Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
In continental countries the laws are even more stringent.
The three great rivers that form the La Plata system - the Paraguay, Parana and Uruguay - have their sources in the highlands of Brazil and flow southward through a great continental depression, two of them forming eastern boundary lines, and one of them, the Parana, flowing across the eastern part of the republic. The northern part of Argentina, therefore, drains eastward from the mountains to these rivers, except where some great inland depression gives rise to a drainage having no outlet to the sea, and except, also, in the " mesopotamia " region, where small streams flow westward into the Parana and eastward into the Uruguay.
The prevailing winds, mild and humid, are west winds from the Atlantic; continental climatic influence makes itself felt in the east wind, which is frequent in winter and in the east of France, while the mistral, a violent wind from the north-west, is characteristic of the Mediterranean region.
The chain of the Frisian Islands marks the outer fringe of the former continental coast-line, and is separated from the mainland by shallows, known as Wadden or Watten, answering to the maria vadosa of the Romans.
The typical continental form is triangular as regards its sea-level outline.
The climate becomes more continental in type from west to east...
16-17, July 24-25, September 25-28, October 30), and on the 1 5th of January 1777 adopted a declaration of independence, assumed the name New Connecticut and appointed Dr Jonas Fay (1 737 -, 818), Thomas Chittenden (1730-1797), Hemon Allen (1740-1788), Dr Reuben Jones and Jacob Bayley a committee to submit their proceedings to the Continental Congress.
The continental area is on one side of the sphere and the oceanic on the other.
In Britain and in most of its Continental habitats two varieties exist, regarded by many as distinct species: one, Q.
Where the great continental sag sinks below the ocean level, we have our gulfs and our Mediterraneans, seen in our type continent, as the Mexican Gulf and Hudson Bay.
Reggio Calabria, Catanzaro, Cosenza, Lecce, Salerno, Naples and Caserta are the continental provinces which come next after Sicily.
British salt marshes furnish few instances of spiny plants, though such occur occasionally on the inland salt marshesof continental districts.
While still an undergraduate he formed a league with John Herschel and Charles Babbage, to conduct the famous struggle of "d-ism versus dot-age," which ended in the introduction into Cambridge of the continental notation in the infinitesimal calculus to the exclusion of the fluxional notation of Sir Isaac Newton.
Cotton (Gossypium herbaceum), which at the beginning of the 19th century, at the time of the Continental blockade, and again during the American War of Secession, was largely cultivated, is now grown only in parts of Sicily and in a few southern provinces.
which inhabits the same latitudes in Central America, not many degrees farther to the west; but no instance perhaps can be cited, which shows more strikingly the difference between a continental and an'insular fauna, since, making every allowance for the ravages, of cultivation by civilized man, the contrary is the case, and possibly no area of land so highly favoured by nature is so poorly furnished with the, higher forms of animal life.
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in1777-1778was a member of the first state senate.
Over the rest of western continental Europe and in the colonies of Spain, Portugal and France, ecclesiastical jurisdiction remained generally in the state which we have already described the court of the cardinal vicar-general consists of such vicargeneral and four other prelates (Smith, ubi supra).
It was replaced by the Glossopteris flora which is assumed to have originated in a vast continental area (Gondwana land), of which remnants remain in South America, South Africa and Australia.
He was elected to the House of Representatives of the last Royal .Assembly of New Hampshire and then to the second Continental Congress in 1775, and was a member of the first Naval Committee of the latter, but he resigned in 1776, and in June 1776 became Congress's agent of prizes in New Hampshire and in 1778 continental (naval) agent of Congress in this state, where he supervised the building of John Paul Jones's "Ranger" (completed in June 1777), the "America," launched in 1782, and other vessels.
During the war the settlers in Western Virginia were generally active Whigs and many served in the Continental army.
The only continental groups, besides some islands in.
ITALY (Italia), the name1 applied both in ancient and in modern times to the great peninsula that projects from the mass of central Europe far to the south into the Mediterranean Sea, where the island of Sicily may be considered as a continuation of he continental promontory.
Murray, as the result of his study, g divided the earth's surface into three zones - the continental to Al d ay.
After the peace of Westphalia Stralsund was ceded with the rest of Western Pomerania to Sweden; and for more than a century and a half it was exposed to attack and capture as the tete - de - pont of the Swedes in continental Europe.
The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.
North of the fiftieth parallel the depths diminish towards the north-east, two long submarine ridges of volcanic origin extend north-eastwards to the southwest of Iceland and to the Faeroe Islands, and these, with their intervening valleys, end in a transverse ridge connecting Greenland, through Iceland and the Faeroe Islands, with Northwestern Scotland and the continental mass of Europe.
THOMAS MACDONOUGH (1786-1825), American sailor, was born in the state of Delaware, his father being an officer of the Continental Army, and entered the United States navy in 1800.
There is a general tendency among these insular birds to vary more or less from their continental representatives, and this is especially shown by the former having always darker plumage and stronger bills and legs.
Ministers and people with few exceptions - the most notable being the Scotch Highlanders who had settled in the valley of the Mohawk in New York and on Cape Fear river in North Carolina - sided with the patriot or Whig party: John Witherspoon was the only clergyman in the Continental Congress of 1776, and was otherwise a prominent leader; John Murray of the Presbytery of the Eastward was an eloquent leader in New England; and in the South the Scotch-Irish were the backbone of the American partisan forces, two of whose leaders, Daniel Morgan and Andrew Pickens, were Presbyterian elders.
A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania.
Most continental countries have issued stringent laws against the sale of secret remedies, and these have been lately strengthened in Germany, France and Italy.
The continental plateau might for purposes of detailed study be divided into the continental shelf from - 660 ft.
He says: " The surface of each of our great continental masses of land resembles that of a long and broad arch-like form, of which we see the simplest type in the New World.
A depression of small extent when steep-sided is termed a " caldron," and a long narrow depression crossing a part of the continental border is termed a " furrow."
Subdivision of the continental portion is beset with great difficulties, and none of the numerous attempts have proved long-lived.
Had they been able to establish and to maintain any kind of privilege, even that of mere honorary precedence, they would exactly answer to continental nobility.
The department he specially cultivated was that of continental history and foreign politics.
on the best mode of maintaining union, voluntary boards of arbitration, missionary bishops and missionaries, continental chaplains and the report of a committee on difficulties submitted to the conference.
The range of Mount Geraneia extends across the country from east to west, forming a barrier between continental Greece and the Peloponnesus.
He returned to Basel charged with the task of collecting the opinions of continental reformers on the subject of Henry VIII.'s divorce, and was present at the death of Oecolampadius (Nov.
On the other hand, they suffered from the rigorous measures of the continental system, which seriously crippled trade at the ports and were not compensated by the increased facilities for trade with France which Napoleon opened up. The drain of men to supply his armies in Germany, Spain and Russia was also a serious loss.
Though thus exhibiting the distinctive features of a continental climate, Russia does not lie altogether outside the reach of the moderating influence of the ocean.
He represented New Jersey in the first and second Continental Congresses (1774,1775-1776), but left Philadelphia in June 1776, probably to avoid voting on the question of adopting the Declaration of Independence, which he regarded as inexpedient.
Not to dwell upon earlier continental " Deists " (mentioned by Viret as quoted first in Bayle's Dictionary and again in the introduction to Leland's View of the Deistical Writers), Lord Herbert of Cherbury (De Veritate, 1624; De Religione Gentilium,.
It is undoubtedly one of the great continental high-roads of Asia.
The Americans had taken advantage of the war to draw into their own hands a large part of the British carrying trade, a process greatly encouraged by the establishment of the Continental System.
by the offer of a partition of the world, concluded the treaty of Tilsit, which not only brought Russia into the Continental System, but substituted for a coalition against France a formidable coalition against England.
His conduct lowered the prestige of Great Britain at least as much as his Italian policy had raised it., Continental statesmen thenceforward assumed that Great Britain., however much she might protest, would not resort to arms, and the influence of England suffered, as it was bound to suffer, in consequence.
the almost simultaneous outbreak of war between Prussia and Austria was destined to affect the whole aspect of continental politics.
It offers free continental breakfast for guests and also has a swimming pool, fitness center, meeting rooms and non-smoking rooms.
This region presents no striking topographic features except the numerous small lakes which occupy the hollows created by the continental ice-sheet.
The climate of South Dakota is of a continental type.
A good example of a fairly typical case is afforded by Heterodera schachtii, which attacks beetroot and causes great loss to the Continental sugar manufacturers.
There is regular communication with Iceland, the continental ports and London.
It is almost exclusively continental, having only a short extent of seaboard on the Adriatic (a little less than loo m.).
Hungary has a continental climate cold in winter, hot in summer - but owing to the physical configuration of the country it varies considerably.
His university training was supplemented (1714) by a continental tour, untrammelled by a governor; at the Hague his ambition for the applause awarded to adventure made a gamester of him, and at Paris he began, from the same motive, that worship of the conventional Venus, the serious inculcation of which has earned for him the largest and most unenviable part of his reputation.
In the Flyting of Dunbar and Kennedie, an outstanding specimen of a favourite northern form, analogous to the continental estrif, or tenzone, he and his rival reach a height of scurrility which is certainly without parallel in English literature.
Round's remarkable discovery among the manuscripts of the British Museum of the Oath of the Commune proves for the first time that London in 1193 possessed a fully developed " Commune " of the continental pattern.
A striking point in this municipal revolution is that the new privileges extended to the city of London were entirely copied from those of continental cities, and Mr Round shows that there is conclusive proof of the assertion that the Commune of London derived its origin from that of Rouen.
Further, Ethelstan was the first king to bring England into close touch with continental Europe.
They are uniformly worded in English, while continental laws, apart from the Scandinavian, are all in Latin.
The real reference of these stories, however, was forgotten, and it has been reserved to our own generation to rediscover the records of a power and a civilization which once dominated Asia Minor and north Syria and occupied all the continental roads of communication between the East and the West of the ancient world.
In 1760 the manufacture of silk was introduced, and dyeing with Turkey-red in 1780; but it was not till the end of the century that its industries developed into importance under the influence of Napoleon's continental system, which barred out British competition.
Some continental writers, in dealing with the origin of municipal government throughout western Europe, have, however, ascribed too much importance to the Anglo-Saxon gilds, exaggerating their prevalence and contending that they form the germ of medieval municipal government.
Until clearer evidence of foreign influence is found, it may, however, be safer to regard it simply as a new application of the old gild principle, though this new application may have been stimulated by continental example.
There is no exact parallel in England to the conflict between these two classes in Scotland in the 16th century, or to the great continental revolution of the 13th and 14th centuries, by which the crafts threw off the yoke of patrician government and secured more independence in the management of their own affairs and more participation in the civic administration.
While many continental municipalities were becoming more democratic in the 14th century, those of England were drifting towards oligarchy, towards government by a close "select body."
This apparatus the natives called "tabaco "; but it must be said that the smoking pipe of the continental tribes was entirely different from the imperfect tabaco of the Caribees.
The first continental zinc-works were erected at Liege in 1807.
As in most continental towns, the custom of living in flats is prevalent in Vienna, where few except the richer nobles occupy an entire house.
It was adopted by many important British and continental shipping companies, among others by the Peninsular & Oriental, the Inman, the North German Lloyd and the Hamburg American companies.
Four of the medieval historians from whom he quotes most frequently are Sigebert of Gembloux, Hugh of Fleury, Helinand of Froidmont, and William of Malmesbury, whom he uses for Continental as well as for English history.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
(1189) at once dissolved the friendship between Richard and Philip. Not only did Richard continue the continental policy of his father, but he also refused to fulfil his contract with Philip's sister, Alais, to whom he had been betrothed at the age of three.
Richard reappeared in England in March 1194; but his stay lasted only a few weeks, and the remainder of his reign was entirely devoted to his continental interests.
He was a member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously from 1760 to 1780, and represented his province in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and in the Continental Congress in 1774-1776.
In February 1776 he was placed in command of all the military forces of South Carolina, and in October of the same year was commissioned a brigadier-general and was taken into the Continental service; but on account of a dispute arising out of a conflict between state and Federal authority resigned his command in 1777.
He was an ardent leader of the opposition to the Stamp Act, advocating even then a separation of the colonies from the mother country; and in the Continental Congress of 1774 he discussed the situation on the basis of inalienable rights and liberties, and urged an immediate attack on General Thomas Gage, that he might be defeated before receiving reinforcements.
The influx of Continental currency gave some trouble during the War of Independence, but there were no further local issues until 1786, when £10o,000 were issued.
Nathanael Greene, a native of Rhode Island, was made commander of the Rhode Island militia in May 1775, and a major-general in the Continental army in August 1776, and in the latter capacity he served with ability until the close of the war.
The Englishmans head is often one-eighth of the lengtl of his body or even less, and in continental Europeans, as a rule the ratio does not amount to one-seventh; but in the Japanese it exceeds the latter figure.
Traces of these efforts survived, and inspired the idea that the art of writing was practised by the Japanese before the opening of intercourse with their continental neighbors.
Calais is the principal port for the continental passenger traffic with England carried on by the South-Eastern & Chatham and the Northern of France railways.
This railway, which was completed in 1854, is the oldest of the great continental mountain railways, and is remarkable for its numerous and long tunnels, its viaducts and galleries.
He was a delegate to the second Continental Congress in May 1775, and on the 19th of June was chosen one of the four major-generals in the Continental service.
He was a delegate from New York to the Continental Congress in 1779-1781, and state senator in 1781-1784,1786-1790and 1792-1797.
1691 to April 1692), devoted principally to continental scholarship. The monthly Compleat Library (1692 to 1694) was a venture of John Dunton; the monthly Memoirs for the Ingenious (1693), edited by J.
His grandfather, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and in 1793-1796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, Theodore (1787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New Jersey in 1829-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College in 1850-1862.
In the Protestant churches of continental Europe the title of archbishop has fallen into almost complete disuse.
Its site was originally included in the so-called "Bingham Patent," a tract on both sides of the Susquehanna river owned by William Bingham (1751-1804), a Philadelphia merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1787-1788 and of the United States Senate in 1795 - 1801, being president pro tempore of the Senate from the 16th of February to the 3rd of March 1797.
At a very critical moment, when the Kaiser had actually mesmerized Nicholas II into the conclusion of a secret and personal convention at Bjdrko, which purported to aim at a defensive agreement, but would have led by necessity to the disruption of the FrancoRussian Alliance and to the vassalage of Russia in a continental league against England, Count Benckendorff was invited to Copenhagen and had an opportunity of serving as a confidential intermediary between Russia and Great Britain.
To promote the ends he had in view he suggested non-importation, instituted the Boston committees of correspondence, urged that a Continental Congress be called, sought out and introduced into public service such allies as John Hancock, Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy, and wrote a vast number of articles for the newspapers, especially the Boston Gazette, over a multitude of signatures.
As a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1774 to 1781, Samuel Adams continued vigorously to oppose any concession to the British government; strove for harmony among the several colonies in the common cause; served on numerous committees, among them that to prepare a plan of confederation; and signed the Declaration of Independence.
This problem engaged the attention of British as well as continental mathematicians; and its proposal gave rise to a painful quarrel with his brother Jean.
But the last of these was part of a much wider struggle by land, known to Continental historians as the Dutch War of 1672-78, and the second part of this article deals with their struggle on the various frontiers of France, which was illustrated by the genius of Turenne and Conde.
Four continental scholars, Fritzsche, Benary, Hitzig and Reuss, independently recognized that Nero was referred to under the mystical number 666.
The four great continental masses therefore give the ocean a distinctly tripartite form, the three great divisions being known as the Atlantic, the Indian and the Pacific Oceans, all three running together into one around Antarctica.
They owe their origin to depressions of the earth's crust of no very wide extent and not running very far into the continental mass, and geologically they are of recent age and still subject to change.
There are also four smaller continental enclosed seas each with a single channel of communication with the ocean, viz.
Gulfs formed by the overflowing of depressed lands lie upon the continental shelf, e.g.
But as things are the watersurface is broken by land, and the mean density of the substance of the land is 2 6 times as great as that of sea-water, so that the gravitational attraction of the land must necessarily cause a heaping up of the sea around the coasts, forming what has been called the continental wave, and leaving the sea-level lower in mid-ocean.
Viewed from the floor of the ocean the continental block would thus appear as a great plateau rising to a height of 14,360 ft.
Large angles of slope may, however, occur on the flanks of oceanic islands and the continental borders.
Hull found a mean angle of slope of 13° to 14° for the edge of the continental shelf off the west coast of Europe, and off Cape Torinana (43° 4' N.) as much as 34°.
Where the French telegraph cable between Brest and New York passes from the continental shelf of the Bay of Biscay to the depths of the Atlantic the angle of slope is.
The continental shelf is the gentle slope which extends from the edge of the land to a depth usually about loo, though in some cases as much as 300 fathoms, and is there demarcated by an abrupt increase in the steepness of the slope to ocean depths.
Similarly we may note the caldron or small steep depression of a round outline, and the furrow or long narrow groove in the continental shelf.
The continental shelves are parts of the great continental blocks which have been covered by the sea in comparatively recent times, and their surface consequently presents many similarities to that of the land, modified of course by the destructive and constructive work of the waters.
The continental shelves include not only the oceanic border of the continents but also great areas of the enclosed seas and particularly of the fringing seas, the origin of which through secular subsidence is often very clearly apparent, as for instance in the North Sea and the tract lying off the mouth of the English Channel.
the continental shelf bear witness to its land origin.
Amongst the best known of the furrows of the continental shelf are the Cape Breton Deep, in the Bay of Biscay, the Hudson Furrow, southward of New York, the so-called Congo Canon, the Swatch of No Ground off the Ganges delta, the Bottomless Pit off the Niger delta, and numerous similar furrows on the west coast of North America and outside the fjords of Norway, Iceland and the west of Scotland, as well as in the.
The seaward edge of the continental shelf often falls steeply to the greatest depths of the ocean, and not infrequently forms the slope of a trench, a form of depression which has usually a steep slope towards a continent or an island-bearing rise on one side and a gentler slope towards the general level of the ocean on the other.
The Bass Sea (Bass Strait), Irish Sea and North Sea lie on the continental shelf.
As so defined the hemipelagic deposits are those which occur in general on the slope from the continental shelves to the ocean depths and also in the deep basins of enclosed and fringing seas.
The littoral deposits include those of the actual shore on the wash of the waves and of the surface of the continental shelf.
Recent limestones are being produced in this way and also in some places by the precipitation of calcium carbonate by sodium or ammonium carbonate which has been carried into the sea or formed by organisms. The precipitated carbonate may agglomerate on mineral or organic grains which serve as nuclei, or it may form a sheet of hard deposit on the bottom as occurs in the Red Sea, off Florida, and round many coral islands in the Pacific. Only the sand and the finest-grained sediments of the shore zone are carried outwards over the continental shelf by the tides or by the reaction-currents along the bottom set up by on-shore winds.
Sand may be taken as the predominating deposit on the continental shelves, often with a large admixture of remains of calcareous organisms, for instance the deposits of marl made up of nullipores off the coasts of Brittany and near Belle Isle.
Glacial detritus naturally plays a great part in the deposits on the polar continental shelves.
In the Atlantic it is the characteristic deposit of the slopes of continental shelves of western Europe and of New England, being largely mixed with ice-borne material to the south of Newfoundland.
This variety surrounds the tropical parts of the continental shelves of South America, South Africa and eastern China.
When the proportion of calcium carbonate in the blue mud is considerable there results a calcareous ooze, which when found on the continental slope and in enclosed seas is largely composed of remains of deep-sea corals and bottom-living foraminif era, pelagic organisms including pteropods being less frequently represented.
The terrigenous ingredients in the deposits become less and less abundant as one goes farther into the deep ocean and away from the continental margins.
From the obvious rarity of true abysmal rocks in the continental area Sir John Murray deduces the permanence of the oceans, which he holds have always remained upon those portions of the earth's crust which they occupy now, and both J.
Where the evaporation is at a minimum, the inflow of rivers from a large continental area and the precipitation from the atmosphere at a maximum, there is necessarily the greatest dilution of the sea-water, the Baltic and the Arctic Sea being conspicuous examples.
The marginal rises and continental shelves prevent this cold bottom water from penetrating into the depths of the enclosed and fringing seas.
Ice also clothes the continental shores of the northern fringing seas of eastern Asia.
On the 6th of May, the day after his arrival in Philadelphia, he was elected by the assembly of Pennsylvania a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
In the Congress he served on as many as ten committees, and upon the organization of a continental postal system, he was made postmastergeneral, a position he held for one year, when (in 1776) he was succeeded by his son-in-law, Richard Bache, who had been his deputy.
Lee, from the beginning of the mission to Paris, seems to have been possessed of a mania of jealousy toward Franklin, or of misunderstanding of his acts, and he tried to undermine his influence with the Continental Congress.
Drafts were being drawn on him by all the American agents in Europe, and by the Continental Congress at home..
The first book with his imprint is The Psalms of David Imitated in For the prevention of counterfeiting continental paper money Franklin long afterwards suggested the use on the different denominations of different leaves, having noted the infinite variety of leaf venation.
Of modern continental crowns the imperial crown of Austria (fig.
In the interior the climate has a more continental character, and is subject to considerable changes of temperature; the rainy season sets in a little earlier the farther west and north the region, and is well marked, the rain beginning in November and ending in April; the rest of the year is dry.
The French foreign minister, Delessart, believed that he would checkmate all the efforts of the emigres at the continental courts provided that he could confirm Pitt in his intention of keeping England neutral.
The climate is continental and dry, the average temperatures being - year 43° Fahr., January 13°, July 72° at Uryupina (in 50° 48' N.; alt.
In 1202 he refused to do homage to Philip Augustus, who, in consequence, confiscated all his continental possessions, including Anjou, which was allotted by the king of France to Arthur.
There was, however, no such sudden breach with the traditions of the past as characterized the Reformation in some continental countries.
In continental philosophy the reaction against mechanical and pantheistic explanations of the universe found even more definite utterance than in English psychological.
It was, as we have seen, this conception of thought as essentially synthetic for which Kant paved the way in his polemic against the formalism of his continental predecessors.
Washington, chosen by the Continental Congress to command the army, arrived in Cambridge in July 1775, and stretching his lines around Boston, forced its evacuation in March 1776.
Thus regarded, it becomes reasonable to suppose that North and South America have in a broad way been developed under a succession of somewhat similar strains in the earth's crust, and that they are, in so far, favourable witnesses to the theory that there is something individual in the plan of continental growth.
Excepting the barren lands of the Antarctic regions, with which Patagonia is somewhat associated by a broken string of islands, the nearest continental lands of a more habitable kind are South Africa and New Zealand., In contrast to the sub-Arctic land ring, here is a sub-Antarctic ocean ring, and as a result the land flora and fauna of South America to-day are strongly unlike the life forms of the other south-ending continents.
The form Seaxneat is identical with Saxnot, one of three gods mentioned in a short continental document probably of Old Saxon origin.
He served in the Continental Congress in 1 7771 779, and was enthusiastic in his support of Washington.
His half-brother, Lewis Morris (1726-1798), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was educated at Yale, served in the Continental Congress from 1775 until early in 1777, and went on a mission to the western frontier in 1775 to win over the Indians from the British to the American side.
Foreign Countries Inquiries by local officials in connexion with measures of taxation, such as the hearth-tax in France, were instituted in continental Europe as early as the, 4th century; but as the basis of an estimate of population they were intrinsically untrustworthy.
435 ff.) and continental reformers generally, was not fully carried out by them in church organization.
was covered by the continental glacier.
After the continental ice sheet entirely disappeared from the state, local valley glaciers lingered in the Adirondacks and the Catskills.
The action of the continental glacier in scouring down the passes between the St Lawrence and southern drainage, and in turning streams southward, has facilitated the building of railways across the divides.
The continental part consists of a gently undulating steppe (from sea-level up to 400 ft.
The climate is continental, and resembles that of central Crimea and Kherson.
The continental portion, although less mixed than that of the peninsula, consists of Great and Little Russians, who constitute 83 per cent.
The New Zealand flora, like the fauna, has been cited in support of the theory of the remote continental period.
Eastern Washington, too, usually has a mild temperature, but occasionally some regions in this part of the state are visited by a continental extreme, and as the winds from the ocean lose most of their moisture in passing over the Cascades, the climate is either dry or arid according to elevation.
The defences of Port Arthur, as designed by the Russians in 1900, and owing to the meagre allotment of funds only partially carried out before the war, had some tincture, but no more, of modern continental ideas.
Hancock was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780, was president of it from May 1775 to October 1 777, being the first to sign the Declaration of Independence, and was a member of the Confederation Congress in 1785-1786.
The year 1848, which shook so many continental thrones, left that of the United Kingdom unhurt.
He was a member of the New Hampshire Provincial Assembly in 1774, and in1774-1775was a delegate to the Continental Congress.
Sullivan was appointed a brigadier-general in the Continental army in June 1775 and a major-general in August 1776.
Released on parole, he bore a verbal message from Lord Howe to the Continental Congress, which led to the fruitless conference on Staten Island.
From Pegwell Bay south to a point near Deal the coast is flat, and the drained marshes or levels of the lower Stour extend to the west; but thence the coast rises again into chalk cliffs, the eastward termination of the North Downs, the famous white cliffs which form the nearest point of England to continental Europe, overlooking the Strait of Dover.
The increasing rigour of the continental system brought the two brothers to an open rupture.
The prairies in this second table-land are gently rolling, and are covered with drift from the continental ice-sheet of the glacial period.
If we exclude the abortive invasion of the Danubian principalities by Prince Alexander Ypsilanti (March 1821), which collapsed ignominiously as soon as it was disavowed by the tsar, the theatre of the war was confined to continental Greece, the Morea, and the adjacent narrow seas.
For months the siege dragged on, while Karaiskakis fought with varying success in the mountains, a final victory at Distomo (February 1827) over Omar Vrioni securing the restoration to the Greek cause of all continental Greece, except the towns actually held by the Turks.
On the 5th of June the remnant of the defenders marched out with the honours of war, and continental Greece was once more in the power of the Turks.
Inland, the thermometer rises during the day to over 100° F., but the extreme continental heats of India are not known.
It was in this house that Lord Howe on the nth of September 1776 held a peace conference with Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and Edward Rutledge representing the Continental Congress.
The system was for a long time the only one taught in the schools of Britain, even after it had been discarded by those in France and in other continental countries.
The climate of the republic is a medium between a maritime and continental one.
But the great wars led to the complete prohibition of the importation of manufactures, reaching its climax in Napoleon's Continental system.
The prompt and full recognition of Maine's genius by continental publicists must not pass unmentioned even in the briefest notice.
In continental Asia the distribution of parrots is rather remarkable.
At one time London was able to supply many Continental gardens with giraffes, and Dublin and Antwerp have had great successes with lions, whilst antelopes, sheep and cattle, deer and equine animals are always to be found breeding in one collection or another.
As a member of the First Continental Congress, he introduced (28th September 1774) a "Plan of a Proposed Union between Great Britain and the Colonies," and it is for this chiefly that he is remembered.
As the contest against the proprietor had been nearly won, the majority of the best citizens desired the continuance of the old government and it was not until the Maryland delegates in the Continental Congress were found almost alone in holding back that their instructions not to vote for independence were rescinded.
The Oligocene period consists of a marine phase confined to the littoral zone of Kabylia, and of a continental phase occupying vast areas composed of lacustrine, alluvial, gypsiferous marls, sandstones and conglomerates.
there are practically none, and to the north and south of these parallels respectively the islands, though large and numerous, are purely continental, lying close under the mainland, enclosing no seas, and forming no separate political units.
The climate of this part of the valley is, of course, continental - frosts of - 22° F.
The culture of tobacco, which is the second most valuable crop in the state, was begun in the north part about 1780 and in the west and south early in the 19th century, but it was late in that century before it was introduced to any considerable extent in the Blue Grass Region, where it was then in a measure substituted for the culture of hemp. By 1849 Kentucky ranked second only to Virginia in the production of tobacco, and in 1899 it was far ahead of any other state in both acreage and yield, there being in that year 384,805 acres, which was 34'9% of the total acreage in the continental United States, yielding 314,288,050 lb.
Generally he was in favour of more decided intervention on behalf of continental Protestants than Elizabeth would admit; but it is not always easy to ascertain the advice he gave.
He served with John in the continental wars which led up to the loss of Normandy.
(Note: these figures refer to the authorities at the end of this section.) It is above all desirable to make allowances for the changes which weights have undergone; and, as this has only been done for the above Egyptian collections and that of the British Museum, conclusions as to the accurate values of different standards will here be drawn from these rather than continental sources.
The analysis of continental faunas into those inhabiting rivers, lowlands, forests, plains or uplands, affords a key to physiographic conditions all through the Tertiary.
With good reason geographers have given reluctant consent to some of the bold restorations of ancient continental outlines by palaeontologists; yet some of the greatest achievements of recent science have been in this field.
This line of hypothesis and demonstration is typical of the palaeogeographic methods generally - namely, that vertebrate palaeontologists, impressed by the sudden appearance of extinct forms of continental life, demand land connexion or migration tracts from common centres of origin and dispersal, while the invertebrate palaeontologist alone is able to restore ancient coast-lines and determine the extent and width of these tracts.
- In the long vicissitudes of time and procession of continental changes, animals have been subjected to alternations of habitat either through their own migrations or through the " migration of the environment itself," to employ Van den Broeck's epigrammatic description of the profound and sometimes sudden environmental changes which may take place in a single locality.
Thus the history of continental life presents a picture of contemporaneous radiations in different parts of the world and of a succession of radiations in the same parts.
There results from continental and local adaptive radiations the presence in the same geographical region of numerous distinct lines in a given group of animals.
Because of the repetition of analogous physiographic and climatic conditions in regions widely separated both in time and in space, we discover that continental and local adaptive radiations result in the creation of analogous groups of radii among all the vertebrates and invertebrates.
Such decline is by no means a universal law of life, however, because among many of the continental vertebrates at least we observe extinctions repeatedly occurring during the expression of maximum variability.
In 1768 he was a delegate to the provincial convention which was called to meet in Boston, and conducted the prosecution of Captain Thomas Preston and his men for their share in the famous " Boston Massacre of the 5th of March 1770., He served in the Massachusetts General Court in 1773-1774, in the Provincial Congress in 177 4-1775, and in the Continental Congress in 1 7741778, and was speaker of the Massachusetts House of Representatives in 1777, a member of the executive council in 1779, a member of the committee which drafted the constitution of 1780, attorney-general of the state from 1777 to 1790, and a judge of the state supreme court from 1790 to 1804.
The governor and council appoint all judicial ' The constitution of 1776 provided that the Congress which framed it " assume the name, power and authority of a House of Representatives "; that said house choose twelve persons to be " a distinct and separate branch of the legislature by the name of a Council that the Council appoint a president; that civil officers for the colony and for each county (except clerks of court, county treasurers and recorders) should be appointed by the two houses; and that " if the present unhappy dispute with Great Britain should continue longer than this present year, and the Continental Congress give no instruction or direction to the contrary, the Council be chosen by the people of each respective county in such manner as the Council and House of Representatives shall order."
Having raised a permanent force for the war called the Continental Line, they awaited further operations of the enemy.
With Lincoln's surrender of nearly all the continental soldiers in the south, a new force had to be supplied to meet the British veterans.
But the so-called "continental" vessels which sailed with the commission of the Congress hardly differed in character, or in the nature of their operations, from the privateers.
Lincoln, Naval Records of the American Revolution (Washington, 1906); and Edward Field, Esek Hopkins, Commander-in-chief of the Continental Navy during the American Revolution (Providence, R.I., 1898).
From 1776 to 1780 two depots for military stores and a workshop for the Continental army were maintained, and the leaden statue of George III., erected in Bowling Green, New York City, in 1770, and torn down by citizens on the 9th of July 1776, was cut up and taken to Litchfield, where, in the house (still standing) of Oliver Wolcott it was melted into bullets for the American army by Wolcott's daughter and sister.
As a member of the Pennsylvania house of representatives in 1772-1775, he was an ardent Whig, and in 1774 was a member of the first Continental Congress.
There is good reason for believing that at least along the southern border of New England a narrow coastal plain was for a time added to the continental border; and that, as in the New Jersey section the plain was here stripped from a significant breadth of inland overlap and worn down so as to form an inner lowland enclosed by a longitudinal upland or cuesta; and that when this stage was reached a submergence, of the kind which has produced the many embayments of the New England coast, drowned the outer part of thy plain and the inner lowland, leaving only the higher parts of the cuesta as islands.
Quaternary Formations.The best-known formations of the Quaternary period are those deposited by the continental glaciers which were the distinguishing feature of the period ~
Next, dependent on the inclination of the earths axis, is the division of the planetary year into the terrestrial seasons, with winter and summer changes of temperature, wind-strength and precipitation: these seasonal changes are not of the restrained measure that is characteristic of the oceanic southern temperate zone, but of the exaggerated measure appropriate to the continental interruptions of ~the northern land-and-water zone, to which the term temperate is so generally inapplicable.
Closely associated with the effect of continental immobility are the effects dependent on the low specific heat and the opacity of the lands, in contrast with the high specific heat and partial transparence of the ocean waters.
In January the northern water areas of the continent are frozen and snow-covered; Hudson Bay becomes unduly cold, and the greatest southward bending of the isotherms is somewhat east of the continental axis, with an extension of its effects out upon the Atlantic; but the southward bending isotherms are somewhat looped back about the unfrozen waters of the lower Great Lakes.
The equalizing effects of a conservative ocean are brought upon the Pacific coast, where the climate is truly temperate, the mean annual range being only 10 or 12, thus resembling western Europe; while the exaggerating effects of the continental interior are carried eastward to the Atlantic coast, where the mean annual range is 40 or 50.
In California the effect of the strong equatorward turn of the summer winds is to produce a dry season; but in the states along the Gulf of Mexico and especially in Florida the withdrawal of the stormy westerlies in favor of the steadier trade winds (here turned somewhat toward the continental interior, as explained below) results in an increase of precipitation.
The general winds also are much affected by the changes of pressure due to the strong continental changes of temperature.
The warmed air of summer produces an area of low pressure in the west-central United States, which interrupts the belt of high pressure that planetary conditions alone would form around the earth about latitude 30; hence there is a tendency of the summer winds to blow inward from the northern Pacific over the Cordilleras toward the continental centre, and from the trades of the torrid Atlantic up the Mississippi Valley; conversely in winter time, the cold air over the lands produces a large area of high pressure from which the winds tend to flow outward; thus repelling the westerly winds of the northern Pacific and greatly intensifying the outflow southward to the Gulf of Mexico and eastward to the Atlantic. As a result of these seasonal alternations of temperature and pressure there is something of a monsoon tendency developed in the winds of the Mississippi Valley, southerly infiowing winds prevailing in summer and northerly outfiowing winds in winter; but the general tendency to inflow and outflow is greatly modified by the relief of the lands, to which we next turn.
The large percentage of the population, particularly Continental United Populatin enumerated.
At the census of 1910, while the continental United States population (excluding Alaska) was 91,972,266, the total, including Alaska, Hawaii and Porto Rico, but excluding the Philippine Islands, Guam, Samoa and the Canal Zone, was 93,402,151.
The share of the five continental divisions in 1909 was as follows, respectively: $1,169,672,326; $344,767,613; $113,129,907; $83,509,047 and $17,124,298.
The Interior Continental Plain.
- Passing westward by rail from the forest-covered Archean with its rugged granite hills, the flat prairie of Manitoba with its rich grasses and multitude of flowers comes as a very striking contrast, introducing the Interior Continental plain in its most typical development.
The prairie provinces have in most parts a distinctly continental climate with comparatively short, warm summers and long, cold winters, but with much sunshine in both seasons.
Its leaders tried to make the revolt continental, and invaded Canada, hoping that the French would join them.
But before this issue matured war broke out between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 from causes due chiefly to Napoleon's continental policy.
The great development of its herring fishery in the latter part of the 18th century gave a new impulse to the city's trade, which was kept up by the influence of the "Continental System," under which Gothenburg became a depot for the colonial merchandise of England.
On Prospect Hill on the, 8th of July 1775 Israel Putnam raised the "Appeal to Heaven" flag, and here also is said to have been raised on the 1st of January 1776 one of the earliest of the Continental standards, the Union Jack and Stripes.
The Loyalist sentiment was so strong that only five of the twelve parishes sent representatives to the First Provincial Congress, which met on the 18th of January 1775, and its delegates to the Continental.
Brown (Springfield, Mass., 1883) and C. C. Jones, jun., Biographical Sketches of Delegates from Georgia to the Continental Congress (New York, 1891).
He was given at an early age the nickname of Lackland because, unlike his elder brothers, he received no apanage in the continental provinces.
He inherited great difficulties - the feud with France, the dissensions of the continental provinces, the growing indifference of England to foreign conquests, the discontent of all his subjects with a strict executive and severe taxation.
Though he carefully guarded his autocratic rights and privileges, and obstinately resisted all efforts to push him farther than he felt inclined to go he acted for several years somewhat like a constitutional sovereign of the continental type.
After five years spent in mathematical and astronomical studies, he went to Holland, in order to visit several eminent continental mathematicians.
He was once more a member of the Connecticut Assembly in 1764-1766, was one of the governor's assistants in 1766-1785, a judge of the Connecticut superior court in 1766-1789, treasurer of Yale College in 1765-1776, a delegate to the Continental Congress in1774-1781and again in 1783-1784, a member of the Connecticut Committee of Safety in1777-1779and in 1782, mayor of New Haven in 1784-1793, a delegate to the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787 and to the Connecticut Ratification Convention of the same year, and a member of the Federal House of Representatives in 1789-1791 and of the United States Senate in 1791-1793.
All continental conditioning establishments now formulate their tests for counts on the agreement arrived at by the International Congress of 1900.
Up to the year 1860 the bulk of the silks from the East was shipped to London, but subsequently, owing to the importance of continental demands, a large portion of the supplies has been unshipped at Genoa and Marseilles (especially the finer reeled silks from Japan and Canton), which are sold in the Milan and Lyons markets.
Third on the list of continental producers is Switzerland; Zurich takes the lead with broad goods (failles, armures, satins, serges, &c.), and Basel rivals St Etienne in the ribbon trade.
4 a decrease in imports of raw material from the fact before mentioned that formerly London was the centre of distribution for Eastern silk, which is now disembarked at other European ports for continental consumption.
The continental spinners have largely increased, but are developing into huge syndicates, all working on the schappe principle.
To these two romances by an Anglo-Norman author, Amadas et Idoine, of which we only possess a continental version, is to be added.
637), and the so-called Anglo-Norman Resurrection belongs also to continental French.
Just as in Anglo-Saxon lands a national ideal is gradually materializing in the principle of the equalization of chances for all citizens, so in continental Europe, along with this equalization of chances, has still more rapidly developed the ideal of an equalization of obligations, which in turn leads to the claim for an enlargement of political rights co-extensive with the obligations.
Thus universal conscription and universal suffrage tend to become in continental political development complementary conditions of the citizen's political being.
Under the rules adopted, the examination of witnesses is conducted by the president in accordance with the system prevailing in most continental countries; members of the commission may only put questions to witnesses for the eliciting of further information; and they may not interrupt the witness when he is in course of making his statement, but they may ask the president to put any additional questions.
The township of Fishkill was, like Newburgh, an important military post during the War of Independence, and was a supply depot for the northern Continental Army.
He was a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress in 1765, and to the Continental Congress in 1774-77 and 1782-83; he was chairman of the committee which framed the state constitution of 1776, and the first "president" (governor) of South Carolina in 1776-78.
He served in the Continental Congress in 1774-77, and was sent.
In 1906 the exports of fruits from Hawaii to the continental United States were valued at $382,295.
The increasing numbers arriving by this means, however, provoked serious hostility in the Pacific coast states, especially in San Francisco, and to remedy the difficulty Congress inserted a clause in the general immigration act of the 10th of February 1907 which provides that whenever the president is satisfied that passports issued by any foreign government to any other country than the United States, or to any of its insular possessions, or to the Canal Zone, " are being used for the purpose of enabling the holders to come to the continental territory of the United States to the detriment of labour conditions therein," he may refuse to admit them.
and the researches of the ripest continental scholarship of his day.
In art, these tribes possessed a native Late Celtic fashion, descended from far-off Mediterranean antecedents and more directly connected with the La-Tene culture of the continental Celts.
Again, there was apparently but one ges16cund class in Kent, with a wergild of 300 shillings, while, on the other hand, below the ceorlisc class we find three classes of persons described as laetas, who corresponded in all probability to the liti or freedmen of the continental laws, and who possessed wergilds of 80, 60 and 40 shillings respectively.
The nature of the imports during the heathen period may be learned chiefly from the graves, which contain many brooches and other ornaments of continental origin, and also a certain number of silver, bronze and glass vessels.
5 and 6 appear to be of continental origin, and this is probably the case also with No.
The glass vessels are finely made and of somewhat striking appearance, though they closely resemble contemporary continental types.
Since the art of glass-working was unknown, according to Bede, until nearly the end of the 7th century, it is probable that these were all of continental or Roman-British origin.
His great reputation and his diplomatic experience gave a special weight to the attacks which he published on the policy of the continental allies, two of his works attracting special attention, Du Congres de Troppau ou Examen des pretentions des monarchies absolues a l'egard de la monarchie constitutionelle de Naples (Paris, 1821), and Les Cabinets et les peuples depuis 1815 jusqu'd la fin de 1822 (Paris, 1822).
The motive force towards extension of territories was supplied by military ambition; especially we have to take account of the growth of a warlike spirit in the North, which was constantly driving young warriors to seek their fortunes in the service of continental princes.
On the other hand the political consolidation of the various continental Teutonic peoples (apart from the Danes) in the 8th century led to the gradual recovery of eastern Germany together with Lower Austria and the greater part of Styria and Carinthia, though Bohemia, Moravia and the basins of the Vistula and the Warthe have always remained mainly Slavonic. In the British Isles the Teutonic element, in spite of temporary checks, eventually became dominant everywhere.
In the national migration period, however, it fell into disuse among most of the continental Teutonic peoples, even before their conversion, though it seems to have been still practised by the Heruli in the 5th century and by the Old Saxons probably till a much later period.
English procedure, however, being litigious, and not, like continental European procedure, inquisitorial, in its character, the expert soon became, and still is, simply a witness to speak to matters of opinion.
He was the recipient of many British and foreign awards and honours, amongst these being the Royal and Hughes medals of the Royal Society in 1894 and 1902 respectively, the Hodgkins medal of the Smithsonian Institute of Washington in 1902, the Nobel Prize for physics in 1906, enrolment as honorary graduate of many universities, and as honorary fellow of numerous American and continental scientific academies.
Some Manchester export business is done through London, Glasgow, and continental towns, of which Hamburg is the principal.
The coal measures of Upper Silesia, in the south-east part of the province, are among the most extensive in continental Europe, and there is another large field near Waldenburg in the south-west.
A territorial dispute with Connecticut over the Wyoming Valley was settled in favour of Pennsylvania in 1782 by a court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress.
The two Continental Congresses (1774, and 1 7751 781) met in Philadelphia, except for the months when Philadelphia was occupied by the British army and Congress met in Lancaster and York, Pennsylvania, and then in Princeton, New Jersey.
Among continental Protestants its tradition has been more tenaciously maintained.
But Henry was ambitions to recover the continental possessions which his father had lost.
In 1855 he resigned the tutorship, travelled in Germany to investigate Continental systems of education, and began his researches into the lives of Casaubon and Scaliger, which occupied the remainder of his life.
JUNEAU, formerly Harrisburg, a mining and trading town picturesquely situated at the mouth of Gold Creek on the continental shore of Gastineau channel, south-east Alaska, and the capital of Alaska.
He presided over the provincial convention of August 1774, and was a member of the First Continental Congress, of which he was president from the 5th of September to the 22nd of October 1774.
The following year was chiefly spent in reforming the government of the continental provinces.
The Amur government has a continental climate, the yearly average at Blagovyeshchensk (50 N.
In general, however, the tendency has been, under continental influence, to curtail its proportions.
The Continental Divide crosses the park in a S.E.
The energy which warriors were accustomed to put forth in their efforts to conquer was now " exhibited in the enterprise of conversion and teaching " 5 by Wilfrid on the coast of Friesland, 6 by Willibrord (658-715) in the neighbourhood of Utrecht,7 by the martyr-brothers Ewald or Hewald amongst the " old " or continental Saxons, 8 by Swidbert the apostle of the tribes between the Ems and the Yssel, by Adelbert, a prince of the royal house of Northumbria, in the regions north of Holland, by Wursing, a native of Friesland, and one of the disciples of Willibrord, in the same region, and last, not least, by the famous Winfrid or Boniface, the " apostle of Germany " (68 o-755), who went forth first to assist Willibrord at Utrecht, then to labour in Thuringia and Upper Hessia, then with the aid of his kinsmen Wunibald and Willibald, their sister Walpurga, and her thirty companions, to consolidate the work of earlier missionaries, and finally to die a martyr on the shore of the Zuider Zee.
Colonial and Continental Church Society.
The walls, both insular and continental, can be traced throughout their whole circuit; and in many places, especially round the acropolis, at the N.E.
It was a continental formation, such as is now being formed within the desert belt of the globe.
The Trias has almost disappeared, and what remains is not of the marine type characteristic of the Eastern Alps but belongs rather to the continental facies which occurs in Germany and France.
He was one of the signers of the White Plains protest of April 1775 against "all unlawful congresses and committees," in many other ways proved himself a devoted loyalist, and wrote the Free Thoughts on the Proceedings of the Continental Congress (1774) by "A.
2 Norwich was the birthplace of Benjamin Huntington (1736-1800), a member of the Continental Congress in1780-1784and 1787-1788, a representative in Congress in 1789-1791, judge of the state superior court in 1793-1798, and first mayor of Norwich in 1784-1796; of Jabez Huntington (1719-1786), a patriot leader and majorgeneral of Connecticut militia during the War of Independence; of his son, Jedediah Huntington (1743-1818), also a patriot leader, a brigadier-general in the Continental Army (1777-1783), and a founder of the Society of the Cincinnati; of Jedediah's brother, Ebenezer Huntington (1754-1834), a soldier and in1810-1811and 1817-1819 a representative in Congress; and of Jedediah's nephew, Jabez Williams Huntington (1788-1847), a jurist, a representative in Congress in 1829-1834, and a member of the U.S. Senate in 1840-1847.
Samuel Huntington (1731-1796) removed to Norwich about 1758, was a member of the Continental Congress in1776-1783and its president in 1779-1781, was a signer of the Declaration of Independence, a justice of the supreme court of Connecticut in 1774-1784, and governor of Connecticut in 1786-1796.
Continental writers do not place him so high, and their judgment is probably the more correct one.
It is believed that the bluish colour of many clays and limestones is referable to the presence of finely divided pyrites, and it is known that certain deposits of blue mud now forming around continental shores owe their colour, in part, to disseminated iron sulphide.
While the continental type of deposit, with its coal beds, was the earliest to be formed in certain areas, and the marine series came on later, in other regions this order was reversed.
It should be observed, however, that the repeated intercalation of marine deposits within the continental series and the frequent occurrence of thin coaly layers in the marine series makes any hard and fast distinction of this kind impossible.
This unconformity is generally found about the same horizon in the continental Culm areas, and it occurs again in the western part of the English Culm.
We have seen that in the Carboniferous rocks there are two phases of sedimentation, the one marine, the other continental; corresponding with these there are two distinct faunal facies.
(2) Flora and Fauna of the Lagoonal or Continental Facies.- The strata deposited during this period are the earliest in which the remains of plants take a prominent place.
The animals preserved in the continental type of Carboniferous deposit naturally differ markedly from the fossil remains of the purely marine portions of the system.
Looking eastward, towards central and northern Russia, we find a wider and much more open sea; but the continental type of deposit prevailed in the northern portion, and here, as in Scotland, we find coal-beds amongst the sediments (Moscow basin).
The net result of the orogenic movements was, that at the close of the period there existed a great northern continental mass, embracing Europe, North Asia and North America; and a great southern continental mass, including South America, Africa, Australia and India.
Lowell, Government and Parties in Continental Europe (Boston, 1896); J.
He was a deputy to the provincial congress of New Jersey from May to August 1775, and from May 1777 until July 1778 was the commissary-general of prisoners, with the rank of colonel, in the continental army.
He was one of the New Jersey members of the continental congress in 1778 and again from 1781 until 1783, and from November 1782 until October 1783 was president of that body, acting also for a short time, after the resignation of Robert R.
Carolina in 1726, and was a delegate to the Continental Congress from Georgia, but opposed independence and was banished from Savannah in 1777.
The earlier geologists had been in the habit of dividing the Quaternary deposits into an older Diluvium and a younger Alluvium; the latter is still employed in England, but the former has dropped out of use, though it is still retained by some continental writers.
Indeed, the tendency in continental Europe is to regard the abortion as a crime against the unborn child, and several codes (notably that of the German Empire) expressly recognize the life of the foetus, while others make the penalty more severe if abortion has been caused in the later stages of pregnancy, or if the woman is married.
Copperengraving, for which it was formerly noted, is no longer carried on; but printing, lithography and publishing have acquired a considerable development, one of the best-known Continental newspapers being the Allgemeine Zeitung or Augsburg Gazette.
Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe (Boston, 1896).
In 1201 he went on a diplomatic mission to Philip Augustus of France, and in 1202 he returned to England to keep the kingdom in peace while John was losing his continental possessions.
He hated Dissenters, and stock-jobbers, the excise and the army, septennial parliaments, and Continental connexions.
Climala.The climate of Germany is to be regarded as intermediate between the oceanic and continental climates of western and eastern Europe respectively.
issued from Berlin the famous decree establishing the continental system, which, by forbidding all trade with England, threatened German commerce with ruin.
The ruling idea of this new WeltPolitik was that Germany could no longer remain merely a continental power; owing to the growth of population she depended for subsistence on trade and exports; she could not maintain herself amid the rivalry of nations unless the government was able actively to support German traders in all parts of the world.
Lowell, Governments and Parties in Continental Europe (1896).
In1781-1783he was a member of the Continental Congress, which in 1782 made him a judge of the court of appeals for admiralty cases; in 1784 he was one of the commissioners from Massachusetts to settle the boundary line between Massachusetts and New York; in1789-1801he was a judge of the U.S. District Court of Massachusetts; and from 1801 until his death in Roxbury on the 6th of May 1802 he was a justice of the U.S. Circuit Court for the First Circuit (Maine, New Hampshire, Massachusetts and Rhode Island).
The duke of Aremberg is one of the wealthiest of the great continental nobles.
possessed none of these qualities; and when he died in 1740, the weakness of the scattered Habsburg empire rendered it an object of the cupidity of the continental powers.
In contrast, however, with the military history of other continental powers, that of Austria-Hungary shows a small increase in the army establishment.
In Sicily therefore the Greek became more continental, and the Phoenician became more insular.
In 1210 the emperor Otto IV., who had overrun the continental dominions, threatened the island.
In the continental lands Charles founded a dynasty; the island he lost after sixteen years.
His rule was not merely the rule of a stranger king surrounded by stranger followers; the degradation of the island was aggravated by gross oppression, grosser than in the continental lands.
The continental lands submitted, with a few slight efforts at resistance.
Charles, released in 1288 under a deceptive negotiation, was crowned king of Sicily by Honorius I V.; but he had much ado to defend his continental dominions against James and Roger.
The education of Egyptians in continental cities had not produced the class of leaders who led the fellahin to victory at Konia.
Continental Denmark is confined wholly to Jutland, the geographical description of which is given under that heading.
Fifty years later the Danes begin to be mentioned with comparative frequency in continental annals.
The Liberal Eiderdansk party was for dividing Schleswig into three distinct administrative belts, according as the various nationalities predomin ated (language rescripts of '85),but German sentiment was opposed to any such settlement and, still worse, the great continental powers looked askance on the new Danish constitution as far too democratic. The substance of the notes embodying the exchange of views, in 1851 and 1852, between the German great powers and Denmark, was promulgated, on the 28th of January 1852, in the new constitutional decree which, together with the documents on which it was founded, was known as the Conventions of 1851 and 1852.
This portrait had been ordered by the Continental Congress, which, however, made no appropriation for it, and eventually it was bought for a private collection in Philadelphia.
But the evidence of the Continental Chronicles makes it probable that the Saxon Chronicle is a year in advance of the true chronology in this part.
That Alfred sent alms to Irish as well as to continental monasteries may be accepted on Asser's authority; the visit of the three pilgrim " Scots " (i.e.
In 1783 he was commissioned a brevet brigadier-general in the continental army.
She is said to have been the first to introduce into South Carolina (and into continental North America) the cultivation and manufacture of indigo, and she also imported silkworms-in 1753 she presented to the princess of Wales a dress made of silk from her plantations.
He gave new information about the continental career of the Young Pretender in Pickle the Spy (1897), an account of Alastair Ruadh Macdonell, whom he identified with Pickle, a notorious Hanoverian spy.
The annexation of Oldenburg, of which the duke was the tsar's uncle, to France in December 1810, added another to the personal grievances of Alexander against Napoleon; while the ruinous reaction of " the continental system " on Russian trade made it impossible for the tsar to maintain a policy which was Napoleon's chief motive for the alliance.
Both during and after the Civil War he was a contributor to the Continental Monthly, which for a short time he also, with James R.
AUSTRALASIA, a term used by English geographers in a sense nearly synonymous with the Oceania of continental writers.
In 1891 he made some brief continental visits, one to Madrid, and in October he saw through the press his little monograph upon William Pitt, in the Twelve English Statesmen Series, of which it may be said that it competes in interest with Viscount Morley's Walpole.
The principal herring market is continental Europe, Germany and Russia being the largest consumers, and there has been a growing exportation to the United States.
They studied art, and fostered the study in the long vacations by tours among the English churches and the Continental cathedrals.
He served in the Continental Congress in 1 779 and again in 1780-82.
Thus the first two years of the arts curriculum in English and American universities correspond, roughly speaking, to the last two years spent in a secondary school of Germany or' France, and the continental " school-leaving examinations " correspond to the intermediate examinations of the newer English universities and to the pass examinations for the degree at Oxford and Cambridge (Mark Pattison, Suggestions on Academical Organization, 1868, p. 238, and Matthew Arnold, Higher Schools and Universities in Germany, 1892, p. 209).
It was strenuously opposed in the University, where the continental method prevailed, and Bishop Gardiner, as chancellor, issued a decree against it (June 1542); but Cheke ultimately triumphed.
In the latter connexion he enlarged on several points in which England had done less than many continental states for the abolition of monopolies and abuses.
Indeed the king's horror of Jacobinism was morbid in its intensity, and drove him to adopt all sorts of reactionary measures and to postpone his coronation for some years, so as to avoid calling together a diet; but the disorder of the finances, caused partly by the continental war and partly by the almost total failure of the crops in 1798 and 1799, compelled him to summon the estates to Norrkoping in March 1800, and on the 3rd of April Gustavus was crowned.
He was one of Maryland's representatives in the Continental Congress in1784-1785and in the Constitutional Convention of 1787 at Philadelphia, but.
He was a member of the Virginia committee of correspondence in 1773, in 1774 was president of the Virginia provincial convention, and a member of the first Continental Congress.
JUTLAND (Danish Jylland), though embracing several islands as well as a peninsula, may be said to belong to the continental portion of the kingdom of Denmark.
Dover (Dubris) was one of the ports for continental traffic in Roman times.
"In the Haghier hills," to quote Professor Bonney, "we have probably a fragment of a continental area of great antiquity, and of a land surface which may have been an ` ark of refuge ' to a terrestrial fauna and flora from one of the very earliest periods of this world's history."
Jefferson began his public service as a justice of the peace and parish vestryman; he was chosen a member of the Virginia house of burgesses in 1769 and of every succeeding assembly and convention of the colony until he entered the Continental Congress in 1775.
Prevented by illness from attending, Jefferson sent to the convention elaborate resolutions, which he proposed as instructions to the Virginia delegates to the Continental Congress that was to meet at Philadelphia in September.
Continental Congress, taking with him fresh credentials of radicalism in the shape of Virginia's answer, which he had drafted, to Lord North's conciliatory propositions.
The idea - a very old one with Jefferson - was not entirely original; in essence it received other attempted applications in the Napoleonic period - and especially in the continental blockade.
Six months later, the indefatigable astronomer started for Danzig to set at rest a dispute of long standing between Hooke and Hevelius as to the respective merits of plain or telescopic sights; and towards the end of 1680 he proceeded on a continental tour.
On the north, the Himalaya range and the plateau of Afghanistan shut it off from the climate of central Asia, and give it a continental climate, the characteristics of which are the prevalence of land winds, great dryness of the air, large diurnal range of temperature, and little or no precipitation.
The continental type of weather prevails over almost the whole of India from December to May, and the oceanic type from June to November, thus giving rise to the two great divisions of the year, the dry season or north-east monsoon, and the rainy season or south-west monsoon.
io may be taken as a practical example of the earlier equatorials as made by Troughton in England and afterwards by Gambey for various Continental observatories.
He was sent as a delegate from New York City to the Continental Congress at Philadelphia in September 1774, and though almost the youngest member, was entrusted with drawing up the address to the people of Great Britain.
In April 1776, while still retaining his seat in the Continental Congress, Jay was chosen as a member of the third provincial congress of New York; and his consequent absence from Philadelphia deprived him of the honour of affixing his signature to the Declaration of Independence.
As a member of the fourth provincial congress he drafted a resolution by which the delegates of New York in the Continental Congress were authorized to sign the Declaration of Independence.
It is the ceps of the continental European markets.
The continental engineer prefers kilogrammetres per kilogramme-degree-centi grade.
Jackson was very successful in collecting old claims against various European nations for spoliations inflicted under Napoleon's continental system, especially the French spoliation claims, with reference to which he acted with aggressiveness and firmness.
In 1777, largely, it seems, because he refused to treat the electors with rum and punch, after the custom of the time, he was not reelected, but in November of the same year he was chosen a member of the privy council or council of state, in which he acted as interpreter for a few months, as secretary prepared papers for the governor, and in general took a prominent part from the, 4th of January 1778 until the end of 1779, when he was elected a delegate to the Continental Congress.
In the Viginia House of Delegates, as in the Continental Congress, he opposed the further issue of paper money; and he tried to induce the legislature to repeal the law confiscating British debts, but he did not lose sight of the interests of the Confederacy.
It is generally called Dupre's formula in continental text-books, but he did not give the values of the coefficients in terms of the difference of specific heats of the liquid and vapour.
without Philip's consent, paid him a relief of 20,000 marks, and recognized himself as his vassal for his continental fiefs.
Philip had reduced to a mere remnant the formidable continental empire of the Angevins, which had threatened the existence of the Capetian monarchy.
about 1613), English diplomatist and historian, second son of Sir Wymond Carew of Antony, was educated at Oxford, entered the Inns of Court, and passed some years in continental travel.
COMMUNE Under this head it is proposed to give a short account of the rise and development of towns in central and western continental Europe since the downfall of the Roman Empire.
By the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777, and in effect in 1781-1789, the states bound themselves in a league of common defence.
This journey practically removed from the map the doubtful Keenan Land (reported vaguely in the 'seventies of last century), while soundings taken during the drift of the " Karluk " and other journeys of the expedition show a narrow continental shelf, and reduce the probability of land existing in the western part of the Beaufort Sea.
During the War of Independence, from December 1776 to April 1 777, and from September 1777 to April 1778, the old Colonial Hall in this seminary (built 1748) was used as a general hospital of the continental army.
A French governor, however, remained in it, and by compelling it to submit to the continental system almost ruined its trade.
Hobart, The Medical Language of St Luke (Dublin, 1882), but hitherto neglected by many Continental scholars, has been urged afresh by Harnack, Lukas der Arzt (Leipzig, 1906; Eng.
The climate of Nizhniy is harsh and continental, the yearly average temperature being 39° Fahr.
They include many particulars of what purports to be the history of the royal houses, not only of the Gautar and the Danes, but also of the Swedes, the continental Angles, the Ostrogoths, the Frisians and the Heathobeards, besides references to matters of unlocalized heroic story such as the exploits of Sigismund.
As the name of Beaw appears in the genealogies of English kings, it seems likely that the traditions of his exploits may have been brought over by the Angles from their continental home.
The war now assumed continental proportions, and the Virginia leaders decided in May 1776 that a declaration of independence was necessary to secure foreign assistance.
When the Continental Congress issued the famous Declaration Virginia had already assembled in convention to draft a new Constitution.
The continental, single-breasted cassock, with a long row of small buttons from neck to hem, is said to have been first introduced into England by Bishop Harris of Llandaff (1729-1738).
The shortened form of cassock which survives in the bishop's "apron" was formerly widely used also by the continental clergy.
As it is unlikely that these delicate insects could be transported across seachannels, their wide and discontinuous range suggests both their great antiquity and the former existence of continental tracts over which they may have travelled to their present stations.
The insular position of England, combined with the nature of the English people, has allowed us to feel the vibration of European movements later and with less of shock than any of the continental nations.
From 1776 to 1781 Gerry was a member of the Continental Congress, where he early advocated independence, and was one of those who signed the Declaration after its formal signing on the 2nd of August 1776, at which time he was absent.
On the 5th of August 1774 the Virginia convention appointed Washington as one of seven delegates to the first Continental Congress, which met at Philadelphia on the 5th of September, and with this appointment his national career, which was to continue with but two brief intervals until his death, begins.
In March 1775 he was appointed a delegate from Virginia to the second Continental Congress, where he served on committees for fortifying New York, collecting ammunition, raising money and formulating army rules.
One of the most remarkable orographical features of the state are the great mountain "parks" - North, Estes, Middle, South and San Luis - extending from the northern to the southern border of the state, and lying (with the exception of Middle Park) just east of the continental divide.
Eleven topographical and climatic divisions are recognized by the United States Weather Bureau within its borders, including the several parks, the continental divide, and various river valleys.
Perhaps finer than these for their wide-horizoned outlooks and grand surroundings are the Alpine Tunnel under the continental divide of the Lower Sawatch chain, the scenery of the tortuous line along the southern boundary in the Conejos and San Juan mountains, which are crossed at Cumbres (10,003 ft.), and the magnificent scenery about Ouray and on the Silverton railway over the shoulder of Red Mountain (attaining 11,235 ft.).
The boreal embraces the highest mountain altitudes; the transition belts it on both sides of the continental divide; the upper Sonoran takes in about the eastern half of the plains region east of the mountains, and is represented further by two small valley penetrations from Utah.
Large game is still very abundant west of the continental divide.
In 1888 the Colorado Midland started from Colorado Springs westward, up the Ute Pass, through the South Park to Leadville, and thence over the continental divide to Aspen and Glenwood Springs.
These isothermal lines will be found to vary frommonth to month over the two hemispheres, or over local areas, during summer and winter, and their position is modified by continental or oceanic conditions.
This influence was common to all the continental states an,l indirectly was felt even in England.
About midway between the western boundary and the Rio Grande passes the Continental Divide, which separates the waters entering the Gulf of Mexico from those that flow into the Gulf of California..
of the Continental Divide, which embraces about three-fourths of the surface of the state, the general south-eastern slope is very marked.
Davy, and these, together with other eminent continental chemists, such as A.
Gaulish, which was supplanted in France by Latin, had p, as in petor-ritum, " fourwheeled car," and is thus allied to the Brythonic group; but it is believed that remains of a continental Celtic qu- dialect appear in such names as Sequani, and in some recently discovered inscriptions.
The Continental Congress sat here on the 27th of September 1777 after being driven from Philadelphia by the British; and subsequently, after the organization of the Federal government, Lancaster was Jne of the places seriously considered when a national capital was to be chosen.
Attempts have also been made to naturalize continental insects in Britain, in places where the proper food-plants abound and the conditions seem generally favourable, but in no case do they seem to have succeeded.
Of the partridges, the continental red-leg (Caccabis rufa) is established in England, and its ally, the Asiatic chukore (C. chukar), in St Helena, as is the Californian quail (Lophortyx californica) in New Zealand and Hawaii.
Birds of prey are, unjustly enough, regarded with so little favour that few attempts have been made to naturalize them; the continental little owl (Athene noctua), however, has for some time been well established in England, where it has hardly, if ever, appeared naturally.
Its most important conclusions were for reciprocity in trade, a continental railway and compulsory arbitration in international complications.
Lee was one of the delegates from Virginia to the first Continental Congress at Philadelphia in 1774, and prepared the address to the people of British America, and the second address to the people of Great Britain, which are among the most effective papers of the time.
In1775-1779he was a delegate to the Continental Congress, and as such signed the Declaration of Independence.
Sweden thus occupies a climatic position between the purely coastal conditions of Norway and the purely continental conditions of Russia; and in some years the climate inclines to the one character, in others to the other.
Henceforth till her collapse, seventy years later, she was the recognized leader of Continental Protestantism.
When, on the 14th of September 1714, he suddenly returned to his dominions, Stralsund and Wismar were all that remained to him of his continental possessions; while by the end of 1715 Sweden, now fast approaching the last stage of exhaustion, was at open war with England, Hanover, Russia, Prussia, Saxony and Denmark, who had formed a coalition to partition her continental territory between them.
Hitherto Sweden had kept aloof from continental complications; but the arrest Gustavus IV.
had undertaken to compel " Russia's geographical enemy," as Napoleon designated Sweden, to accede to the newly established Continental Russian System.
The notation employed by English writers for the general continued fraction is al b2 b3 b4 a 2 "' Continental writers frequently use the notation a 1 ?
Allen thought that folkland was similar to the Roman ager publicus: it was the common property of the nation (folc), and the king had to dispose of it by carving out dependent tenures for his followers more or less after the fashion of continental beneficia.
The seaward faces of these islands are perfectly regular and indica.ce the original continental coast-line.
After 1864 his home was in New York City, where he was until 1869 secretary of the New York Sabbath Committee (which fought the "continental Sunday"), and was corresponding secretary of the American Evangelical Alliance, of which he was in 1866 a founder.
These totals do not include the inhabitants and area of the Azores and Madeira Islands, which are officially regarded as parts of continental Portugal.
Six-sevenths of the population of continental Portugal inhabit the provinces north of the Tagus.
There is a steady trade in natural mineral waters, which occur in many parts of continental Portugal and the Azores.
5 a treasury was deeply indebted, had a capital of £1,500,000, and a monopoly of note issue in continental Portugal, but the notes of the Ultramarine Bank circulated in the colonies.
It was then decided that such rights should cease, except in the case of princes of royal blood and members then sitting, and that when all the hereditary peerages had lapsed the house should be composed of the princes of the royal blood, the archbishops and bishops of the continental dioceses, a hundred legislative peers appointed by the king for life, and fifty elected every new parliament by the Commons.
- Continental Portugal was formerly divided for administrative purposes into six provinces which corresponded to a great extent with the natural geographical divisions of the country and are described in separate articles; the names of these, which are still commonly used, are Entre-Minho-e-Douro (also called Entre-Douro-e-Minho or Minho), Traz-os-Montes, Beira, Estremadura, Alemtejo and Algarve.
Le Portugal (Paris, 1899), by 18 writers, is a brief but encyclopaedic description of continental Portugal.
(I) Between 1095 and 1279 a Portuguese kingdom was established and extended until it reached its present continental limits.
By his Berlin decree of the 21st of November 1806 Napoleon required all continental states to close their ports to British ships.
Novaya Zemlya is colder than Spitsbergen (which lies more to the N.) as in some degree it shares in the continental conditions of northern Russia and Siberia.
The whole state lies on the south-western exposure of a great roof whose crest, along the continental divide in western New Mexico, pitches southward.
His conduct in supporting measures, such as the Spanish treaty and the continental subsidies, which he had violently denounced when in opposition, had been much criticized; but within certain limits, not indeed very well defined, inconsistency has never been counted a vice in an English statesman.
At length, just after the meeting of parliament in November 1751, Pitt was dismissed from office, having on the debate on the address spoken at great length against a new system of continental subsidies, proposed by the government of which he was a member.
In April 1757, accordingly, he found himself again dismissed from office on account of his opposition to the king's favourite continental policy.
It effectually deprived her of the lead in the councils of Europe which she had hitherto arrogated to herself, and so affected the whole course of continental politics.
The town has a considerable agricultural and retail trade, and there is a monthly horse fair largely attended by English and continental buyers.
By way of compromise John Knox and other ministers drew up a new liturgy based upon earlier Continental Reformed Services, which was not deemed satisfactory, but which on his removal to Geneva he published in 1556 for the use of the English congregations in that city.