Consul sentence example
The son of the last king, Gaius Julius Antiochus Epiphanes Philopappus, was Roman consul for A.D.
It was largely owing to Consalvi's combined firmness and tact that the Concordat, as ultimately signed, was free from the objectionable clauses on which the First Consul had at first insisted.
The proxenus is generally compared to the modern consul or minister resident.
In 140 he was made consul.
Their subservience to Rome so enraged the Greek cities of Syria that the Roman envoy Graeus Octavius (consul 165 B.C.) was assassinated in Laodicea (162).(162).Advertisement
In 1839 he was appointed consul at Rotterdam, and in the following year transferred to Malaga, the place of origin of his mother's family.
Many of these marbles contain memorial inscriptions relating to the English residents (voluntary and involuntary) of Algiers from the time of John Tipton, British consul in 1580.
The former of these extends to August 1802, when the powers of the First Consul, which had been decreed for ten years, were prolonged to the duration of his life.
The powers formerly vested in elective bodies were now to be wielded by prefects and sub-prefects, nominated by the First Consul and responsible to him.
In 1790 he applied for and received the post of consul at New York.Advertisement
The rupture, therefore, took place in the middle of May; and on a flimsy pretext the First Consul ordered the detention in France of all English persons.
In this vote lay the justification of the acts of the First Consul and the pledge for the greatness of the emperor Napoleon.
Napoleon's powers as First Consul for Life were so wide as to render much extension both superfluous and impossible; but we may note here that the senate now gained a further accession of authority at the expense of the two legislative bodies; and practically legislation rested with the emperor, who sent his decrees to the senate to be registered as senatus consulta.
The prestige which the First Consul had gained by the Concordat was now lost by the overweening emperor.
Inside the fortress lies the old Protestant burying-ground, with tombs of Sackville, of John Murray, of Sir Francis Vincent, last ambassador but one from Great Britain to the republic, of Consul Smith, whose collection of books forms the nucleus of the King's library in the British Museum, and of Catherine Tofts, the singer, Smith's first wife.Advertisement
Gaius Lutatius Catulus, Roman commander during the First Punic War, consul 242 B.C. He was sent with a fleet of zoo ships to Sicilian waters, and almost without opposition occupied the harbours of Lilybaeum and Drepanum.
Quintus Lutatius Catulus (c. 120-61 B.C.), sometimes called Capitolinus, son of the above, consul in 102.
In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who after the death of Sulla proposed the overthrow of his constitution, the re-establishment of the distribution of grain, the recall of the banished, and other democratic measures.
In 107 Hadrian was legatus praetorius of lower Pannonia, in 108 consul suffectus, in 112 archon at Athens, legatus in the Parthian campaign (113117), in 117 consul designatus for the following year, in 119 consul for the third and last time only for four months.
The letter of Hadrian to the consul Servianus (in Vopiscus, Vita Saturnini, 8) is no longer considered genuine.Advertisement
This last occurrence ended his title of second consul; it was replaced by that of arch-chancellor of the Empire.
Here Pyrrhus, king of Epirus, defeated the consul Laevinus in 280 B.C., after he had crossed the river Siris.
Monge, vice-consul of France at Zaila, had bought Ambabo, and shortly afterwards Henri Lambert, French consul at Aden, bought the town and territory of Obok.
Lieutenant O'Neill, British consul at Mozambique, writing in 1880, fixed at about 3000 the number then annually exported from the coast between the rivers Rovuma and Zambesi.
As a lawyer his greatest public efforts were his lectures (1799) at Lincoln's Inn on the law of nature and nations, of which the introductory discourse was published, and his eloquent defence (1803) of Jean Gabriel Peltier, a French refugee, tried at the instance of the French government for a libel against the first consul.Advertisement
Adventus, to whom it is dedicated, is identified with Oclatinius Adventus, consul A.D.
After careful examination of the nine Acillii, who were consuls, De Rossi concludes that this was the resting-place of that Acilius Glabrio, consul with Trajan, A.D.
For some years, however, she was able to alternate between Coppet and Paris without difficulty, though not without knowing that the First Consul disliked her.
The publication of A Journal written during an Excursion in Asia Minor (London, 1839) roused such interest that Lord Palmerston, at the request of the British Museum authorities, asked the British consul at Constantinople to get leave from the sultan to ship a number of the Lycian works of art.
In 223, when consul with P. Furius Philus, he took the field against the Gauls, who were said to have been roused to war by his agrarian law.
He was twice dictator and six times consul, and occupied the curule chair twenty-one times.
Maret now became one of the First Consul's secretaries and shortly afterwards secretary of state.
The ardour of his republican principles gave place, after the 18th Brumaire, to devotion towards the first consul, a sentiment promptly rewarded with the post of minister of the interior.
The conspiracy, however, was put down and Bestia had to content himself with delivering a violent attack upon the consul on the expiration of his office.
The German consul at Pretoria at this j uncture as a volatile, sanguine man, with visionary ideas of the important part Germany was to play in the future as the patron and ally of the South African Republic, and of the extent to which the Bismarckian policy might go in abetting an anti-British campaign.
After the sack of the city by Genseric (Geiseric) in 455, he fled to Constantinople, where in 464 he was made consul, and about the same time married Placidia, daughter of Valentinian III.
In 143 he was consul for two months, but declined the proconsulship of Asia on the ground of ill-health.
The invention of the mechanical air-pump is generally attributed to Otto von Guericke, consul of Magdeburg, who exhibited his instrument in 1654; it was first described in 1657 by Gaspar Schott, professor of mathematics at Wurttemberg, in his NI echanica hydraulico-pneumatica, and afterwards (in 1672) by Guericke in his Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacus spatia.
Meanwhile (1877-1881) the French consul, de Sarzec, had been excavating at Tello, the ancient Lagash, and bringing to light monuments of the pre-Semitic age, which included the diorite statues of Gudea now in the Louvre, the stone of which, according to the inscriptions upon them, had been brought from Magan, the Sinaitic peninsula.
The conduct of these excavations, owing to the death of George Smith, devolved on Consul Henderson of Aleppo, and was not satisfactorily carried out.
At the age of fifteen he decided on a military career, and having obtained an introduction to Napoleon Bonaparte, then first consul, was admitted to the Military.
At last, through Fouche and Talleyrand, he got the appointment of consul at Alicante, and remained there until he lost the sight of one eye from yellow fever.
A Russian consul resides here and the town is a military station.
He merely took orders to enable him to ascend the papal chair, having previously been a consul and senator.
In 37 8 Paulinus was raised to the rank of consul suffectus, and in the following year he appears to have been sent as consularis into Campania.
Appointed consul suffectus in the following year, he was admitted into the college of pontiffs and made governor of Britain.
The fall of Pitt's first ministry and the formation of the Addington cabinet, the peace of'Amiens, and the establishment of Napoleon as first consul with all the powers of a military despot, seemed to offer Fox a chance of resuming power in public life.
In 514 he was ordinary consul, and at a later date possibly corrector of his native province.
His father, Louis Chenier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years of successful commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople.
These ruins were discovered in 1877 by Ernest de Sarzec, at that time French consul at Basra, who was allowed, by the Montefich chief, Nasir Pasha, the first Wali-Pasha, or governor-general, of Basra, to excavate at his pleasure in the territories subject to that official.
In 31 Messalla was appointed consul in place of Antony, and took part in the battle of Actium.
Manius Valerius Maximus Corvinus Messalla, consul 263 B.C. In this year, with his colleague Manius Otacilius (or Octacilius) Crassus, he gained a brilliant victory over the Carthaginians and Syracusans; the honour of a triumph was decreed to him alone.
On the 1st of September in the year zoo, when Trajan was consul for the third time, Pliny, who had been designated consul for a part of the year, was appointed to deliver the "Panegyric" which has come down to us, and forms a most important source of our knowledge concerning this emperor.
Cornelius Lentulus Caudinus (consul 275).
He was praetor in 75, governor of Sicily 74, consul 71.
When consul (49) he advised the rejection of all peace terms offered by Caesar, and declared that, if the senate did not at once decide upon opposing him by force of arms, he would act upon his own responsibility.
In the great work of reconstruction of France now begun by the First Consul, Talleyrand played no unimportant part.
He had a hand in the pacific overtures which Bonaparte, early in the year 1800, sent to the court of London; and, whatever may have been the motives of the First Consul in sending them, it is certain that Talleyrand regretted their failure.
On the other hand he helped the First Consul in assuring French supremacy in Switzerland, Italy and Germany.
While helping to establish French supremacy in neighbouring states and assisting Bonaparte in securing the title of First Consul for life, Talleyrand sought all means of securing the permanent welfare of France.
Thus he represented in the earliest times the king and in later times the consul or consuls when he or they were absent on a campaign or on other public duties, such as the celebration of the annual Latin festival on the Alban Mount.
The British consul and the customs outdoor staff occupy foreign-built houses on Conquest Island, which lies abreast of the city.
Here also was the grave of John Howard Payne, author of "Home, Sweet Home" and consul for the United States, who died at Tunis in 1852.
He tendered his resignation later in the year, but it was long before the First Consul would accept it.
In 27 Agrippa was consul for the third time, and in the following year the senate bestowed upon Octavian the emperial title of Augustus.
In resigning his office in the following year he was actuated as much by these considerations as by the scruples he put forward in serving longer under Napoleon, when the latter, in violation of strict republican principles, became consul for life.
He was praetor (66) and twice consul, in 71 with the emperor Vespasian for colleague, and again in 90 with Domitian.
His fortunes rose rapidly on the attainment of the dignity of First Consul by his former charge, Napoleon, after the coup d'etat of Brumaire (November 1799).
In 101 Marius was elected consul a fifth time (previously in 107, 104, 103, 102), hailed as the "saviour of his country," and honoured with a triumph of unprecedented splendour.
He had himself elected consul for the seventh time, in fulfilment of a prophecy given to him in early manhood.
This diplomatic triumph in its turn led to the consolidation of Napoleon's power as First Consul for life (August I, 1802) with the chief voice in the selection of his successor.
He accepted office as minister of the interior, but was soon deprived of it owing to political and personal differences with the First Consul.
The First Consul, finding his plans of seizing Lisbon frustrated, remonstrated with his brother, who thereupon resigned his post, and returned to Paris, there taking part in the opposition which the Tribunate offered to some of Napoleon's schemes.
His wife had died in 1800; he became enamoured of a Mme Jouberthou in the early summer of 1802, made her his mistress, and finally, despite the express prohibition of the First Consul, secretly married her at his residence of Plessis (on October 23, 1803).
In 1802 the First Consul married him to Hortense Beauharnais, a forced union which led to most deplorable results.
Bowring signed a new treaty whereby Siam agreed to the appointment of a British consul in Bangkok, and to the exercise by that official of full extraterritorial powers.
Thus foreigners in Siam, except Chinese who have no consul, could only be tried for criminal offences, or sued in civil cases, in their own consular courts.
Lemaire, the French consul at Cairo, sent the Academy an account of the mode of manufacturing sal ammoniac in Egypt.
The first consul nominated him inspector-general of studies; he succeeded Lalande in 1807 as professor of astronomy at the College de France, and filled the office of treasurer to the imperial university from 1808 until its suppression in 1815.
In 52 he was consul suffectus, and (perhaps in 61) proconsul of Asia.
In 495 he was consul, and his cruel enforcement of the laws of debtor and creditor, in opposition to his milder colleague, P. Servilius Priscus, was one of the chief causes of the "secession" of the plebs to the Sacred Mount.
Claudius, Appius, surnamed Crassus, a Roman patrician, consul in 471 and 451 B.C., and in the same and following year one of the decemvirs.
He was banished, but soon returned, and again became consul.
In 3 12 B.C. he was elected censor without having passed through the office of consul.
In 307 he was elected consul for the first time.
In 2 4 9 he was consul and appointed to the command of the fleet in the first Punic War.
About ten years after the death of Sidonius we find Asterius, the consul of 494, critically revising the text of Virgil in Rome.
Meanwhile the white traders in Fiji had played an intimate part in the internal political affairs of the group, and in 1858 King Thakombau, being threatened with reprisals by the American consul on account of certain losses of property which he had sustained, asked for British protection, but did not obtain it.
The accession of Napoleon Bonaparte to power in November 1 799 led to the employment of Daru as chief commissary to the Army of Reserve intended for North Italy, and commanded nominally by Berthier, but really by the First Consul.
It is one of the chief cities of the region, owing to the importance of its bazaars, and is the seat of the Russian consul and a telegraph station.
Caesar's uncle was consul in 91 B.C., and his father held the praetorship. Most of the family seem to have belonged to the senatorial party (optimates); but Caesar himself was from the first a popularis.
The bill was defeated by Cicero, consul in 63 B.C. In the same year the conspiracy associated with the name of Catiline came to a head.
Returning to Rome, he held the dictatorship for eleven days, was elected consul for 48 B.C., and set sail for Epirus at Brundisium on the 4th of January.
As consul in 59 B.C. Caesar had established colonies.
Flavius Clemens, who was consul with his cousin, the Emperor Domitian, in A.D.
In 75 he was consul, and excited the hostility of the optimates by carrying a law that abolished the Sullan disqualification of the tribunes from holding higher magistracies; another law de judiciis privatis, of which nothing is known, was abrogated by his brother.
The founder of the house was Ansaldo d'Oria, consul of Genoa in the 12th century, but the authentic pedigree is traced no further back than to Paolo d'Oria (1335).
Though in no way amnestied, he returned to Paris, but was expelled by the First Consul, who was eager to be on good terms with Spain.
After the 18th Brumaire he refused the pardon offered by the First Consul.
His Humid brethren went so far as to expel him for a time from the society - the chief ground of offence being apparently his ruthless criticism of the "Arameans," a party of the academicians who maintained that the Florentine or Tuscan tongue was derived from the Hebrew, the Chaldee, or some other branch of the Semitic. He was readmitted in 1566, when his friend Salviati was "consul" of the academy.
In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at GÃ¶ttingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the khedive.
When the relations of Caesar and Pompey became strained, Bibulus supported Pompey (Plutarch, Cato Minor, 41) and joined in proposing his election as sole consul (52 B.C.).
Of the Acilii Balbi, one Manius Acilius Balbus was consul in 150 B.C., another in 114.
After Caesar's murder, Balbus seems to have attached himself to Octavian; in 43 or 42 he was praetor, and in 40 consul - an honour then for the first time conferred on an alien.
A consul-general can be promoted to a diplomatic post, and take with him to his higher office the practical experience a consul gains of the material interests of the country to which he belongs.
When praetor (193 B.C.) he served with distinction in Spain, and as consul in 189 he completely broke the power of the Aetolian league.
The supplementary Organic Articles of April 1802, however, centralized the administration of the Church in the hands of the First Consul; and some of these one-sided regulations were considered by Rome to be minute and oppressive; nevertheless, the Napoleonic arrangements remained in force, with but brief exceptions, till the year 1905.
The latter is dedicated to a consul Antonius Gordianus, perhaps one of the two Gordians who were killed in 238.
Terentius Varro Lucullus, who was consul in 73 B.C. Under the empire Praeneste, from its elevated situation and cool salubrious air, became a favourite summer resort of the wealthy Romans, whose villas studded the neighbourhood.
At Smyrna he met with a kind reception from the English consul, Mr Bretton, upon whose death he afterwards wrote a Latin elegy.
They sent out, therefore, to Kumasi, as consul, Mr Joseph Dupuis, formerly consul at Mogador, who arrived at Cape Coast in January 1819.
The death of the senior officer (Consul Beecroft) occurring at Fernando Po, Baikie succeeded to the command.
In March 1857 Baikiewith the rank of British consul - started on another expedition in the "Pleiad."
They were ultimately smuggled out of the country by the British consul at Havre as Mr and Mrs Smith,' arriving at Newhaven "unprovided with anything but the clothes they wore."
For a few days Primus was virtually ruler of Rome, and the senate bestowed upon him the rank and insignia of a consul.
Entering the diplomatic service in 1876, he became in 1878 consul in London.
Although British influence was powerful and the British consul for the Oil Rivers during this period exercised considerable authority over the native chiefs, requests made by them - in particular by the Dualla chiefs in 1882 - for annexation by Great Britain, were refused or neglected, with the result that when Germany started on her quest to pick up unappropriated parts of the African coast she was enabled to secure Cameroon.
Hewett, British consul, arrived with a mission to annex the country to Great Britain.'
During the next twenty-five years expeditions were despatched into the interior, and a British consul was posted at Lokoja.
Pouqueville, who spent no less than ten years as French General Consul at Iannina, had special facilities for obtaining firsthand information and although his observations and deductions seemed at times somewhat suspect to the British they were later recognized as being truest to the realities of the epoch.
He named no consul after Basilius, who was the name-giving consul of 541.
They certainly joined in the revolt of the Gauls under Hamilcar (200), but after they had been defeated by the consul Gaius Cornelius (197) they finally submitted.
A list of kings, similar to that of Seti, formerly stood here; but the fragments were removed by the French consul and sold to the British Museum.
There were rajas in the clan, but the word meant at most something like consul or archon.
It was a title merely of rank, not of office; its holder ranked next after the emperor and the consul.
The emperor Zeno enacted that no one could become patricius who had not been praejectus militum, consul or magister militum, but less careful emperors gave the title to their favourites, however young and undistinguished.
Within the precincts of the city the axe was removed, in recognition of the right of appeal (provocatio) to the people in a matter of life and death; outside Rome, however, each consul retained the axe, and was preceded by his own lictors, not merely by a single accensus (supernumerary), as was originally the case within the city when he was not officiating.
Later, the lictors preceded the officiating consul, and walked behind the other.
He graduated at Union College in 1835, practised law in New York for several years after 1839; took up journalistic work; was joint owner (with William Cullen Bryant) and managing editor of the New York Evening Post (1849-1861); was United States consul at Paris in 1861-1864, and was minister to France in 1864-1867.
While consul, Bigelow wrote Les Etats-Unis d'Amerique en 1863 in order to counteract the apparent desire of the French people for a dissolution of the American Union, by showing them the relative importance of the commerce of the northern and southern states.
It is dedicated to Quintus Veranius Nepos, consul 49, and legate of Britain.
But when the European war broke out again in the following year, Napoleon (then first consul) became very exacting in his demands on King Ferdinand, who consequently played a double game, appearing to accede to these demands while negotiating with England.
Having completed (when consul in 338 B.C.) the subjugation of Latium, which with Campania had revolted against Rome, he was honoured by a triumph, and a column was erected to him in the Forum.
Annius Milo on the Appian Way (on the 18th of January), which brought about the appointment of Pompey as sole consul and the passing of the special laws dealing with rioting and bribery.
At home it was understood that he would year by year be elected consul, and enjoy the powers and pre-eminence attached to the chief magistracy of the Roman state.
Three years later (2 B.C.) Augustus, now consul for the 13th and last time, paid a similar compliment to the younger brother Lucius.
Disgusted at his failure to become consul in 60, he retired from public life, and devoted himself to writing a history of the Social and Civil Wars.
Publius Licinius Crassus, surnamed Dives Mucianus, Roman statesman, orator and jurist, consul, 131 B.C. He was the son of P. Mucius Scaevola (consul 175) and was adopted by a P. Licinius Crassus Dives.
Little is known of him before he became consul in 97, except that he proposed a law regulating the expenses of the table, which met with general approval.
Soon afterwards he was elected consul with Pompey, and (70) displayed his wealth by entertaining the populace at Io,000 tables, and distributing sufficient corn to last each family three months.
In 55 he was again consul with Pompey, and a law was passed, assigning the provinces of the two Spains and Syria to the two consuls for five years.
From 1849 to 1853 he was United States consul at Liverpool, England.
To meet this increase of business the tenure of office of the praetors and also of the consuls was practically prolonged from one to two years, with the distinction that in their second year of office they bore the titles of propraetor and proconsul instead of praetor and consul.
The election of a plebeian to the office for the first time in 337 was certainly opposed by the consul who presided at the election, but there appears to have been no legal obstacle to it.
Besides their judicial functions, the praetors, as colleagues of the consuls, possessed, though in a less degree, all the consular powers, which they regularly exercised in the absence of the consuls; but in the presence of a consul they exercised them only at the special command either of the consul or, more usually, of the senate.
Fulgence Fresnel first established the importance of the inscriptions discovered by these Englishmen, and in 1843, when French consul at Jeddah, obtained through a French traveller, Francois Arnaud, information about other monuments of the same kind.
The epidemic spread generally over Provence, but not to other parts of France, notwithstanding that, as confessed by D'Antrechaus, consul of Toulon, a believer in the exclusive power of contagion, there were abundant opportunities.
Three years later the triumph of the Jacobins brought with it the " abolition of Christianity," and a spell of violent persecution, which gradually slackened under the Directory (1795-99) In 1799 Napoleon became First Consul, and at once set himself to deal with the ecclesiastical problem.
The last-named official soon confined himself to the judicial magisterial office, and a further increase in the numbers of the council having taken place by the appointment of 8 nominees of the king, a municipal council of 34, under the direction of the senior consul or burgomaster, dealt with matters exclusively civic. Later this council (the kleine Rat) was increased to 42 members, 8 of whom belonged to the artisan class.
During the first Servile War it was occupied by Eunous and some of his followers, but was at length taken by the consul Publius Rupilius in 132.
Their request for land was not granted, and in 109 B.C. they defeated the consul Marcus Junius Silanus in southern Gaul, but did not at once follow up the victory.
In spite of his bad reputation, he was elected tribune in 71, praetor in 66, and consul with Cicero in 63.
In 44 he was consul with Caesar, and seconded his ambition by the famous offer of the crown at the festival of Lupercalia (February 15).
In 41 he was consul, and had a dispute with Octavian, which led to the so-called Perusian War, in which he was supported by Fulvia (Mark Antony's wife), who was anxious to recall her husband from Cleopatra's court.
In 44 he was city praetor, his brothers Marcus and Lucius being consul and tribune respectively in the same year.
Brit., 11 General Louis P. di Cesnola (q.v.), American consul, was already exploring ancient sites, and opening tombs, in all parts of the island, though his results were not published till 1877.12 But though his vast collection, now 1 Dio Cass.
He possessed a remarkably fine private library, which he delighted to fill with valuable manuscripts from every part of Europe where France had placed a consul.
About 1780 Jezzar peremptorily banished the French trading colony, in spite of protests from the French government, and refused to receive a consul.
Crassus (30-28), not to that of Cornelius Lentulus, who was not consul till 18.
Fabius Maximus Servilianus (consul 142); or there may have been two annalists of the name of Fabius Pictor.
If, however, circumstances should be of a nature to require a second inquiry, it shall not take place without previous notice given to the minister, or the charg daffaires, or the consul, and in this case the business shall only be proceeded with at the supreme chancery of the shah at Tabriz or Teheran, likewise in the presence of a dragoman of the mission, or, of the consulate.
The bey has a palace here, and the French resident-general, the British consul, other officials, and many Tunisians have country-houses, surrounded by groves of olive trees.
Fonteius Capito was consul in 67.
Lastly, the practice of divination and the consul tation of oracles afforded a means of communication between God and man - a concession to popular beliefs.
Of these the Pisan agent at Constantinople bore the title of consul, the Venetian that of baylo.
They have to serve three years abroad or attached to some ministerial department before they can enter for the examination which entitles them to an appointment as attache or as consul suppleant.
Where an offence has been committed on the high seas, or aboard ashore, by British seamen or apprentices, the consul makes inquiry on oath, and may send home the offender and witnesses by a British ship, particulars for the Board of Trade being endorsed on the agreement for conveyance.
Every British mercantile ship, not carrying passengers, on entering a port gives into the custody of the consul to be endorsed by him the seamen's agreement, the certificate of registry, and the official log-book; a failure to do this is reported to the registrar-general of seamen.
If a British master engage seamen at a foreign port, the engagement is sanctioned by the consul, acting as a superintendent of Mercantile Marine Offices.
The consul collects the property (including arrears of wages) of British seamen or apprentices dying abroad, and remits to H.M.
Complaints by crews as to the quality and quantity of the provisions on board are investigated by the consul, who enters a statement in the log-book and reports to the Board of Trade.
The consul may even defray the expenses of maintaining, and forwarding to their destination, passengers taken off or picked up from wrecked or injured vessels, if the master does not undertake to proceed in six weeks; these expenses becoming, in terms of the Passenger Acts 1855 and 1863, a debt due to His Majesty from the owner or charterer.
In the case of a foreign wreck the consul is held to be the agent of the foreign owner.
He is practically free from the multifarious duties which the English consul has to discharge in connexion with the mercantile marine, nor has he to perform marriage ceremonies; and financially he is much better off, being allowed to retain as personal all fees obtained from his notarial duties.
The Committee of 1903 was appointed to inquire, inter alia, whether the limits of age-25 to 50 - for candidates should be altered, and whether service as a vice-consul for a certain period should be required to qualify for promotion to the rank of consul; whether means could not be adopted to give consular officers opportunities of increasing their practical knowledge of commercial matters and to bring them more into personal contact with the commercial community.
The question was raised in France in 1843 by the case of the Spanish consul Soller at Aix, and in America in 1854 by the case of Dillon, the French consul at San Francisco, who, on being arrested by Judge Hoffmann for declining to give evidence in a criminal suit, pulled down his consular flag.
They form a class by themselves, and are distinct from the consular agents, who are simply deputy consuls in districts where there is no principal consul.
By a law of April 1906 the U.S. consular service was reorganized and graded, the office of consul-general being divided into seven classes, and that of consul into nine classes; and on June 27 an executive order was issued by President Roosevelt governing appointments and promotions.
When consul in 191 B.C. he defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria at Thermopylae, and compelled him to leave Greece.
The British consulate was withdrawn in January 1899, British interests being placed under the care of the consul at Ich'ang.
The other consul, C. Antonius, in whom Catiline hoped to find a supporter, was won over and got out of the way by Cicero, who resigned the province of Macedonia in his favour.
Next day Cicero awoke the terror of the people by a second oration delivered in the forum, in consequence of which Catiline and Manlius were declared public enemies, and the consul Antonius was despatched with an army against them.
In 275, after Pyrrhus had returned from Sicily to Italy, Dentatus (again consul) took the field against him.
The king had twelve lictors; each of the consuls (immediately after their institution) twelve, subsequently limited to the monthly officiating consul, although Caesar appears to have restored the original arrangement; the dictator, as representing both consuls, twenty-four; the emperors twelve, until the time of Domitian, who had twenty-four.
Botta, then French consul at Mosul, discovered the remains of an Assyrian palace and town, at which excavations were conducted by him and Flandin in 1843-1844, and again by Victor Place in 1851-1855.
Calpurnius Piso, tribune in 149 B.C. and consul in 133 B.C., prided himself on reducing the old legends to the level of common sense, and importing into them valuable moral lessons for his own generation.
In the former case he is clothed with various Roman titles and offices, as patrician and consul; but in all cases alike he remains the national East Gothic king.
In Theodoric's theory the Goth was the armed protector of the peaceful Roman; the Gothic king had the toil of government, while the Roman consul had the honour.
The Francke-Tina process, named from Francke, German consul at Bolivia, and tina, the wooden vat in which the process is carried out, was developed in Bolivia for the treatment of refractory ores rich in zinc blende and tetrahedrite (fahl-ore).
In 74 he became consul, and went to Asia at the head of about 30,000 foot and 2000 horse, to defend the province of Bithynia against Mithradates, who was besieging his colleague, Marcus Aurelius Cotta, in Chalcedon on the Propontis.
In 79 he was curule aedile with his brother, in 77 praetor, in 73 consul with Gaius Cassius Varus.
In 12 he was made consul, and increased his popularity by appearing as an advocate in the courts of justice, and by the celebration of brilliant games.
At first he was treated with great consideration by Nero, probably owing to the influence of Seneca, and became consul in A.D.
Many of his acts, however, gave great offence, particularly the seizure of $800,000 which had been deposited in the office of the Dutch consul, and an order, issued after some provocation, on May 15th, that if any woman should "insult or show contempt for any officer or soldier of the United States, she shall be regarded and shall be held liable to be treated as a woman of the town plying her avocation."
This despatch failed to evoke any response from the powers, with the single exception of Turkey, but the public agitation against the Congo State regime continued to grow in force, being greatly strengthened by the publication in February 1904 of a report by Mr Roger Casement, then British consul at Boma, on a journey which he had made through the middle Congo region in 1903 (described as the "Upper" Congo in the report).
Thesiger, consul at Boma, who in a memorandum on the application of the labour tax, after detailing various abuses, added," The system which gave rise to these abuses still continues unchanged, and so long as it is unaltered the condition of the natives must remain one of veiled slavery."Eight days later (on the 5th of March) an additional act was signed in Brussels annulling the clauses in the treaty of cession concerning the Fondation, which was to cease to exist on the day Belgium assumed the sovereignty of the Congo and its property to be absorbed in the state domains.
Boma (q.v.) is the headquarters of the local administration and the residence of a British consul.
He entered Brown University in 1824, left in his junior year on account of ill-health, was in Europe during the next twenty years, except in 1833-1834, when he was principal of Kent Academy at East Greenwich, and was the United States consul at Rome from 18 3 7 to 1845.
In 58 B.e., when consul, he and his colleague Aulus Gabinius entered into a compact with P. Clodius, with the object of getting Cicero out of the way.
As praetor (136) and consul (133) Piso fought against the slaves in Sicily.
Gnaeus Calpurnius Piso, Roman statesman, was consul in 7 B.C., and subsequently governor of Spain and proconsul of Africa.
The British consul, Walter C. Plowden, who was strongly attached to Theodore, having been ordered by his government Theodore's in 1860 to return to Massawa, was attacked on his quarrel way by a rebel named Garred, mortally wounded, with Great and taken prisoner.
Cameron was appointed to succeed him as consul, and arrived at Massawa in February 1862.
Neither to this nor a subsequent application was any answer returned till August 1865, when a curt note was received, stating that Consul Cameron had been released, and if Mr Rassam still desired to visit the king, he was to proceed by the route of Gallabat.
He was then appointed consul at Algiers and Smyrna (1798), was kept prisoner by the Turks for three years, and subsequently became prefect of the department of Mont-Tonnerre (180t) and commissary-general of the three departments on the left bank of the Rhine.
In 328 B.C. the Palaeopolitans having provoked the hostility of Rome by their incursions upon her Campanian allies, the consul Publilius Philo marched against them, and having taken his position between the old and the new city, laid regular siege to Palaeopolis.
By the aid of a strong Samnite garrison which they received, the Palaeopolitans were long able to withstand the attacks of the consul; but at length the city was betrayed into the hands of the Romans by two of her citizens.
Neapolis possibly surrendered to the consul without any resistance, as it was received on favourable terms, had its liberties secured by a treaty, and obtained the chief authority, which previously seems to have been enjoyed by the older city.
In 1797 he was appointed consul to Tunis, where he arrived in February 1799.
Thus, when it became customary for the consul to celebrate games at the opening of the consular year, he came, under the empire, to appear in triumphal robes in the processes consularis, or procession of the consul to the Capitol to sacrifice to Jupiter.
From 1834 to 1848 the Russian consul at Bucharest was all-powerful.
In 1857 he severed his connexion with the London Missionary Society, with whom, however, he always remained on the best of terms, and in February 1858 he accepted the appointment of "Her Majesty's consul at Quilimane for the eastern coast and the independent districts in the interior, and commander of an expedition for exploring eastern and central Africa."
He was appointed British consul to Central Africa without a salary, and government contributed only f 50o to the expedition.
The King's library in the British Museum has a valuable collection of tracts in the Interdict controversy, formed by Consul Smith.
In 1853 he went on personal business to Smyrna, where he secured a passport from the American consul;; the Austrian consul, however, caused him to be seized and detained on an Austrian brig-of-war.
Ingraham (1802-1891), in command of a United States sloop-of-war, arrived at Smyrna, and threatened to attack the Austrian vessel unless Koszta were released; and as a compromise Koszta was placed in the custody of the French consul.
Lutatius Catulus, the other consul, he' defeated Lepidus when he tried to march upon Rome, and drove him out of Italy (77).
After having held several curule offices, he was consul elect in A.D.
On his return Drusus was consul a second time (21) and in the following year received the tribunician authority from Tiberius, which practically indicated him as heir to the throne.
A consul could refuse to accept their decree while he remained in office, but on retiring he could be prosecuted.
He was consul in 54 B.C., and in 49 he was appointed by the senate to succeed Caesar as governor of Gaul.
He took part in Antony's Parthian campaigns, and was consul in 32.
Consul in 146 B.C. Mummius was appointed to take command of the Achaean War, and having obtained an easy victory over the incapable Diaeus, entered Corinth unopposed.
He could not believe that bargaining of that kind could go on in Cairo without coming to the knowledge of the British consul there.
In 1863 Sir Richard Burton, then British consul at Fernando Po, went to Benin to try and put a stop to human sacrifices, an attempt in which he did not succeed.
In 1888 he became consul to the Congo Free State.
Since 1898 there has been a British consul at Basra (before that time he was a representative of the Indian government).
The number of foreigners, other than British, who took up their abode in the British settlement at Shanghai made it soon necessary to adopt some more catholic form of government than that supplied by a British consul who had control only over British subjects, and by common agreement a committee of residents, consisting of a chairman and six members, was elected by the renters of land for the purposes of general municipal administration.
In 55, 53 and 52 interreges are again found, the last-mentioned being on the occasion when Pompey was elected sole consul.
He was harassed, too, by an arbitrary demand for £9000 from the American government, for alleged injuries to their consul.
At last Thakombau, disappointed in the hope that his acceptance of Christianity (1854) would improve his position, offered the sovereignty to Great Britain (1859) with the fee simple of 100,000 acres, on condition of her paying the American claims. Colonel Smythe, R.A., was sent out to report on the question, and decided against annexation, but advised that the British consul should be invested with full magisterial powers over his countrymen, a step which would have averted much subsequent difficulty.
In 1878 the French consul, Laborde, died, and a dispute arose as to the disposal of his property.
At Tours he received from the distant emperor at Constantinople the diploma and insignia of patricius and Roman consul, which legalized his military conquests by putting him in possession of civil powers.
On the very day of his coronation Pippin allowed himself to be proclaimed patrician of the Romans by the pope, just as Clovis had been made consul.
But he abolished the post of Grand Elector, which Sieys had reserved for himself, in order to reinforce the real authority of the First Consul himselfby leaving the two other consuls, Cambacrs and Lebrun, as well as the Assemblies, equally weak.
Thus the aristocratic constitution of Sieys was transformed into an unavowed dictatorship, a public ratification of which the First Consul obtained by a third coup detat from the intimidated and yet reassured electors-reassured by his dazzling but unconvincing offers of peace to the victorious Coalition (which repulsed them), by the rapid disarmament of La Vende, and by the proclamations in which he filled the ears of the infatuated people with the new talk of stability of government, order, justice and moderation.
Thenceforward the brow of the emperor broke through the thin mask of the First May 18, Consul.
The delta of the Niger has been partially surveyed since it became British territory by various ship captains, officials of the Royal Niger Company and others, including Sir Harry Johnston, sometime British consul for the Oil Rivers.
The pagan party was led by Quintus Aurelius Symmachus, consul in 391, who presented to Valentinian II.
In 1612 there appeared a similar work, devoted to the consideration of consular authority and the Roman senate, Ciceronis Consul, Senator, Senatusque Romanus.
At the same time he was proclaimed consul elect, and adopted by Ulpius Crinitus, military governor of Illyria and Thrace.
From this island it was possible to exercise a certain control over the townspeople, and a consul was stationed there to watch affairs.
Sherard, British consul at Smyrna, containing the preamble and the beginning of the tables down to No.
On the second occasion the Algerines blew the French consul from a gun during the action.
He was indirectly concerned in the attempt made by Saint Regent in the rue Sainte Nicaise on the life of the First Consul, in December 1800, and fled to England again.
The Roman consul declined the proffered assistance, but Polybius accompanied him throughout the campaign, and thus gained his first insight into the military system of Rome.
The estimation in which he was held at Rome is clearly shown by the anxiety of the consul Marcus (or Manlius) Manilius (149) to take him as his adviser on his expedition against Carthage.
He spent eight years in Egypt, being appointed consul in 1845; in 1848 he was made consul at Palermo, and in 1851 he accompanied the marquis, who had been appointed ambassador at Constantinople, as first secretary.
After the war Laelius advanced from plebeian aedile (197) to praetor in Sicily (196) to consul (190 ).
He lived mainly in Rome, where he was appointed British consul in 1860.
He became the British consul in Hamburg, a post which he then resigned to become a full-time writer.
His courageous struggle against the war achieved international recognition and in 1918 he was made honorary Soviet consul in Glasgow.
I gave a bow, which might mean either no or yes, and asked the consul what the party was.
These turn out to be the Commercial Consul at the British consul at the British consulate at Osaka and the Trade Commissioner in the Hong Kong consulate.
That's why the honorary consul brought you to me.
The five were denied access to the British consul for over two weeks.
The consul General, head of the French consul in London, will also be in attendance to mark the occasion.
The german consul is just now the one who supports him.
An American consul based in Algiers Robert Daniel Murphy was tasked with sounding out how cooperative the French army would be.
I have mentioned the name of the new English consul.
After our meal the vise consul paid us a visit and listened gravely to our complaints.
The supreme law court Consul In the Republic, there were two officials who were appointed each year to the role of consul.
Approach them to stage a solidarity vigil on the first day of our trail at an Irish Embassy or Consul.
One effect of the Taiping rebellion was to close the native custom-house at Shanghai; and as Lhe corrupt alternatives proposed by the Chinese were worse than useless, it was arranged by Sir Rutherford Alcock, the British consul, with his French and American colleagues, that they should undertake to collect the duties on goods owned by foreigners entering and leaving the port.
He married (about 452) Papianilla, the daughter of Avitus, who was consul and afterwards emperor.
The deputies having been dazzled by I tes anc reviews, Talleyrand and Marescalchi, ministers of foreign affain at Paris and Milan, plied them with hints as to the course to th followed by the consulta; and, despite the rage of the mon democratic of their number, everything corresponded to thi wishes of the First Consul.
Ignorant of the assurance conveyed to France by Lord Granville that the Gladstone cabinet would respect the engagements of the Beaconsfield-Salisbury administration, Cairoli, in deference to Italian public opinion, endeavoured to neutralize the activity of the French consul Roustan by the appointment of an equally energetic Italian consul, Macci.
Bismarck nevertheless continued his press campaign in favor of the temporal power until, reassured by Gambettas decision to send Roustan back to Tunis to complete as minister the anti-Italian programme begun as consul, he finally instructed his organs to emphasize the common interests of Germany and Italy on the occasion of the opening of the St Gothard tunnel.
The gratitude of the French for this triumph found expression in a proposal, emanating from the Tribunate, that the First Consul should receive a pledge of the gratitude of the nation.
When referred to the senate, the matter underwent secret manipulation, largely through the influence of Cambaceres; but the republican instinct even in the senate was sufficiently strong to thwart the intrigues of the second consul; and that body on the 8th of May merely re-elected Bonaparte for a second term of ten years after the expiration of the first decennial term for which he was chosen.
Despite the evidence which Fouche and others brought forward to incriminate the royalists, the First Consul persisted in attributing the outrage to the Jacobins, had a list of suspects drawn up, and caused the Council of State to declare that a special precautionary measure was necessary.
In central Italy the influence of the First Consul was paramount; for in 1801 he transformed the grand duchy of Tuscany into the kingdom of Etruria for the duke of Parma; and, seeing that that promotion added lustre to the fortunes of the duchess of Parma (a Spanish infanta), Spain consented lamely enough to the cession of Louisiana to France.
Quintus Lutatius Catulus, Roman general and consul with Marius in 102 B.C. In the war against the Cimbri and Teutones he was sent to defend the passage of the Alps but found himself compelled to retreat over the Po, his troops having been reduced to a state of panic (see Marius, GAIus).
It must suffice to say that the skilful intervention of Cambaceres helped very materially to ensure to Napoleon the consulship for life (August 1, 1802); but the second consul is known to have disapproved of some of the events which followed, notably the execution of the duc d'Enghien, the rupture with England, and the proclamation of the Empire (May 19, 1804).
Pompeia, probably founded by Pompeius Strabo (consul 89 B.C.) when he constructed the road from Aquae Statiellae (Acqui) to Augusta Taurinorum (Turin).
Talleyrand had rarely succeeded in bending the will of the First Consul.
Aix (Aquae Sextiae) was founded in 123 B.C. by the Roman consul Sextius Calvinus, who gave his name to its springs.
The Institutiones grammaticae is a systematic exposition of Latin grammar, dedicated to Julian, consul and patrician, whom some have identified with the author of a well-known epitome of Justinian's Novellae, but the lawyer appears to be somewhat later than Priscian.
In 1864 he was consul at Cairo, in 1868 professor at GÃƒ¶ttingen, and in 1870 director of the school of Egyptology, founded at Cairo by the khedive.
In 209 he was censor, and in 204 consul.
Originally the quaestors seem to have been nominated by the consuls, but later, perhaps from the fall of the decemvirs (449 B.C.), they were elected by the people assembled in tribes (comitia tributa) under the presidency of a consul or another of the higher magistrates.
Indeed it was a rule that the quaestor attached to a higher magistrate should hold office as long as his superior; hence, when a consul regularly presided over the city for one year, and afterwards as proconsul governed a province for another year, his quaestor also regularly held office for two years.
Though no doubt intended to assist the consuls, they were not subordinated (like the military quaestors) to a special consul.
On his return he was named aide-de-camp of the First Consul.
He was consul in 99, censor 97, and held a command in the Marsic War in 90.
Ethelweard gave himself the bombastic title "Patricius Consul Quaestor Ethelwerdus," and unfortunately this title is only too characteristic of the man.
Where a consul suspects that the shipping or navigation laws are being evaded, he may require the owner or master to produce the log-book or other ship documents (such as the agreement with the seamen, the account of the crew, the certificate of registration); he may muster the crew, and order explanations with regard to the documents.
He also provides for the subsistence of seamen who are shipwrecked, discharged, or left behind, even if their service was with foreign merchants; they are generally sent home in the first British ship that happens to be in want of a complement, and the expenses thus incurred form a charge on the parliamentary fund for the relief of distressed seamen, the consul receiving a See also instructions to consuls prepared by the Board of Trade and approved by the secretary of state for foreign affairs.
With regard to passenger vessels, the master is bound to give the consul facilities for inspection and for communication with passengers, and to exhibit his " master's list," or list of passengers, so that the consul may transmit to the registrar-general, for insertion in the Marine Register Book, a report of the passengers dying and children born during the voyage.
The American consul is necessarily brought much into touch with the trade and commerce of the country to which he is assigned through the system of consular invoices (see AD Valorem); in his ordinary reports he is not confined to one stereotyped form, and when preparing special reports (a valuable feature of the United States consular service) he is liberally treated as regards any expense to which he has been put in obtaining information.
Adams forwarded to Earl Russell a letter from the United States consul at Liverpool giving certain particulars as to her character.
He was successively quaestor in Sardinia (103 B.C.), praetor (94), propraetor in Sicily (93) and consul (89).
When a new consul, praetor or quaestor entered on his first day of office and prayed the gods for good omens, it was a matter of custom to report to him that lightning from the left had been seen.
For example, if a quaestor on his entry to office observed lightning and announced it to the consul, the latter must delay the public assembly for the day.
Ahenobarbus was elected pontifex maximus in 103, consul in 96 and censor in 92 with Lucius Licinius Crassus the orator, with whom he was frequently at variance.
He afterwards served on board the "Washington" (74) carrying the broad pennant of Commodore Chauncey in the Mediterranean, and pursued his professional and other studies under the instruction of the chaplain, Charles Folsom, with whom he contracted a lifelong friendship. Folsom was appointed from the "Washington" as U.S. consul at Tunis, and obtained leave for his pupil to pay him a lengthened visit, during which he studied not only mathematics, but also French and Italian, and acquired a familiar knowledge of Arabic and Turkish.
In 1884, the departing British Consul, General Gould, was given a Siamese cat by the King of Siam as a farewell gift.
In 278 Fabricius was elected consul for the second time, and was successful in negotiating terms of peace with Pyrrhus, who sailed away to Sicily.
From 1639 to 1768 there was an agency of the Levant Company here; there is now a British consul.
Played in double time the tune was a favourite march in the Revolutionary armies, until it was forbidden by Napoleon, on becoming First Consul.
The first in date and importance is that of 1801, concluded for France between Napoleon, First Consul, and Pius VII.
Mithradates defeated Cotta, the Roman consul, at Chalcedon; but Lucullus worsted him, and drove him in 72 to take refuge in Armenia with his son-in-law Tigranes.
Having served in the army in Spain and Sardinia, he became curule aedile, praetor and (after an unsuccessful attempt in 117) consul in 115.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
In 1833 Ferdinand de Lesseps was sent as consul to Cairo, and soon afterwards given the management of the consulategeneral at Alexandria, a post that he held until 1837.
One tablet records that in 1631 two Algerine pirate crews landed in Ireland, sacked Baltimore, and carried off its inhabitants to slavery; another recalls the romantic escape of Ida M'Donnell, daughter of Admiral Ulric, consulgeneral of Denmark, and wife of the British consul.
When Lord Exmouth was about to bombard the city in 1816, the British consul was thrown into prison and loaded with chains.
In September 1844 Calhoun, then secretary of state, sent Green to Texas ostensibly as consul at Galveston, but actually, it appears, to report to the administration, then considering the question of the annexation of Texas, concerning the political situation in Texas and Mexico.
During the reign of Conrad II., the party of the counts of Tusculum revived in Rome; and Crescentius, claiming the title of consul in.
Piedmont was declared to be a military division at the disposal of France (April 21, r8oi); and on the 21st of September 1802, Bonaparte, then First Consul for life, issued a decree for its definitive incorporation in the French Republic. About that time, too, Elba fell into the hands of Napoleon.
Besides copying the Roman habit of planting military colonies, the First Consul imitated the old conquerors of the world by extending and completing the road-system of his outlying districts, especially at those important passes, the Mont Cenis and Simplon.
Giolitti removed the prefect of Rome for not having prevented an expression of popular anger, and presented formal excuses to the French consul at Messina for a demonstration against that consulate.
Many names and customs were introduced into his court from that of Constantinople; he proposed to restore the Roman senate and consulate, revived the office of patrician, called himself "consul of the Roman senate and people" and issued a seal with the inscription, "restoration of the Roman empire."
His mother Domitia Calvilla (or Lucilla) was a lady of consular rank, and the family of his father Annius Verus (prefect of the city and thrice consul), originally Spanish, had received patrician rank from Vespasian.
In recognition of this and other brilliant services, he was elected consul in 88, and brought the revolt to an end by the capture of Nola in Campania.
His nephew (as some say, though the degree of relationship cannot be clearly established), Publics Cornelius Sulla was consul in 66 B.C. with P. Autronius Paetus.
In the course of his long life he held various civil offices, including that of consul in 273, with universal respect.
Boetius was consul in sio, and his sons, while still young, held the same honour together (522).
Alexander insisted still more strongly on this claim, and in the convention which he concluded with the First Consul in October 1801 it was agreed that the maintenance of a just equilibrium between Austria and Prussia should be Napoleon.
In 1877 the American consul hoisted his country's flag, but the action was repudiated by his government, which, however, in 1878 obtained Pago Pago as a coaling station and made a trading treaty with the natives.
In 132 the consul P. Popillius built the great inland road from Capua through Vibo and Consentia to Rhegium, while the date of the construction of the east and west coast roads is uncertain.
In May 1900 the group became a British protectorate under the native flag, the appointment of the consul and agent being transferred to the government of New Zealand.
Eventually the Cretan chiefs invoked the mediation of England, which Turkey, exhausted by her struggle with Russia, was ready to accept, and the convention known as the Pact of Halepa was drawn up in 1878 under the auspices of Mr Sandwith, the British consul, and Adossides Pasha, both of whom enjoyed the confidence of the Cretan population.
The increase of Russian influence on the northern Persian border and its extension southwards towards Seistan led to the appointment of a British consul at Kirman, the dominating Kirman.
But although in his father's lifetime he several times filled the office of consul, and after his death was nominally the partner in the empire with his brother Titus, he never took any part in public business, but lived in great retirement, devoting himself to a life of pleasure and of literary pursuits till he succeeded to the throne.
When the two brothers combined, Antiochus again invaded Egypt (168), but was compelled to retire by the Roman envoy C. Popillius Laenas (consul 172), after the historic scene in which the Roman drew a circle in the sand about the king and demanded his answer before he stepped out of it.
The plea of the last named on behalf of Corsica served to enlist the sympathy of Napoleon in his wider speculations, and so helped to bring about that mental transformation which merged Buonaparte the Corsican in Bonaparte the Jacobin and Napoleon the First Consul and Emperor.
Sieyes, conscious that his political mechanism would merely winnow the air, until the profoundly able and forceful man at his side adapted it to the work of government, relapsed into silence; and his resignation of the office of consul, together with that of Ducos, was announced as imminent.
Improving upon the procedure of the Convention in Vendemiaire 1795, Bonaparte procured the nomination of three consuls in an article of the new constitution; they were Bonaparte (First Consul), Cambaceres and Lebrun.
Thus, the initiative in lawmaking lay with the Council of State; but, as its members were all chosen by the First Consul, it is clear that that important duty was vested really in him.
Many of the furious Terrorists now became quiet and active councillors or administrators, the First Consul adopting the plan of multiplying "places," of overwhelming all officials with work, and of busying the watch-dogs of the Jacobinical party by "throwing them bones to gnaw."
At first the sharpness of the change was not fully apparent owing to the tactful choice of prefects made by the First Consul; but before long their very extensive powers were seen to form an important part of the new machinery of autocracy.
True, she now agreed to recognise the independence of the Cisalpine, Ligurian, Helvetic and Batavian (Dutch) republics; but the masterful acquisitiveness of the First Consul and the weak conduct of Austrian and British affairs at that time soon made that clause of the treaty a dead letter.
In short, the First Consul now became the irresponsible ruler of Fra