waters a vertical circulation is kept up by convection 287 currents.
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  • - The idea of convection of heat by an electric current, and the phrase " specific heat of electricity " were introduced by Thomson as a convenient mode of expressing the phenomena of the Thomson effect.
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  • A tank used to visualize convection using the shadowgraph technique.
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  • The talk also focused on selected topics of current interest, including the effect of thermal noise on bifurcation to convection and spatiotemporal chaos.
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  • Particular emphasis will be given to understanding the role of embedded convection and supercooled cloud.
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  • Convection ovens – Convection ovens feature built-in fans which circulate the air inside the appliance, allowing for faster cooking times and more even cooking.
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  • Convection: Put simply, convection is the movement of air.
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  • For example, during a blustery winter day, you will have to turn the heat on your thermostat up higher than you normally would due to the convection, or movement, of air outside.
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  • Electric radiant floor heat follows ancient principles of warming the home through the floor in place of, or in addition to, forced air convection heat.
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  • Once lit, the wick's flames heat the air via convection.
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  • If v varies with respect to locality, or if there is a velocity of convection (p,q,r) variable with respect to direction and position, and analytical expression of the relation (ii) assumes a more complex form; we thus derive the most general equations of electrodynamic propagation for matter treated as continuous, anyhow distributed and moving in any manner.
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  • The study of these vortices has led to the discovery of a magnetic field in sun-spots, apparently caused by electric convection in the vortices.
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  • It ascends the flow pipe by convection, where its onward journey would speedily end if it were not for the driving force of other molecules of water following, and the suction set up by the gravitation into the boiler of the cooled water by the return pipe.
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  • Bouchotte have 1 See Lord Kelvin, Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (1872);" Electrophoric Apparatus and Illustrations of Voltaic Theory,"p. 319;" On Electric Machines Founded on Induction and Convection,"p. 330;" The Reciprocal Electrophorus,"P. 337.
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  • As a result convection currents are produced in the air which are sufficient to catch the basidiospores in their fall and carry them, away from the regions of comparative atmospheric stillness near the ground, to the upper air where more powerful air-currents can bring about their wide distribution.
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  • Conduction, however, is generally understood to include diffusion of heat in fluids due to the agitation of the ultimate molecules, which is really molecular convection.
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  • The conductivity probably changes with temperature in the same way, being proportional to the product of the viscosity and the specific heat; but the experimental investigation presents difficulties on account of the necessity of eliminating the effects of radiation and convection, and the results of different observers often differ considerably from theory and from each other.
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  • C When one-way surface conflation is active it takes no action, thus preserving C the convection coefficients calculated by adaptive convection algorithm.
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  • Radioactive elements in the Earth decay, giving off heat, which drives the convection of rocks in the Earth's interior.
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  • Particles in the range of 5 to 25 nm diameter will be produced in the IGC facility in both natural and forced convection.
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  • The improved fit is attributable to the effects of the grid resolution on moist convection in the model.
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  • Project 26: From convection to chaos The early investigations into chaos are intimately tied into the numerical study of problems in thermal convection.
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  • In two previous studies we have found evidence of plasma convection driven in the nightside ionosphere during intervals of northward IMF.
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  • Convection Due to the scale of the forcing involved and the ocean's depth, ocean convection Due to the scale of the forcing involved and the ocean's depth, ocean convection is affected by the Earth's rotation.
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  • Images from these two days of winter convection are posted below.
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  • C This file contains the routines for calculating surface convection.
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  • It is convection of this form that makes the solar granulation that can be seen surrounding the sunspots in the detailed image above.
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  • In this instance plasma convection appeares to play the dominant role in forming the large-scale spatial structure of the nightside auroral ionosphere.
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  • The convection electric field during this interval is measured in the high-latitude ionosphere using the northern hemisphere SuperDARN HF radar network.
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  • He cites a method of baking the tapes in a convection oven for eight hours at 130 degrees Fahrenheit.
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  • Previously, there were only two choices of convection patterns and particle precipitation inputs, with a limited number of standard configurations.
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  • This group studies the convection regime within the Earths Mantle in three dimensional spherical geometry at approaching Earth-like vigor.
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  • It occurs mostly during the summer months, when atmospheric heating can cause convection in the mid troposphere.
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  • As to the convection current, Gerdien supposes-as in § 25-p =2-7 X 10° electrostatic units, and on fine days puts the average velocity of rising air currents at 10 cm.
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  • In ordinary cases conduction and convection suffice to dissipate the heat generated by the brake, but when a great deal of lowering has to be rapidly performed, or heavy loads have to be lowered to a great depth, special arrangements have to be provided.
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  • In ordinary reverberatory and other heating furnaces the burning fuel is without the mass, so that the vessel containing the charge, and other parts of the plant, are raised to a higher temperature than would otherwise be necessary, in order to compensate for losses by radiation, convection and conduction.
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  • If heat passes " of itself " from a higher to a lower temperature by conduction, convection or radiation, the transfer cannot be reversed without an expenditure of work.
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  • Great irregular variations in radiation and convection sometimes produce a remarkably abrupt change of temperature at a certain depth in calm water; the layer in which this sudden change occurs has been termed the Sprungschicht.
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  • Towards the end of summer the upper layers have been warmed to a depth which indicates how far the influence of solar radiation and convection have reached.
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  • Most convection ovens are of the wall-mounted variety.
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  • While a torchiere heater circulates the air, box heaters can use convection to heat the air, or radiant heat which warms the surfaces around it.
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  • Convection: The body loses heat when cold blows against it, such as the wind blowing across any exposed body part.
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  • Convection heat loss is faster than any other.
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  • Infrared convection technology in many of these ovens allows food to cook 50 percent faster than in conventional toaster oven.
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  • Air convection rotisseries found in some models have plenty of capacity for chickens and small turkeys.
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  • Do you want convection and rotisserie features?
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  • DeLonghi manufactures Icona, Metropolis, Esclusivo, and Argento slot-loading toasters in addition to an entire product line of electric convection toasters.
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  • For example, the DynaGlo Pro is a portable propane heater that is done in a convection design that heats up smaller spaces such as workshops.
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  • It then disperses into the surrounding air, heating the room via convection.
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  • This rice cooker features a solid white casing with an internal convection pot.
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  • Electric heaters are either convection, ceramic or radiant units.
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  • Convection heaters have a liquid inside, typically oil, which heats up when the device is on and transfers heat.
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  • If you are looking for a small appliance that can not only toast but bake and broil as well, the Crofton Convection Toaster Oven may be your answer.
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  • One of the latest innovations in cooking is the use of convection ovens.
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  • For those who do not want to replace their current oven, a convection toaster oven can do many of the same tasks that a regular convection oven can but does not use as much space or energy.
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  • A convection oven can heat up an entire house when in use whereas a convection toaster oven does not.
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  • Convection toaster ovens work by using small internal fans that circulate hot air to cook food fast and evenly.
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  • Convection cooking differs from cooking in a regular toaster oven that only uses heat to cook food.
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  • There are many uses for a convection toaster oven.
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  • There are many brands of convection toaster ovens and they can be pricey.
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  • It can bake, broil and toast using the convection cooking method.
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  • The Crofton Convection Oven comes with a two-year manufacturer's warranty.
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  • Any recipe that can be made in a traditional oven can be done in a convection toaster oven as well.
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  • There are several things to keep in mind when cooking in a convection oven whether it be a full size or toaster oven.
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  • Since convection cooking uses air to circulate the heat evenly, it is important to use a dish that is the right size.
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  • Depending on your model, many convection toaster ovens have a switch that can turn off the air circulation.
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  • This unique microwave offers a convection oven mode for roasting and baking foods that benefit from browning and circulating heat.
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  • Having two ovens in one is a bargain, although you have to be patient with the convection option as it takes about a half hour to preheat before it can be used.
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  • If you are looking for an energy-efficient solution for preparing relatively small meals, a countertop convection oven might be the perfect option for you.
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  • A countertop convection oven combines the benefits of a traditional oven, microwave and toaster oven.
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  • Convection ovens provide the same quality baked goods as traditional ovens in a fraction of the time, cooking small portions even faster and more evenly than standard toaster ovens.
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  • Convection ovens can bake and broil food up to 33 percent faster than traditional full-size ovens.
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  • There are several popular convection ovens on the market that are designed to fit comfortably on a kitchen countertop.
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  • The Breville BOV800XL model is at the higher end of the price range, but it's an excellent option for those who are likely to use a convection oven frequently.
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  • The KitchenAid Convection Countertop Oven has a price point near the mid-range for this type of appliance.
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  • In addition to convection cooking functionality, the unit also has broil, bake and warm functions.
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  • The unit has convection, bake and broil settings.
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  • The Black & Decker CTO4500S model is at the low end of the price range for small convection ovens.
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  • It does not have the pre-set cooking features as the more expensive models, but it can be used to broil and bake foods using convection technology.
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  • If you plan to replace your toaster oven with a convection unit and do not want a rotisserie, double racks or pre-set cooking features, a low cost unit may meet your needs.
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  • The polarization itself is determined from the electric force (P,Q,R) by the usual statical formula of linear type which becomes tor an isotropic medium (.f',g',h') = c2(P,Q,R), because any change of the dielectric constant K arising from the convection of the material through the aether must be independent of the sign of v and therefore be of the second order.
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  • The presence of phycocyanin, phyco a role in the morphological development of land plants is entirely wanting in algae, such conducting tissues as do exist in the larger Phaeophyceae and Rhodophyceae serving rather for the convection of elaborated organic substance, and being thus comparable with the phloem of the higher plants.
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  • It depends on the rapidity with which convection currents can supply heat from the interior to replace that radiated, and on a number of other nicely balanced circumstances which cannot well be calculated.
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  • An affordable option to consider is the Crofton Convection Toaster Oven.
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  • The establishment and convection of a single polar atom constitutes in fact a quasi-magnetization, in addition to the polarization current as above defined, the negative poles completing the current circuits of the positive ones.
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  • Before 1868 Maxwell conducted the experiment by sending light from the illuminated cross-wires of an observing telescope forward through the object-glass, and through a train of prisms, and then reflecting it back along the same path; any influence of convection would conspire in altering both refractions, but yet no displacement of the image depending on the earth's motion was detected.
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  • This statement constitutes the famous hypothesis of Fresnel, which thus ensures that all phenomena of ray-path and refraction, and all those depending on phase, shall be unaffected by uniform convection of the material medium, in accordance with the results of experiment.
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  • It is, however, in complete accordance with a view that would make the aether near the earth fully partake in its orbital motion - a view which the null effect of convection on all terrestrial optical and electrical phenomena also strongly suggests.
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  • These conditions cannot be consistent with sensible convection of the aether near the earth without involving discontinuity in its motion at some intermediate distance, so that we are thrown back on the previous theory.
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  • 1 On subtracting from this total the current of establishment of polarization d/dtl (f',g',h) as formulated above, there remains vd/dx(f',g',h) as the current of convection of polarization when the convection is taken for simplicity to be in the direction of the axis of x with velocity v.
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  • The potential diagrams already given have been drawn on this assumption, that the Thomson effect is not really due to convection of heat by the current, but is the measure of an E.M.F.
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  • There are few examples of useful work deriving from natural convection.
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  • Reynolds, in his investigation, introducing no new form of law of distribution of velocities, uses a linear quantity, proportional to the mean free path of the gaseous molecules, which he takes to represent (somewhat roughly) the average distance from which molecules directly affect, by their convection, the state of the medium; the gas not being uniform on account of the gradient of temperature, the change going on at each point is calculated from the elements contributed by the parts at this particular distance in all directions.
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  • The convection of a medium thus polarized involves electric disturbance, and therefore must contribute to the true electric current; the determination of this constituent of the current is the most delicate point in the investigation.
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  • It depends, however, in addition on the natural mobility of the ions, and also on the opportunities for convection.
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  • This gives a convection current of 2.7 X108 electrostatic units, or about 1/27 of the conduction current.
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  • The object of all heating apparatus is the transference of heat from the fire to the various parts of the building it is intended to warm, and this transfer may be effected by radiation, by conduction or by convection.
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  • In this place it must suffice to indicate the gist of the more recent developments of the electro-optical theory, which involve the dynamical verification of Fresnel's hypothesis regarding optical convection and the other relations above described.
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  • The idea of convection of heat by an electric current, and the phrase "specific heat of electricity" were introduced by Thomson as a convenient mode of expressing the phenomena of the Thomson effect.
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  • The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.
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  • True electric current arises solely from convection of the atomic charges or electrons; this current is therefore not restricted as to form in any way.
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  • If heat passes "of itself" from a higher to a lower temperature by conduction, convection or radiation, the transfer cannot be reversed without an expenditure of work.
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  • Great irregular variations in radiation and convection sometimes produce a remarkably abrupt change of temperature at a certain depth in calm water.
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  • He also determined the effect of change of temperature distribution on the rate of generation of heat by the current; and on the external loss of heat by radiation, convection and conduction.
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