Controversy sentence example

controversy
  • He had been placed in the center of a controversy he couldn't resolve.

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  • The New Testament reflects a controversy.

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  • The controversy that ensued made a split in the nonjuring communion.

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  • The method by which this is brought about is, however, the subject of much controversy.

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  • The result was of importance, as it was known that Brazil was on friendly terms with Chile, and this interchange of courtesies had some effect in bringing about a settlement of the controversy between Chile and Argentina over the Andean frontier question without recourse to hostilities.

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  • The controversy was taken into Congress.

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  • Whether he was a practising physician or not has been a matter of controversy.

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  • For the chronology of the controversy see Eyton's Itinerary of Henry II.

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  • In the so-called Montanistic controversy (c. 160-220) one of the principal issues involved was the continuance of the chiliastic expectations in the churches.

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  • The controversy was between Nominalists and Realists; and, exclusively logical as the point may at first sight seem to be, adherence to one side or the other is an accurate indication of philosophic tendency.

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  • Many points in Kossuth's career and character will probably always remain the subject of controversy.

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  • In 1693 he published four lectures on the Socinian controversy.

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  • The controversy, however, continued for some years thereafter (see Vermont).

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  • On this old-world technical controversy we need not dwell.

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  • The House now consisted of 516 members, of whom 221 were of Slav nationality, 177 of German nationality, and 87 Social Democrats, so that in every national controversy t he latter could carry a decision in accordance with their principles.

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  • A reform commission without a programme naturally first occupied itself with reforms about which there was no controversy.

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  • Le Trosne (De l'ordre social, 1777), Andre Morellet (best known by his controversy with Galiani on the freedom of the corn trade), Mercier Lariviere and Dupont de Nemours.

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  • For his views and his controversy with Abelard, see Scholasticism and Abelard.

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  • The recognition of Christ as the incarnation of the Logos was practically universal before the close of the 3rd century, but his deity was still widely denied, and the Arian controversy which distracted the Church of the 4th century concerned the latter question.

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  • The "Sketch of the History of Poland" (Dzieje Polskie w zarysie) by Michael Bobrzynski, born in 1849 in Cracow (professor of Polish and German law), is a very spirited work, and has given rise to a great deal of controversy on account of the opposition of many of its views to those of the school of Lelewel.

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  • This tract was the starting-point of a controversy between Churchyard and a certain Thomas Camel.

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  • His most famous pupil was Varro (116-27), the six surviving books of whose great work on the Latin language are mainly concerned with the great grammatical controversy on analogy and anomaly - a controversy which also engaged the attention of Cicero and Caesar, and of the elder Pliny and Quintilian.

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  • And here the controversy did not turn on the exact fulfilment of detailed predictions; detailed prediction occupies a very secondary place in the writings of the prophets.

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  • For the next five years it was his constant endeavour to secure the victory for Montanism within the church; but in this he became involved more and more deeply in controversy with the majority of the church in Carthage and especially with its clergy, which had the support of the clergy of Rome.

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  • The cause of the Ciceronians was defended by the elder Scaliger in 1531 and 1536, and by Etienne Dolet in 1535, and the controversy was continued by other scholars down to the year 1610.

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  • Still in the end it was due in large measure to the learning and argumentative power devoted to this subject by the French Protestant scholar, Louis Capell, and, amongst others, by the English Protestant scholar, Brian Walton, that by the end of the 77th century this particular controversy was practically at an end; criticism had triumphed, and the later origin of the vowels was admitted.

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  • The development of doctrine in St Paul's epistles is due in part to the gradual subsiding of the eschatological temper, but even more to the growth of controversy.

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  • And therefore he took the opportunity to send to the Romans what is really a summing up, not of the whole of Christianity, but of that side of Christianity which the preceding controversy had brought into special relief.

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  • These epistles took their form at once from a natural progression of thought and from a new phase of controversy, a sort of Gnosticizing theory, or theories, which perverted Christian practice and impaired the supremacy of Christ by placing other beings or entities by His side.

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  • Controversy of this kind is not always conducted with complete understanding of that which is being opposed.

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  • In its conflict with Gnostics, Marcionites and Montanists the Church was led to insist more and more upon its Bible, its own Bible, just as in its older controversy with the Jews it had to insist on the Bible which it inherited from them.

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  • Between him and the older apostles arose a long and fierce controversy, which was healed only when at last his disciples and the Judaizing disciples of the apostles coalesced into the Catholic Church.

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  • He had a bitter controversy with the patroon of Rensselaerwyck, who claimed to be independent of the West India Company.

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  • A prolonged controversy arose, which ended in the states-general in June 1650 commissioning the prince of Orange to visit the towns of Holland and secure a recognition of their authority.

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  • Chalmers also took part in the Junius controversy, and in The Author of Junius Ascertained, from a Concatenation of Circumstances amounting to Moral Demonstration, Lond.

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  • A court decision denying the legal tender quality of the notes issued by the Bank of the Commonwealth gave rise to a bitter controversy which had considerable influence upon the political history of the state.

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  • But the western boundary was not yet defined, and as early as 1749 a controversy over that arose with New York.

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  • From 1410 to 1414 Payne was principal of St Edmund Hall, and during these years was engaged in controversy with Thomas Netter of Walden, the Carmelite defender of Catholic doctrine.

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  • Lists of phenomena from the contemplation of which the savage was led to believe in animism have been given by Dr Tylor, Herbert Spencer, Mr Andrew Lang and others; an animated controversy arose between the former as to the priority of their respective lists.

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  • Until the end of his life he remained a protagonist in theological controversy and a keen fighter against latitudinarianism and liberalism; but the sharpest religious or political differences never broke his personal friendships and his Christian charity.

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  • Galater (1897); Perrot, De Galatia 1 In the unsettled state of this controversy, weight naturally attaches to the opinion of experts on either side; and the above statement, while opposed to the view taken in the following article on the epistle, must be taken on its merits.

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  • The Decretum pro Jacobitis, published on the 4th of February 1442, is, like that for the Armenians, of high dogmatic interest, as it summarizes the doctrine of the great medieval scholastics on the points in controversy.

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  • Each party dubbed the other stercoranists (dung-feasters), and the controversy was often marred by indecencies.

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  • He accepted the chairmanship of the Royal Commission on Ritualistic Practices in the Church, and he did valuable work as 'an arbitrator; and though when the fiscal controversy arose he became a member of the Free-food League, his parliamentary loyalty to Mr Balfour did much to prevent the Unionist free-traders from precipitating a rupture.

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  • In Kent his wergild was considerably higher, and his status probably also, but his position in this kingdom is a matter of controversy.

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  • Of late years there has been a controversy among Anglican theologians as to the exact nature of the gif t conveyed through confirmation, or, in other words, whether the Holy Spirit can be said to have come to dwell in those who have been baptized but not confirmed.

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  • There is a considerable controversy as to whether the battle took place on the right or the left bank of the river.

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  • Thereupon followed a diplomatic controversy, in the course of which the United States developed the contentions which were afterwards laid before the tribunal of arbitration.

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  • On the return of Gladstone to power in 1880 Lord Ripon was appointed viceroy of India, the appointment exciting a storm of controversy, the marquess being the first Roman Catholic to hold the viceregal office.

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  • After years of bitter controversy, in which a federal ministry was overthrown, a compromise was arranged in 18 9 7, in which the Roman Catholic leaders have never fully acquiesced.

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  • From the election of 1887 the Riel agitation ceased to seriously influence politics, but the fiscal controversy continued under new forms. Between 1887 and 1891 a vigorous agitation was kept up under Liberal auspices in favour of closer trade relations with the United States, at first under the name of Commercial Union and later under that of Unrestricted Reciprocity.

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  • The genuineness of the Constitutum was first critically assailed by Laurentius Valla in 1440, whose De falso credita et ementita Constantini donatione declamatio opened a controversy that lasted until, at the close of the 18th century, the defence was silenced.

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  • In modern times the controversy as to the genuineness of the document has been succeeded by a debate scarcely less lively as to its date, its authorship and place of origin.

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  • In apologetics his principal master was Justin, and in theology proper and in the controversy with the Gnostics, Irenaeus.

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  • An excited controversy having arisen about the result of the balloting in the states of South Carolina, Florida, Oregon and Louisiana, the two parties in Congress in order to allay a crisis dangerous to public peace agreed to pass an act referring all contested election returns to an extraordinary commission, called the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.), which decided each contest by eight against seven votes in favour of the Republican candidates.

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  • Andreas (1514-1559) was a physician of some repute, but through his influence with Albert of Brandenburg, last grandmaster of the Teutonic order, and first Protestant duke of Prussia, became an outstanding figure in the controversy associated with Andreas Osiander whose daughter he had married.

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  • By the treaty of Versailles, on the 3rd of September 1783, England ceded West Florida to Spain; but by the treaty of Paris, signed the same day, she ceded to the United States all of this province north of 30, and thus laid the foundation for a long controversy.

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  • He was freely accused of looting at the time, and though this charge, like that of peculation, is matter for controversy, it is very strongly supported.

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  • The controversy relating to Hodson's moral character is very complicated and unpleasant.

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  • The activity of Georgia in the slavery controversy was important.

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  • The same year, in his Analyst, he attacked the higher mathematics as leading to freethinking; this involved him in a hot controversy.

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  • In 1744 was published the Siris, partly occasioned by the controversy as to the efficacy of tar-water in cases of small-pox, but rising far above the circumstance from which it took its rise, and revealing hidden depths in the Berkeleian metaphysics.

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  • He favoured the annexation of Texas, supported the Polk administration on the issues of the Mexican War and the Oregon boundary controversy, and though voting for the admission of free California demanded national protection for slavery.

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  • The restrained sentiments of the council in regard to Hoadly found expression in a war of pamphlets known as the Bangorian Controversy, which, partly from a want of clearness in the statements of Hoadly, partly from the disingenuousness of his opponents and the confusion resulting from exasperated feelings, developed into an intricate and bewildering maze of side discussions in which the main issues of the dispute were concealed almost beyond the possibility of discovery.

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  • At this conference a plan of arbitration was drawn up, under which arbitration was made obligatory in all controversies whatever their origin, with the single exception that it should not apply where, in the judgment of any one of the nations involved in the controversy, its national.

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  • After a great deal of controversy there has come to be very wide agreement that he reckoned the first three Gospels among these Memoirs.

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  • He repeated his challenge in 1560, and Dr Henry Cole took it up. The chief result was Jewel's Apologia ecclesiae Anglicanae, published in 1562, which in Bishop Creighton's words is "the first methodical statement of the position of the Church of England against the Church of Rome, and forms the groundwork of all subsequent controversy."

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  • Harding followed with a Confutation, and Jewel with a Defence, of the Apology in 1566 and 1567; the combatants ranged over the whole field of the Anglo-Roman controversy, and Jewel's theology was officially enjoined upon the Church by Archbishop Bancroft in the reign of James I.

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  • Without entering into controversy it must suffice to point out that, from the point of view of all episcopal churches, the ministry of the bishops succeeding the ministry of the apostles, however it came to pass, was for fif teen centuries accepted as the pledge of unity.

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  • The Adiaphorist controversy among Lutherans was an issue of the provisional scheme of compromise between religious parties, pending a general council, drawn up by Charles V., sanctioned at the diet of Augsburg, 15th of May 1548, and known as the Augsburg Interim.

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  • Another Adiaphorist controversy between Pietists and their opponents, respecting the lawfulness of amusements, arose in 1681, when Anton Reiser (1628-1686) denounced the opera as antichristian.

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  • As a member of the cabinet responsible for the Transvaal negotiations in 1899 he bore his full share of controversy, and when the war opened so disastrously he was the first to realize the necessity for putting the full military strength of the country into the field.

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  • This pamphlet excited considerable controversy, and is supposed to have influenced Pitt in re-establishing the sinking fund for the extinction of the national debt, which had been created by Walpole in 1716 and abolished in 1733.

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  • The conference of 1795 had to deal with this controversy.

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  • When the controversy broke out, Arius was an old man.

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  • The real causes of the controversy lay in differences as to dogma.

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  • For years the controversy may have been fermenting in the college of presbyters at Alexandria.

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  • According to the general supposition, the negotiations which led to the excommunication of Arius and his followers among the presbyters and deacons took place in 318 or 319, but there are good reasons for assigning the outbreak of the controversy to the time following the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine, i.e.

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  • But Alexander too was active; by means of a circular letter he published abroad the excommunication of his presbyter, and the controversy excited more and more general interest.

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  • After various turns in the controversy, it was finally dicided, against Arius, that the Son was " of the same substance " (oµoouoacos) with the Father, and all thought of his being created or even subordinate had to be excluded.

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  • Alexander returned to his see triumphant, but died soon after, and was succeeded by Athanasius, his deacon, with whose indomitable fortitude and strange vicissitudes the further course of the controversy is bound up.

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  • In December 1529 he preached his two " sermons on the cards," which awakened a turbulent controversy in the university, and his opponents, finding that they were unable to cope with the dexterity and keenness of his satire, would undoubtedly have succeeded in getting him silenced by force, had it not been reported to the king that Latimer " favoured his cause," that is, the cause of the divorce.

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  • When, on rare occasions, he was forced out of the region of science into that of controversy, he stated the facts and let them make their own way.

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  • But his inquiries into glacier motion were notable alike for his association with Switzerland and for prolonged controversy with other men of science on the subject.

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  • Thus there arose a chaos of controversy, illuminated by definite measurements and observations.

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  • Though not so prominent as Huxley in detailed controversy over theological problems, he played an important part in educating the public mind in the attitude which the development of natural philosophy entailed towards dogma and religious authority.

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  • In the controversy over the removal of the government deposits from the Bank of the United States he sided with the bank, and voted for Clay's resolution censuring Jackson for his course in the matter.

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  • His first work, De diversis gradibus ministrorum Evangelii (1590; in English, 1592, and reprinted), was an argument for episcopacy, which led to a controversy with Theodore Beza, and gained him incorporation (9 June 1590) as D.D.

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  • In the Wittenberg Concord (1536) the reformers agreed to a settlement of the eucharistic controversy.

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  • Her father, who was a convinced Lutheran, was strongly opposed to his daughter's conversion, and supplied her with books of controversy to protect her Protestantism.

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  • On the hesychastic side the controversy was taken up by Gregory Palamas, afterwards archbishop of Thessalonica, who laboured to establish a distinction between eternal ouvia and eternal EvEpyaaa.

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  • One of his friends, Gregory Acindynus, continued the controversy, and three other synods on the subject were held, at the second of which the Barlaamites gained a brief victory.

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  • At the time of his death he was on the verge of a controversy with Roger of Sicily.

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  • His dogmatic and fearless attitude in controversy earned for him the nickname "Pope Gib."

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  • Regarding the occasion there has been almost as much controversy as regarding the date of its foundation.

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  • The origin of the schistose rocks has long been under discussion, and controversy has centred more particularly around the schistes lustres, which are held by some to be of Triassic age and by others to be pre-Carboniferous and even, perhaps, Archaean.

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  • A third "Farmer's Letter" replied to Hamilton's View of the Controversy between Great Britain and her Colonies, in a broader and abler treatment than in the previous pamphlets.

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  • In connexion with this controversy Lessing wrote his brilliant little treatise, Wie die Alten den Tod gebildet (1769), contrasting the medieval representation of death as a skeleton with the Greek conception of death as the twin-brother of sleep.

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  • The last period of Lessing's life was devoted chiefly to theo logical controversy.

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  • The effect of this controversy was to secure wider freedom for writers on theology, and to suggest new problems regarding the growth of Christianity, the formation of the canon and the essence of religion.

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  • He is said to have studied under St Anselm at Bec. About 1076 he taught with great success at Paris, where, as the associate of William of Champeaux, he upheld the realistic side of the scholastic controversy.

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  • The subject of the extension of the franchise has also been the cause of violent party strife and controversy.

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  • Magee took a prominent part in the Ritual controversy, opposing what he conceived to be romanizing excess in ritual, as well as the endeavour of the opposite party to "put down Ritualism," as Disraeli expressed it, by the operation of the civil law.

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  • He was educated at Oxford, and was first brought into notice by his controversy with Dr Henry Chandler regarding the Irish massacre, in which he defended Charles I.

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  • The Natural History of Religion is a powerful contribution to the deistic controversy; but, as in the case of Hume's earlier work, its significance was at the time overlooked.

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  • The origin of the names Beguine and Beghard has been the subject of much controversy.

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  • After a long controversy over a liturgy (connected in part with the Mercersburg controversy) a Directory of Worship was adopted in 1887.

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  • He remained at Bridgnorth nearly two years, during which time he took a special interest in the controversy relating to Nonconformity and the Church of England.

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  • During these stormy years he wrote his Aphorisms of Justification, which on its appearance in 1649 excited great controversy.

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  • There is far less controversy with regard to the later history of the presbyters.

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  • In a pulpit controversy with Thomas Cartwright, regarding the constitutions and customs of the Church of England, he showed himself Cartwright's inferior in oratorical effectiveness, but the balance was redressed by the exercise of arbitrary authority.

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  • In the following year he published An Answere to a Certain Libel intituled an Admonition to the Parliament, which led to further controversy between the two divines.

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  • In the controversy between Walter Travers and Richard Hooker he interposed by prohibiting the preaching cf the former; and he moreover presented Hooker with the rectory of Boscombe in Wiltshire, in order to afford him more leisure to complete his Ecclesiastical Polity, a work which, however, cannot be said to represent either Whitgift's theological or his ecclesiastical standpoint.

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  • He took a prominent part in the Adoptionist controversy, and wrote against the views of Felix of Urgel, especially as upheld by Elipandus of Toledo.

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  • The exact relation between the two was, however, a matter of controversy, Aquinas and Duns Scotus holding that both are practical reason, while Bonaventura narrows synderesis to the volitional tendency to good actions.

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  • In the ensuing controversy Kingsley was completely discomfited.

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  • The matter became a question of partisan controversy, the legitimists asserting that he frequently offered to serve against France, but that London, where he lived till 1807 - for the most part in studious retirement.

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  • Such seems to have been Pitt's intention, though there has been much controversy as to how far Lord Fitzwilliam (q.v.) had been authorized to pledge the government.

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  • For the history of the free-will controversy see the articles, Will, Predestination (for the theological problems), Ethics.

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  • Some comments by Wesley upon Toplady's presentation of Calvinism led to a controversy which was carried on with much bitterness on both sides.

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  • On the east side of the forum were four edifices; all of them are of a public character, but their names and attribution have been the subject of much controversy.

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  • As perhaps the first clear exposition and defence of the psychological doctrine of determinism, Hobbes's own two pieces must ever retain a classical importance in the history of the free-will controversy; while Bramhall's are still worth study as specimens of scholastic fence.

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  • Constant controversy has existed as to what is the actual original home of the tea-plant, and probably no one has given to the subject more careful study than Professor Andreas Krassnow, of Kharkoff University.

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  • There has been constant controversy as to whether China tea is better than that of other growths, but the verdict first of all of Great Britain, and subsequently of all the other large consuming countries, has relegated the produce of the Celestial Empire to a very subordinate position.

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  • He had early resolved never to be drawn into controversy; and he adhered to his resolution with a steadfastness which is the more extraordinary because he was, both intellectually and morally, of the stuff of which controversialists are made.

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  • Garrison in 1831, had stirred the conscience of the North, and had had its influence even upon many who strongly deprecated its extreme radicalism; the Compromise of 1850 had failed to silence sectional controversy, and the Fugitive Slave Law, which was one of the compromise measures, had throughout the North been bitterly assailed and to a considerable extent had been nullified by state legislation; and finally in 1854 the slavery agitation was fomented by the passage of the KansasNebraska Act, which repealed the Missouri Compromise and gave legislative sanction to the principle of "popular sovereignty" - the principle that the inhabitants of each Territory as well as of each state were to be left free to decide for themselves whether or not slavery was to be permitted therein.

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  • The concluding stages of this expedition were not favorable to the new emperor, but his humiliation was only slight and it did not appreciably affect the conditions of the controversy.

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  • Luther had confronted the cardinal legate Cajetan, had passed through his famous controversy at Leipzig with Johann Eck, and was about to burn the bull of excommunication.

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  • Charles himself made no serious effort to understand the controversy; he was resolved, whether the Lutherans had right on their side or not, that they should submit, and he did not doubt but that he would be able to awe them into submission by an unwonted display of power.

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  • In the controversy which ensued, Lutz, the chief member of the ministry, found himself confronted by an Ultramontane majority, and the priests used their influence to stir up the people.

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  • He aspired by his own will to direct the policy of the state; he put aside the reserve which in modern times is generally observed even by absolute rulers, and by his public speeches and personal influence took a part in political controversy.

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  • The general feeling of distrust which this prolonged controversy aroused was, however, shown by the almost contemptuous rejection in 1899 of a Bill to protect artisans who were willing to work against intimidation or violence (the Zuchthaus-Vorlage), a vote which was the more significant as it was not so much occasioned by the actual provisions of the bill, but was an expression of the distrust felt for the motives by which the government was moved and the reluctance to place any further powers in their hands.

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  • There was, indeed, more than a zeal for pure learning behind this new movement; for both parties in the great religious controversy of the time used these records of the past as a storehouse of weapons of offence.

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  • Through the dust aroused by the great Reformation controversy appear the dim beginnings of the scientific spirit in the writing of history, and in this connection the name of Aventinus, the Bavarian Herodotus, may be mentioned.

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  • His followers, however, took part with the Arians in the controversy with Athanasius and existed as a separate sect till the 5th century.

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  • He made powerful onslaughts on the Church in connexion with the Bell and Lancaster controversy, and took a prominent part in the discussions which led to the foundation of London University in 1825.

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  • From 1831 to 1833 Mill was largely occupied in the defence of the East India Company, during the controversy attending the renewal of its charter, he being in virtue of his office the spokesman of the court of directors.

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  • Here also begins his long controversy with Rivinus (Augustus Quirinus Bachmann) which chiefly turned upon Ray's indefensible separation of ligneous from herbaceous plants, and also upon what he conceived to be the misleading reliance that Rivinus placed on the characters of the corolla.

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  • According to this, Ibrahim, after the controversy with the Jews, first of all became Mahomet's special forerunner in Medina, then the first Moslem, and finally the founder of the Ka'ba.

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  • His published works include numerous speeches and pamphlets, including those connected with his well-known Roman Catholic controversy with Charles Butler (1750-1832).

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  • There has been much controversy whether he was the Wishart who in April 1544 approached the English government with a proposal for getting rid of Cardinal Beaton.

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  • Still later, he was induced by the machinations of some of the prelates who haunted his court, and by the influence of Theodora, herself much interested in theological questions, and more than suspected of Monophysitism, to raise a needless, mischievous, and protracted controversy.

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  • The question between the Lutheran (Augustinian) and Reformed (Philonic) division of the ten commandments was mixed up with controversy as to the legitimacy of sacred images not designed to be worshipped.

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  • A conference between the leaders on both sides was arranged, to discuss whether any compromise was possible, and controversy was postponed to an autumn session.

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  • Howard, with whom he later had a bitter controversy over this battle.

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  • There has been considerable controversy as to the part which the emperor Basil took in framing the new code.

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  • Melanchthon was first drawn into the arena of the Reformation controversy through the Leipzig Disputation (June 27 - July 8, 1519), at which he was present.

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  • Hence arose that "adiaphoristic" controversy in connexion with which he has been misrepresented as holding among matters of indifference such cardinal doctrines as justification by faith, the number of the sacraments, as well as the dominion of the pope, feast-days, and so on.

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  • Etruscan antiquities are receiving closer study, but its first results will probably tend more to controversy than to agreement.

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  • He scarcely ever mentions a contemporary, and was never involved in a personal controversy.

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  • A good deal of controversy has arisen relating to Froude's treatment of the relations between Carlyle and his wife, and during1903-1904this was pushed to a somewhat unsavoury extent.

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  • Mackenzie, in a controversy at Windsor (1679), proved to Charles that in Scotland he was as absolute as the kings of France and Spain, over church, state and all his subjects, and indeed, by various acts of James VI.

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  • In university politics, which at that time wore mainly the form of theological controversy, he was a strong advocate of comprehension and toleration.

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  • Stanley's part in this controversy may be studied in the second and third of his Essays on Church and State (1870).

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  • He was continually engaged in theological controversy, and, by his advocacy of all efforts to promote the social, moral, and religious amelioration of the poorer classes and his chivalrous courage in defending those whom he held to be unjustly denounced, undoubtedly incurred much and grow- ing odium in influential circles.

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  • For many years a lively geographical controversy circled about the sources of the Oxus, and the discussion derived some political, significance from the fact that the true source, wherever Sources.

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  • The Spion Kop incident led to much controversy; for an admirable elucidation of the facts see The Times History of the War in South Africa.

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  • There has been much controversy as to the identification of the stream; it appears that its upper course is represented by that of the Pisciatello (called Rubigone in the iith or 12th century and now Rugone or Urgone), and its lower portion by the Fiumicino, which the Urgone once joined.

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  • His efforts to secure a permanent fixed salary for himself (of 1000) were unsuccessful; and his attempt to prevent the further issue of paper money also involved him in a controversy with the General Court; but their relations were not unfriendly after 1743.

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  • Five of the seven judges in 1837 were his appointees, and the majority of them were Southerners who had been educated under Democratic influences at a time when the slavery controversy was forcing the party to return to its original strict construction views.

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  • An address delivered on the occasion of the laying of the foundation stone was published, with an appendix containing a strong attack on the influence of the Church of England, which gave rise to a long and bitter controversy.

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  • The controversy was renewed when a man with a withered hand appeared in the synagogue on the Sabbath, and the rabbis watched to see whether Jesus would heal him.

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  • The controversy about the Sabbath had brought their dissatisfaction to a climax.

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  • The controversy was plainly irreconcilable, and Jesus withdrew to the north, actually passing outside the limits of the Holy Land.

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  • The visit was successful, the London convention, which for years was a subject of controversy, being granted by Lord Derby in 1884 on behalf of the British government.

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  • The present article is confined (I) to the consideration of certain special meanings which have become attached to the word Mass and are the subject of somewhat acute controversy, (2) to the Mass in music.

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  • The relations between these two leaders, and their respective shares in the work of conquest and exploration, have been the subject of much controversy.

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  • There is no question of the legality of the pope's act; whether he was morally culpable, however, continues to be a matter of bitter controversy.

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  • The middle of the 19th century saw quite a spirited controversy over Clement XIV.; St Priest, in his Hist.

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  • The effect of the controversy was a great decrease in the sale of Indulgences in Germany, and the Papal Curia saw with alarm a prolific source of revenue decaying.

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  • The Saxons and the Swiss, Luther and Zwingli, were in fierce controversy about the true doctrine of the sacrament of the Supper.

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  • Twenty years later, the word "dismissed" (dimittantur) became the subject of controversy, some maintaining that it amounted to a direct approval, others that it was purely negative and did not imply that the books were free from error.

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  • The controversy continued till 1887, when Leo XIII.

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  • It appeared the same year in two Latin editions, four French, one German and one English, and in the Eastern Church started a controversy which culminated in 1691 in the convocation by Dositheos, patriarch of Jerusalem, of a synod by which the Calvinistic doctrines were condemned.

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  • He opposed the majority of his fellowtownsmen in the so-called "Antinomian controversy" of 1636 - 163 7, taking a strongly conservative attitude towards the questions in dispute.

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  • He never sympathized with the principles of the Tractarian movement, and on the appearance of Tract XC. in 1841 he drafted the famous protest of the "Four Tutors" against it; but this was his only important contribution to the controversy.

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  • The same kind of apparent vacillation was found in his action in other cases; e.g., in the Colenso case (1863), and in the controversy as to the use or disuse of the Athanasian symbol (1872).

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  • He appears to have followed his master to Constantinople, and to have taken part in the Three Chapters controversy; in 553, at all events, he signed the "constitutum" of Vigilius in favour of these, and for refusing, with him, to accept the decrees of the fifth general council (the 2nd of Constantinople, 553) shared his exile.

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  • Finally, the practice of rhetoric and eristic, which presently became prominent in sophistical teaching, had, or at any rate seemed to have, a mischievous effect upon conduct; and the charge of seeking, whether in exposition or in debate, not truth but victory - which charge was impressively urged against the sophists by Plato - grew into an accusation of holding and teaching immoral and unsocial doctrines, and in our own day has been the subject of eager controversy.

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  • He had already reached the height of his fame when Plato opened a rival school at the Academy, and pointedly attacked him in the Gorgias, the Plaaedrus and the Republic. Thenceforward, there was a perpetual controversy between the rhetorician and the philosopher, and the struggle of educational systems continued until, in the next generation, the philosophers were left in possession of the field.

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  • But when men set themselves to cultivate skill in disputation, regarding the matter discussed not as a serious issue, but as a thesis upon which to practise their powers of controversy, they learn to pursue, not truth, but victory; and, their criterion of excellence having been thus perverted, they presently prefer ingenious fallacy to solid reasoning and the applause of bystanders to the consciousness of honest effort.

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  • At last the government awoke to its own responsibility in the matter of education, after the long and acrimonious controversy between the advocates of English and vernacular teaching had worn itself out.

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  • A judgment of the supreme court of the Philippines which affects any statute, treaty, title, right or privilege of the United States may be reversed, modified or affirmed by the Supreme Court of the United States; an appeal to the Supreme Court of the United States may also be had in any cause in which the value in controversy exceeds $25,000.

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  • Pelagius himself desired to avoid controversy, and with mental reservations denied these statements of his friend; but he did not escape suspicion, and his condemnation in 418 was the signal for a literary polemic, which lasted ten years, and in which Julian of Eklanum was the most brilliant but reckless combatant on the side of Pelagius.

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  • In 1 706 he wrote a refutation of Dr Henry Dodwell's views on the immortality of the soul, and this drew him into controversy with Anthony Collins.

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  • In 1728 was published "A Letter from Dr Clarke to Benjamin Hoadly, F.R.S., occasioned by the controversy relating to the Proportion of Velocity and Force in Bodies in Motion," printed in the Philosophical Transactions.

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  • It has already been said that in the initial phase of the battle the Italian leadership was at fault, and on this point much controversy has taken place, one party blaming Cadorna and another Brusati.

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  • The extent of his responsibility for the events that ensued is not wholly clear, and has been the subject of much controversy; his defenders have asserted that he was not responsible for the seizure of Sonoma or for the so-called "Bear-Flag War"; and that he played a creditable part throughout.

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  • In the forcing atmosphere, however, of that age of controversy, seed such as that sown in the master's treatment of the uttered X6yos 4 quickly germinated.

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  • The controversy as to the selfevidence of perception in which the New Academy effected some sort of conversion of the younger Stoics, and in which the Sceptics opposed both, is one of the really vital issues of the decadence.

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  • It is natural, then, that the central contribution of the Sceptics to the knowledge controversy lies in the modes (Tp07rot) in which the relativity of phenomena is made good, that these are elaborated with extreme care, and that they have a modern ring and are full of instruction even to-day.

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  • If Alexander is responsible for such doctrines as that of the intellectus acquisitus, it is to Porphyry, with his characteristically Platonist preference for the doctrine of universals, and for classification, that we owe the scholastic preoccupation with the realist controversy, and with the quinque votes, i.e.

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  • Kant's Logic. Herbart's admitted allegiance, however, was Kantian with the qualification, at a relatively advanced stage of his thinking, that it was " of the year 1828 " - that is, after controversy had brought out implications of Kant's teaching not wholly contemplated by Kant himself.

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  • Few works of modern times have excited a more keen and bitter controversy.

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  • For a quarter of a century he had been the most conspicuous native figure in South Africa, and had been the cause of long and bitter political controversy in Great Britain.

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  • With reference to their objects, treaties may perhaps be conveniently classified as (r) political, including treaties of peace, of alliance, of cession, of boundary, for creation of international servitudes, of neutralization, of guarantee, for the submission of a controversy to arbitration; (2) commercial, including consular and fishery conventions, and slave trade and navigation treaties; (3) confederations for special social objects, such as the Zollverein, the Latin monetary union, and the still wider unions with reference to posts, telegraphs, submarine cables and weights and measures; (4) relating to criminal justice, e.g.

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  • Justices of the peace, one of whom is elected biennially in each precinct, have jurisdiction in civil actions in which the amount in controversy does not exceed $200 and the title to or boundary of real estate is not involved, and in criminal actions less than a felony and in which the punishment prescribed by law does not exceed a fine of $100 and imprisonment for six months.

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  • The simple fact at the bottom of the controversy is that in all empirical knowledge there is an intellectual element, without which there is no correlation of empirical data, and every judgment, however simple, postulates a correlation of some sort if only that between the predicate and its contradictory.

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  • Few public characters in the United States have been the subject of more heated controversy.

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  • The rigid adherents to the synod of Dort accused them of Pelagianism, and even of Manichaeism, and the controversy between the parties was carried on with great zeal; yet the whole question between them was only, whether the will of man is determined by the immediate action of God upon it, or by the intervention of a knowledge which God impresses on the mind.

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  • This is due in part, no doubt, to national character; but in the main, probably, to religious and political freedom, and the habit of discussing philosophical questions with regard to their bearing upon matters of religious and political controversy.

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  • This had not hitherto been done, and the claim of the Episcopalians for this liberty had been the occasion of a bitter controversy.

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  • The application to government for aid, however, proved the occasion of a " Voluntary controversy," which raged with great fierceness for many years and has never completely subsided.

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  • Here he had a controversy with Andreas Osiander.

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  • Restored to Saalfeld, not without opposition, in 1552, he remained there, still engaged in controversy, till his death on the 12th of November 1560.

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  • It occasioned a long-drawn controversy between Pierre Bayle and Le Clerc, the former maintaining, the latter denying, that the Plastic Medium is really favourable to atheism.

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  • Henry More, in his Enchiridion ethicum, attempts to enumerate the "noemata moralia"; but, so far from being self-evident, most of his moral axioms are open to serious controversy.

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  • A sect of Sabbataeans - the Dormeh of Salonica - survived him, and for many a long year the controversy for and against his claims left an echo in Jewish life.

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  • Myres in a series of trials, to settle special 13 See Cobham, An Attempt at a Bibliography of Cyprus (4th ed., Nicosia, 1900), Appendix, " Cesnola Controversy," p. 54.44 The Lawrence-Cesnola Collection (London, 1881); Salaminia, id.

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  • Other similar works are his treatise in four books against the Manichaeans and Paulicians, and his controversy with the Latins on the Procession of the Holy Spirit.

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  • Innocent was inclined to temporize, whilst the Welsh chieftains, and especially Gwenwynwyn of Powys, loudly applauded Gerald's action, but Llewelyn ap Iorwerth himself prudently held aloof from the controversy.

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  • At the same time, the polemics had useful results since the literary controversy in the 16th century (when Johann Reuchlin took the part of the Jews) led to the editio princeps of the Babylonian Talmud (Vienna, 1520-23).

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  • He sided with the president in his nullification controversy with South Carolina and in his removal of the Indians from Georgia, but not in his withdrawal of the government deposits from the United States Bank.

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  • The controversy between Francis Wayland and Richard Fuller (1804-1876) on the slavery question ultimately convinced the Southern brethren that separate organization for missionary work was advisable.

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  • He was engaged in an interesting controversy with John Selden as to the historical grounds of episcopacy, in the course of which he published his Eutychius vindicatus, sive Responsio ad Seldeni Origines (Rome, 1661).

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  • When the Navy Department recommended that Sampson be promoted eight numbers and over the head of Schley, who had ranked him for forty-two years, there was a bitter controversy, and the Senate did not confirm the promotion.

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  • As a defender of the established religion he was soon engaged in controversy, and his failure to secure a fellowship at All Souls' College is attributed to the hostility of the Roman Catholics.

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  • Horsley now entered in earnest upon his famous controversy with Joseph Priestley, who denied that the early Christians held the doctrine of the Trinity.

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  • In this controversy, conducted on both sides in the fiercest polemical spirit, Horsley showed the superior learning and ability.

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  • Yet, precisely because he met the world so seldom in easy dialogue, he was unnecessarily dogmatic in controversy; and many a bottle of wine went to pay for lost wagers.

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  • He upheld American rights in Samoa, pursued a vigorous diplomacy with Italy over the lynching of eleven Italians, all except three of them American naturalized citizens, in New Orleans on the 14th of May 1891, held a firm attitude during the strained relations between the United States and Chile (growing largely out of the killing and wounding of American sailors of the U.S. ship "Baltimore" by Chileans in Valparaiso on the 16th of October 1891), and carried on with Great Britain a resolute controversy over the seal fisheries of Bering Sea, - a difference afterwards settled by arbitration.

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  • Aphraates impresses a reader favourably by his moral earnestness, his guilelessness, his moderation in controversy, the simplicity of his style and language, his saturation with the ideas and words of Scripture.

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  • Its usefulness to Luther in his propaganda was no accident in its history; it originated in a controversy, and the varying views of the momentous struggle depicted in Gal.

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  • In the following centuries we have the valuable epistles of Cyprian, of Gregory Nazianzen (to Cledonius on the Apollinarian controversy), of Basil (to be classed rather as letters), of Ambrose, Chrysostom, Augustine and Jerome.

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  • The situation of the place has been the subject of much controversy.

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  • On the controversy as to the author of the Imitatio, see the article IMITATION OF CHRIST.

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  • It is, however, by his controversy with Luther and the other reformers that Eck is best remembered.

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  • This is clear, to pass by much other evidence, from the controversy of St Jerome with Vigilantius.

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  • This was, especially in Natal, the cause of prolonged controversy among the members of the Anglican community.

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  • Most of the literature evoked by the controversy on either side was devoted to rebutting the attack of some individual opponent.

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  • To a generation that has been moulded by the philosophy of Kant and Hegel, by the historical criticism of modern theology, and by all that has been done in the field of comparative religion, the argument of the Analogy cannot but appear to lie quite outside the field of controversy.

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  • Subsequently Ames entered into a controversy in print with Grevinchovius on universal redemption and election, and cognate problems. He brought together all he had maintained in his Coronis ad Collationem Hagiensem - his most masterful book, which figures largely in Dutch church history.

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  • It was at this time he began his memorable controversy with Episcopius, who, in attacking the Coronis, railed against the author as having been "a disturber of the public peace in his native country, so that the English magistrates had banished him thence; and now, by his late printed Coronis, he was raising new disturbances in the peaceable Netherlands."

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  • He was a master in theological controversy, shunning not to cross swords with the formidable Bellarmine.

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  • It gave a fresh stimulus to the controversy, which had for some time been discontinued, respecting the resumption of cash payments, and indirectly led to' the appointment of a committee of the House of Commons, commonly known as the Bullion Committee, to consider the whole question.

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  • In 1822 he published a tract On Protection to Agriculture, which is an able application to controversy of the general principles laid down in his systematic work.

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  • Fenelon promptly appealed to Rome, and after two years of bitter controversy his book was condemned by Innocent XII.

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  • As to the merits of the controversy opinion will always be divided.

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  • Of late years, however, Bossuet has found powerful defenders; and if they have not cleared his character from reproach, they have certainly managed to prove that Fenelon's methods of controversy were not much better than his.

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  • Immediately on the outbreak of the controversy, Fenelon was exiled to his diocese, and during the last eighteen years of his life he was only once allowed to leave it.

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  • So much controversy has been aroused on the subject of Himalayan altitudes that the present position of scientific analysis in relation to them maybe shortly stated.

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  • The representative of this tendency, Chrysippus, addressed himself to the congenial task of assimilating, developing, systematizing the doctrines bequeathed to him, and, above all, securing them in their stereotyped and final form, not simply from the assaults of the past, but, as after a long and successful career of controversy and polemical authorship he fondly hoped, from all possible attack in the future.

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  • The subsequent history testified to the importance of this controversy.

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  • Of speculative interest the ordinary Roman had as little as may be; for abstract discussion and controversy he cared nothing.

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  • Various charges were brought against the Society by Pombal, and in September 1759, after five years of heated controversy (see JEsuITs), he published a decree of expulsion against all its members in the Portuguese dominions.

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  • The controversy with Spain was amicably settled by the treaty of San Ildefonso (1777); and further industrial and educational reforms were inaugurated, chief among them being the foundation, in 1780, of the Royal Academy of Sciences.

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  • The controversy in its details is a vvrcrouaxia to him, full of misunderstandings.

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  • His characterizations of Cyril and Nestorius, and his narrative and criticism of the beginnings of the Christological controversy, are models of candour and historical conscientiousness.

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  • In 1865 he became involved in an acrimonious controversy on the interpretation of Kant's doctrine of Space with Kuno Fischer, whom he attacked in Kuno Fischer and sein Kant (1869), which drew forth the reply Anti-Trendelenburg (1870).

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  • But while ideally all Christ's disciples were "sent" with the Father's Name in charge, there were different degrees in which this The readmission of such apostates to the church was a matter that occasioned serious controversy.

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  • In recent years the relations of toxin and antitoxin, still obscure, have been the subject of much study and controversy.

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  • Gregoras subsequently took an important part in the Hesychast controversy, in which he violently opposed Gregorius Palamas, the chief supporter of the sect.

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  • Dupin, and Jean Le Clerc (Clericus), of the orientalists John Lightfoot, John Spencer and Humphrey Prideaux, of John Mill, the collator of New Testament readings, and John Fell, furnished new materials for controversy; and the scope of Spinoza's Tractatus theologico-politicus had naturally been much more fully apprehended than ever his Ethica could be.

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  • The success of the English revolution permitted men to turn from the active side of political and theological controversy to speculation and theory; and curiosity was more powerful than faith.

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  • Collins, who had created much excitement by his Discourse of Free-thinking, insisting on the value and necessity of unprejudiced inquiry, published at a later stage of the deistic controversy the famous argument on the evidences of Christianity.

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  • Though himself contemporary with the earlier deists, Bolingbroke's principal works were posthumously published of ter interest in the controversy had declined.

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  • The controversy was assumed to be against prejudice, ignorance, obscurantism; what monks were to Erasmus the clergy as such were to Woolston.

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  • They made their appeal in the mother tongue to all men who could read and think, and sought to reduce the controversy to its most direct practical issue.

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  • Meanwhile, at Frankfort, among British Protestant refugees, a controversy was going on between the upholders of the English liturgy and the French Reformed Order of Worship respectively.

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  • Maximilian, indifferent as usual to matters of religious controversy, consented to the abolition of the Compacts, and these enactments, which had once been sacred to the Bohemian people, perished unregretted by all parties.

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  • The new sovereign, however, showed with regard to the unceasing religious controversy the same apathy and indifference with which he also met matters of state.

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  • There followed immediately a controversy which threatened the collapse of the arbitration.

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  • Controversy against false teachers is conspicuously absent from Romans.

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  • The decisions of Chalcedon, which were the occasion of the formation of all these sects outside, did not put an end to Christological controversy inside the Orthodox Greek Church.

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  • The only contribution which need be made here to the controversy is to point out that if Rabelais was born in 1483 he must have been an old man when he died, and that scarcely even tradition speaks of him as such.

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  • The controversy is one of some intricacy, but as it is also one of capital importance in literary history the heads of it at least must be given here.

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  • The book aroused much controversy.

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  • He had previously entrusted notes and emendations on Shakespeare to Sir Thomas Hanmer, whose unauthorized use of them led to a heated controversy.

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  • He also engaged in a keen controversy with Robert Lowth, afterwards bishop of London, on the book of Job, in which Lowth brought home charges of lack of scholarship and of insolence that admitted of no denial.

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  • It was for Occam's share in this controversy that he was best known in his lifetime.

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  • In spite of much controversy, the same measure of agreement as to its meaning cannot be said to have been attained.

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  • The controversy was kept up during the scholastic period.

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  • In the Church of Rome the Dominicans favoured Augustinianism, the Jesuits Semi-Pelagianism; the work of Molina on the agreement of free-will with the gifts of grace provoked a controversy, which the pope silenced without deciding; but which broke out again a generation later when Jansen tried to revive the decaying Augustinianism.

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  • These doctrines, although in harmony with the prevailing feeling of the Roman Catholic Church of the period, and further recommended by their marked opposition to the teachings of Luther and Calvin,excited violent controversy in some quarters, especially on the part of the Dominicans, and at last rendered it necessary for the pope (Clement VIII.) to interfere.

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  • The first preceded the outbreak of the Arian controversy, when, as might be expected in a follower of Origen, his interest was anti-Sabellian and his emphasis chiefly upon the subordination of the Son of God.

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  • The second stage began with the outbreak of the controversy in 318, and continued until the Nicene Council.

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  • A partisan controversy removed the seat of government to Monclova in 1833, but it was returned to Saltillo in 1835.

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  • The recent controversy concerning the nature and origin of the plot can be followed in What was the Gunpowder Plot ?

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  • A considerable portion of the controversy centres round the question of the authenticity of Thomas Winter's confession, the MS. of which is at Hatfield, supported by Professor Gardiner, but denied by Father Gerard principally on account of the document having been signed "Winter" instead of "Wintour," the latter apparently being the conspirator's usual style of signature.

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  • The bibliography of the contemporary controversy is given in the article on Henry Garnet in the Dictionary of National Biography and in The Gunpowder Plot by David Jardine (1857), the latter work still remaining the principal authority on the subject; add to these Gardiner's Hist.

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  • Darwin died some years before the controversy upon the possibility of the hereditary transmission of acquired characters arose over the writings of Weismann, but Wallace has freely accepted the general results of the German zoologist's teaching, and in Darwinism has presented a complete theory of the causes of evolution unmixed with any trace of Lamarck's use or disuse of inheritance, or Buffon's hereditary effect of the direct influence of surroundings.

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  • Among the denominational institutions are the Theological Seminary (Presbyterian) at Princeton; the Drew Theological Seminary (Methodist Episcopal) at Madison; Seton Hall College (Roman Catholic), at South Orange; St Peter's College (Roman Catholic) at Jersey City; St Benedict's College (Roman Catholic) at Newark; the German Theological School of Newark 1 The state's title to its riparian lands was established, after a long controversy, in 1870 in the case of Stevens v.

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  • This led to a prolonged controversy; Hooper had already denounced the "Aaronic vestments" and the oath by the saints prescribed in the new Ordinal; and he refused to be consecrated according to its rites.

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  • The bishop in 1847 became involved in the Hampden controversy, and signed the remonstrance of the thirteen bishops to Lord John Russell against Hampden's appointment to the bishopric of Hereford.

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  • In 1854 he opened a theological college at Cuddesdon, which was afterwards the subject of some controversy on account of its alleged Romanist tendencies.

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  • Much of this last stage of his life was occupied at Padua in a controversy with the Averroists, whom he regarded as dangerous antagonists both to sound religion and to sound culture.

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  • He appears to have laid even more stress on this point than Aristotle himself, being doubtless led to do so, partly by the heat of controversy and partly by the importance which leisure and freedom from harassing cares naturally assumed to a man of his studious temperament.

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  • It was in connexion with this controversy that Charlemagne wrote the so-called Libri Carolini, to which Adrian replied by letter, anathematizing all who refused to worship the images of Christ, or the Virgin, or saints.

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  • One sees at a glance what an engine of controversy it was to be; yet for a while it remained but a phase of humanism.

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  • Here, as in the Reformation, controversy called out the richest product.

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  • Now that the controversy has cleared away, we see that in spite of Buckle's too confident formulation of his laws, his pioneer work in a great field marks him out as the Augustine of the scientific age.

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  • Since then the controversy has been almost as heated as in the days of the Reformation.

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  • The determination of the area was the subject of many investigations and much controversy.

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  • A famous period in the history of the cycloid is marked by a bitter controversy which sprang up between Descartes and Roberval.

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  • The long controversy, which is known in American history as " The North-East boundary dispute," was not finally settled however until 1910.

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  • A blaze of controversy sprang up at once.

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  • There are, however, minor differences in the accounts, which have given rise to controversy.

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  • His seven years' residence in the Low Countries brought him into close relations with modes of thought differing essentially from his own; and, though he was neither by temperament nor training inclined to be affected by the prevailing Augustinian doctrines of grace and free-will, the controversy into which he fell on these questions compelled him to define his theological principles more clearly.

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  • These volumes, which called forth a multitude of answers on the Protestant side, exhaust the controversy as it was carried on in those days, and contain a lucid and uncompromising statement of Roman Catholic doctrine.

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  • Whether the series is continuous or not is a matter of controversy.

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  • The boundary itself was in controversy until 1780, and the marking of the boundary lines was not completed until 1785.

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  • The controversy was renewed in 1503 and again in 1578; but the general support of the Jesuits and the staunch fidelity of the Majorcans saved Lull from condemnation.

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  • In the controversy about election, when appealed to by Charles the Bald, Ratramnus wrote two books De praedestinatione Dei, in which he maintained the doctrine of a twofold predestination; nor did the fate of Gottschalk deter him from supporting his view against Hincmar as to the orthodoxy of the expression "trina Deitas."

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  • Ratramnus perhaps won most glory in his own day by his Contra Graecorum opposita, in four books (868), a valued contribution to the controversy between the Eastern and Western Churches which had been raised by the publication of the encyclical letter of Photius in 867.

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  • Perhaps the best criticism of Edwards's philosophy as a whole is that, instead of being elaborated on purely rational principles, it is mixed up with a system of theological conceptions with which it is never thoroughly combined, and that it is exposed to all the disturbing effects of theological controversy.

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  • But for him the alternative was between Calvinism and Arminianism, simply because of the historical situation, and in the refutation of Arminianism on the assumptions common to both sides of the controversy, he must be considered completely successful.

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  • At first he followed Beneke's empiricism, and strongly opposed the subjectivistic tendency of the Kantian system, maintaining in particular the objectivity of space and time, which involved him in a somewhat violent controversy.

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  • The accusation was perfectly untrue, but this style of political controversy was common, and was adopted by Canning.

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  • Similarly, the question debated at such length by English moralists as to the nature of the moral faculty (moral sense, conscience, &c.) and the controversy concerning the freedom of the will belong entirely to psychology.

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  • The resemblance, both in title and in principles, of his book to Locke's Reasonableness of Christianity, led to a prompt disavowal on Locke's part of the supposed identity of opinions, and subsequently to the famous controversy between Stillingfleet and the philosopher.

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  • Garnet's conduct in now keeping the plot a secret has been a matter of considerable controversy not only between Roman Catholics and Protestants, but amongst Roman Catholic writers themselves.

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  • It gave rise to a literary controversy, however, of great bitterness and violence, the author having ventured without warrant to claim for it an historical character, appealing to an imaginary "manuscript in Florence."

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  • However, there is still much controversy over the true nature of substance.

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  • Nevertheless, besides acquiring colossal wealth for himself, he undoubtedly created for the American public a vastly improved railway service, the benefit of which survived all controversy as to the means by which he triumphed over the obstacles in his way.

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  • But, although the union of the Roses ought to have extinguished controversy, a host of debatable questions and plausible pretexts for rebellion remained.

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  • Each of these conflicting views is supported by strong evidence; and the whole controversy, too large and too obscure for discussion here, is considered under the heading Vlachs.

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  • Expenses incurred during the war led to much controversy, especially when the Russian government claimed the return of £120,000 advanced to enable the Rumanians to mobilize, and considered by them as a free gift.

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  • Excepting the embayment region, Missouri lies wholly within the Carolinian area of the Upper Austral life-zone; the There has been some controversy as to whether this condition is due to the elevation and corrosion of original flood-plain meanders after their development in a past base-level condition - which theory is probably correct - or to the natural, simultaneous lateral and vertical cut of an originally slightly sinuous stream, under such special conditions of stream declivity and horizontal bedstrata (conditions supposed by some to be peculiarly fulfilled in this region) as would be favourable to the requisite balance of bank cutting and channel incision.

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  • In August 1821, after three years of bitter controversy, Missouri was formally admitted to statehood.

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  • Much of Bunyan's time was spent in controversy.

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  • A controversy arose which long survived the original combatants.

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  • Two eminent Baptists, with whom Bunyan had been engaged in controversy, were in great peril and distress.

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  • It is certain that Athanasius was young when he took orders, and that he must soon have entered into close relations with his bishop, whom, after the outbreak of the Arian controversy, he accompanied as archdeacon to the council of Nicaea.

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  • He had already, before the opening of the Council, defined his personal attitude towards the dogmatic problem in two essays, Against the Gentiles and On the Incarnation, without, however, any special relation to the Arian controversy.

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  • The council had by no means composed the divisions in the Church which the Arian controversy had provoked.

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  • All his treatises are occasional pieces, born of controversy and intended for controversial ends.

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  • The esprit bourru by which he was at all times distinguished, and which he now displayed in his rather arrogant Excuse a Ariste, unfitted him for controversy, and it was of vital importance to him that he should not lose the outward marks of favour which Richelieu continued to show him.

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  • By the 14th of March, when the second reading came on, the controversy had assumed threatening proportions; and Mr Dixon, the Liberal member for Birmingham and chairman of the Education League, moved an amendment, the effect of which was to prohibit all religious education in board schools.

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  • He took a decided view on the Pelagian controversy, confirming the decisions of the synod of the province of proconsular Africa held in Carthage in 416, which had been sent to him.

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  • The document was received with universal applause, and Sarpi was immediately made canonist and theological counsellor to the republic. When in the following April the last hopes of accommodation were dispelled by Paul's excommunication of the Venetians and his attempt to lay their dominions under an interdict, Sarpi entered with the utmost energy into the controversy.

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  • The King's library in the British Museum has a valuable collection of tracts in the Interdict controversy, formed by Consul Smith.

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  • The engineering profession espoused Fowler's side in the controversy which followed, and as a result the verdict of the Board of Trade was modified.

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