Contributions sentence example
She began to solicit contributions from her friends, and saved her pennies.
The contributions amounted to more than sixteen hundred dollars.
Besides numerous contributions to the Proceedings of the Royal and the Royal Astronomical Societies, he published several books, both explanatory and speculative.
He also made important contributions to the mathematical theory of electrodynamics, and in papers published in 1845 and 1847 established mathematically the laws of the induction of electric currents.
His defence of the authenticity of the Epistles of Ignatius is one of the most important contributions to that very difficult controversy.Advertisement
In 1852 he graduated at Harvard, and became computer to the American Ephemeris and Nautical Almanac. He made his name by contributions on mathematical and physical subjects in the Mathematical Monthly.
His work was mainly concerned with electricity and magnetism, though he also made some contributions to optics and physiology.
Ward, made vigorous contributions to natural theology.
Henderson's own works are chiefly contributions to current controversies, speeches and sermons.
Fully three-fourths of the state contributions is expenditure on military necessities; in addition there are subventions to various colonies and to colonial railways and cables, and the expenditure on the penitentiary establishments; an item not properly chargeable to the colonies.Advertisement
Only those who have made substantial contributions will be considered.
Hitherto mention has chiefly been made of works on general ornithology, but it will be understood that these were largely aided by the enterprise of travellers, and as there were many of them who published their narratives in separate forms their contributions have to be considered.
The list of his honors and achievements were exceeded only by his philanthropic connections and contributions.
Churches of all denominations are liberally supported throughout the states, and the residents of every settlement, however small, have their places of worship erected and maintained by their own contributions.
Most notable of all perhaps was the shepherd Athronges, who assumed the pomp of royalty and employed his four brothers as captains and satraps in the war which he waged upon Romans and king's men alike - not even Jews escaped him unless they brought him contributions.Advertisement
In its charities Cleveland has carried far the principle of coOperation, seeking to obviate through a welfare federation the waste in soliciting contributions.
But these and many other contributions, 4 made until nearly the close of the 18th century, though highly meritorious, were unconnected as a whole, and it is plain that no conception of what it was in the power, of Comparative Anatomy to set forth had occurred to the most diligent dissectors.
Blanchard's investigations, if completed, would obviously have taken extraordinarily high rank among the highest contributions to ornithology.
His close relation with the Scotch Church secured important material assistance for the college of which he now became president, and he toured New England to collect contributions.
He is more important, however, as a commentator and scholar, and made valuable contributions to the study of Aristotle.Advertisement
The connexion lasted during the 9th century; kings like Alfred of England and Louis of Germany sent contributions to Jerusalem, while the Church of Jerusalem acquired estates in the West.
The contributions sent to the Holy Land by the monarchs of western Europe, as commutations.
His fame rests upon his exposition of the principles necessary to chemistry as a secience, but of his contributions to analytical inorganic chemistry little can be said.
Wesley had at first to take charge of the contributions, but as they grew larger he appointed stewards to receive the money, to pay debts, and to relieve the needy.
His contributions to the theories of Elasticity and of Waves rank high among modern developments of mathematical physics, although they are mere units among the 150 scientific papers attached to his name in the Royal Society's Catalogue.Advertisement
The first of his controversial works was Three Letters to the Bishop of Bangor (1717), which were considered by friend and foe alike as one of the most powerful contributions to the Bangorian controversy on the high church side.
The first category included the " imposts " properly so called, the fixed contributions (redevances fixes) to be paid by the " privileged provinces, " and the military exoneration tax.
The expenditure of the first category was made up of the service of foreign loans, of the general debt, of the dotations replacing ziamet and timarat (military fiefs) and of fixed contributions such as vakufs.
The remaining " indirect contributions " are port and lighthouse dues, £T148,426.
The revenues figuring under " indirect contributions " thus reach a total of £T4,825,812.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
To this council, with these extended powers, was handed over the absolute administration, collection and control of the " six indirect contributions " above enumerated, for the benefit of the bondholders, and in addition, it was to encash for the same purpose bills on the customs, to be drawn half-yearly in its favour by the minister of finance, amounting annually to £T180,000, representing the tax on Tumbeki (£TSo,000) and the surplus revenue of Cyprus (£T130,000); and the Eastern Rumelian annuity, originally fixed at £T245,000, but gradually reduced by force of circumstances, until after frequent suspensions of payment it reached in 1897 the level of £T114,000, and has, since the declaration of Bulgarian independence, been definitely stopped.
There is much that is striking and original in his history of marriage (Die ji dische Hochzeit in nachbiblischer Zeit, 1860), and of mourning customs (Die Leichenfeierlichkeiten im nachbiblischen Judenthum, 1861), his contributions to the sources of the Arabian Nights (Zur rabbinischen Sprach-und Sagenkunde, 1873), and his notes on rabbinic antiquities (Beitrage zur rabbinischen Sprachund Altertumskunde, 1893).
The library, situated above the principal portico, was at one time one of the richest in Europe, comprising the king's own collection, the extensive bequest of Diego de Mendoza, Philip's ambassador to Rome, the spoils of the emperor of Morocco, Muley Zidan (1603-1628) and various contributions from convents, churches and cities.
But many hold that his letters and essays are finer contributions to pure literature, and that on these exquisite mixtures of wisdom, pathos, melody and humour his fame is likely to be ultimately based.
The new archbishop, without being one of the English divines who have made notable contributions to theological learning, already had a great reputation for ecclesiastical statesmanship; and in subsequent years his diplomatic abilities found ample scope in dealing not only with the difficulties caused in the church by doctrinal questions, but pre-eminently with the education crisis, and with the new problems arising in the enlarged Anglican Communion.
Moreover, the great contributions levied by Napoleon on the city, the plundering of its bank by Davoust, and the burning of its prosperous suburbs inflicted wounds from which the city but slowly recovered.
He published his first volume of Poems in 1827, and in 1833 appeared his Poems and Prose Writings, republished in 1850 in two volumes, in which were included practically all of his poems and of his prose contributions to periodical literature.
His treatises De mensura astrolabii and De utilitatibus astrolabii (to be found, on the authority of Salzburg MSS., in Pez, Thesaurus anecdotorum novissimus, iii.) being the first contributions of moment furnished by a European to this subject, Hermann was for a time considered the inventor of the astrolabe.
His principal work, Logik, published in 1873, takes an important place among recent contributions to logical theory.
The first, second and third sections of this publication comprise respectively the papers communicated by him to the Academies of Sciences of Turin, Berlin and Paris; the fourth includes his miscellaneous contributions to other scientific collections, together with his additions to Euler's Algebra, and his Lecons elementaires at the Ecole Normale in 1795.
The discoveries of silver brought great wealth to the margraves, but they resorted at times to bedes, which were contributions from the nobles and ecclesiastics who met in a kind of diet.
The more important contributions to our present knowledge of Brazil, however, have been obtained through the labours of foreign naturalists.
But in the school of Fulda, presided over by his pupil Hrabanus Maurus (776-856), there are to be found some fresh contributions to the discussion.
No sooner was the idea of such a tribute started than liberal contributions came from all quarters, which enabled his friends to present him with a sum of 80,000.
Besides this he wrote a number of biographical and historical essays, as well as numerous articles and papers on contemporary politics, of which some are valuable contributions to political thought.
The Memoirs of the Berlin Academy from 1761 to 1784 contain many of his papers, which treat of such subjects as resistance of fluids, magnetism, comets, probabilities, the problem of three bodies, meteorology, &c. In the Acta Helvetica (1752-1760) and in the Nova acta erudita (1763-1769) several of his contributions appear.
As a sonnet writer none stands higher than Paul Szemere, known also for his rendering of Korner's drama Zrinyi (1818), and his contributions to the Elet es Literatura (Life and Literature).
It was soon supported by contributions from all quarters except from the government.
The reputation of John Szilasy, John Varga, Fidelius Beely and Francis Ney arose rather from their works bearing on the subject of education than from their contributions to philosophy.
In this work, which is one of the most valuable contributions to the literature of algebra, Cardan shows that he was familiar with both real positive and negative roots of equations whether rational or irrational, but of imaginary roots he was quite ignorant, and he admits his inability to resolve the so-called lation of Arabic manuscripts.
In England the term is specially applied to the levying of public money contributions for local purposes, as distinguished from the "taxes" raised for what are treated as general state purposes.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
Though now remembered chiefly for invaluable contributions to the theory of music, it is evident that he must have been famous both as a practical musician and as a composer; for, notwithstanding the limited number of his printed works, consisting of a volume entitled Modulationes Sex Vocum (Venice, 1566), and a few motets and madrigals scattered through the collections of Scotto and other contemporary publishers, he both produced and superintended the public performance of some important pieces in the service of the republic. First among these was the music written to celebrate the battle of Lepanto (on the 7th of October 1571).
A full account, together with other early contributions to the science of light, is given in Venturi's Commentari sopra la storia de la Teoria del Ottica (Bologna, 1814).
John Fleischer (sometimes incorrectly named Fletcher), of Breslau, propounded the same view in a pamphlet, De iridibus doctrina Aristotelis et Vitellonis (1574) the same explanation was given by Franciscus Maurolycus in his Photismi de lumine et umbra (1575) The most valuable of all the earlier contributions to the scientific explanation of rainbows is undoubtedly a treatise by Marco Antonio de Dominis (1566-1624), archbishop of Spalatro.
For the general history of culture the work of Syriac writers as translators is, perhaps, as important as any of their original contributions to literature.
In 1535, like the rest of Lombardy, it fell under Spanish domina tion, and was compelled to furnish large money contributions.
As a politician Fourier achieved uncommon success, but his fame chiefly rests on his strikingly original contributions to science and mathematics.
If further selection be made from the large body of miscellaneous poems, the comic poem on the physician Andro Kennedy may stand out as one of the best contributions to medieval Goliardic literature; The Two Mariit Wemen and the Wedo, as one of the richest and most effective pastiches in the older alliterative style, then used by the Scottish Chaucerians for burlesque purposes; Done is a battell on the Dragon Blak, for religious feeling expressed in melodious verse; and the well-known Lament for the Makaris.
But some parts of Willis's works, such as his descriptions of nervous diseases, and his account (the earliest) of diabetes, are classical contributions to scientific medicine.
Independently of his system, which has long ceased to exert any influence, Hoffmann made some contributions to practical medicine; and his great knowledge of chemistry enabled him to investigate the subject of mineral waters.
His immense contributions to anatomy and pathology cannot be estimated here, but his services in stimulating research and training investigators belong to the history of general medicine.
The cost of maintenance exceeds £200,000 annually; contributions towards this are made by the Treasury and the fire insurance companies.
Allowance must be made for the period of development during which there are no contributions to the sinkingfund and within which no interest is earned on invested capital.
There are numerous other hospitals both general and special, a foundling hospital dating from the 13th century (Santa Maria degli Innocenti), an institute for the blind, one for the deaf and dumb, &c. Most of the hospitals and other charitable institutions are endowed, but the endowments are supplemented by private contributions.
His contributions to theological literature included treatises on Christian ethics and dogmatics, on moral philosophy, on baptism, and a sketch of the life of Jakob Boehme, who exercised so marked an influence on the mind of the great English theologian of the 18th century, William Law.
Prayers for the dead, attendance at funerals of gildsmen, periodical banquets, the solemn entrance oath, fines for neglect of duty and for improper conduct, contributions to a common purse, mutual assistance in distress, periodical meetings in the gildhall, - in short, all the characteristic features of the later gilds already appear in the statutes of these Anglo-Saxon fraternities.
Alms were often given even to non-gildsmen; lights were supported at certain altars; feasts and processions were held periodically; the funerals of brethren were attended; and masses for the dead were provided from the common purse or from special contributions made by the gildsmen.
Apart from Liebig's labours for the improvement of chemical teaching, the influence of his experimental researches and of his contributions to chemical thought was felt in every branch of the science.
His contributions to inorganic chemistry were numerous, including investigations on the compounds of antimony, aluminium, silicon, &c., on the separation of nickel and cobalt, and on the analysis of mineral waters, but they are outweighed in importance by his work on organic substances.
This change did not occur, however, without some modification of the Roman customs. The comitatus made contributions of its own to future feudalism, to some extent to its institutional side, largely to the ideas and spirit which ruled in it.
An opponent of the Tubingen school, his defence of the genuineness and authenticity of the gospel of St John is among the ablest that have been written; and although on some minor points his views did not altogether coincide with those of the traditional school, his critical labours on the New Testament must nevertheless be regarded as among the most important contributions to the maintenance of orthodox opinions.
His original intention had been after visiting Mecca to find his way across the peninsula to Oman, but the time at his disposal (as an Indian officer on leave) was insufficient for so extended a journey; and his further contributions to Arabian geography were not made until twenty-five years later, when he was deputed by the Egyptian government to examine the reported gold deposits of Midian.
At present the largest and most regular contributions to the population of Vienna come from the Czech provinces of Bohemia and Moravia, next in importance being those from Lower Austria and Styria.
The cornerstone was laid by President Harrison in 1892, and the tomb was dedicated on the 27th of April 1897 with a splendid parade and addresses by President McKinley and General Horace Porter, president of the Grant Monument Association, which from 90,000 contributions raised the funds for the tomb.
In 1842 he published the first volume of his Contributions towards the Exposition of the Book of Genesis, a work which wa.s completed in three volumes several years later.
The "two" were Charles and Alfred (whose contributions predominated), and who shared the surprising profits, X20.
Her most interesting contributions are crust-corals (Gorgonidae, Corallium, Isis, &c.), and especially flint-sponges, called by the Japanese hoshi-gai and known as glass-coral (Hyalonema sieboldi).
In the preface to the last part of his Ethics (1893) Spencer regrets that "the Doctrine of Evolution has not furnished guidance to the extent he had hoped," but his contributions to ethics are not unlikely to be the most permanently valuable part of his philosophy.
His work on palaeontology shows him the predecessor of all the Scandinavian geologists, and his contributions in this field alone would have been sufficient to perpetuate his fame.
The increased influence of this class of periodical upon public opinion was first apparent in Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine, founded in 1817 by the publisher of that name, and carried to a high degree of excellence by the contributions of Scott, Lockhart, Hogg, Maginn, Syme and John Wilson (" Christopher North "), John Galt and Samuel Warren.
The Journal of Australasia (1856-1858), the Australian Monthly Magazine (1865-1867), which contained contributions from Marcus Clarke and was continued as the Colonial Monthly (1867-1869), the Melbourne Review (1876-1885) and the Victorian Review (1879-1886) may also be mentioned.
It now restricts itself to publishing contributions relating to antiquities and the middle ages and Oriental studies.
The Journal litteraire (1713-1722, 1729-1736) was founded by a society of young men, who made it a rule to discuss their contributions in common.
The reign of Domitian, although it silenced the more independent spirits of the time, Tacitus and Juvenal, witnessed more important contributions to Roman literature than any age since the Augustan, - among them the Institutes of Quintilian, the Punic War of Silius Italicus, the epics and the Silvae of Statius, and the Epigrams of Martial.
To Aristides was mainly due the organization of the new league and the adjustment of the contributions of the various allies in ships or in money.
Athens, as the chosen leader, and supported no doubt by the synod, enforced the contributions of ships and money according to the assessment.
Alliances with various land powers, and an inability to understand the true relations which alone could unite the league, combined to alienate the allies, who could discover no reason for the expenditure of their contributions on protecting Sparta or Corinth against Thebes.
For instance, New York has made large contributions to the population of Ohio, Michigan, Illinois, Wisconsin, Iowa and so on.
Called to office after disaster had driven Turkey's forces from Hungary and Poland and her fleets from the Mediterranean, he began by ordering strict economy and reform in the taxation; himself setting the example, which was widely followed, of voluntary contributions for the army, which with the navy he reorganized as quickly as he could.
Leeuwenhoek's contributions to the Philosophical Transactions amounted to one hundred and twelve; he also published twenty-six papers in the Memoirs of the Paris Academy of Sciences.
It was in analytical development that Jacobi's peculiar power mainly lay, and he made many important contributions of this kind to other departments of mathematics, as a glance at the long list of papers that were published by him in Crelle's Journal and elsewhere from 1826 onwards will sufficiently indicate.
The Urschrift has moreover been recognized as one of the most original contributions to biblical science.
It is supported by involuntary contributions, by tithe and tax " (Canon Law in the Church of England, p. loo).
Wimpheling in his reply rehearsed the old grievances and complained that the contributions made to the pope by the archbishops on receiving the pallium was a great burden on the people.
In the same year the amount of the various school taxes and other contributions was $30.53 for each child in the average membership of the public schools, and the highest amount for each child in any county was $35.77 in Suffolk county, and in any township or city $68 01 - in Lincoln.
Besides his contributions to the Allgemeine Deutsche Bibliothek, he edited a popular and practically useful Magazin fiir Prediger (1792-1801).
Besides a volume of sermons under the title Christ's Healing Touch, Mackennal published The Biblical Scheme of Nature and of Man, The Christian Testimony, the Letters to the Seven Churches of Asia, The Kingdom of the Lord Jesus and The Eternal God and the Human Sonship. These are contributions to exegetical study or to theological and progressive religious thought, and have elements of permanent value.
He also made some useful contributions to religious history.
The ministers received food and clothing from the contributions of the people, but also worked with their hands; the result of this was that they were very ignorant, and also were grasping after bequests from the dying.
A statement of receipts and expenditures of an election campaign, showing the amount received from each contributor and the name of t every person or committee to whom more than $5 was paid, must be filed by the treasurer of every political committee within twenty days after the election; each candidate also must file a statement of his contributions.
The same author's Scientific Papers contains many experimental and mathematical contributions to the science.
The book also contains contributions to the history of Attic oratory and Greek literature generally.
The quantity of work which he turned out is enormous, for the fifteen large volumes which contain 'his ' Norman Conquest, his unfinished History of Sicily, his William Rufus (1882), and his Essays (1872-1879), and the crowd of his smaller books, are matched in amount by his uncollected contributions to periodicals.
In addition to the Transactions of these societies - many of which contain valuable contributions to their respective departments in their relation to the East Indies - a considerable number of publications are issued in Batavia.
Legendre's theorem is a fundamental one in geodesy, and his contributions to the subject are of the greatest importance.
The voluntary contributions of the people are all absorbed in the common income of the national churches and are administered by the supreme council.
One of the most active writers on Polish philology and literature is Wladyslaw Nehring, whose numerous contributions to the Archiv fiir slavische Philologie of Professor Jagic entitle him to the gratitude of all who have devoted themselves to Slavonic studies.
His writings, with the exception of his contributions to the Mirror for Magistrates, are chiefly autobiographical in character or deal with the wars in which he had a share.
These misconceptions were certainly widespread from the 13th to the 16th century, and were often fostered by the " pardoners," or professional collectors of contributions for Indulgences.
In addition to his labours on neurological and even physiological problems he made many contributions to other branches of medicine, his published works dealing, among other topics, with liver and kidney diseases, gout and pulmonary phthisis.
A list of Olbers's contributions to scientific periodicals is given at p. xxxv of the 3rd ed.
Besides some archaeological articles in the Nineteenth Century and contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography, he published a History of the Diocese of Norwich (1879); The Coming of the Friars (1885); The Autobiography of Roger North (1887) and Trials of a Country Parson (1890).
Some important contributions towards a right critical method of using the material collected have been made - in particular by Lagarde, who has also opened up a valuable line of critical work, along which much remains to be done, by his restoration of the Lucianic recension, one of the three great recensions of the Greek text of the Old Testament which obtained currency at the close of the 3rd and beginning of the 4th centuries A.D.
But the next distinct stage is reached when we come to De Wette, whose contributions to Biblical learning were many and varied, but who was pre-eminent in historical criticism.
In the criticism of the Pentateuch his most influential and enduring contributions to criticism are his proof that Deuteronomy is a work of the 7th century B.C., and his insistence that the theory of the Mosaic origin of all the institutions described in the Pentateuch is incompatible with the history of Israel as described in the historical books, Judges, Samuel and Kings.
England has made many weighty contributions both to Introduction and Canon, especially Lightfoot, Essays on Supernatural Religion (collected in 1889); editions of Books of the New Testament and Apostolic Fathers; Westcott, editions; Hort, especially Romans and Ephesians (posthumous, 1895); Swete, editions; Knowling and others.
Jeffrey's own contributions, according to a list which has the sanction of his authority, numbered two hundred, all except six being written before his resignation of the editorship. Jeffrey wrote with great rapidity, at odd moments of leisure and with little special preparation.
Some of his contributions to the Edinburgh Review appeared in four volumes in 1844 and 1845.
These contributions to the literature of Shakespeare are full of curious matter, but on the whole display a great waste of erudition, in seeking to show that papers which had been proved forgeries might nevertheless have been genuine.
From three quarters primitive Christian prophecy was exposed to danger - first, from the permanent officials of the congregation, who, in the interests of order, peace and security could not but look with suspicion on the activity of excited prophets; second, from the prophets themselves, in so far as an increasing number of dishonest characters was found amongst them, whose object was to levy contributions on the churches; I.
In 1905-1906 the society had about 5800 auxiliaries, branches and associations in England and Wales, and more than 2000 auxiliaries abroad, mainly in the British Colonies, many of which undertake vigorous local work, besides remitting contributions to London.
The expense of the institutions for religious instruction as well as for general education, he holds, may without injustice be defrayed out of the funds of the whole society, though he would apparently prefer that it should be met by the voluntary contributions of those who think they have occasion for such education or instruction.
But when the study of its subject comes to be systematized on the basis of a general social philosophy more complete and durable than Smith's, no contributions to that final construction will be found so valuable as his.
In ethics he made contributions to the science in regard to the place and functions of volition and attention, the separate and underived character of the moral sentiments, and the distinction between the virtues of perfect and imperfect obligation.
In the Constituent Assembly he was a member of the committee of taxes (comité des contributions), prepared a scheme for a new system of taxation, drew up a law on patents, occupied himself with the laws relating to stamps and assignats, and was successful in opposing the introduction of an income tax.
The chief contributions of Cuvier's great philosophical opponent, Etienne Geoffroy St Hilaire (1772-1844), are to be found in his maintenance with Lamarck of the doctrine of the mutability of species.
His contributions on the Mesozoic reptiles of Great Britain culminated in his complete rearrangement and classification of this group, one of his greatest services to palaeontology.
The pathbreaking works of Lamarck were soon followed by the monumental treatise of Gerard Paul Deshayes (1795-1875) entitled Descriptions des coquilles fossiles des environs de Paris (1824-1837), the first of a series of great contributions by this and other authors.
We shall pass over here the labours of Adam Sedgwick (1785-1873) and Sir Roderick Murchison (1792-1871) in the Palaeozoic of England, which because of their close relation to stratigraphy more properly concern geology; but must mention the grand contributions of Joachim Barrande (1799-1883), published in his Systeme silurien du centre de la Boheme, the first volume of which appeared in 1852.
The absolute agreement in the results independently obtained by these various investigators, the interpretation of individual development as the guide to phyletic development, the demonstration of continuous genetic series, each mutation falling into its proper place and all showing a definite direction, constitute contributions to biological philosophy of the first importance, which have been little known or appreciated by zoologists because of their publication in monographs of very special character.
We are thus working out gradually the separate contributions of the land masses of North America, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa, and of Australia to the mammalian fauna of the world, a result which can be obtained through palaeontology only.
Forced contributions had been levied by both sides on goods or bullion, being European property, the reactionaries being the worst offenders; and there were numerous cases of murder and robbery of Europeans.
The Spanish ambassador in Paris declared in 1570 that he had been for two years engaged in collecting contributions from English churches for the assistance of the Huguenots in France; and he drew up a memorial depicting the dangers of Mary Stuart's presence in England and of the project for her marriage with Norfolk.
This conception of a difference, of an internal structure in the absolute, finds other and not less obscure expressions in the mystical contributions of the Menschliche Freiheit and in the scholastic speculations of the Berlin lectures on mythology.
But as contributions accumulated, it was found possible to send a number of Doukhobor emigrants to Canada, whither they arrived in two parties, numbering above 4000, in January 1899.
One of the most important contributions to the discussion is that of Sir Leslie Stephen (Science of Ethics), who elaborated a theory of the "social organism" in relation to the individual.
These contributions of the faithful seem to be included by Justin along with the bread and cup as sacrifices ^cceptable to God.
Henry Draper's most important contributions to science were made in spectroscopy; he ruled metal gratings in 1869-1870, made valuable spectrum photographs after 1871, and proved the presence of oxygen in the sun in a monograph of 1877.
Legislation has reduced these evils in recent years; and efforts have been made to prevent the excessive expenditure of money at elections, and the making of contributions to party campaign funds by wealthy corporations who desire to secure some benefit for themselves.
The history of these attempts, together with modern contributions to our knowledge of the value and nature of the number 7r, is given below (Squaring of the Circle).
The most important and extensive contributions to this progress have been made by the Belgian zoologist, Dr Paul Pelseneer, who has made the Mollusca his special study.
John McIntire (1759-1815), one of the early settlers, provided by will for the maintenance of a school for poor children, and such a school was maintained from 1836 to 1856, when it was transferred to the city school system, annual contributions being made from the fund for poor children; later the McIntire Home was founded, and in 1902 donations to the city school system were discontinued and the entire revenues of the estate devoted to the maintenance of the Home, which is a model of its kind.
His collected contributions to literary periodicals appeared in 1890 under the title Essays and Studies Educational and Literary.
The reform sought by the law is thorough publicity, and not only are details of receipts and expenditures to be published, but the names of contributors and the amount of their contributions.
As a matter of fact he does commonly contribute to the party treasury, though in the case of certain candidates, particularly those for the presidency and for judicial offices, financial contributions are not general.
In the old times birds were protected by the native belief that divine messages were conveyed by bird cries, and by royal edict forbidding the killing of species furnishing the material for feather cloaks, contributions towards which were long almost the only taxes paid.
The Board of Immigration, using funds contributed by planters, was very active in its efforts to encourage the immigration of suitable labourers, but the general immigration law of 1907 prohibited the securing of such immigration through contributions from corporations.
A priori forms, according to Kant, are contributions of the mental powers of sense, understanding, and reason; but, according to Lange, they are rooted in " the physico-psychical organization."
In addition to numerous monographs and valuable contributions to Winsor's Narrative and Critical History of America, he published The Pre-Columbian Discovery of America by the Northmen (1868); The Northmen in Maine (1870); The Moabite Stone (1871); The Rector of Roxburgh (1871), a novel under the nom de plume of "William Hickling"; and Verrazano the Explorer; being a Vindication of his Letter and Voyage (1880).
The Royal Society in 1894 bestowed the Rumford medal upon him for his work in the production of low temperatures, and in 1899 he became the first recipient of the Hodgkins gold medal of the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, for his contributions to our knowledge of the nature and properties of atmospheric air.
Some details of his contributions to science are given in 1 9.8 59, 25.786 and 26.047.
Though his writings abound in universal solvents and other devices of the alchemists, he made some real contributions to chemical knowledge.
A reputation acquired through certain contributions to the Dictionary of Christian Antiquities was confirmed by his treatises On the Organization of the Early Christian Churches (1881, his Bampton lectures), and on The Influence of Greek Ideas and Usages on the Christian Church (the Hibbert lectures for 1888).
Huc was, indeed, not only without science, perhaps without accurate knowledge of any kind, but also without that geographical sense which sometimes enables a traveller to bring back valuable contributions to geographical knowledge though unable to make instrumental observations.
The distinguishing feature of these explorations, led by Russian officers, is their high scientific value and the contributions they have offered to the botany, natural history, geology and meteorology of the regions under investigation in addition to the actual geographical data attained.
In 1685 he published Sentimens de quelques theologiens de Hollande sur l'histoire critique du Vieux Testament composee par le P. Richard Simon, in which, while pointing out what he believed to be the faults of that author, he undertook to make some positive contributions towards a right understanding of the Bible.
Among his principal contributions to this work were articles on "Instinct," "Theology" and "Metaphysics."
Simson's contributions to mathematical knowledge took the form of critical editions and commentaries on the works of the ancient geometers.
Montesquieu made many contributions to this.
As to the so-called Decretum Gelasii de libris recipiendis et non recipiendis, it also is a compilation of documents anterior to Gelasius, and it is difficult to determine Gelasius's contributions to it.
He died on the 4th of May 1677, and was interred in Westminster Abbey, where a monument, surmounted by his bust, was soon after erected by the contributions of his friends.
He was undoubtedly a clear-sighted and able mathematician, who handled admirably the severe geometrical method, and who in his Method of Tangents approximated to the course of reasoning by which Newton was afterwards led to the doctrine of ultimate ratios; but his substantial contributions to the science are of no great importance, and his lectures upon elementary principles do not throw much light on the difficulties surrounding the border-land between mathematics and philosophy.
Revenue is obtained principally from caravan taxes, liquor licences, rents from government land and contributions from the gold-mining companies.
In recognition of his brilliant experimental powers, and his numerous contributions to chemical science, he was awarded the Davy medal by the Royal Society in 1891.
He was a passionate Ciceronian, and perhaps his chief contributions to scholarship are the corrected editions of Cicero's letters and orations, his own epistles in a Ciceronian style, and his Latin version of Demosthenes.
The last two essays are contributions of no great importance to aesthetics, a department of philosophy in which Hume was not strong.
In his commentaries he also made contributions to the comparative philology of Hebrew and Arabic.
Officers and sisters are paid a limited sum for their services either by the vicar or by voluntary local contributions.
Kekule's main importance lies in the far-reaching contributions which he made to chemical theory, especially in regard to the constitution of the carbon compounds.
His principal works are his edition of the Sachsenspiegel (in 3 vols., 1827, 3rd ed., 1861, containing also some other important sources of Saxon or Low German law), which is still unsurpassed in accuracy and sagacity of research, and his book on Die Hausand Hofmarken (1870), in which he has given a history of the use of trade-marks among all the Teutonic nations of Europe, and which is full of important elucidations of the history of law and also contains valuable contributions to the history of art and civilization.
More weighty contributions are the anonymous theological discussion The Kernel and the Husk (1886), Philomythus (1891), his book on Cardinal Newman as an Anglican (1892), and his article "The Gospels" in the ninth edition of the Encyclopaedia Britannica, embodying a critical view which caused considerable stir in the English theological world; he also wrote St Thomas of Canterbury, his Death and Miracles (1898), Johannine V ocabulary (1905), Johannine Grammar (1906).
But he also made valuable contributions to other branches of theology.
Gomperz in his Herkulanische Studien, and in contributions to the Vienna Academy (Monatsberichte), has tried to evolve from the fragments more approximation to modern empiricism than they seem to contain.
The moneys for the purpose are mainly derived from general taxation (poor rates per se being but rarely directly levied), special funds and voluntary contributions.
Meanwhile, in spite of the matricular contributions, the calls on imperial finance had steadily increased, and up to 1908 were continually met to a large extent by loans, involving a continual growth of the imperial debt, which in 1907 amounted to 3643 millions of marks.
They grudged even the contributions necessary for the maintenance of the frontier fortresses, and many of them stooped to accept the bribes he offered them on condition that they should remain quiet.
So far as the imperial expenses were not covered by these sources of revenue, until imperial taxes were introduced, the deficit had to be covered by matricular contributions paid by the individual states in proportion to their population.
Each year a large sum would be paid to the states from the imperial treasury, and another sum as before paid back to meet the deficit in the form of state contributions.
From 1871 to 1879 the contribution of the states had varied from 94 to 67 million marks; under the new system the surplus of the contributions made by the states over the grant by the imperial treasury was soon reduced to a very small sum, and in 1884-1885 the payments of the empire to the states exceeded the contributions of the states to the empire by 20 million marks, and this excess continued for many years; so that there was, as it were, an actual grant in relief of direct taxation.
The increased expenditure on the navy after 1897 again caused the contributions required from the states to exceed the grants to them from the imperial exchequer.
In 1903 Baron von Stengel, who succeeded Baron von Thielmann as finance minister in this year, proposed that the matricular contributions of the several states, instead of varying as heretofore with the exigencies of the annual budget, should be fixed by law.
The -Accident Law of 1883 was rejected, for it stifi included the state contribution to which the Reichstag would not assent, and also contributions from the workmen.
Towards the solution of this problem two contributions of prime importance have recently been made.
Between 1806 and 1818 he wrote for the Anti-Jacobin Review, the British Review and the Electric Review; but there is no means of tracing his contributions.
There he was temporarily diverted from his task by becoming mixed up with the Polish revolt, and, in pursuit of a mission to carry American contributions across the Prussian frontier, he was arrested and imprisoned at Berlin, but was at last released through the intervention of the American minister at Paris.
The process by which the first of these contributions was turned into coin is still obscure; it is clear that the corn when threshed was taken over by certain public officials who deducted the amount due to the state.
The only contributions which redeem these hundred years and more from the charge of disrespect to the native muse come from the pen of the Sempills (q.v.).
Neither Lake Victoria nor Lake Chakmaktin derives any very large contributions from glacial sources other than those of the Nicolas range.
Although the superficial area of glacial ice from which the Ab-iWakhjir derives the greater part of its volume is not equal to that found on the Nicolas range, it is quite impossible to frame any estimate of comparative depth or bulk, or to separate the volume of its contributions at any time from those which, combined, derive their origin from the Nicolas range.
His contributions to the Gottingische gelehrte Anzeigen are said to have been between 7000 and 8000 in number.
Besides his innumerable contributions to journalism, he published an astronomical work entitled L'Eternite par les astres (1872), and after his death his writings on economic and social questions were collected under the title of Critique sociale (1885).
The Venetians, who exacted heavy contributions from the islands, won the adherence of the principal native families by the bestowal of titles and appointments; the Roman Catholic Church was established, and the French Italian and Greek races were largely assimilated by rule.
The Athenian, Thrasybulus, after obtaining contributions from Aspendus in 389, was murdered by the inhabitants.
Indeed, the deduction to be drawn from Goethe's contributions to botany and anatomy is that he, as no other of his contemporaries, possessed that type of scientific mind which, in the 19th century, has made for progress; he was Darwin's predecessor by virtue of his enunciation of what has now become one of the commonplaces of natural science - organic evolution.
At Woolwich he remained until 1870, and although he was not a great success as an elementary teacher, that period of his life was very rich in mathematical work, which included remarkable advances in the theory of the partition of numbers and further contributions to that of invariants, together with an important research which yielded a proof, hitherto lacking, of Newton's rule for the discovery of imaginary roots for algebraical equations up to and including the fifth degree.
In 1882 he founded the "Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science," and at the time of his death some forty volumes had been issued under his editorship. After 1887 he also edited for the United States Bureau of Education the series of monographs entitled "Contributions to American Educational History," he himself preparing the College of William and Mary (1887), and Thomas Jefferson and the University of Virginia (1888).
One of this community was Dr C. Schick, who lived over 50 years in Jerusalem, and made many valuable contributions to its archaeology.
Here, besides continuing his literary contributions to magazines, Lowell had a regular engagement as an editorial writer on The Pennsylvania Freeman, a fortnightly journal devoted to the Anti-Slavery cause.
It had exercised some supervision through its inspectors, had forbidden cells to be used until duly certified as fit, and had threatened to withhold exchequer contributions from prisons of which unfavourable reports were received.
Turning his attention to technical chemistry, he became chemist at several works both in Germany and England, and in 1876 he was appointed professor of technical chemistry at Zurich polytechnic. Lunge's original contributions cover a very wide field, dealing both with technical processes and analysis.
Since 1890 the Institute has received appropriations from the city, but it is maintained chiefly by private contributions.
The relatives and friends then hand the priest a list of the contributions and charities which have been subscribed in memory of the deceased, which concludes the ceremony of "rising from mourning," or "the resurrection of the dead."
He also edited the Clarke Papers (1891-1901), and Mrs Hutchinson's Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson (1885), and wrote an introduction to the Stuart Tracts (1903), besides contributions to the Dictionary of National Biography.
He also wrote A Political Life of Sir Robert Peel (London, 1856); A Financial, Statistical and Monetary History of England from 1688 (London, 1847); Matter for Materialists (London, 1870); The Eve of St Mark, a Romance of Venice; and three dramas, The Statue Wife, Diocletian and Caius Marius, in addition to some fishing songs, and many contributions to various newspapers and periodicals.
The Semitic alphabet is excellently treated by Lidzbarski in the Jewish Encyclopaedia (1901); his Nordsemitische Epigraphik (1898) has excellent facsimiles and tables of the alphabets, and there are many contributions to the history of the alphabet in the same writer's Ephemeris fur semitische Epigraphik (Giessen, since 1900).
Contributions are not made in proportion to the amounts at stake when the sacrifice was made, but in proportion to the results when the adventure has come to an end.
But if all are lost the burden of the expenditure ought not to remain upon the interest which at first bore it; and the proper rule seems to be that contributions must be made by all the interests which were at stake when it was made, in proportion to their then values.
But in practice the contributions are paid by the insurers of the several interests.
In the Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris will be found a large number of contributions from Newcomb's pen on some fundamental and most important questions of astronomy.
Besides these contributions from his own pen, he did much for the series by suggesting subjects, by reviewing tracts written by others, and by lending to their circulation the weight of his personal influence.
To the Woman's Tribune she made important contributions, publishing in it serially parts of the Woman's Bible (1895), which she and others prepared, and her personal reminiscences, published in 1898 as Eighty Years and More.
In 1843, after his removal to Gottingen, he began his great Handworterbuch der Physiologie, mit Riicksicht auf physiologische Pathologie, and brought out the fifth (supplementary) volume in 1852; the only contributions of his own in it were on the sympathetic nerve, nerve-ganglia and nerve-endings, and he modestly disclaimed all merit except as being the organizer.
The Council attempted to establish a general government over its entire domain, but the scheme of some of its members for supporting such a government with contributions from each member in return for an allotment of land was a failure, and although Robert Gorges, the second son of Sir Ferdinando Gorges, was sent over as governor-general in 1623, he accomplished nothing and returned in the next year in disgust.
It had been the policy of the great Mahratta chiefs, Holkar and Sindhia, to trample down into complete subjection all the petty Rajput princes, whose lands they seized and from whom they levied heavy contributions of money.
The patrimonium, the tributa and the vectigalia are divisions parallel to the domaine, the contributions directes and the contributions indirectes of modern French administration; or the English " non-tax " revenue, inland revenue and " customs and excise."
Some alleviation was indeed obtained by the apportionment of contributions amongst the districts 'liable, leaving to the community to decide as it thought best between its members.
The barbarian invaders, though they were accustomed to contributions to their chiefs and to the payment of commodities as tributes or as penalties, had no acquaintance with the working of a regular system of taxation.
As tax contributions have taken the places of the revenue from land and fees, so, it would seem, are the taxes on commodities likely to be replaced or at least exceeded by the imposts levied on income as such, in the shape either of income taxes proper or of charges on accumulated wealth.
Bandelier, Contributions to the History of the South-western Portion of the United States, being vol.
The Church of Scotland has made few contributions of importance to the movement of Biblical Criticism which has entered so deeply into the religious life of Scotland, but she has had dis tinguished writers on theology.
We shall make mention lower down of Canton's contributions to electrical theory.
Amongst Cavendish's important contributions were his exact measurements of electrical capacity.
His early contributions to electrostatics and electrometry are to be found described in his Reprint of Papers on Electrostatics and Magnetism (1872), and his later work in his collected Mathematical and Physical Papers.
His work on the electrodynamic qualities of metals, thermo-electricity, and his contributions to galvanometry, were not less massive and profound.
One of his earliest and most useful contributions (in 1858) was the invention of the mirror galvanometer.
Lord Kelvin's contributions to the science of exact electric measurement 2 were enormous.
The sum total of all these contributions to electrical knowledge had the effect of establishing Maxwell's principles on a firm basis, but they also led to technical inventions of the very greatest utility.
This elimination of the non-essential, grounded on the fundamental propositions with regard to forms, is the most important of Bacon's contributions to the logic of induction, and that in which, as he repeatedly says, his method differs from all previous philosophies.
There will still be room for the scientific use of the imagination and for the creative flashes of genius.3 If, then, Bacon himself made no contributions to science, if no discovery can be shown to be due to the use of his rules, if his method be logically defective, and the problem to which it was applied one from its nature incapable of adequate solution, it may not unreasonably be asked, How has he come to be looked upon as the great leader in the reformation of modern science?
He published at various times valuable contributions towards a history of rationalism - Vorgeschichte des Rationalismus (1853-1862), Geschichte des Rationalismus (1865), i.
The Old Bailey revelations removed all doubt as to the essential unhealthiness of his personal influence; but his literary genius was none the less remarkable, and his plays were perhaps the most original contributions to English dramatic writing during the period.
The latter edition is enriched with the contributions of the Dutch orientalist Schultens, Johann Jakob Reiske (1716-1774), and by a supplement provided by Visdelow and Galland.
Helmholtz's contributions to physiological optics are of great importance.
In all these fields of labour he made important contributions to science, and showed himself to be equally great as a mathematician and a physicist.
Duff's Spinoza's Political and Ethical Philosophy (1903) are important contributions of more recent date.
The greater proportion of communal revenue comes from income and property tax, the sale of spirits under the Gothenburg System, and contributions from the treasury.
He desired that it should be applied to a fund for insurance and old age pensions for workmen and old people, to the lightening of the municipal taxes by state contributions to the schools and workhouses, to the abolition of the land taxes and of the obligation of keeping a horse and man for military service, and, lastly, to the improvement of the shipping trade; but the Riksdag decided to devote it to other objects, such as the payment of the deficit in the budget, the building of railways and augmentation of their material, as well as to improvements in the defences of the country.
As an historian of Swedish literature Per Wieselgren (1800-1877) composed a valuable work, and made other valuable contributions to history and bibliography.
His chief contributions to this branch of learning were his article Sacrifice in the Encyclopaedia Britannica, his Kinship and Marriage in Early Arabia (Cambridge, 1885), and above all his Lectures on the Religion of the Semites (1st edition 1889, 2nd edition 189 4).
Jevons arrived quite early in his career at the doctrines that constituted his most characteristic and original contributions to economics and logic. The theory of utility, which became the keynote of his general theory of political economy, was practically formulated in a letter written in 1860; and the germ of his logical principles of the substitution of similars may be found in the view which he propounded in another letter written in 1861, that "philosophy would be found to consist solely in pointing out the likeness of things."
The work as a whole was one of the most notable contributions to logical doctrine that appeared in Great Britain in the 19th century.
In his writings he dwelt upon important contributions of historical Christianity, and maintained especially that, in continuing the work of the Caesars, the Catholic church had been the most potent factor in civilizing the invading barbarians and in organizing the life of the middle ages.
To Edward Jenner we owe the discovery that vaccination protects against smallpox, and it is now generally acknowledged that smallpox and vaccine are ' Quoted by Weir Mitchell, "Researches on the Venom of the Rattlesnake," Smithsonian Contributions (1860), p. 97.
From this time till 1848 he led a life of comparative quiet - not the quiet of inactivity, however, for his incessant labours within the Academy and the Observatory produced a multitude of contributions to all departments of physical science, - but on the fall of Louis Philippe he left his laboratory to join in forming the provisional government.
To him is also due the discovery of the power of rotatory polarization exhibited by quartz, and last of all, among his many contributions to the support of the undulatory hypothesis, comes the experimentum crucis which he proposed to carry out for comparing directly the velocity of light in air and in water or glass.
Under Louis Philippe he made large contributions to French jurisprudence, editing the Journal du palais, 1791-1837 (27 vols., 1837), and 1837-1847 (17 vols.), with a commentary Repertoire general de la jurisprudence francaise (8 vols., 1843-1848), the introduction to which was written by himself.
In these sermons Butler has made substantial contributions to ethical science, and it may be said with confidence, that in their own department nothing superior in value appeared during the long interval between Aristotle and Kant.
The contributions made by the companies to the public purposes of the state and the city are interesting points in their early history.
The historians of the city have for the most part described these as unjust and tyrannical exactions, but, looking at the representative and municipal character of the companies, and the purposes to which their contributions were applied, we may regard them as a rough but not unfair mode of taxation.
Contributions towards setting the poor to work, erecting the Royal Exchange, cleansing the city ditch, discovering new countries, furnishing military and naval armaments, for men, arms and ammunition for the defence of the city, are among what Herbert calls the sponging expedients of the government.
His services to morals do not consist in any positive contributions to the notions of active duty, but in the strength with which he has realized and expressed the restraining influence of the old Roman and Italian ideal of character, and also of that religious conscience which was becoming a new power in the world.
With this exposition we have already invaded the province of logic. To this the Stoics assigned a miscellany of studies - rhetoric, dialectic, including grammar, in addition to formal Logic. logic - to all of which their industry made contributions.
Her money contributions to the Sanitary Funds were, it is said, greater than those of any city in the country; and in every other way she abundantly evidenced her love for the Union.
His Treatise of Taxes and Contributions contains a clear statement of the doctrine that price depends on the labour necessary for production.
It was at first exclusively an oriental school, supported by the voluntary contributions of Mahommedan gentlemen, and managed by a committee of the subscribers.
But all the Latin and Greek writers contemporary with the days of Gothic predominance make their constant contributions.
The five numbers of his Contributions to Electricity and Magnetism (1835-1842) were separately republished from the Transactions.
He died, however, on the 4th of May 1865, of inflammation of the lungs supervening on a severe cold contracted during excavation work at La Palisse, leaving a half-finished book, entitled Reliquiae Aquitanicae, being contributions to the Archaeology and Palaeontology of Perigord and the adjacent provinces of Southern France; this was issued in parts and completed at the expense of Christy's executors, first by Lartet and, after his death in 1870, by Professor Rupert Jones.
Early next year two papers from his pen were published in Beddoes' West Country Contributions - one " On Heat, Light and the Combinations of Light, with a new Theory of Respiration and Observations on the Chemistry of Life," and the other "On the Generation of Phosoxygen (Oxygen gas) and the Causes of the Colours of Organic Beings."
In 1871 Wallace's two essays, written at Sarawak and Ternate, were published with others as a volume, Contributions to the Theory of Natural Selection.
Contributions on the palaeontology of New South Wales are contained in the Rec. Austral.
The numerous inaccuracies of this life and the frequent errors of Foxe's narrative were exposed by Dr Maitland in a series of tracts (1837-1842), collected (1841-1842) as Notes on the Contributions of the Rev. George Townsend, M.A..
Newman declined further contributions from him to the British Critic, not deeming it advisable that they should longer "co-operate very closely."
Kirchhoff's contributions to mathematical physics were numerous and important, his strength lying in his powers of stating a new physical problem in terms of mathematics, not merely in working out the solution after it had been so formulated.
The city is the see of a Roman Catholic and a Protestant Episcopal bishop. In Schenley Park is the Carnegie Institute (established by a gift of $10,000,000 from Andrew Carnegie, who made further contributions of $9,000,000 for its maintenance), with a main building containing a library, a department of fine arts, a museum (see Museums Of Science) and a music hall, and several separate buildings for the technical schools, which had 2102 students in 1 9 09.
Amsterdam is also remarkable for the number and high character of its benevolent institutions, which are to a large extent supported by voluntary contributions.
Gerard, Contributions towards a Life of Father Henry Garnet (1898).
Of these the most important is The Secret of Hegel, which is admitted, both in England and in Germany, to be among the most scholarly and valuable contributions to Hegelian doctrine and to modern philosophy in general.
In France the direct taxes above referred to are described officially as direct, having been originally, there is little doubt, the main sources of government income; and there is equally an official designation of certain heads of revenue as "contributions et taxes indirectes."
He was the author of The Study of Stellar Evolution (1908) and Ten Years' Work of a Mountain Observatory (1915), besides numerous papers in the Contributions from the Mount Wilson Observatory and other scientific publications.
All irregular contributions were to cease, and all citizens, with the exception of the boiars and clergy, were to pay their share of the tribute.
Their chief contributions to thought were Cudworth's theory of the "plastic nature" of God, More's elaborate mysticism, Norris's appreciation of Malebranche, Glanvill's conception of scepticism as an aid to Faith, and, in a less degree, the harmony of Faith and Reason elaborated by Culverwel.
At the same time he continued his philosophical contributions to the Academy of St Petersburg, which granted him a pension in 1742.
Their incidental allusions sometimes cast vivid though undesigned light on the circumstances of the age, and they have made large contributions to our knowledge of imperial jurisprudence in particular.
But gradually he devoted less of his time to practice and more to lecturing in the Harvard Law School, to editing court reports and to contributions to law journals, especially on historical and biographical lines, in which his erudition was unsurpassed.
In 1621 a further attempt was made, judges of assize and others were ordered to press for contributions, and wealthy men were called before the privy council and asked to name a sum at which to be rated.
Playfair's contributions to pure mathematics were not considerable, his paper "On the Arithmetic of Impossible Quantities," that "On the Causes which affect the Accuracy of Barometrical Measurements," and his Elements of Geometry, all already referred to, being the most important.
In 1907 he was appointed on the editorial staff of the Appeal to Reason, and his contributions attracted wide attention.
These works, especially the last, are important contributions to the history of the relations of church and state in the middle ages.
He occupies an important position in the history of the acceptance by medieval Jews of the Kabbala (q.v.); for, though he made no fresh contributions to the philosophy of mysticism, the fact that this famous rabbi was himself a mystic induced a favourable attitude in many who would other- 'wise have rejected mysticism as Maimonides did.
After three months' residence there he returned to England to receive priest's orders, and to raise contributions for the establishment of an orphanage.
His contributions at once gave evidence of his remarkable wealth of historical knowledge.
But English laymen, though asked to supply the money which he needed for the support of his army, deliberately kept it in their pockets, and the contributions of the clergy and of official persons were not sufficient to enable him to keep his troops long in the field.
Political writing is at its best from Halifax to Cobbett, and its three greatest names are perhaps Swift, Junius and Burke, though Steele, Defoe, Bolingbroke and Dr Johnson are not far behind, while Cannings contributions to the A4nti-Jacobin and Gillrays caricatures require mention.
He made numerous anonymous contributions through a long series of years to the Athenaeum, and to Notes and Queries, and occasionally to The North British Review, Macmillan's Magazine, &c.
Several of his most striking contributions to knowledge originated in the discovery of errors or fallacies in the work of his great predecessors in astronomy.
The second book begins with a collection of bons mots, to which all present make their contributions, many of them being ascribed to Cicero and Augustus; a discussion of various pleasures, especially of the senses, then seems to have taken place, but almost the whole of this is lost.
Applying to the study of the French Revolution the rules of historical criticism which had produced such rich results in the study of ancient and medieval history, he devoted himself to profound research in the archives, and to the publication of numerous most important contributions to the political, administrative and moral history of that marvellous period.
Western contributions to the prolonged debate constantly tended to take the form of asserting truths of faith rather than theories.
Locke's philosophical defence of religious liberty in the four Letters of Toleration is the most far-reaching of his contributions to social polity.
Milosh Tsvetich has given fine and lasting contributions to the Servian stage in his drama Stefan Nemanya and tragedy Todor of Stalach.
Galileo's contributions to astronomy were of a different quality from Kepler's.
The clergy are supported by fees and the voluntary contributions of their flocks.
The ministers are supported by a sustentation fund formed of voluntary contributions, the rents of seats and pews, and the proceeds of the commutation of the Regium Donum made by the commissioners under the Irish Church Act 1869.
He published Solar Investigations (New York, 1875) and Contributions to the Centennial Exhibition (New York, 1877).
Whatever may be said, Frazer has certainly made the most important of recent contributions to the study of mythology.
On thousands of estates the royal government gradually allowed the law of the land to be superseded by locaL law, and public taxation to change into special contributions; so that the duties of the lower classes towards the state were transferred to the great landlords, who thus became loyal adherents of the king but absolute masters on their own territory.
Next, like a good man of business, Colbert determined that the state accounts should be kept as accurately as those of a shop; but though in this respect a great minister, he was less so in his manner of levying contributions.
His most valuable contributions are in the department of aesthetics or the general analysis of feeling.
Among the post-Kantian philosophers Herbart doubtless ranks next to Hegel in importance, and this without taking into account his very great contributions to the science of education.
The most substantial, if not the most brilliant part of his work consisted undoubtedly in his contributions towards the establishment of mechanics as a science.
The two principal features of the whole country during the, imperial period are its great prosperity and its contributions to Roman literature.
He soon became prominent; first by his contributions to its organ the Messenger; then by The Anxious Bench - A Tract for the Times (1843), attacking the vicious excesses of revivalistic methods; and by his defence of the inauguration address, The Principle of Protestantism, delivered by his colleague Philip Schaff, which aroused a storm of protest by its suggestion that Pauline Protestantism was not the last word in the development of the church but that a Johannean Christianity was to be its outgrowth, and by its recognition of Petrine Romanism as a stage in ecclesiastical development.
Leslie's main contributions to physics were made by the help of the "differential thermometer," an instrument whose invention was contested with him by Count Rumford.
On his appointment as historiographer of his church in 1835, he went to England, and collected the abundant materials afterwards utilized in his Contributions to the Ecclesiastical History of U.S.A. (New York, 1836-1839).
Since his time the duc de Luynes, Lartet, Wilson, Hull, Blanckenhorn, Gautier, Libbey, Masterman and Schmidt, to name but a few, have made contributions to our knowledge of this lake; but still many problems present themselves for solution.
Although his contributions to thermodynamics may properly be regarded as his most important scientific work, it is in the field of electricity, especially in its application to submarine telegraphy, that Lord Kelvin is best known to the world at large.
His greatest contributions to mathematical science are enveloped in the rigorous methods which he introduced.
His treatises and contributions to scientific journals (to the number of 789) contain investigations on the theory of series (where he developed with perspicuous skill the notion of convergency), on the theory of numbers and complex quantities, the theory of groups and substitutions, the theory of functions, differential equations and determinants.
Sarasin (17), whose great work on the development of Ichthyophis is one of the most important recent contributions to our knowledge of the batrachians, Amphiuma is a sort of neotenic Caecilian, a larval form become sexually mature while retaining the branchial respiration.
Corporations, individuals and towns made liberal contributions of money.
Fresh liabilities were soon incurred, and in spite of frequent contributions from the estates Joachim left at his death in January 1571 a heavy burden of debt to his son and successor, John George.
However, the children found the soil spring-soft next to the building foundation, thanks to the Dean's fuel-bill contributions and the poor insulation of Bird Song.
He spoke of Jeffrey Byrne's modest contributions to country, town, family and society in general, information probably learned only hours earlier.
I want to acknowledge the very generous contributions which have been made over the years by the public.
Such contributions will be regarded as " relevant benefit accrual " which would invalidate enhanced protection.
We thank Tom for many years of dedication and (sometimes acerbic) contributions to hut affairs.
Draw up a schedule of contributions, certified by the scheme actuary.
In rare cases the scheme actuary may have had the power to set contributions.
The book is split into five thematic sections with contributions from leading anthropologists in each section.
Link Honolulu Zoo going ape Over Contributions Going ape over contributions.
For the period you work part-time, your pay and pensions contributions will be adjusted on a pro rata basis.
She is author of over sixty academic articles, about forty book contributions, and many book reviews.
Better still tho are the contributions from two of our great unsung character actors, Ian Holm and Stratford Johns.
The cassette compilation Vintage Archers 3 - The Lost Episodes - was produced from some of the contributions from listeners.
The right place at the right time The first two contributions were largely conceptual.
These pages will undergo continual updating for a while, so your contributions are useful to us now.
You may be able to pay further contributions to your pension, which can soak up some unused tax relief.