We have constructed a fate, an Atropos, that never turns aside.
The walls are curiously constructed of massive blocks of ice which terminate in cliff-like towers.
That emperor constructed a large new harbour on the right bank, 22 m.
A line of road was constructed across the mountains as far as the Macquarie river by the surveyor, Mr Evans, and the town of Bathurst laid out.
Add indictments being constructed to the list.
Important railway lines were constructed from Kagan (the station on the main line io m.
Who knows but if men constructed their dwellings with their own hands, and provided food for themselves and families simply and honestly enough, the poetic faculty would be universally developed, as birds universally sing when they are so engaged?
The Correggio family never managed to keep possession of it for long, and in 1346 they sold it to the Visconti (who constructed a citadel, La Rocchetta, in 1356, of which some remains exist on the east bank of the river, while the later ate du Pont may be seen on the west bank), and from them it passed to the Sforza.
of the Temple, on the site of the citadel of the Asmoneans, and constructed a magnificent palace for himself on the western hill, defended by three great towers, which he named Mariamne, Hippicus and Phasaelus.
This would be a good time to take him to the special place she had constructed, and she so wanted to visit it.
Everything he described could, as Quinn so succinctly put it, be a mind constructed fairy tale.
Lydia lived in a newly constructed condo on Oak Street as it drifted out of the main body of town and became the back road to neighboring Ridgway, ten miles away.
Steamers run from Grand Rapids, through Lake Winnipeg, up Red river to the city of Winnipeg, important locks having been constructed on the river at St Andrews.
Herod Agrippa, who succeeded to the kingdom, built a third or outer wall on the north side of Jerusalem in order to enclose and defend the buildings which had gradually been constructed outside the old fortifications.
Herod adorned the town with other buildings and constructed a theatre and gymnasium.
It has a fine Renaissance facade, constructed about 1500 by Cardinal Giovanni de' Medici (afterwards Pope Leo X.), and some good terra cottas by the Della Robbia.
An opening in the south jetty affords an entrance into Agha harbour, constructed in Agha Bay.
The two-story home had been built in the depression years and although there was little land around it, it was comfortable, well constructed and had answered Dean's limited needs—at least "temporarily"—for the past 15 years.
The roof was so constructed that one could stand up in the middle of the trench and could even sit up on the beds if one drew close to the table.
I can tell you quite clearly, because I constructed nearly all our entrenchments.
Simon then constructed a new citadel, north of the Temple, to take the place of the Acra, and established in Judaea the Asmonean dynasty, which lasted for nearly a century, when the Roman republic began to make its influence felt in Syria.
It was constructed with difficulty by embanking the river and raising the level of the formerly marshy ground, and was opened in 1858.
He had just constructed a boat that could be propelled by a kite with the wind in its favor, and one day he tried experiments to see if he could steer the kite against the wind.
It was constructed of narrow boards and chewed by the cutting crampons of hundreds of climbers.
There is a story that he constructed a burning mirror which set the Roman ships on fire when they were within a bowshot of the wall.
Railways.The first important line in France, from Paris to Rouen, was constructed through the instrumentality of Sir Edward Blount (1809-1905), an English banker in Paris, who was afterwards for thirty years chairman of the Ouest railway.
A temple dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus was erected on the site of the Temple, and other buildings were constructed, known as the Theatre, the Demosia, the Tetranymphon, the Dodecapylon and the Codra.
of the Temple and probably formed the basis of the citadel built by Simon Maccabaeus, which again was succeeded by the fortress of Antonia, constructed by Herod the Great, and one of the most important positions at the time of the siege by Titus.
They are skilful hunters, however, catch fish by in geniously constructed traps, and live almost entirely on jungle-roots of these people is found in Upper Perak, and the members of this clan have acquired some knowledge of the art of planting, &c. They they have been raided by the latter, and many Negritos are to be found in captivity in some of the Malayan villages on the eastern side of the peninsula.
It contains two islands, Bisentina and Martana, the former containing a church constructed by Vignola, the latter remains of the castle where Amalasuntha, the daughter of Theodoric, was imprisoned and, strangled.
Sofia, a circular edifice of about 760, now modernized, the roof of which is supported by six ancient columns, is a relic of the Lombard period; it has a fine cloister of the 12th century constructed in part of fragments of earlier buildings; while the cathedral with its fine arcaded facade and incomplete square campanile (begun in 1279) dates from the 9th century and was rebuilt in 1114.
We learn from Oriental writers that one of the Buyid (Buwaihid) sultans in the 10th century of the Flight constructed the great cisterns, which may yet be seen, and have been visited, amongst others, by James Morier and E.
This island is joined to the mainland of Friesland by a stone dike constructed in 1873 for the purpose of promoting the deposit of mud.
I perceive that you are curiously constructed, and that if you cannot breathe you cannot keep alive.
The document is entitled "Secrett Inventionis, proffitabill and necessary in theis dayes for defence of this Iland, and withstanding of strangers, enemies of God's truth and religion," a and the inventions consist of (1) a mirror for burning the enemies' ships at any distance, (2) a piece of artillery destroying everything round an arc of a circle, and (3) a round metal chariot, so constructed that its occupants could move it rapidly and easily, while firing out through small holes in it.
Over the CCC's nine-year life, its workers planted nearly three billion trees, built eight hundred parks, and constructed roads in remote areas.
C. Janssen constructed an observatory just below the very summit.
and constructed the Via Aemilia and restored the Mulvian bridge.'
An electric tramway has been constructed from Rome to Ostia and thence to the seashore, now some 2 m.
had them constructed for his own pleasure at Whitehall Palace, and was wont to back himself when he played.
Official corruption and speculation have led to some unsound ventures, but in the great majority of cases the lines constructed have been beneficial and productive.
Cisterns were also used for the storage of rain water, and aqueducts, of which the remains still exist, were constructed for the conveyance of water from a distance.
Its grey houses have a neglected, almost a dilapidated appearance, from the friable stone of which they are constructed; and there are no buildings of antiquarian interest or striking architectural beauty, except, perhaps, the ruined citadel and the remnants of the town walls.
Acting upon this discovery, he constructed an instrument which he called a " microphone," 6 and which consisted essentially of two hard carbon electrodes placed in contact, with a current passing through the point of contact and a telephone included in the same circuit.
This was constructed of a shallow box placed in a vertical position, with metallic front and back and insulating sides.
In another party line system a harmonic principle is employed: the ringing machines deliver alternating currents of four frequencies, while each bell is constructed to operate at a particular frequency only.
By this agreement the Postmaster-General agreed to purchase all plant, land and buildings of the National Telephone Company in use at the date of the agreement or constructed after that date in accordance with the specification and rules contained in the agreement, subject to the right of the Postmaster-General to object to take over any plant not suited to his requirements.
From the spoils of the war he constructed the first public library at Rome, in the Atrium Libertatis, also erected by him (Pliny, Nat.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
In the same year a road was constructed over the Apennines from Bon.onia to Arretium, but it is difficult to suppose that it was not until later that the Via Cassia was made, giving a direct communication between Arretium and Rome.
The rivalry between these two officials in Tunisia contributed not a little to strain FrancoItalian relations, but it is doubtful whether France would have precipitated her action had not General Menabrea, Italian ambassador in London, urged his government to purchase the Tunis-Goletta railway from the English company by which it had been constructed.
The altar itself is constructed in the form of a bird, because Soma was supposed to have been brought down from heaven by the metre Gayatri which had assumed the form of an eagle.
But is the basis for religious belief to be constructed purely within the region of " values " ?
Under Diocletian and Maximian a road (the Via Herculia) was constructed from Aequum Tuticum to Pons Aufidi near Venusia, where it crossed the Via Appia and went on into Lucania, passing through Potentia and Grumentum, and joining the Via Popilia near Nerulum.
He constructed "Morton's Dyke" across the fens from Wisbech to Peterborough, repaired the episcopal palace at Hatfield and the school of canon law and St Mary's Church at Oxford.
Almost the whole of the railway lines in Australia are the property of the state governments, and have been constructed and equipped wholly by borrowed capital.
in maximum breadth, capable of holding a vessel of 17,500 tons and draught not exceeding 29 ft., so constructed and equipped that in time of need (war) it could be floated down to Cuxhaven.
On the one hand there is fear and regret for the loss of the whole edifice constructed through the ages, on the other is the passion for destruction.
constructed in 830 a fortified enceinte, called Gregoriopolis, in the eastern portion of the ancient city, and the Saracens were signally defeated here under Leo IV.
It had in 1909 a property of 2345 acres (of which 1000 were farm lands, 1145 pasture and wood lands, and 200 school campus), and loo buildings, many of brick, and nearly all designed and constructed, even to the making of the bricks, by the teachers and students.
The balloon was not yet ready, but Pierre learned that it was being constructed by the Emperor's desire.
"Helen is in wardrobe," "Mildred is in crib," "Box is on table," "Papa is on bed," are specimens of sentences constructed by her during the latter part of April.
3) we know that the Prytaneum was the official residence of the Archons, but, when the new Agora was constructed (by Peisistratus ?), they took their meals in the Thesmotheteum for the sake of convenience.
of line constructed.
The public buildings are mostly constructed of broken stone and mortar, plastered outside and covered with red tiles, but the common dwellings are generally constructed of tapiarough trellis-work walls filled in with mud.
8 horns, 4 of whom are also required to play 4 specially constructed tenor and bass tubas.
Before that time there was no basin or wet-dock, though the river Medway to some extent answered the same purpose, but a portion of the adjoining salt-marshes was then taken in, and three basins have been constructed, communicating with each other by means of large locks, so that ships can pass from the bend of the Medway at Gillingham to that at Upnor.
Hammer-headed cranes are generally constructed in large sizes, up to 200 tons.
Rajputana possesses no natural freshwater lakes, but there are several important artificial lakes, all of which have been constructed with the object of storing water.
have constructed branch railways at their own cost, the first of which was extended in 1901 to Hyderabad in Sind.
coast, with picturesque Spanish fortifications, constructed in 1602 by Philip III.; Rio dell' Elba and Rio Marina, both on the E.
Steinheil communicated to the GÃ¶ttingen Academy of Sciences in September 1838 an account of his telegraph, which had been constructed about the middle of the preceding year.
An experimental printer constructed about the middle of 1908 by the British Post Office, operated successfully at the rate of 210 words (1260 letters) per minute.
A very much simpler form of siphon recorder, constructed by Dr Muirhead, is now in general use.
He constructed one form of his coherer of a glass tube a few inches long filled with iron borings or brass filings, having contact plates or pins at the end.
In the case of transmitters constructed as above described, in which the effective agent in producing the electric waves radiated is the sudden discharge of a condenser, it should be noticed that what is really sent out is a train of damped or decadent electric waves.
Wilson constructed various forms of electric wave detector depending on this same principle.
It was found that to achieve this result the transmitter must be so constructed as to send out prolonged trains of slightly damped waves.
A radiator of this last class can be constructed by connecting inductively or directly FIG.
in length by any mirrors which can be practically constructed would be like attempting optical experiments with mirrors one-hundred-thousandth of an inch in diameter.
He showed that if an antenna were constructed with a short part of its length vertical and the greater part horizontal, the lower end of the vertical part being earthed, and if oscillations were created in it, electric waves were sent out most powerfully in the plane of the antenna and in the direction opposite to that in which the free end pointed.
141), but constructed on the same lines, with the metropolitan as judge and his vicar-general as vice-judge.
Near Rhayader are the large reservoirs constructed (1895) by the corporation of Birmingham in the Elan and Claerwen valleys.
The raw materials from which the food is constructed are absorbed from the exterior in solution in water, and the latter is the medium through which the gaseous constituents necessary for life reach the protoplasm.
While we know little of the processes of proteid-construction, we are almost completely in the dark also as to what are the particular proteids which are first constructed.
This source is not, however, anything new, for the elaborated compounds so absorbed have been primarily constructed by other plants through the mechanism which has just been described.
So long as food is supplied the living substance is the seat of transformations which are continually proceeding, being partially decomposed and again constructed, the new food being incorporated into it.
In such cells as are capable of absorbing it, by virtue oi their chlorophyll apparatus, the greater part of it is converted int< the potential form, and by the transport from cell to cell of th compounds constructed every part of the plant is put into possessiol of the energy it needs.
These occur on the tips of tendrils and on the tentacles of Drosera; (2) sensitive papillae found on the irritable filaments of certain stamens; and (3) sensitive hairs or bristles on the leaves of Dionaea muscipula and Mimosa pudicaall of which are so constructed that any pressure exerted on them at once reacts on the protoplasm.
In countries of uniform surface or faint relief, roads and railways may be constructed in any direction without regard to the configuration.
So long as the characters of new fossils are only of specific and generic value, it is mostly possible to assign the birds to their proper place, but when these characters indicate new families or orders, for instance Hesperornithes, Ichthyornithes, Palaelodi, their owners are put outside the more tersely constructed classifications applicable to modern birds.
Where the valley is still cultivated, the jerd, a skin raised by oxen, is gradually being substituted for the naoura, no more of the latter being constructed to take the place of those which fall into decay.
Another English company has constructed motor roads in the Liberian hinterland to connect centres of trade with the St Paul's river.
Docks, wharves, piers, curing stations and warehouses have been provided or enlarged to cope with the growth of the trade, and an esplanade has been constructed along the front.
The complicated plot is constructed with greater skill than is usual with this dramatist, and the pathos of particular situations, and of the entire character of Penthea - a woman doomed to hopeless misery, but capable of seeking to obtain for her brother a happiness which his cruelty has condemned her to forego - has an intensity and a depth which are all Ford's own.
Since 1880 the city has been almost entirely renovated in the " European " style; the narrow tortuous lanes and mean houses of the Turkish epoch have almost disappeared, and a new town with straight parallel streets has been constructed in the eastern suburb.
Artels of one or two hundred carpenters, bricklayers, &c., are common wherever new buildings have to be erected, or railways or bridges constructed; the contractors always prefer to deal with an artel, rather than with separate workmen.
Already the desire to make his country a great naval power was becoming his ruling passion, and when he found by experience that the White Sea, Russia's sole maritime outlet, had great practical inconveniences as a naval base, he revived the project of getting a firm footing on the shores of the Black Sea or the Baltic. At first he gave the preference to the former, and with the aid of a flotilla of small craft, constructed on a tributary of the Don, he succeeded in capturing Azov from the Turks.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
A great part of the eastern section of the railway was constructed on Chinese territory, and elaborate preparations were made for bringing Manchuria within the sphere of Russian influence.
From Manchuria, it was assumed, the political influence and spontaneous infiltration would naturally spread to Korea, and on the deeply indented coast of the Hermit Kingdom might be constructed new ports and arsenals more spacious and strategically more important than Port Arthur.
of general merchandise it might prove a serious competitor to the canals, of which a large mileage had been constructed in Great Britain during that period.
But the Liverpool & Manchester railway, opened in 1830, first impressed the national mind with the fact that a revolution in the methods of travelling had really taken place; and further, it was for it that the first high-speed locomotive of the modern type was invented and constructed.
After the success of the Rocket, the Stephensons received orders to build seven more engines, which were of very similar design, though rather larger, being four-wheeled engines, with the two driving wheels in front and the cylinders behind; and in October 1830 they constructed a ninth engine, the Planet, also for the Liverpool & Manchester railway, which still more closely resembled the modern type, since the driving wheels were placed at the fire-box end, while the two cylinders were arranged under the smoke-box, inside the frames.
The earliest examples used in that country, apart from a small experimental model constructed by Peter Cooper, came from England.
in very difficult country around the south end of Lake Baikal; this was constructed in 1904, communication being maintained in the interval by ferry-boats, which conveyed all the carriages of a train across the lake, more than 40 m., when the ice permitted.
The Regulation of Railways Act of 1871 extends the provisions of the above act to the opening of " any additional line of railway, deviation line, station, junction or crossing on the level " which forms a portion of or is connected with a passenger railway, and which has been constructed subsequently to the inspection of it.
Roads had been constructed in advance of settlement, and land-seekers had been transported to these frontier sections only to become dependent upon the railways for their very existence.
For conveying small streams through embankments, channels or culverts are constructed in brickwork or masonry.
In connexion with a railway many bridges have also to be constructed to carry public roads and other railways over the line, and for the use of owners or tenants whose land it has cut through (" accommodation bridges ").
On some of the earlierEnglish main lines no curves were constructed of a less radius than a mile (80 chains), except at places where the speed was likely to be low, but in later practice the radius is sometimes reduced to 40 or 30 chains, even on high-speed passenger lines.
naturally constructed as side stations, and whether offices are provided on both sides or whether they are mainly concentrated on one will depend on local circumstances, the amount of the traffic, and the direction in which it preponderates.
They may consist of earth with a retaining wall along the tracks and with the surface gravelled or paved with stone or asphalt, or they may be constructed entirely of timber, or they may be formed of stone slabs supported on longitudinal walls.
In both types pits are constructed between the rails on which the engines stand to afford easy access for the inspection and cleaning of their mechanism.
To enable the wagons to be shunted into the desired order yards containing a large number of sidings are constructed at important junction points like A.
The first true compound locomotive was constructed in 1876 from designs by A.
The first true compound locomotive in England was constructed at Crewe works in 1878 by F.
American cars, on the other hand, have long bodies mounted on two swivelling bogie-trucks of four wheels each, and are commonly constructed of steel.
Wherever possible the lines were constructed in open cutting, to ensure adequate ventilation; and where this was not possible they were built by a method suggestively named " cut and cover."
In the year 1894 an elevated railway was built in Liverpool, and in 1900 a similar railway was constructed in Boston, U.S.A., and the construction of a new one undertaken in New York.
Since the passing of the Light Railways Act of 1896, which did not apply to Ireland, it is possible to give a formal definition by saying that a light railway is one constructed under the provisions of that act; but it must be noted that the commissioners appointed under that act have authorized many lines which in their physical characteristics are indistinguishable from street tramways constructed under the Tramways Act, and to these the term light railways would certainly not be applied in ordinary parlance.
It should be mentioned that the act provided that the Treasury might advance a portion of the money required for a line in cases where the council of any county, borough or district had agreed to do the same, and might also make a special advance in aid of a light railway which was certified by the Board of Agriculture to be beneficial to agriculture in any cultivated district, or by the Board of Trade to furnish a means of communication between a fishing-harbour and a market in a district where it would not be constructed without special assistance from the s' ate.
had been opened for traffic, and the mileage of lines opened was much less in proportion to the mileage sanctioned in the cases of lines constructed on their own land than in the case of lines more of the nature of tramways.
(In other countries where the mileage of main lines of railways in proportion to area and population is roughly the same as in the United Kingdom, the mileage of light railways already constructed is considerable, while many additional lines are under construction.
According to the light railway commissioners, experience satisfied them (a) that light railways were much needed in many parts of the country and that many of the lines proposed, but not constructed, were in fact necessary to admit of the progress, and even the maintenance, of existing trade interests; and (b) that improved means of access were requisite to assist in retaining the population on the land, to counteract the remoteness of rural districts, and also, in the neighbourhood of industrial centres, to cope with the difficulties as to housing and the supply of labour.
In Italy many railways which otherwise fulfil the conditions of a light railway are constructed with a gauge of 4 ft.
constructed light railway.
The rolling stock is constructed either for farm produce or heavy minerals, the latter holding io to 27 cub.
Yahweh now becomes the supreme deity of the Hebrew people, and an ark analogous to the Egyptian and Babylonian arks portrayed on the monuments' was constructed as embodiment of the rumen of Yahweh and was borne in front of the Hebrew army when it marched to war.
He also encouraged architecture, and in particular constructed the beautiful colonnade in the piazza of St Peter's.
He taught them that they would pass at death to a certain place, where they would enjoy all possible blessings for all eternity, and to convince them of this he had a subterranean chamber constructed, to which he withdrew for three years.
During the period of the Jesuit ascendancy in the reign of K'ang-hi (1661-1721), the superintendence of this institution was confided to Roman Catholic missionaries, under whose guidance the bronze instruments formerly existing were constructed.
The trunk line constructed by the Franco-Belgian syndicate connects Lu-Kou-ch'iao, the original terminus, with Hankow - hence the name Lu-Han by which this trunk line is generally spoken of, Lu being short for Lu-Kou-ch'iao and Han for Hankow.
He constructed a map of as many as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets.
As a director of the company, moreover, he was suspected of fraudulent complicity, taken into custody and heavily fined; but £ro,000 was allowed him out of the wreck of his estate, and with this his skill and enterprise soon constructed a second fortune.
Two lateral tunnels were also constructed, making the total length 63 m.
Apollinare in Classe were constructed by Julius Argentarius.
In the village of Bagno Caldo there is a hospital constructed largely at the expense of Nicholas Demidoff in 1826.
When Zeus had resolved to destroy all mankind by a flood, Deucalion constructed a boat or ark, in which, after drifting nine days and nights, he landed on Mount Parnassus (according to others, Othrys, Aetna or Athos) with his wife.
Whereas the Hebrew verb is devoid of real tenses, and only expresses an action as completed or as in process without indicating time past, present or future, Syriac has by the help of an auxiliary verb constructed a set of tenses.
The nests of different kinds of ants are constructed in very different situations; many species (Lasius, for example) make underground nests; galleries and chambers being hollowed out in the soil, and opening by small holes on the surface, or protected above by a large stone.
Pretending a reconciliation, he invited her to Baiae, where an attempt was made to drown her on a vessel especially constructed to founder.
The biblical narrative is admittedly not so constructed as to enable us to describe in chronological order the thirty-three years of David's reign over all Israel.
At the south extremity of the hill, on the site of the bastian of south Caterina, a large terrace, the Passeggiata Umberto Primo, [has been constructed: it is much in use on summer evenings, and has a splendid view.
The aqueduct was constructed in quite recent times, rain-water having previously given the only supply.
Bernhard Walther, a rich patrician, became his pupil and patron; and they together equipped the first European observatory, for which Regiomontanus himself constructed instruments of an improved type (described in his posthumous Scripta, Nuremberg, 1544).
The district is traversed by the main line and several branches of the South Indian railway, some of which have been constructed by the district board.
To the south of the castle is St Robert's chapel, an excavation in the rock constructed into an ecclesiastical edifice in the reign of Richard I.
The work was designed by Lodovico Vanvitelli, and constructed between 1753 and 1759.
After he became field marshal, in 1784, he introduced many reforms into the army, and built a fleet in' the Black Sea, which, though constructed of very bad materials, did excellent service in Catherine's second Turkish War (1787-92).
It was Ablabius, apparently, who had first used the Gothic sagas (prisca carmina); it was he who had constructed the stem of the Amals.
In the same reign the Cour du Cheval Blanc, including the Chapelle de la Ste Trinite and the Galerie d'Ulysse, destroyed and rebuilt under Louis XV., was constructed by Pierre Chambiges.
Tables are constructed showing the fasted live weight, the carcase weight, and the weight of the various parts that are separated from and not included with the carcase.
During the 19th century numerous forts have been constructed for the protection of the Haven and of the royal dockyard at Pembroke Dock.
The dead in the earlier period were laid (so far as we know at present) within cists constructed of upright stones.
In the later period a peculiar "bee-hive" tomb became common, sometimes wholly or partly excavated, sometimes (as in the magnificent Mycenaean "Treasuries") constructed domewise.
The citadel (Rocca Ravaldina), constructed about 1360-1370, and later rebuilt, is now used as a prison.
Clamatores, being a majority of that division of the Picariae of Nitzsch, so called by Andreas Wagner, in 1841, 1 which have their feet normally constructed; 3.
Strisores, a group now separated from the Clamatores of Wagner, and containing those forms which have their feet abnormally constructed; and 4.
After the Great Fire of 1666 he constructed a model for the rebuilding of the city, which was highly approved, although the design of Sir C. Wren was preferred.
During the middle ages the walls of Venetian buildings were constructed invariably of brick.
A dock was constructed at the western or farther end of the Giudecca Canal, near the railway.
long, in part with four tracks and in part with two, constructed since 1895 at a cost of about $7,500,000 up to 1905.
The sexes then pair and perish soon after the female has constructed her cocoon.
It was built in 1854 and subsequently enlarged, but a pier was constructed by John Rennie in 1815, and is now chiefly used by fishermen and colliers.
Hammond 1 has constructed a table from information supplied by the secretaries of the cotton exchanges at New York, Charleston, Savannah, Mobile, New Orleans and Galveston, showing the sales of " spot " cotton at those ports for the twenty-two years between 1874-1875 and 1895-1896, and in all cases an absolute decline is evident.
The original Manchurian railway was constructed under an agreement made in 1896 between the Chinese government and the Russo Chinese bank, an institution founded in 1895 to develop Manchurian .
These at first consisted of an ordinary truck on which were placed two wooden tub-like tanks, each holding about 2000 gallons; they were replaced in 1871 by the modern type of tank-car, constructed with a horizontal cylindrical tank of boiler plate.
Hutchinson of New York, laid a short line from the Tarr Farm wells to the refinery, which passed over a hill, the oil being moved on the syphon principle, and a year later constructed another three miles long to the railway.
Kerosene is transported in bulk by various means; specially constructed steel tank barges are used on the waterways of the United States, tank-cars on the railroads, and tank-wagons on the roads.
In the earlier refineries the stills, the capacity of which varied from 25 to 80 barrels, usually consisted of a vertical cylinder, constructed of castor wrought-iron, with a boiler-plate bottom and a cast-iron dome, on which the " goose-neck " was bolted.
American stills of the former type are constructed of wrought-iron or steel, and are about 30 ft.
This instrument is so constructed that the higher temperature needed can be readily applied, and it is fitted with a stirrer to equalize the heating of the contents of the oil-cup.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
Having served his apprenticeship as gardener from the age of fifteen, and himself constructed a large lake when gardener to Battlesden in 1821, he was in 1823 employed in the arboretum at Chiswick, the seat of the duke of Devonshire, and eventually became superintendent of the duke's gardens and grounds at Chatsworth, and manager of his Derbyshire estates.
Amperemeters may then be classified according to the physical principle on which they are constructed.
Hot-wire instruments working on the sag principle can be used in any position if properly constructed, and are very portable.
A much better form of electromagnetic ammeter can be constructed on a principle now extensively employed, which consists in pivoting in the strong field of a permanent magnet a small coil through which a part of the current to be measured is sent.
Very convenient and accurate instruments based on the above principles have been devised by Lord Kelvin, and a large variety of these ampere balances, as they are called, suitable for measuring currents from a fraction of an ampere up to many thousands of amperes, have been constructed by that illustrious inventor.
The great novelty in the ampere balances of Lord Kelvin was a joint or electric coupling, which is at once exceedingly flexible and yet capable of being constructed to carry with safety any desired current.
They are constructed for the measurement not only of continuousor unvarying butalsoof alternating currents.
To avoid the creation of induced currents, the coil frames and the base boards are constructed of slate.
New towns were founded and old ones restored; new streets were laid out, and aqueducts, temples and magnificent buildings constructed.
After the conquest of the mountain tribes, its importance was assured by its position on the Via Aemilia, by which it was connected in 187 B.C. with Ariminum and Placentia, and on the road, constructed in the same year, to Arretium; while another road was made, perhaps in 175 B.e., to Aquilelia.
The use by the Malays of artificially constructed terms to denote these things may certainly be taken to strengthen the opinion that the Malays arrived in the lands they now inhabit at a comparatively late period in their history, and at a time when they had developed considerably from the original state of primitive man.
The Heptameron, constructed, as its name indicates, on the lines of the Decameron of Boccaccio, consists of seventy-two short stories told to each other by a company of ladies and gentlemen who are stopped in the journey homewards from Cauterets by the swelling of a river.
The main drawback to the situation of the city lay in the insufficiency of its water-supply, which was supplemented by an aqueduct constructed in the time of the Peisistratids and by later water-courses dating from the Roman period.
These elaborate waterworks were, according to Dorpfeld, constructed by the Peisistratids in order to increase the supply from the ancient spring Callirrhoe; the fountain was furnished with nine jets and henceforth known as Enneacrunus.
The foundations of a temple were laid on the site - probably that of an ancient sanctuary - by Peisistratus, but the building in its ultimate form was for the greater part constructed under the auspices of Antiochus IV.
The New, or Roman, Agora to the north of the Acropolis, perhaps mainly an oil market, was constructed after the year 27 B.C. Its dimensions were practically determined by excavation in 1890-1891.
It also possesses the famous collection of prehistoric antiquities found by Schliemann at Tiryns and Mycenae, other " Mycenaean " objects discovered at Nauplia and in Attica, as well as the still earlier remains excavated by Tsountas in the Cyclades and by the British School at Phylakopi in Melos; terra-cottas from Tanagra and Asia immense building, however, which was restored in 1896 and the following years, was that constructed in Pentelic marble about A.D.
its port was revived, and since that time piers and quays have been constructed, and spacious squares and broad regular streets have been laid out.
The codification, which was completed in February 1865, was adopted only in small part by the state, but it has served as a model after which most of the law codes of the United States have been constructed.
The dockyard was first constructed by French engineers; but after 1875 the work passed entirely into the hands of Japanese engineers.
a large Etruscan necropolis was found in 1874, dating from the 5th century B.C. The tombs, constructed of blocks of stone and arranged in rows divided by passages (like houses in a town), often had the name of the deceased on the facade.
From the surplus of the Louisiana Purchase Exposition was constructed in 1914 the Jefferson Memorial costing 8485,000 and devoted to the collections of the Missouri Historical Society.
They, however, had no confidence in the arch, which, as the Hindu says, "never sleeps but is always tending to its own destruction," so that the pointed arch, which had almost become the emblem of the Mahommedan religion, had to be dispensed with for the covered aisles which surrounded the great court, and in the triple entrance gateway the form of an arch only was retained, as it was constructed with horizontal courses of masonry for the haunches, and with long slabs of stone resting one against the other at the top. A similar construction was employed in the great mosque at Ajmere, built A.D.1200-1211at the same time as the Delhi mosque.
1420) and the Queen's mosque at Mirzapur, the pointed arch exists only in the façades of the prayer chambers; in the mosques built 30 to 40 years later the whole is constructed without a single arch, all the pillars have bracket-capitals, and the domes, which are of very slight elevation, are all built in the trabeated style.
The formula has the advantage that it may be constructed from tetrahedral models of the carbon atom; but it involves the assumption that the molecule has within it a mechanism, equivalent in a measure to a system of railway points, which can readily close up and pass into that characteristic of benzene.
He fortified cities, constructed roads and organized the army.
The valley in which the town is situated used to be subject to inundations, but in 1805 a tunnel was constructed by means of which the surplus waters of the Bied are carried into the Doubs.
Waldseemuller constructed his gores graphically, A.
Mercator constructed it graphically, the mathematical principles underlying it being first explained by E.
At Monkhill there are the remains of a Tudor building called the Old Hall, probably constructed out of the old priory of St John's.
In later years Winchelsea became a great resort for smugglers, and the vaults originally constructed for the Gascon wine trade were used for storing contraband goods.
Of late years it has become a much frequented winter resort, and many handsome villas (among them that built by the 3rd marquess of Salisbury) have been constructed in the neighbourhood.
strata of volcanic rock subjacent to the city and its environs, and constructed originally for the interment of the Christian dead.
These loculi were usually constructed for a single body only.
In some of the catacombs, however, there are larger halls and connected suites of chapels which may possibly have been constructed for the purpose of congregational worship during the dark periods when the public exercise of the Christian religion was made penal.
Starting with the firmest belief in the old traditional view, his own researches by degrees opened his eyes to the truth, now universally recognized, that the catacombs were exclusively the work of the Christians, and were constructed for the interment of the dead.
Another equally erroneous idea was that these vast burialplaces of the early Christians remained entirely concealed from the eyes of their pagan neighbours, and were constructed not only without the permission of the municipal authorities but without their cognizance.
south of the town are the harbours and quays constructed on the western side of the Suez Canal at the point where the canal enters the gulf.
The best buildings in Havana are constructed of a very rich white limestone, soft and readily worked when fresh, but hardening and slightly darkening with age.
An artificial lake in New Providence, constructed for the use of the turtle-catchers, is noted as exhibiting an extraordinary degree of phosphorescence.
Abd-ul-Aziz, however, with the aid of British naval officers, succeeded in creating an imposing fleet of ironclads constructed in English and French yards.
The line was designed, surveyed and constructed by Turkish engineers - employing Ottoman navvies and labourers - in a highly efficient and economical manner, the average cost per mile having been £3230, although considerable engineering difficulties had to be overcome, especially in the construction of the Haifa branch.
The line was to be constructed in sections of zoo kilometres (125 m.) each, and as the complete plans and drawings of each were presented at the times and in the order specified in the convention, the government was to deliver to the concessionnaires government securities representing the capitalization of the annuity accruing to that section.
Constructed and worked by the State.
Of these, Sami is remarkable for the art with which he constructed his ghazels.
All the buildings, both public and private, are constructed of furnaceburnt bricks of a yellowish-red colour, principally derived from the ruins of other places, chiefly Madain (Ctesiphon), Wasit and Babylon, which have been plundered at various times to furnish materials for the construction of Bagdad.
Equally ancient are the rafts called kellek, constructed of inflated goat-skins, covered with a framework of wood, often supporting a small house for passengers, which descend the Tigris from above Diarbekr.
Dagupan has a small shipyard in which sailing vessels and steam launches are constructed.
Here two reservoirs of a combined capacity of 668 million gallons have been constructed, and a conduit some 36 m.
In 1798 the first dock (12 acres in extent) was constructed at the terminus of the Glamorgan canal from Merthyr.
All these docks were constructed by the Bute family at a cost approaching three millions sterling.
There was first, on the site occupied by the present castle, a camp of about ten acres, probably constructed after the conquest of the Silures A.D.
Besides several interesting churches and palaces, it contains a fine arch, erected in 1595 in honour of Philip II., and partly constructed of inscribed Roman masonry.
Hamburg has comparatively few secular buildings of great architectural interest, but first among them is the new Rathaus, a huge German Renaissance building, constructed of sandstone in 1886-1897, richly adorned with sculptures and with a spire 33 o ft.
In anticipation of this event a gigantic system of docks, basins and quays was constructed, at a total cost of some £7,000,000 (of which the imperial treasury contributed 2,000,000), between the confluence of the Alster and the railway bridge (1868-1873), an entire quarter of the town inhabited by some 24,000 people being cleared away to make room for these accessories of a great port.
deep, at low water, constructed in 1900-1901.
Parga has a rock-built citadel and a harbour formed by a mole which the Venetians constructed in 1572.
The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.
Instead of the axe or large knives which frequently inflicted serious damage to the trees, special small knives and prickers are now employed so constructed as to avoid injury to the tree through making a larger incision than is necessary, and without penetrating into the wood below the laticiferous layer.
His father, Wilgils, an Angle or, as Alcuin styles him, a Saxon, of Northumbria, withdrew from the world and constructed for himself a little oratory dedicated to St Andrew.
The first railway to reach Siberia was built in 1878, when a line was constructed between Perm, at which point travellers for Siberia Railways.
A line was constructed from Vladivostok to the Amur before it became known that the idea of following the latter part of the route originally laid down would have to be abandoned.
Utilizing this principle he constructed the radiometer, which he was at first disposed to regard as a machine that directly transformed light into motion, but which was afterwards perceived to depend on thermal action.
A theory of matrices has been constructed by Cayley in connexion particularly with the theory of linear transformation.
In the same year the branch of the Via Aemilia connecting Bononia with Arretium was constructed by him.
A network of military routes, constructed and kept in repair by the soldiers, led from Lambaesa in all directions, and stretched along the frontier as far as Leptis Magna, passing Theveste (Tebessa), Thenae and Tacape (Gabes).
Besides the ordinary studies of the monastic scholar, he devoted himself to mathematics, astronomy and music, and constructed watches and instruments of various kinds.
A map indicating the direction of the force in different parts of the field due to a magnet may be constructed in a very simple manner.
The curve thus constructed should be a straight line inclined to the horizontal axis at an angle 0, the tangent of which is 1.6.
The field due to a coil can be made as nearly uniform as we please throughout a considerable space; its intensity, when the constants of the coil are known, can be calculated with ease and certainty and may be varied at will'through wide ranges, while the apparatus required is of the simplest character and can be readily constructed to suit special purposes.
During his rule harbour works were built at Mandvi, an immense reservoir for rain water in the Chadwa hills was constructed, and many schools and colleges were endowed.
Pietro e Paolo, was constructed about the middle of the 4th century, in part with the debris of Roman buildings; while S.
Petronio; and in 1562, by order of Pius IV., the university itself was constructed close by, by Carlo Borromeo, then cardinal legate.
From Light came Heat and Fluidity; these three together with Space make up the elements out of which all things are constructed.
There are also numerous canals, and what look like artificial harbours constructed amid the shallow lagoons.
Elsewhere huge breakwaters had been constructed, the fragments of which may still be seen stretching away for a distance of from 2 to 3 m.
The citadel, south-west of the city, was constructed by order of Philip II.
long, which uses the Riggenbach system from the terminal to Petropolis, was constructed between 1881 and 1883.
The telegraph lines, which date from 1852, are owned and operated by the national government, with the exception of the lines constructed by private railway companies, and the cable lines of the Amazon and the coast.
Newhaven (population of parish, 7636), so called from the harbour constructed in the reign of James IV., had a shipbuilding yard of some repute in former times.
To the west lies Granton (pop. 1728), where the 5th duke of Buccleuch constructed a magnificent harbour.
Of the ancient harbour constructed by Antoninus Pius (M.
is the Bottaccione, a large water reservoir, constructed in the 12th or 14th century; the water is collected in the bed of a stream by a massive dam.
These works, and Forts Chaudanne and Bregille overlooking the Doubs at the bend, were constructed prior to 1870.
The state came under British management, and the administration was improved, the revenue increased, a system of irrigation developed, new tanks and wells constructed and an excellent system of roads and public buildings organized.
They are constructed not only as navigable waterways, but also to relieve the rivers from periodical overflow, and to drain the marshy districts.
The Berettyo canal between the Koros and the Berettyo rivers, and the Kdrds canal along the White Kiirds were constructed in conjunction with the regulation of the Theiss, and for the drainage of the marshy region.
After the Compromise of 1867, the policy of the Hungarian government was to construct its own railways, and to take over the lines constructed and worked by private companies.'
Moreover, river fleets, built by Genoese masters and manned by Servians, were constructed to patrol and defend the great rivers of Hungary, especially on the Turkish frontier.
(iii.) The table might be regarded as constructed by successive applications of (9) and (4); the initial data being (r6) and (Io).
Constructed in this way, the successive diagonal rows, commencing with the first, give the figurate numbers of the first, second, third,.
We are then able to combine any number with the + or the - sign inside the bracket, and to deal with this constructed symbol according to special laws; i.e.
These constructed symbols may be called positive and negative coefficients; or a symbol such as (- p) may be called a negative number, in the same way that we call 3 a fractional number.
Amongst the public buildings are the Belford hospital, public hall, court house and the low-level meteorological observatory, constructed in 1891, which was in connexion with the observatory on the top of Ben Nevis, until the latter was closed in 1904.
The modern industrial development of the state is due to the railway lines constructed across it during the last quarter of the 19th century, and to the investment of foreign capital in local enterprises.
Under the influence of the touchstone of strict inquiry set on foot by the Royal Society, the marvels of witchcraft, sympathetic powders and other relics of medieval superstition disappeared like a mist before the sun, whilst accurate observations and demonstrations of a host of new wonders accumulated, amongst which were numerous contributions to the anatomy of animals, and none perhaps more noteworthy than the observations, made by the aid of microscopes constructed by himself, of Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch naturalist (1683), some of whose instruments were presented by him to the society.
Analogous structures in any two animals compared were by Owen defined as structures performing similar functions, but not necessarily derived from the modification of one and the same part in the " plan " or " archetype " according to which the two animals compared were supposed to be constructed.
Throughout the operation of increasing the focal length, the resolving power of the instrument, which depends only upon the aperture, remains unchanged; and we thus arrive at the rather startling conclusion that a telescope of any degree of resolving power might be constructed without an object-glass, if only there were no limit to the admissible focal length.
He constructed gratings up to 340 periods to the inch by straining fine wire over screws.
The explanation of the difference of focus upon the two sides as due to unequal spacing was verified by Cornu upon gratings purposely constructed with an increasing interval.
K i tchener an idea, and he resolved upon the scheme of fencing in areas by chains of blockhouses such as those already constructed for the protection of the railways.
After many years of labour and at a great expenditure of money the Great Western railway has constructed a fine breakwater and railway pier at Goodwick across the lower end of the bay, and an important passenger and goods traffic with Rosslare on the opposite Irish coast was inaugurated in 1906.
The principal coal deposits developed are at Naricual, near Barcelona, and a railway has been constructed to bring the output to the port of Guanta.
in length, and constructed at a cost of £1,177,700, of which the state of Lubeck contributed £802,700, and the kingdom of Prussia £375, 000.
The Pontypridd and Newport railway was constructed in 1887, and there is a joint station at Caerphilly for both railways.
It was he who probably constructed the amphitheatre.
In lower Achradina remains of Roman private houses have been found, and it is in this district that the early Christians 4 constructed their catacombs.
It is enough to say that on this fantastic basis Helmont constructed a medical system which had some practical merits, that his therapeutical methods were mild and in many respects happy, and that he did service by applying newer chemical methods to the preparation of drugs.
or more, the chief ports of the Rhine are admirably constructed, and well equipped with modern contrivances for loading and unloading vessels.
The Baltimore & Ohio railway was to cross his property, and, after various inventions aiming to do away with the locomotive crank and thus save two-fifths of the steam, in 1830 he designed and constructed (largely after plans made two years before) the first steam locomotive built in America; though only a small model it proved the practicability of using steam power for working that line.
(1) A highroad of Italy, constructed in 187 B.C. by the consul M.
39.8) tells us (and this must refer to the time of the Gracchi if not earlier) that the Romans had in his time built the coast road from the Rhone to Carthago Nova; and it is incredible that the coast road in Italy itself should not have been constructed previously.
The Metropolitan and the District lines within London are for the most part underground (this feature supplying the title of " the Underground " familiarly applied to both systems); the tunnels being constructed of brick.
below London Bridge, constructed in 1886 by the East and West India Docks Company (65 acres).
One of the most important questions in the history of London that requires settlement is the date of the building of the first bridge, that is whether it was constructed by Britons or by Romans.
He therefore suggested that the bridge was constructed over the marshy valley of the Lea, probably near Stratford.
The principal Canadian ports are Kingston, at the head of the St Lawrence river; Toronto, where the harbour is formed by an island with improved entrance channels constructed both east and west of it; and Hamilton, at the head of the lake, situated on a landlocked lagoon, connected with the main lake by Burlington channel, an artificial cut.
These small cars are constructed so that the load may be dumped by pivoting the car bodies on the trucks.
- Steel head-gear, modern German type, constructed by Aug.
For high heads the water cylinders, valves and valve chambers are specially constructed to withstand heavy pressures, water being sometimes raised in a single lift to heights of more than 2000 ft.
Centrifugal pumps, constructed with several stages or sets of vanes, and suitable for high lifts, have been introduced for mine service.
floods must be provided with channels of sufficient size to carry them safely past the mine openings, and intercepting ditches should be excavated for this purpose, and dams and embankments constructed to divert the flood waters.
Especially constructed lighters, with motor power, were to play an important part in the disembarkations, a number of them having recently arrived from England.
Well concealed in skilfully constructed entrenchments that were excavated on terrain overlooking the invader's lines, the Turkish contingents holding the different fronts could fairly calculate upon beating off any hostile attack unless their adversaries should be heavily reinforced.
The tempestuous weather, moreover, created serious damage at most of the landing-places, where solidly constructed jetties were in some instances completely demolished by the seas.
The Max Kohl pumps are based on the same principle, but are constructed with more elaborate detail, leading to a greater efficiency, an exhaust of o 0008 mm.
An instrument thus modified was constructed by Poggendorff in 1865.
Since the annexation of Upper Burma this has been extended to Mandalay, and the Mu Valley railway has been constructed from Sagaing to Myitkyina, a distance of 752 m.
Railways were also constructed from Pegu to Martaban, 121 m.
The furnace used for the production of optical glass is generally constructed to take one crucible only, so that the heat of the furnace may be accurately adjusted to the requirements of the particular glass under treatment.
long, which is the oldest of its kind in Bohemia, having been constructed in 1826.
To determine the motion of a jet which issues from a vessel with plane walls, the vector I must be constructed so as to have a constant (to) (II) the liquid (15) 2, integrals;, (29) (30) (I) direction 0 along a plane boundary, and to give a constant skin velocity over the surface of a jet, where the pressure is constant.
The Pitti collection is in the royal palace (formerly the residence of the grand dukes), and a fine new stairway and vestibule have been constructed by royal munificence.
The harbour, originally constructed as a refuge for British ships of war, is one of the best on the east coast, and has been improved by the widening of the piers and the extension of the breakwaters.
The scums forming on the top of the continuous defecator become so hard and dry that they have to be removed from time to time with a specially constructed instrument like a flat spade with three flat prongs in front.
The multiple-effect evaporator, originally invented and constructed by Norberto Rilleux in New Orleans in 1840, has under gone many changes in design and construction since Effect that year.
Slicers used to be constructed with iron disks about 33 to 40 in.
In former days, when refining sugar or " sugar baking " was supposed to be a mystery only understood by a few of the initiated, there was a place in the refinery called the " secret room," and this name is still used in some refineries, where, however, it applies not to any room, but to a small copper cistern, constructed with five or six or more divisions or small canals, into which all the charcoal cisterns discharge their liquors by pipes led up from them to the top of the cistern.
The quadratrix of Tschirnhausen is constructed by dividing the arc and radius of a quadrant in the same number of equal parts as before.
The scolex is biradially constructed, the proglottides flattened, quadrangular and bilaterally symmetrical.
To prevent this various implements, such as disk harrows and specially constructed rollers, may be used to consolidate the upper stirred portion of the soil and place it in close capillary relationship with the lower unmoved layer.
The turf is taken off either with the breast plough - a paring tool pushed forward from the breast or thighs by the workman - or with specially constructed paring ploughs or shims. The depth of the sod removed should not be too thick or burning is difficult and too much humus is destroyed unnecessarily, nor should it be too thin or the roots of the herbage are not effectually destroyed.
It is first surrounded by an embankment, after which the water from the river is allowed to flow through a properly constructed sluice in its bank, along a drain or ditch to the land which is prepared for warping.
The mixture of ore and charcoal is put into the crucible around the pipe, the crucible closed by a luted-on lid, and placed in a furnace constructed so as to permit of the lower end of the pipe projecting into the ash-pit.
In the Silesian process the distillation is conducted in specially constructed muffles of a prismatic shape arched above, which are arranged in two parallel rows within a low-vaulted furnace, similar to the pots in a glass furnace.
Ter Neuzen was strongly fortified in 1833-39, and has a flourishing transit trade, as the port of Ghent, by the canal constructed in 1825-27.
The canal was constructed between 1761 and 1790, and connects with the Forth and Clyde Canal near Maryhill.
In June 1870 he at last reached the goal of his journey, Marib; here he explored the ruins of Medinat an Nahas (so called from its numerous inscriptions engraved on brass plates), and two hours to the east he found the famous dam constructed by the Himyarites across the W.
The flood-water is controlled by a system of dams and channels constructed so as to utilize every drop, and the extent of cultivation is limited more by the supply of water available than by the amount of suitable soil.
in length, constructed in 1890-1893, connects the city with Teheran.
Formerly nearly the whole of Muttra consisted of pasture and woodland, but the roads constructed as relief works in1837-1838have thrown open many large tracts of country, and the task of reclamation has since proceeded rapidly.
wide, while on the right bank quays have been constructed with numerous wharfs and warehouses.
Another series of works, consisting of a rampart and fosse, were constructed in 1704 to surround the whole city at that time, i.e.
The fast-growing activity of the port of Trieste and the new and shorter railway line constructed between it and Vienna also contribute to the same effect.
thick, and at the top about half as much, they are constructed throughout of marble.
Baleato also constructed a map of Peru.
The inland telegraph service dates from 1864, when a short line from Callao to Lima was constructed, and state ownership from 1875, when the government assumed control of all lines within the republic, some of which were subsequently handed over to private administration.
On the strength of similar arrangements of lenses and mirrors the invention of the camera obscura has also been claimed for Leonard Digges, the author of Pantometria (1571), who is said to have constructed a telescope from information given in a book of Bacon's experiments.
Most of the earlier astronomical work was done in a darkened room, but here we first find the dark chamber constructed of wooden rods covered with cloth or paper, and used separately to screen the observing-tablet.
Three types of columns are employed: (I) the elongation is simply a straight or bulb tube; (2) the column, properly termed a "dephlegmator," is so constructed that the vapours have to traverse a column of previously condensed vapour; (3) the column is encircled by a jacket through which a liquid circulates at the same temperature as the boiling-point of the most volatile component.
Apparatus can also be constructed in which the unchanged vapours are continually circulated through the tube.
A carriage road was constructed over it as far back as 1772, while the railway over it was built in 1864-1867.
There abound "beautifully laid out gardens, public and private, and solidly constructed roads, some of them bordered with bamboos and other delicately-fronded trees, and fringed with the luxuriant growth of semi-tropical vegetation."
The vessel (renamed the "Virginia" though it is generally known in history by its original name) was first cut down to the water-line and upon her hull was built a rectangular casemate, constructed of heavy timber (24 in.
Accordingly, the vessel was built so low in the water that the waves glided easily over its deck except at the middle, where was constructed a revolving turret 1 for the guns, and though the vessel's iron armour had a thickness of 1 in.
The Speculum Naturale is so constructed that the various subjects are dealt with according to the order of their creation; it is in fact a gigantic commentary on Genesis i.
The new harbour was constructed in 1867-1883, at a cost of £1,500,000.
Outside the town is the Fontana delle novantanove cannelle, a fountain with ninety-nine jets distributed along three walls, constructed in 1272.
A good carriage road constructed and worked by a Russian company and opened to traffic in 1899 connects Resht with Teheran via Kazvin.
The prohibition of the exportation from England of machinery, models or drawings retarded mechanical improvement, but in 1790 an industrial company was formed at Providence to carry on cotton spinning, and in December of that year there was established at Pawtucket a factory equipped with Arkwright machines constructed by Samuel Slater.
Flodoard had been given charge of the episcopal archives, and constructed his history out of the original texts, which he generally reproduces in full; the documents for the period of Hincmar being especially valuable.
which seems',to have been constructed of tiles, not of stone,.
The railway to Barcelona, opened in October 1848, was the first to be constructed in Spain.
Thus, for the Nara Dai-butsu, the mould was constructed in a series of steps ascending 12 in.
d~ constructed ~o join KiOto with Yedo, but follows an sen O inland course through the provinces of Yamashiro, Omi, Mino, Shinshu, KOtzuke and Musashi.
They were often Vehkles constructed of rich lacquer; the curtains suspended in front were of the finest bamboo workmanship, with thick cords and tassels of plaited silk, and the draught animal, an ox of handsome proportions, was brilliantly caparisoned.
So fierce was the antagonism that the military authorities refused to permit operations of survey in the southern suburb of Tokyo, and the road had to be laid on an embankment constructed in the sea.
Such engineering difficulties presented themselves, however, that the coast route was ultimately chosen, and though the line through the interior was subsequently constructed, strategical considerations were not allowed completely to govern its direction.
The lines are single, for the most part; and as the embankments, the cuttings, the culverts and the bridge-piers have not been constructed for a double line, any change now would be very costly.
Constructed by the Great Central Railway Co., the dock in 1921 comprised a square basin and two long arms (including a graving dock) running parallel to each other on the western side, of a total area of 45 ac., with 5,400 ft.
The last two groups are separated by the Pyhrn Pass (3100 ft.), traversed by a road constructed in the Roman period.
And, though he cannot unroll before us the page of heroic action with the power and majesty of Homer, yet by the sympathy with which he realizes the idea of Rome, and by the power with which he has used the details of tradition, of local scenes, of religious usage, to embody it, he has built up in the form of an epic poem the most enduring and the most artistically constructed monument of national grandeur.
He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.
The shipbuilding yards developed greatly and war vessels of all types, including dreadnoughts and submarines, were constructed during the war.
Among the public buildings constructed since 1911 are the town hall with a clock tower 170 ft.
The ores, having been broken and ground, generally in tube mills, until they pass a 150 to 200-mesh sieve, are transferred to the leaching vats, which are constructed of wood, iron or masonry; steel vats, coated inside and out with pitch, of circular section and holding up to woo tons, have come into use.
A breakwater and mole, constructed of blocks of concrete.
Two stone bridges in good condition, said to have been constructed during the reign of Hulaku Khan (1256-1265), and since then several times repaired, lead over the Safi River on the western side of the town.
On a hill west of the town are the remains of a famous observatory (rasad) constructed under the direction of the great astronomer Nasr-uddin of Tus.
The old town, which preserves its rectangular plan from Roman times, is enclosed by walls, with towers constructed in the 12th century.
One thoroughfare thus constructed at the close of the 19th century is the finest in Belfast - Royal Avenue.
In 1614 the Vignacourt aqueduct was constructed.
The fosse is laid out in vegetable gardens; public gardens have been constructed outside the walls; and artesian wells have been bored by the government.
Its harbour was of considerable importance in imperial times, as the nearest to Dalmatia, 2 and was enlarged by Trajan, who constructed the north quay, his architect being Apollodorus of Damascus.
43) show Metz as it was about 'goo; in the years following a new outer chain of defences was constructed, which extends as far as Thionville on the north side and has its centre in front of Metz on the Gravelotte battleground.
The fate of Cambrai was sealed and only a part of the incompletely, constructed Masnieres-Beaurevoir line, already broken in its northern sector by the Third Army and in its southern sector by the Fourth Army, was left as a dyke to stem the further British advance.
At Bordeaux his Universal Tables on Dialling were constructed; and in London he was admitted to the meetings of Robert Boyle, Robert Hooke and other learned and scientific men.
At the same time the ancient graveyards round the city were swept smooth and levelled; obstructions were demolished, outworks constructed, and the defences generally renovated.
A four-sided prism of glass is constructed having one angle of 9c)°, the opposite angle of 135°, and the two remaining angles each of 672°.
in length, constructed in 1851-1852, the water is drained off from the mines into the river Gran.
The Via Cassia, constructed after 187 B.C., passed just below the town.
Other noteworthy tombs are those of the Granduca, with a single subterranean chamber carefully constructed in travertine, and containing eight sarcophagi of the same material; of Vigna Grande, very similar to this; of Cone Casuccini (the ancient stone door of which is still in working order), with two chambers, containing paintings representing funeral rites; of Poggio Moro and Valdacqua, in the former of which the paintings are almost destroyed, while the latter is now inaccessible.
The town was captured by the Gurkhas in 1790, who constructed a fort on the eastern extremity of the ridge.
The fortress of the Malatesta, constructed in 1349, has been in the main destroyed; the part of it which remains is now a prison.
Among a people of roadmakers, Trajan was one of the greatest, and we have definite evidence from inscriptions that some of the military roads in this region were constructed by him.
His forum and its numerous appendages were constructed on a magnificent scale.
Until modern times the city was built largely on floating pontoons or on piles at the edges of the innumerable canals and water-courses which formed the thoroughfares, but to meet the requirements of modern life, well-planned roads and streets have been constructed in all directions, crossing the old canals at many points and lined with well-built houses, for the most part of brick, in which the greater part of the erstwhile riparian population now resides.
deep. In 1897-1901 the United States government constructed a harbour of refuge, formed by a second breakwater 24 m.
p. 551) in which he shows that a micrometer can be much more easily constructed by dividing a single object-glass through its axis than by the employment of two object-glasses.
9 represents the resulting type of instrument which was finally designed and constructed by Repsolds.
aperture have subsequently been constructed by Repsolds on these plans for GÃ¶ttingen, Bamberg, Leipzig and the Kuffner Observatory (near Vienna), and all of them have made important contributions to astronomy of precision.
Next he groups these sections into fourteen larger masses of apocalyptic matter, and by a process of synthesis seeks to arrive at the plan on which the author constructed his book.
Sigsbee, U.S.N., of Lucas, which was perfected in the Telegraph Construction and Maintenance Company's ships, and of the Prince of Monaco, constructed by Leblanc of Paris.
The refractometer constructed by C. Pulfrich (of the firm of Zeiss, in Jena) has been successfully used by G.
These instruments must be constructed with the greatest care, but when well made in accordance with J.
Connected with the harbour are dry docks, the yards where the largest ships in the French navy are constructed, magazines, rope walks, and the various workshops requisite for a naval arsenal of the first class.
The arrangements for this purpose vary, of course, with the amount of work to be done with one fixing of the machinery; where it is likely to be used for a considerable time, the drum and brake are solidly constructed, and the ropes of steel or iron wire carefully guided over friction rollers, placed at intervals between the rails to prevent them from chafing and wearing out on the ground.
The guides or conductors in the pit may be constructed of wood, in which case rectangular fir beams, about 3 by 4 in., are used, attached at intervals of a few feet to buntons or cross-beams built into the lining of the pit.
Some of these generators are constructed to make the gas only as fast as it is consumed at the burner, with the object of saving the expense and room which would be involved by a storage-holder.
The former difficulties with the Des Moines Rapids of the Mississippi (which are passable for rafts and light boats at high water) have been overcome by a canal from Keokuk to Montrose constructed by the National Government.
Most of the barracks can accommodate not only the units they are constructed for, but also detachments going through courses of instruction.
The Arab Noma, constructed in 1800, has been rebuilt by the Germans, who have retained the fine sculptured gateway.
The verse portions, which are on the whole correct and classically constructed, are in imitation of Varro and are less tiresome.
In 1668 it was purchased from Sir Patrick Maxwell of Newark by the Glasgow magistrates, who here constructed a harbour.
Accordingly, when the city was rebuilt in 370 B.C., the river Ophis was divided into, two branches, which between them encircled the walls; and the walls themselves were constructed to a height of about 3 to 6 feet of stone, the rest being of unbaked brick.
It is entirely constructed of granite blocks, without cement, and consists of six arches of various sizes, with a total length of 616 feet and a height of about 1 9 0 ft.
But only gradually did he come to realize that his source of spiritual consolation might undermine altogether the artfully constructed fabric of the medieval Church.
Carding, roving and spinning machines were constructed at Bridgewater in 1786.
For the better accommodation of the increasing commerce of the port of Boston, the commonwealth bought a considerable frontage upon the harbour lines and constructed a dock capable of receiving the largest vessels, and has supplemented the work of the United States government in deepening the approaches to the wharves.
The guns constructed on this principle yielded such excellent results, both in range and accuracy, that they were adopted by the British government in 1859, Armstrong himself being appointed engineer of rifled ordnance and receiving the honour of knighthood.
The old Spanish edifices were very solidly constructed of stone, and private residences were provided with iron gates and window guards strong enough to withstand an ordinary assault.
For the water supply the Aztecs used the main causeway through their city as a dam to separate the fresh water from the hills from the brackish water of Texcoco, and obtained drinking water from a spring at the base of the hill of Chapultepec. The Spaniards added three other springs to the supply and constructed two long aqueducts to bring it into the city.
Probably no other church of equal size in Europe is similarly constructed.
Various machines have been constructed to perform this operation, some of them specially designed for the use of troops in the field; those in which economy of fuel is studied have an exchange-heater, by means of which the incoming cold water receives heat from the outgoing hot water, which thus arrives at the point of outflow at a temperature nearly as low as that of the supply.
On the 3rd of May 1901 a fire destroyed nearly 150 blocks of buildings, constituting nearly the whole of the business part of the city, the total loss being more than $15,000,000; but within two years new buildings greater in number than those destroyed were constructed, and up to December 1909 about 9000 building permits had been granted.
When the fleet was constructed on the Hydaspes, Onesicritus was appointed chief pilot (in his vanity he calls himself commander), and in this capacity accompanied Nearchus on the voyage from the mouth of the Indus to the Persian gulf.
It was constructed by Christian Muller in 1738, and has 4 keyboards, 64 registers and 5000 pipes, the largest of which is 15 in.
It was not constructed before the reign of Vespasian, for inscriptions record that it was built by the Colonia Flavia.
The right trapezium so constructed, F ' may be called the equivalent right trapezium.
The corresponding solid figure, in its most general form, is such as would be constructed to represent the relation of a magnitude E to two magnitudes F and G of which it is a function; it would stand on a plane base, and be comprised within a cylindrical boundary whose cross-section might be of any shape.
Chebichev further constructed an instrument for drawing large circles, and an arithmetical machine with continuous motion.
From the materials at hand he constructed a circular chart, which was engraved on marble by Augustus and afterwards placed in the colonnade built by his sister Polla.
It was here that, on his invitation, James Watt constructed a model of his steam-engine, which was tested in a now disused colliery.
On either side of it staircases constructed within columns lead to the roof.
The Great Northern, running west from Spokane, crosses the state in nearly a straight line, and between this road and the Northern Pacific, and parallelingthe Great Northern, runs the recently constructed Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound, the westward extension of the Chicago, Milwaukee & St Paul.
Naval expeditions from Berenice and Myoshormus to the Arabian ports brought back the information on which Claudius Ptolemy constructed his map, which still surprises us by its wealth of geographical names.
Koenig constructed a series of bars forming a harmonicon, the frequency of each bar being calculable, and he found the limit to be between 16,000 and 24,000.
Two additional arms were therefore constructed, consisting of a north-east and north-west breakwater, leaving two openings, one Boo ft.
LAKE DWELLINGS, the term employed in archaeology for habitations constructed, not on the dry land, but within the margins of lakes or creeks at some distance from the shore.
Hippocrates, writing in the 5th century B.C., says of the people of the Phasis that their country is hot and marshy and subject to frequent inundations, and that they live in houses of timber and reeds constructed in the midst of the waters, and use boats of a single tree trunk.
Herodotus, writing also in the 5th century B.C., describes the people of Lake Prasias as living in houses constructed on platforms supported on piles in the middle of the lake, which are approached from the land by a single narrow bridge.
The records of the wars in Ireland in the r6th century show that the petty chieftains of that time had their defensive strongholds constructed in the "freshwater lochs" of the country, and there is record evidence of a similar system in the western parts of Scotland.
Similar researches have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries - in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and in Mecklenburg and Pomerania - were peopled, so to speak, by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the shores.
On the other hand, when the bottom was rocky so that the piles could not be driven, they were steadied at their bases by being enveloped in a mound of loose stones, in the manner in which the foundations of piers and breakwaters are now constructed.
The floors were of clay, and in each floor there was a hearth constructed of flat slabs' of stone.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
- The first bridge known to have been constructed at Rome over the Tiber was the timber Pons Sub Quattro Capi), of about 62 B.C., is practically intact; and the Pons Cestius, built probably in 46 B.C., retains much of the original masonry.
Trajan also constructed the bridge of Alcantara in Spain (fig.
Bridges with stone piers and timber superstructures were no doubt constructed from Roman times onward, but they have perished.