During the first half of the 19th century civil war and despotic government seriously restricted the natural growth of the country, but since the definite organization of the republic in 1860 and the settlement of disturbing political controversies, the population had increased rapidly.
For full accounts of the battle, with copious references to authorities and to ancient controversies, mostly arising out of the conduct of Doria, see Sir W.
It is not necessary in illustration of the second type of heresy - that which arises when the contents of the Christian faith are being defined - to refer to the doctrinal controversies of the middle ages.
On the other hand, he took a lively part in the politico-religious controversies within the fold of Prussian Protestantism.
The time thus spent seems to have been on the whole happy, even allowing for warm discussions with the mathematicians and metaphysicians of France, and for harassing controversies in the Netherlands.
The general assembly reviews all the work of the Church; settles controversies; makes administrative laws; directs and stimulates missionary and other spiritual work; appoints professors of theology; admits to the ministry applicants from other churches; hears and decides complaints, references and appeals which have come up through the inferior courts; and takes cognizance of all matters connected with the Church's interests or with the general welfare of the people.
Political Divisions and Towns.-The chief political divisions of the republic consist of one federal district, 14 provinces and 10 territories, the last in great part dating from the settlement of the territorial controversies with Chile.
Chiefly through the press, in many of the religious controversies of the time.
The Orphic poems also played an important part in the controversies between Christian and pagan writers in the 3rd and 4th centuries after Christ; pagan writers quoted them to show the real meaning of the multitude of gods, while Christians retorted by reference to the obscene and disgraceful fictions by which the former degraded their gods.
Moreover, the great Christological controversies of the age tended to encourage in Christian writers and preachers an intellectual acuteness and an accuracy of thought and expression of which the earlier centuries had not felt the need.
Revolt against some of its fundamental principles which was led by the Puritan reaction.5 Now that the smoke of these controversies has passed away, it is possible to form a clearer judgment upon the merits of the patristic writings.
We see in them the thought of the ancient Church taking shape in the minds of her bishops and doctors; and in many cases they express the results of the great doctrinal controversies of their age in language which leaves little to be desired.6 Authorities.
- xvi., were occupied with matters of discipline, complaints, claims, controversies and the like.
His pontificate was marked by protracted controversies with France and Portugal.
In the bitter religious controversies of the time Anglesey showed great moderation and toleration.
Henderson's own works are chiefly contributions to current controversies, speeches and sermons.
In August 1771 Governor Tryon was succeeded by Governor Josiah Martin, who was soon engaged in spirited controversies with the assembly on questions pertaining to taxes, the southern boundary, and the attachment of property belonging to nonresidents.
Liberal support was given to the Confederacy, both in men and supplies, but Governor Vance, one of the ablest of the Southern war governors, engaged in acrimonious controversies with President Jefferson Davis, contending that the general government of the Confederacy was encroaching upon the prerogatives of the separate states.
He guided it through the controversies as to Robertson Smith's heresies, as to the use of hymns and instrumental music, and as to the Declaratory Act, brought to a successful issue the union of the Free and United Presbyterian Churches, and threw the weight of the united church on the side of freedom of Biblical criticism.
In the autumn of 397 Rufinus embarked for Rome, where, finding that the theological controversies of the East were exciting much interest and curiosity, he published a Latin translation of the Apology of Pamphilus for Origen, and also (398-99) a somewhat free rendering of the 7rep1 apXwv (or De Principiis) of that author himself.
The technical terms round which such bitter controversies raged in the 4th and 5th centuries are often found in Origen lying peacefully side by side.
These controversies were stilled by the war.
The Church as a whole took but little interest in apologetics and polemics, nay, had at times even an instinctive feeling that in these controversies that which she held holy might easily suffer loss.
Among those in the Peters's list which are wholly or substantially true are the following: "The judges shall determine controversies without a jury"; "Married persons must live together or be imprisoned"; "A wife shall be good evidence against her husband"; "No minister shall keep school"; "The selectmen, on finding children ignorant, may take them away from their parents and put them into better hands, at the expense of their parents."
The chronic controversies between the courts of common law and the Admiralty Court as to the limits of their respective jurisdictions reached an acute stage.
For the controversies respecting the Agora, the Enneacrunus and the topography of the town in general, see W.
He was against the Leipzig Interim (1548) with its compromise on some Catholic usages, and was involved in controversies and quarrels; with Georgius Merula, against whom he maintained the need of exorcism in baptism; with Osiander's adherents in the matter of justification; with his colleague, Nicholas von Amsdorf, to whom he had resigned the Eisenach superintendency; with Flacius Illyricus, and others.
But the more serious difficulties which to many minds still stand in the way of the acceptance of the epistle have come from the developed phase of Pauline theology which it shows, and from the general background and atmosphere of the underlying system of thought, in which the absence of the well-known earlier controversies is remarkable, while some things suggest the thought of John and a later age.
His part in the yellow fever controversies is indicated by La Roche (Yellow Fever in Philadelphia from 1699 to 1854, 2 vols., Philadelphia, 1855) and by Bancroft (Essay on the Yellow Fever, London, 1811).
Unfortunately politics were inextricably interwoven with the religious controversies of the time, and resistance to English influence involved resistance to the activities of the reformers in the church, whose ultimate victory has obscured the cardinal's genuine merits as a statesman.
µovocvcr7rac), the name given to those who hold the doctrine that Christ had but one (µovos) composite nature (nuves), and especially to those who maintained this position in the great controversies of the 5th and 6th centuries.
But as the frontier was not definitely demarcated the door was left open for controversies which have occurred frequently up to the present day.
During recent years the controversies with regard to the modes of formation of these structures have entered on a new phase.
Yet in view of later controversies, the changes made during this period, notably in the vestments connected with the mass, are not without significance.
Into the history of the resulting controversies it is impossible to enter.
The year before he had published his valuable history of Pelagian controversies, which his enemies considered favoured the views of the Arminians or Remonstrants.
His principal works are Historia Pelagiana sive Historiae de controversies quas Pelagius ejusque reliquiae moverunt (1618); Aristarchus, sive de arte grammatica (1635 and 1695; new ed.
SACRAMENTARIANS, the name given to those who during the Reformation controversies not only denied the Roman Catholic "transubstantiation," but also the Lutheran "consubstantiation."
The connexion became closer at the time when the schism with its violent controversies between the rival pontiffs, waged with the coarse invective customary to medieval theologians, had brought great discredit on the papacy.
In spite of his almost incessant controversies with the Aristotelians, he found time to make a comprehensive study of contemporary science.
In recent times controversies have arisen in connexion with the Baltic, the Black Sea and more especially the Bering Sea.
COUNCIL OF SARDICA, an ecclesiastical council convened in 343 by the emperors Constantius and Constans, to attempt a settlement of the Arian controversies, which were then at their height.
Ohn of Salisbury, in his account of the controversies of these days (Metalogicus, ii.
Somewhat apart from current controversies stood the teaching of the school of Chartres, humanistically nourished on the study of the ancients, and important as a revival of Platonism in opposition to the formalism of the Aristotelians.
But the outstanding figure in the controversies of the first half of the 12th century is Abelard.
There were enough inconsistencies in his creed to enable both sides in the recent controversies to claim him as one who if he were still alive would have supported their case in the altered circumstances; but, from the biographical point of view, these issues are hardly relevant.
It is the supreme tribunal of the republic, having original jurisdiction in cases of impeachment, the constitutionality of laws, and controversies between states or officials.
From a party-political point of view the period of Sir Henry Campbell-Bannerman's premiership was chiefly marked by the continued controversies remaining from the general election of 1906, - tariff reform and free trade, the South African question and the allied Liberal policy for abolishing Chinese labour, the administration of Ireland, and the amendment of the Education Act of 1902 so as to remove its supposed denominational character.
Above all, he now, being comparatively secure in position, engaged much more strongly in public controversies, and resorted less to his old labyrinthine tricks of disavowal, garbled publication and private libel.
These show that he took part in all the great controversies on predestination and Arminianism which then so agitated and harassed all Europe.
The most important event in foreign policy was the treaty with Great Britain of the 8th of May 1871, commonly known as the Treaty of Washington, whereby several controversies between the United States and Great Britain, including the bitter questions as to damage inflicted upon the United States by the "Alabama" and other Confederate cruisers built and equipped in England, were referred to arbitration.
His second administration, of which the main achievement was the extension of the suffrage to the agricultural labourers, was harassed by two controversies, relating to Ireland and Egypt, which proved disastrous to the Liberal party.
Gregory, although he has not always escaped the charge of Sabellianism, now holds an undisputed place among the fathers of the church; and although the turn of his mind was practical rather than speculative, he is known to have taken an energetic part in most of the doctrinal controversies of his time.
The definition once proclaimed, controversies rapidly ceased; the bishops who wer: among the minority one after the other formulated their loyal adhesion to the Catholic dogma.
Under the patronage of the earl of Bath he entered into a good many literary controversies, vindicating Milton from W.