From 1816 to 1818 he was Luxemburg envoy at the German diet, but was recalled, at the instance of Metternich, owing to his too independent advocacy of state constitutions.
It remains to add that the Ligurian Republic and that of Lucca remodelled their constitutions in a way somewhat similar to that of the Cisalpine.
The Constitutions of Clarendon, in 1164, made the appeal from the court of the archdeacon lie to the court of the bishop.
(k) In England the Constitutions of Clarendon added a provision for appeal to the king, " and if the archbishop shall have failed in doing justice recourse is to be had in the last resort (postremo) to our lord the king, that by his writ the controversy may be ended in the court of the archbishop; because there must be no further process without the assent of our lord the king."
This recourse in England sometimes took the form of the appeal to the king given by the Constitutions of Clarendon, just mentioned, and later by the acts of Henry VIII.; sometimes that of suing for writs of prohibition or mandamus, which were granted by the king's judges, either to restrain excess of jurisdiction, or to compel the spiritual judge to exercise jurisdiction in cases where it seemed to the temporal court that he was failing in his duty.
In England the Constitutions of Clarendon (by chap. viii.) prohibited appeals to the pope; but after the murder of St Thomas of Canterbury Henry II.
The Constitutions of Clarendon provided that these causes should be heard only in the king's court (c. 1).
In regard to the execution of these promises, the jurisdiction of the ecclesiastical courts was possibly traversed by c. 15 of the Constitutions of Clarendon; but allowed by the statute 13 Edw.
The subject was dealt with in the Constitutions of Clarendon, formally revoked after the murder of St Thomas of Canterbury.
indicated the particular planet they were under led to their use in diseases and for constitutions supposed to be under the same planet.
Sulphurous acid may have either of the constitutions
But this has often been the case with the high magistracies of commonwealths whose constitutions were purely democratic.
North Carolina has been governed under the charters of 1663 and 1665 (1663-1729), under commissions and instructions from the crown (1729-1776), and under the state constitutions of the 18th of December 1776 (amended in 1835, in 1856, and in the Secession Convention of 1861) and of April 1868 (amended in 1872-1873, 1875, 2 1819 i 1888 and 1899).
To this end John Locke drafted for them in 1669 the famous Fundamental Constitutions providing for the division of the province into eight counties and each county into seigniories, baronies, precincts and colonies, and the division of the land among hereditary nobles who were to grant three-fifths of it to their freemen and govern through an elaborate system of feudal courts.
But these constitutions, several times revised, actually served only as a theoretical standard for the proprietors and were abrogated altogether in 1693, and the colonists were governed by instructions which granted them much greater privileges.
This expriest, this disillusioned Jacobin and skilful spinner of cobweb constitutions, enjoyed for a time the chief reputation in France.
The resulting Acte additionel (supplementary to the constitutions of the empire) bestowed on France an hereditary chamber of peers and a chamber of representatives elected by the "electoral colleges" of the empire, which comprised scarcely one hundredth part of the citizens of France.
At St Paul's the legatine constitutions of Otto were published in a synod of 1237, those of Ottobon in 1268: these were the most important national councils held after the independence of York had been established.
These disputes involved questions of principle which had long occupied Henry's attention, and Becket's defiant attitude was answered by the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, in which the king defined, professedly according to ancient use and custom, the relations of Church and State.
Becket and the bishops were required to give these constitutions their approval.
But when he renounced his promise to observe the constitutions his conduct was reprobated by the other bishops, although approved by the pope.
a formal condemnation of the constitutions.
It was a hollow truce, since the subject of the constitutions was not mentioned; and Thomas returned to England with the determination of riding roughshod over the king's supporters.
But the archbishop prevailed upon the pope to suspend the bishops, and before his return published papal letters which, in announcing these sentences, spoke of the constitutions as null and void.
Besides his own constitutions, Euric included in this collection constitutions of his predecessors, Theodoric I.
It comprises 324 constitutions taken from Leovigild's collection, a few of the laws of Reccared and Sisebut, 99 laws of Chindaswinth (642-653), and 87 of Recceswinth.
Two works now chiefly occupied the remainder of his life: the final completion of the Spiritual Exercises and the drawing up of the Constitutions, which received their final form after his death.
The Constitutions are discussed in the article on the Jesuits.
His doctrine on the subject is found in the well-known letter to the Portuguese Jesuits in 15J3, and if this be read carefully together with the Constitutions his meaning is clear.
It will be sufficient here to mention: A Book of Spiritual Exercises, written by Garcias de Cisneros (London, 1876); the official Latin text in the third volume of the Avignon edition of the Constitutions (1830); Roothaan's Exercitia spiritualia S.
among other works, Constitutions de la nation francaise (1819); Appreciation du projet de loi relatif aux trois concordats (1806, 6th ed.
But the praetor Rutilius, about the beginning of the 1st century B.C., limited the excessive imposition of such conditions, and his restrictions were carried further by the later jurists and the imperial constitutions.
The general tendency both of the imperial constitutions and of the maxims of the legists is in favour of liberty.
Perley Poore's Constitutions (2 vols., Washington, 1877); a special account of the government of the territorial period may be found in D.
By means of conference committees, however, identical constitutions were formed, which in the following October were adopted by an almost unanimous popular vote.
Differences of temperature and atmospheric pressure must disturb this equilibrium, but the movements of both ocean and atmosphere lead to a high degree of uniformity in both envelopes as regards their gaseous constitutions.
English provincial and legatine constitutions continually assailed simony.
806-815, also article Didache.) Apostolical Constitutions.
Adopting the profession of an advocate, he came to Constantinople and practised in the prefectural courts there, reaching such eminence as to attract the notice of the emperor Justinian, who appointed him in 528 one of the ten commissioners directed to prepare the first Codex of imperial constitutions.
About the same time the emperor placed Tribonian at the head of a fourth commission, consisting of himself as chief and four others - Dorotheus, professor at Beyrut, and three practising advocates, who were directed to revise and re-edit the first Codex of imperial constitutions.
The above facts, which are all that we know about Tribonian, rest on the authority of his contemporary Procopius and of the various imperial constitutions already cited.
It is known that he had a share in the drawing up of the new constitutions for the Batavian and Italian Republics.
The chief cities received municipal constitutions, as in Portugal.
The Apostolic Constitutions (viii.
(b) The Ada concilii Remensis ad Sanctum Basolum, a detailed account of the proceedings and discourses at the great council of St Basle; a shorter account of his apologetic speeches at the councils of Mouzon and Causey; and drafts of the decrees of two or three other councils or imperial constitutions promulgated when he was archbishop of Ravenna or pope.
Isomeric triazoles of the following constitutions are known:- HC :N N :CH N-N?
Cyril of Jerusalem, Augustine and the Apostolic Constitutions make no reference to any such feature either in the public or private worship of the Christians of that time.
Three constitutions were framed - in 1828, 1833 and 1839.
Creed of Antioch quoted in the Apostolic Constitutions.
By the early constitutions of the Church of England a bishop was allowed a space of two months to inquire and inform himself of the sufficiency of every presentee, but by the ninety-fifth of the canons of 1604 that interval has been abridged to twenty-eight days, within which the bishop must admit or reject the clerk.
The granting of the Neapolitan and Piedmontese constitutions was followed (17th February 1848) by that of Tuscany, drawn up by Gino Capponi.
Like the previous constitutions of 1776, 1792 and 1831, it was promulgated by a constitutional convention without submission to the people for ratification, and amendments may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of each house in two consecutive legislatures.
Speranski's labours also bore fruit in the constitutions granted by Alexander to Finland and Poland.
The Liberal party had high hopes of "the giver of constitutions," but he disappointed his admirers by steadily rejecting every Liberal project.
Also it is to be said that with the single exception of religious toleration the record of the state in devotion to human rights has been from the first a splendid one, whether in human principles of criminal law, or in the defence of the civil rights commonly declared in American constitutions.
The Greater Doxology, in a form approximating to that of the English prayer-book, is given in the A postolical Constitutions (vii.
The whole work was in the hands of the writer of the seventh book of the Apostolic Constitutions, who embodies almost every sentence of it, interspersing it with passages of Scripture, and modifying the precepts of the second part to suit a later (4th-century) stage of church development; this writer was also the interpolator of the Epistles of Ignatius, and belonged to the Syrian Church.
39), and even Cyprian and the 4th-century Apostolic Constitutions (ii.
Government.-Since becoming a state, New York has been governed under four constitutions, adopted in 1777, 1821, 1846 and 1894 respectively.
The first and second state constitutions required that every senator should be a freeholder, but since 1846 no property qualifications have been prescribed for membership in either house; the only persons disqualified are those who at the time of the election or within one hundred days before the election were members of Congress, civil or military officers under the United States, or officers under any city government.
Their houses, at first without bonds between them, soon tended to draw together and coalesce into congregations with corporate organization and codes of constitutions supplementary to the Rule.
It had only a small share in making the constitutions of the American colonies, as only the Carolinas, Pennsylvania, Georgia and Nova Scotia were formed after the reign of Charles II.; and in 1760 a secretary of state for the colonies was appointed, to whom the control drifted away.
Among its chief events may be mentioned the endowment of the university of Constantinople (425), the conciliatory council of Ephesus (434) and the publication of the Codex Theodosianus (438), a collection of imperial constitutions for the benefit of public officials, which is our chief source of information about the government of the empire in the 5th century.
By an agreement between North and South Dakota, embodied in their constitutions, each state assumed the debt created for the erection of public buildings within its limits during the Territorial period.
The functions of the deaconess were as follows: (1) To assist at the baptism of women, especially in connexion with the anointing of the body which in the ancient Church always preceded immersion; (2) to visit the women of the Church in their homes and to minister to the needs of the sick and afflicted; (3) according to the Apostolical Constitutions they acted as door-keepers in the church, received women as they entered and conducted them to their allotted seats.
Fazy, Histoire de Geneve a l'epoque de l'Escalade, 1598-1603 (Geneva, 1902), and Les Constitutions de la Republique de Geneve (to 1847) (Geneva, 1890); J.
The framers of the constitution were largely influenced by the American and French constitutions, and the American principle of the division and balance of the legislative, executive and judicial powers was followed.
Richter, in his Evangelische Kirchenordnungen des 'Olen Jahrhunderts (2 vols., 1846), has collected more than one hundred and eight separate ecclesiastical constitutions, and his collection is confessedly imperfect.
The liturgies of the Lutheran churches exhibit the same diversities in details as appear in their constitutions.
The chief danger with herbivorous and frugivorous creatures is that their constitutions are not adapted to the richness of cultivated fruits and cereals, and, in captivity, they may suffer mechanically from the want of bulk in their food supply, or if they eat a quantity sufficient in bulk, it contains an excess of nutritive material.
The first volume, however, is complete in itself, and traces the original settlement of the different American colonies, and the progressive changes in their constitutions and forms of government as affected by the state of public affairs in the parent kingdom.
With the usual exceptions of criminals, 3 There were three previous constitutions - those of 1 79 2, 1799 and 1850.
Young, History and Texts of Three Constitutions of Kentucky (Louisville, 1890); J.
They are governed and live by constitutions and rules, mostly drawn up by their founder, St Ignatius of Loyola, and approved by the popes.
The soldier-mind of Ignatius can be seen throughout the constitutions.
The novice is classified according as his destination is the priesthood or lay brotherhood, while a third class of "indifferents" receives such as are reserved for further inquiry before a decision of this kind a strict retreat, practically in solitary confinement, during which he receives from a director, yet relying on Thine infinite kindness and mercy and impelled by the desire of serving Thee, before the Most Holy Virgin Mary and all Thy heavenly host, I, N., vow to Thy divine Majesty Poverty, Chastity and Perpetual Obedience to the Society of Jesus, and promise that I will enter the same Society to live in it perpetually, understanding all things according to the Constitutions of the Society.
About this period he takes his Letter and Constitutions of the said Society."
in place of the General of the Society of Jesus and his successors holding the place of God), Perpetual Poverty, Chastity and Obedience; and according to it a peculiar care in the education of boys according to the form of life contained in the Apostolic Letters of the Society of Jesus and in its Constitutions."
The vows of this grade are the same as the last formula, with the addition of the following important clause: "Moreover I promise the special obedience to the Sovereign Pontiff concerning missions, as is contained in the same Apostolic Letter and Constitutions."
The Jesuits themselves deny the existence of any such body, and are able to adduce the negative disproof that no provision for it is to be found in their constitutions.
Alfonso Salmeron and Pasquier-Brouet, as papal delegates, were sent on a secret mission to Ireland to encourage the native clergy and people to resist the religious changes introduced by Henry VIII.; Nicholas Bobadilla went to Naples; Faber, first to the diet of Worms and then to Spain; Laynez and Claude le Jay to Germany, while Ignatius busied himself at Rome in good works and in drawing up the constitutions and completing the Spiritual Exercises.
During this long period he occupied himself with completing the constitutions by incorporating certain declarations, said to be Ignatian, which explained and sometimes completely altered the meaning of the original text.
On the 8th of September 1558, two points were added to the constitutions: that the generalship should be triennial and not perpetual, although after the three years the general might be confirmed; and that the canonical hours should be observed in choir after the manner of the other orders, but with that moderation which should seem expedient to the general.
Gregory XIV., by the bull Ecclesiae Christi (July 28, 1591), again confirmed the Society, and granted that Jesuits might, for true cause, be expelled from the body without any form of trial or even documentary procedure, besides denouncing excommunications against every one, save the pope or his legates, who directly or indirectly infringed the constitutions of the Society or attempted to bring about any change therein.
But "the terrible power in the universal church, the great riches and the extraordinary prestige" of the Society, which Palafox complained had raised it "above all dignities, laws, councils and apostolic constitutions," carried with them the seeds of rapid and inevitable decay.
Its founder, with a wise instinct, had forbidden the accumulation of wealth; its own constitutions, as revised in the 84th decree of the sixth general congregation, had forbidden all pursuits of a commercial nature, as also had various popes; but nevertheless the trade went on unceasingly, necessarily with the full knowledge of the general, unless it be pleaded that the system of obligatory espionage had completely broken down.
Losing his cause, he appealed to the parlement of Paris, and it, to decide the issue raised by Ricci, required the constitutions of the Jesuits to be produced in evidence, and affirmed the judgment of the courts below.
A royal commission, appointed by the duc de Choiseul to examine the constitutions, convoked a private assembly of fifty-one archbishops and bishops under the presidency of Cardinal de Luynes, all of whom except six voted that the unlimited authority of the general was incompatible with the laws of France, and that the appointment of a resident vicar, subject to those laws, was the only solution of the question fair on all sides.
The early constitutions of the Republic have been published (in Spanish) in three volumes; a study of that of 1857 by B.
Colby, Manual of the Constitution of the State of New Hampshire (Concord, 1902), containing an historical sketch of the constitutions of the state; F.
The wealthy citizen seems always to have had to bear heavy financial burdens, and to have enjoyed in return a dignity and an actual political preponderance which made the general character of municipal constitutions distinctly timocratic.
Two remarkable changes have passed over the state constitutions.
And secondly, whereas in earlier days the constitutions were seldom changed, they are now frequently recast or amended.
Only Maine and Massachusetts and a few of the newer states live under original constitutions, and only Massachusetts is under a constitution older than the i9th century.
Some have recast their constitutions seven or eight times.
Comparing the old constitutions with the new ones, it may be said that the note of those enacted in the first thirty or forty years of the republic was their jealousy of executive power and their careful safeguarding of the rights of the citizen; that of the second period, from 1820 to the Civil War (186165), the democratization of the suffrage and of institutions generally; that of the third period (since the war to the present day), a disposition to limit the powers and check the action of the legislature, and to commit power to the hands of the whole people voting at the polls.
Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.
He has, in most states, the right of reprieving or pardoning offenders, but some recent constitutions place restrictions on this power.
Executive councils advising the governor, but not chosen by him, existed under the first constitutions of all the original thirteen states.
These precedents were followed in all the revolutionary constitutions, except in Georgia, where election by the people was established.
The charters of cities have shown the same process of increasing length and detailed regulation as the state constitutions; and in details there are many differences between different cities.
Several state InWailve, constitutions now contain provisions enabling a Referendum prescribed number (or proportion) of the voters in and Recall.
These constitutions also allow a prescribed number of voters to demand that a law passed by the state legislature, or an ordinance passed by the municipal authority, be submitted to all the voters for their approval.
The Constitution is a document of the first importance in the history of the world, because it has not only determined the course of events in the American Republic, but has also influenced, or become a model for, other constitutions, such as those of Switzerland (1848 and 1874), Canada (1867), Australia (1900), besides Mexico and the numerous republics of South and Central America.
Should the people wish to confer them, they would have to do so by way of amending the Constitution; and herein lies a remarkable difference between the American system on the one hand and those of some European countries on the other, which, although they have created rigid constitutions, do not expressly debar the legislature from using any and every power of government.
There are two official compilations of the State Constitutions, one edited by B.
Local Government: The sources are the state constitutions, state laws and town and county reports and records.
The several states, whose revenue powers are only limited by: (a) restrictions in their respective constitutions, and (b) the general principle that those powers must not be exercised in such a way as to contravene laws of the United States, or to destroy sources of the national revenue, although a state may prohibit within its borders the sale of liquors, from taxes upon which the Unit~d States Treasury derives a considerable part of its receipts.
Restrictions upon the taxing power, and unwise classifications of property for taxation purposes, embodied without good understanding in state constitutions, have been a primary obstacle to the development of sound systems of taxation in the several states.
The purely chemical literature on the alkaloids is especially voluminous; and from the assiduity with which the constitutions of these substances have been and are still being attacked, we may conclude that their synthesis is but a question of time.
Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.
History comes nearer to philosophy; and Aristotle's Constitutions were known to his enemy Timaeus, who attacked him for disparaging the descent of the Locrians of Italy, according to Polybius (xii.), who defended Aristotle.
5), and therefore might have got his information after Aristotle's death, we cannot be sure that any of the Constitutions were published in the author's lifetime.
How otherwise, we wonder, could one man writing alone and with so few predecessors compose the first systematic treatises on the psychology of the mental powers and on the logic of reasoning, the first natural history of animals, and the first civil history of one hundred and fifty-eight constitutions, in addition to authoritative treatises on metaphysics, biology, ethics, politics, rhetoric and poetry; in all penetrating to the very essence of the subject, and, what is most wonderful, describing more facts than any other man has ever done on so many subjects ?
First comes a general theory of constitutions, right and wrong (Books A,B,F); and this part is afterwards referred to as " the first discourses " Ev Tois rpWTocs Xl yocs).
30); and this may be natural history, preparatory to natural philosophy, as in the History of Animals preparatory to the DePartibus Animalium, or what we call civil history, preparatory to political philosophy, as in the 158 Constitutions more or less preparatory to the Politics.
Alabama has been governed under five constitutions, the original constitution of 1819, the revision of 1865, the constitutions of 1868 and 1875, and the present, constitution, which was framed in 1901.
The state has had four other constitutions - those of 1777, 1789, 1798 and 1868.
In addition, the citizen is often called upon to vote yea or nay on questions such as amendments to the state constitutions, granting of licences, and approval or disapproval of new municipal undertakings.
Five modern cities, Colchester, Lincoln, York, Gloucester and St Albans, stand on the sites, and in some fragmentary fashion bear the names of five Roman municipalities, founded by the Roman government with special charters and constitutions.
For ten years the land remained under Athenian control, which was exercised through the newly installed democracies; but in 447 the oligarchic majority raised an insurrection, and after a victory at Coronea regained their freedom and restored the old constitutions.
The Plantagenet abjured the Constitutions of Clarendon, recognized the rights of the pope over the Church of England, and augmented the privileges and domains of the archbishopric of Canterbury.
Pennsylvania has been governed under constitutions of 1776, 1790 and 1838; the present government is under the constitution of the 16th of December 1873 with amendments adopted on the 5th of November 1901.
pledged himself as grand duke of Finland to maintain the constitutions and liberties of the grand duchy.
that which provided that the senor, before assuming the government, should personally appear before the assembly and swear to maintain the ancient constitutions.
The constitutions are unknown '(see J.
Thus to this day the Rules of Basil and the Constitutions of Theodore the Studite, along with the canons of the Councils, constitute the chief part of Greek and Russian monastic law.
He was bitterly disappointed that Becket, on whom he bestowed the primacy, left vacant by the death of Theobald (1162), at once became the champion of clerical privilege; he and the archbishop were no longer on speaking terms when the Constitutions of Clarendon came up for debate.
When, in July 1170, he was forced by Alexander's threats to make terms with Becket, the king contrived that not a word should be said of the Constitutions.
In the Apostolical Constitutions (ii.
In a pulpit controversy with Thomas Cartwright, regarding the constitutions and customs of the Church of England, he showed himself Cartwright's inferior in oratorical effectiveness, but the balance was redressed by the exercise of arbitrary authority.
The Tithe Acts do not apply to the city of London, which has always had its own peculiar customary payment regulated by episcopal constitutions of 13 Hen.
In Saxe-Coburg, the towns of Coburg and Neustadt have separate and peculiar municipal constitutions.
Their constitutions are described in the articles on them.
The mass of the people, as Metternich rightly observed, wished for rest, not constitutions; but the minority of thoughtful menprofessors, students, officials, many soldiersresented the dashing of the hopes of German unity aroused by the War of Liberation, and had drunk deep of the revolutionary inspiration.
On the vexed question of the interpretation of Article 13 Metternich recognized the inexpediency of requiring the South German states to revise their constitutions in a reactionary sense.
By Articles 56 and 57, however, it was laid down that constitutions could only be altered by constitutional means; that the complete authority of the state must remain united in its head; and that the sovereign could be bound to co-operate with the estates only in the exercise of particular rights.
of constitutions, and in the states already constitu tional Liberal concessions were made or promised.
The Liberal ministries of 1848 were dismissed, the constitutions were changed or abolished, and new chambers were elected under a severely restricted suffrage.
Apart from political histories there are useful collections of laws and other official documents of importance, and also a large number of valuable works on the laws and constitutions of the Germans and on German institutions generally.
Confirmation of such a date is afforded by the silence of the Syrian Didascalia, itself perhaps dating from about 250, as to any visit of Simon Magus to Caesarea, in contrast to the reference in its later form, the Apostolical Constitutions (c. 350-400), which is plainly coloured (vi.
(Fn3) The Abbe Guiraud remarks that in refusing to take oaths the Cathars "contraried the social principles on which the constitutions of all states repose," and congratulates himself that society is not yet so thoroughly "laicized" as to have given up oaths in the most important acts of social life.
He refused to be crowned or to take the oath of the local constitutions, and divided the whole monarchy into thirteen departments, to be governed under a uniform system.
A series of fundamental laws were carried, which formally established parliamentary government, with responsibility of ministers, and complete control over the budget, and there were included a number of clauses guaranteeing personal rights and liberties in the way common to all modern constitutions.
Their political constitutions were aristocratic; that is, the franchise was confined to the descendants of the original settlers, round whom an excluded body (Ffflos or plebs) was often growing up. The ancient kingship was perhaps kept on or renewed in some of the Siceliot and Italiot towns; but it is more certain that civil dissensions led very early to the rise of tyrants.
When the power of Hiero passed in 467 B.C. to his brother Thrasybulus the freedom of Syracuse was won by a combined movement of Greeks and Sicels, and the Greek cities gradually settled down as they had been before the tyrannies, only with a change to democracy in their constitutions.
These ordinances or constitutions were extremely numerous.
in 438 (Codex theodosianus), these collections did not include all the constitutions; there were others which it was necessary to obtain separately, but many whereof it must have been impossible for a private person to procure.
In this branch too of the law there existed some, though a less formidable, uncertainty; for there were constitutions which practically, if not formally, repealed or superseded others without expressly mentioning them, so that a man who relied on one constitution might find that it had been varied or abrogated by another he had never heard of or on whose sense he had not put such a construction.
Immediately after his accession, in 528, he appointed a commission to deal with the imperial constitutions (jus novum), this being the easier part of the problem.
The commissioners, ten in number, were directed to go through all the constitutions of which copies existed, to select such as were of practical value, to cut these down by retrenching all unnecessary matter, and gather them, arranged in order of date, into one volume, getting rid of any contradictions by omitting one or other of the conflicting passages.
1 These statute law commissioners, as one may call them, set to work forthwith, and completed their task in fourteen months, distributing the constitutions which they placed in the new collection into ten books, in general conformity with the order of the Perpetual Edict as settled by Salvius Julianus and enacted by Hadrian.
This was accomplished by a series of constitutions known as the " Fifty Decisions" (Quinquaginta decisiones), along with which there were published other ordinances amending the law in a variety of points, in which old and now inconvenient rules had been suffered to subsist.
The commissioners, who had for greater despatch divided themselves into several committees, presented their selection of extracts to the emperor in 533, and he published it as an imperial statute on December 16th of that year, with two prefatory constitutions (those known as Omnem reipublicae and Dedit nobis).
Accordingly another commission was appointed, consisting of Tribonian with four other coadjutors, full power being given them not only to incorporate the new constitutions with the Codex and make in it the requisite changes, but also to revise the Codex generally, cutting down or filling in wherever they thought it necessary to do so.
The constitutions contained in it number 4652, the earliest dating from Hadrian, the latest being of course Justinian's own.
These ordinances are called, by way of distinction, new constitutions, Novellae constitutiones post codicem (veapai Star&Efs), Novels.
The three collections of the Novels which we possess are apparently private collections, nor do we even know how many such constitutions were promulgated.
And, whereas Justinian's constitutions contained in the Codex were all issued in Latin, the rest of the book being in that tongue, these Novels were nearly all published in Greek, Latin translations being of course made for the use of the western provinces.
Yet to Alexander himself it seemed the only means of placing the "confederation of Europe " on a firm basis of principle and, so far from its being directed against liberty he declared roundly to all the signatory powers that " free constitutions were the logical outcome of its doctrines."
sovereigns, nor constitutions granted in difficult circumstances to tide over a crisis.
We do not here speak of the paper constitutions (khatt-i-sherif) and the like, created to impose upon Western diplomatists, but of such things as consular and commercial courts, criminal codes, and so forth.
The code itself appears to have been originally entitled The Revision of the Ancient Laws () avaicaOapais Twv 7raXac&ilv vby cwv); next there came into use the title i, E a7KOvrecOL 3Aos, derived from the division of the work into sixty books; and finally, before the conclusion of the 10th century, the code came to be designated 6 OavtXtK6s, or Ta (3a6cAuca, being elliptical forms of 6 (3aviXucos v6pos and TA (3aaJukk v6 a a, namely the Imperial Law or the Imperial Constitutions.
With regard to the Pre-Reformation period in England, it is of interest to note that by the constitutions of Archbishop Winchelsey, 1305, it was the duty of the parish to provide for the parish church, among other objects, the images of Christ on the Cross, of the saint to whom the church was dedicated, to be placed in the chancel, and of other saints.
Revolutionary changes, however, have been very frequent in Ecuador, and no less than eleven constitutions were adopted between 1830 and 1909.
Into his services he introduced many peculiar alterations: he drew up a "Primitive Liturgy," in which he substituted for the Nicene and Athanasian creeds two creeds taken from the Apostolical Constitutions; for his "Primitive Eucharist" he made use of unleavened bread and mixed wine; he distributed at the price of one shilling medals of admission to his oratory, with the device of a sun rising to the meridian, with the motto Ad summa, and the words Inveniam viam aut faciam below.
Illinois has been governed under four constitutions, a Territorial constitution of 1812, and three State constitutions of 1818, 1848 and 1870 (subsequently amended).
Since 1833 it has been divided into two half cantons, with independent constitutions.
As archbishop he issued a series of constitutions which are printed in J.
In 1231 he issued the celebrated Constitutions of the Sicilian kingdom at the parliament of Melfi.
During the same year, at the request of the author, he revised Whiston's English translation of the A postolical Constitutions.
Instead of limiting himself to a narration of their political events, he examined their economic relations, their constitutions, their financial systems, and thus was enabled to throw a new light on the development of the old world.
Special constitutions were drawn up for its government, on the same lines as the Dominicans and other mendicants - a general elected by chapter, provincials to rule in the different countries, with assistants, definitors and visitors.
The governor holds office for two years; he has the pardoning and veto power, but his veto may be overridden by a simple majority in each house of the whole number elected to that house (a provision unusual among the state constitutions of the Union).
All these changes in the organic law reflect bitter experience after 1850; and, read with the history of those years as a commentary, few American constitutions are more instructive.
These few provisions are mentioned, not as of particular importance in themselves, but as exceptions of some moment to the usual type of state Constitutions (see United States).
During the 14th and 15th centuries revolutions and counter-revolutions, sometimes accompanied by considerable slaughter, were frequent, and a great variety of more democratic constitutions were tried.
In some other respects the constitution of the cities in the south of France, as will be seen, has more in common with that of the Italian communes, and that of the northern French towns with those of Germany, than the constitutions of the various groups of French towns have among each other.
And in several cities of the Languedoc, each of the two classes composing the population retained its separate laws and customs. It is matter of dispute whether vestiges of Roman institutions had survived in these parts down to the time when the new constitutions sprang into being; but all investigators are pretty well agreed that in no case did such remnants prove of any practical importance.
The constitutions of the Scandinavian towns were largely modelled on those of Germany, but the towns never attained anything like the same independence.
40), in which it was for the first time fully proved that there is no connexion between Roman and modern municipal constitutions.
(Berlin, 1869); Rudolph Sohm, Kirchenrecht (1892); Duchesne, Les Origines du culte chretien (4th ed., Paris, 1908); Bouix, De papa (Paris, 1869); Vacant, Etudes the'ologiques sur les constitutions du concile du Vatican (Paris, 1895); Barbier de Montault, Le Costume et les usages ecclesiastiques (Paris, 1897).
Virginia has had six state constitutions: the first was adopted in 1776, the second in 1830, the third in 1851, the fourth in 1864, the fifth in 1869, and the sixth, the present, in 1902.
The earliest allusion to the custom of marking this week as a whole with special observances is to be found in the Apostolical Constitutions (v.
For several years Whiston continued to write and preach both on mathematical and theological subjects with considerable success; but his study of the Apostolical Constitutions had convinced him that Arianism was the creed of the primitive church; and with him to form an opinion and to publish it were things almost simultaneous.
He vindicated his estimate of the Apostolical Constitutions and the Arian views he had derived from them in his Primitive Christianity Revived (5 vols., 1711-1712).
He was ever pressing his views of ecclesiastical government and discipline, derived from the Apostolical Constitutions, on the ecclesiastical authorities, and marvelled that they could not see the matter in the same light as himself.
Nothing remained to check those centrifugal forces in state and church which substituted a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions for the previous Catholic unity.
On the other side, he addressed himself to the analysis of man considered as a political being, to the anatomy of constitutions and the classification of governments, to the study of motives underlying public action, the secrets of success and the causes of failure in the conduct of affairs.
A book of canons and constitutions of the church which appeared in 1636, instead of being a digest of acts of assembly, was English in its ideas, dealt with matters of church furniture, exalted the bishops and ignored the kirk-session and elders.
The socalled Apostolical Constitutions and Canons, the latter of which were compiled in the 4th century, give us the first clear and fairly general rules on the subject.
At least seven episcopal constitutions of the 8th and 9th centuries forbade the priest to have even his mother or his sister in the house.
On the 4th of November 1555 Pole opened, in the chapel royal at Westminster, a legatine synod, consisting of the united convocations of the two provinces, for the purpose of laying the foundations of wise and solid reforms. In the Reformatio Angliae which he brought out in 1556, based on his Legatine Constitutions of 1555, he ordered that every cathedral church should have its seminary, and the very words he uses on this subject seem to have been copied by the Council of Trent in the twenty-third session (1563).
In 1222, in a synod held at Oseney, he promulgated a set of Constitutions still recognized as forming a part of the law of the English Church.
Poole, 1902); his Constitutions are printed in D.
From that date up to 1830 there were no less than ten governments, while three different constitutions were proclaimed.
CONSTITUTIONS OF CLARENDON, a body of English laws issued at Clarendon in 1164, by which Henry II.
Maitland, Roman Canon Law in the Church of England (1898); the text of the Constitutions is printed by W.
Gardiner says the Instrument was "the first of hundreds of written constitutions which have since spread over the world, of which the American is the most conspicuous example, in which a barrier is set up against the entire predominance of any one set of official persons, by attributing strictly limited functions to each."
1 For a detailed examination of the constitution and a comparison of it with the federal constitutions of Canada and Australia see " South African Union," by A.
In addition to this the discussions announced in the opening speech, regarding measures for the reformation of the Church and the protection of her liberties, took place; and a part of the Constitutions found in the Clementinum, published in 1317 by John XXII., were probably enacted by the council.
By the Greek constitution of 16th/28th November 1864 " the Orthodox Church of Greece remains indissolubly united, as regards dogmas, to the great Church of Constantinople, and to every other church professing the same doctrines, and, like these churches, it preserves in their integrity the apostolical constitutions and those of the councils of the Church, together with the holy traditions; it is aiTacE4aXos, it exercises its sovereign rights independently of every other church, and it is governed by a synod of bishops."
The Compendium errorum selects four papal constitutions which involved a declaration against evangelical poverty, and insists that they are full of heresy.
The constitutions of the first series have been determined; of the second they are still uncertain.
Between December and March a north wind blows, unfavourable to weak constitutions.
In 1683 Rudyard was succeeded by Gawen Lawrie, who brought over with him a curious frame of government entitled " the Fundamental Constitutions."
But the new system was to apply only to those who, in return for the greater privileges which it was alleged to ensure, would agree to a resurvey of their lands, arrange to pay quit-rents and provide for the permanent support of the government, and as Governor Lawrie found the colonists generally unwilling to make the exchange on the proposed terms, he discreetly refrained from any attempt to put the Fundamental Constitutions in operation and thereby avoided the confusion which must have resulted from two sets of laws.
In 1686 another effort was made to put the Fundamental Constitutions in force, but when the deputies and the council rejected the instrument, the proprietors did not force the matter.
The state's own constitution, which had been adopted in 1776 and amended in 1777, retained, like other state constitutions framed during the War of Independence, many features of colonial government ill-adapted to a state increasingly democratic. The basis of representation, each county electing three members to the assembly and one member to the legislative council, soon became antiquated.
In the growth of systematic civilization, the art of writing has had an influence so intense, that of all tests to distinguish the barbaric from the civilized state, none is so generally effective as this, whether they have but the failing link with the past which mere memory furnishes, or can have recourse to written records of past history and written constitutions of present order.
APOSTOLIC CANONS, a collection of eighty-five rules for the regulation of clerical life, appended to the eighth book of the Apostolical Constitutions.
At least half of the canons are derived from earlier constitutions, and probably not many of them are the actual productions of the compiler, whose aim was to gloss over the real nature of the Constitutions, and secure their incorporation with the Epistles of Clement in the New Testament of his day.
The Canons may be a little later in date than the preceding Constitutions, but they are evidently from the same Syrian theological circle.
Three constitutions, framed by conventions in 1820, 1865 and 1875, have been adopted by the people of the state, and a fourth (1845) was rejected, principally because it provided for popular election of the state judiciary, which was then appointed.
" Plainly, it is one of that series of writings, claiming to embody the fundamental rules of the Church, which culminates in the Apostolical Constitutions.
Mgr Rahmani's view, that it is a work of the 2nd century, is universally discredited; nor has Funk's contention found acceptance, that it and the Canons of Hippolytus are alike derived ultimately from the eighth book of the Apostolic Constitutions.
APOSTOLICAL CONSTITUTIONS (Acarayai or AcctreOS TOW ayLWV CL7rOUTOXWV &a, K% /ye/To g TOU `PWµaLW) E7r6QK07rOV TE KaL 7roXLTov.
By their title the Constitutions profess to have been drawn up by the apostles, and to have been transmitted to the Church by Clement of Rome; sometimes the alleged authors are represented as speaking jointly, sometimes singly.
692, accepts the Canons as genuine by its second canon, but rejects the Constitutions on the ground that spurious matter had been introduced into them by heretics; and whilst the former were henceforward used freely in the East, only a few portions of the latter found their way into the Greek and oriental law-books.
500) translated fifty of the Canons into Latin,' although under the title Canones qui dicuntur Apostolorum, and thus they passed into other Western collections; whilst the Constitutions as a whole remained unknown in the West until they were published in 1563 by the Jesuit Turrianus.
Bishop Pearson was able to say that "the eight books of the Apostolic Constitutions have been after Epiphanius's time compiled and patched together out of the didascaliae or doctrines which went under the names of the holy apostles and their disciples or successors" (Vind.
The Apostolical Constitutions, then, are spurious, and they are one of a long series of documents of like character.
This is precisely the way in which the Apostolical Constitutions and other kindred documents have come into being.
It emanates from Palestine or Syria, and is independent of the documents already mentioned; and upon it the Constitutions themselves very largely depend.
In the (so-called) Constitutions through Hippolytus we have possibly a preliminary draft of the famous 8th book of the Apostolical Constitutions.'
The Constitutions themselves fall into three main divisions.
Bickell, indeed, held that this latter was an abbreviated form of books i.-vi.; but it is now agreed on all hands that the Constitutions are based on the Didascalia and not vice versa.
The third section consists of the Apostolic Canons already referred to, the last and most significant of which places the Constitutions and the two epistles of Clement in the canon of Scripture, and omits the Apocalypse.
They are derived in part from the preceding Constitutions, in part from the canons of the councils of Antioch, 34 1, Nicaea, 325, and possibly Laodicaea, 363.
A comparison of the Constitutions with the material upon which they are based will illustrate the compiler's method.
The compiler of the Constitutions finds here material after his own heart.
But the corresponding passage in the Apostolical Constitutions (viii.
Who, then, is the author of the Constitutions, and what can be inferred with regard to him?
But as regards the former point, it is possible that the Apostolical Constitutions constantly gave rise to these festivals; or, on the other hand, that the two passages were subsequently introduced either by the writer himself or by some other hand, when the last book of the Constitutions was being used as a law-book.
And as regards the latter, the fact that Epiphanius does not use the Constitutions is no proof that they had not yet been compiled.
Moreover, the spurious Ignatian epistles, which are also Syrian, depend throughout upon the Constitutions.
266 n.) on the ground that Pseudo-Ignatius occasionally misunderstands the Constitutions, that the two writings give the Roman succession differently, and that Pseudo-Clement shows no knowledge of the Christological controversies of Nicaea.
Constitutions, book viii., in Ante-Nicene Christian Library.
Even the Apostolical Constitutions, an expansion of the Didache and the Didascalia, after exercising a certain amount of influence, were rejected by the council in Trullo (692).
As thus defined, the collection contains the following documents: firstly, the eighty-five Apostolic Canons, the Constitutions having been put aside as having suffered heretical alterations; secondly, the canons of the councils of Nicaea, Ancyra, Neocaesarea, Gangra, Antioch, Laodicea, Constantinople (381), Ephesus (the disciplinary canons of this council deal with the reception of the Nestorians, and were not communicated to the West), Chalcedon, Sardica, Carthage (that of 4 19, according to Dionysius), Constantinople (394); thirdly, the series of canonical letters of the following great bishops - Dionysius of Alexandria, Peter of Alexandria (the Martyr), Gregory Thaumaturgus, Athanasius, Basil, Gregory of Nyssa, Gregory of Nazianzus, Amphilochus of Iconium, Timotheus of Alexandria, Theophilus of Alexandria, Cyril of Alexandria, Gennadius of Constantinople; the canon of Cyprian of Carthage (the Martyr) is also mentioned, but with the note that it is only valid for Africa.
had forbidden; on the other hand, the collections were no longer indefinitely swelled by the addition of new decisions in particular cases, those already existing being enough to form a basis for the codification of the abstract law; and for this reason subsequent collections contain as a rule only the " constitutions " of popes or councils, i.e.
It includes the constitutions subsequent to were included in the edition of Jean Chappuis in 150o; they passed into the later editions, and are considered as forming part of the Corpus juris canonici.
It' includes the constitutions of Clement V., and above all, the decrees of the council of Vienne of 1311, and is divided, like preceding collections, into books and titles; it is cited in the same way, with the additional indication Clem-(entina).
The legislative power is powerfully centralized in the hands of the pope: since the reforming decrees of the council of Trent it is the pontifical constitutions alone which have made the common law; the ecumenical council, doubtless, has not lost its power, but none were held until that of the Vatican (1870), and this latter was unable to occupy itself with matters of discipline.
Next in importance come the pontifical constitutions, which are collected together in the Bullarium; but this is a collection of private authority if we except the P Y?
It is a continuation of the Extravagantes communes, and includes a selection of papal constitutions, from Sixtus IV.
The collection included the decrees of the council of Trent, and a number of pontifical constitutions, arranged in the order of the titles of the decretals.
For recent canonical texts: Richter's edition of the council of Trent (Leipzig, 1863); the Collectanea S.C. de Propaganda Fide (Rome, 1893); the Bullariunt, a collection of papal acts and constitutions; the editions of Cocquelines (28 vols.,Rome, 1733-1756), and of Cherubini (19 vols., Luxemburg, 1727-1758), which are better than the enlarged reprint of Turin, which was unfinished (it goes up to 1730).
Owen, Godbolt's Reports, 432), but unbound by any particular constitutions of council or pope; unless those constitutions had been " received " here by English councils, or so recognized by English courts (secular or spiritual) as to become part of the ecclesiastical custom of the realm.
The sources of English ecclesiastical law (purely ecclesiastical) were therefore (1) the principles of the jus commune ecclesiasticum; (2) foreign particular constitutions received here, as just explained; (3) the constitutions and canons of English synods (cf.
As to foreign particular constitutions in England, there are a great number of them, of which it has been and is admitted, that they have currency in England.
The particular constitutions of English synods are numerous and cover a large field.
These constitutions are again divided into two classes: (a) provincial constitutions promulgated by provincial synods, usually in the name of the presiding archbishop or bishop; and (b) decrees of papal legates, Otho in 1236 and Othobon (Ottobuono de' Fieschi, afterwards Pope Adrian V.) in 1269.
As to Ireland, in a national synod of the four Irish provinces held at Dublin before the four archbishops, in 1634, a hundred canons were promulgated with the royal licence, containing much matter not dealt with by similar constitutions in England.
19 repealed any act of parliament, law or custom whereby the bishops, clergy or laity of the said church were prohibited from holding synods or electing representatives thereto for the purpose of making rules for the well-being and ordering of the said church, and enacted that no such law, &c., should hinder the said bishops, clergy and laity, by such representatives, lay and clerical, and so elected as they shall appoint, from meeting in general synod or convention and in such general synod or convention forming constitutions and providing for future representation of the members of the church in diocesan synods, general convention or otherwise.
The House of Bishops was given a right to propose measures to the " House of Deputies," and to negative acts of the House of Deputies, provided they complied with certain forms. Similar " constitutions " providing for representation of the laity have been adopted by the different dioceses (Hoffman, op. cit.
Convinced by the experience of the wars that France needed an energetic central power, he pushed at times his royal prerogatives to excess, raising taxes in spite of the Estates, interfering in the administration of the towns, reforming their constitutions, and holding himself free to reject the advice of the notables if he consulted them.
Hendricks, History and Government of Indiana (New York, 1908), The Legislative and State Manual of Indiana (Indianapolis, published biennially by the State librarian), Constitutions of 1816 and 1851 of the State of Indiana with Amendments (Indianapolis, 1897), School Law of Indiana, with Annotations (Indianapolis, 1904), and Wm.
First among the lay nobles he signed the Constitutions of Clarendon, he sought to reconcile Henry and Archbishop Becket, and was twice in charge of the kingdom during the king's absences in France.
Somewhat to the kings surprise, Becket yielded for a moment to his pressure, and declared his assent to the constitutions.
of the advantages over the Church which he had hoped to gain by enforcing the Constitutions of Clarendon.
To the pope this meant that the Constitutions of Clarendon were disavowed; to the king, who maintained that they were in the main a mere restatement of the customs of William I., it bore no such general interpretation.
The air of Pau agrees with invalids and delicate constitutions, and St Jean-de-Luz and Biarritz are much frequented by winter visitors.
(2) The Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina (prepared in 1673 when Locke was Lord Shaftesbury's secretary at Exeter House, remarkable for recognition of the principle of toleration, published in 1706, in the posthumous collection).
The successive constitutions, and the other legal changes which resulted from it, are also discussed in their general relation to the growth of the modern French polity in the article France (Law and Institutions).
They were also required to watch over the souls of the flock and report to the bishop the cases of those who had sinned or were in need of spiritual help. "You deacons," says the Apostolical Constitutions (4th century), "ought to keep watch over all who need watching or are in distress, and let the bishop know."
In 1407 he became chancellor for the fourth time, and in 1408 summoned a council at Oxford, which drew up constitutions against the Lollards.
Henry's sovereignty was acknowledged, and constitutions made which drew Ireland closer to Rome.
Administration.-South Carolina was governed from 1670 to 1719 under the Carolina provincial charter of 1665, from 1719 to 1776 under commissions and instructions from the Crown, and after 1776 under the constitutions of 1 77 6, 1 77 8, 1790, 1865, 1868 and 1895.
The constitutions possess more than a mere antiquarian interest.
From 1670 to 1700 the principal questions at issue were the refusal of the settlers to subscribe to the numerous editions of the Fundamental Constitutions and disputes over the collection of quit-rents.
Henry II.s quarrel with Thomas Becket, archbishop of Canterbury, which ran its course in France (1164-1171) as a struggle for the independence and reform of the Church, both threatened by the Constitutions of Clarendon, and ended with the murder of Becket in 1172, gave Louis yet another advantage over his rival.
Clementine) Apostolical Constitutions„ V.
Perhaps the most unique provision of the Nebraska constitution is that 2 An almost identical clause was inserted in the Ohio constitution of 1802, and one in exactly the same language appears in the present (1851) constitution of that state; it appears also in the Kansas constitutions of 1855, 1858 and 18J9 (present), in the Nebraska constitution of 1866, in the North Carolina and South Carolina constitutions of 1868, and was retained in the present constitution of North Carolina as amended in 1876.
P. Poore,, Federal and State Constitutions, &c (Washington, 1877; a more complete collection of American colonial charters); H.
The Apostolical Constitutions, for instance, fix it at three years; 1 the synod of Elvira at two.
- Tennessee has had three constitutions, but the present one, adopted in 1870, is a reproduction of the second (1834) with only a few changes.
' The Constitutions of 1796, 1834 and 1870 all provided that the governor shall not serve more than six years in succession.
The Book of Baruch was never accepted as canonical by the Palestinian Jews (Baba Batra, 4 b), though the Apostolic Constitutions, v.
The ACTU's main concern was to defend the civil rights that were guaranteed in state and federal constitutions.
Much of the document consists of the standard features of post-war European constitutions.
On the whole, state constitutions reflected fear of government tyranny more than they reflected the need to create forceful, effective government.
haploid populations for individuals carrying desirable genetic constitutions.
National constitutions would become legally subordinate, both speakers contended.
cut the waffle, look at the existing IIS and LA constitutions for the aims of that organization and merge them.
The extant fragment of a treatise On Constitutions (C.W.
Mendelssohn asserted the pragmatic principle of the possible plurality of truths: that just as various nations need different constitutions - to one a monarchy, to another a republic, may be the most congenial to the national genius - so individuals may need different religions.
The constitutions and rituals of these secret orders have declarations of principles, of which the following are characteristic: to protect and succour the weak and unfortunate, especially the widows and orphans of Confederate soldiers; to protect members, of the white race in life, honour and property from the encroachments of the blacks; to oppose the Radical Republican party and the Union League; to defend constitutional liberty, to prevent usurpation, emancipate the whites, maintain peace and order, the laws of God, the principles of 1776, and the political and social supremacy of the white race - in short, to oppose African influence in government and society, and to prevent any intermingling of the races.
27) remarks that the Ebionites observed both the Sabbath and the Lord's day; and this practice obtained to some extent in much wider circles, for the Apostolical Constitutions recommend that the Sabbath shall be kept as a memorial feast of the creation as well as the Lord's day as a memorial of the resurrection.
1577) engaged all its signatories to help in ejecting the foreign soldiery, in carrying out the " Pacification," in recognizing Philip's sovereignty, and at the same time in maintaining the charters and constitutions which that king on his accession had sworn to observe.
It is true that Puritan austerity and the lack of any strong central authority after Oliver's death produced a reaction which temporarily restored Charles's dynasty to the throne; but it is not less true that the execution of the king, at a later time when all over Europe absolute monarchies "by divine right" were being established on the ruins of the ancient popular constitutions, was an object lesson to all the world; and it produced a profound effect, not only in establishing constitutional monarchy in Great Britain after James II., with the dread of his father's fate before him, had abdicated by flight, but in giving the impulse to that revolt against the idea of "the divinity that doth hedge a king" which culminated in the Revolution of 1789, and of which the mighty effects are still evident in Europe and beyond.
The Constitutions of Clarendon recognize this appeal (c. viii.).
But the Constitutions of Clarendon (c. 9) reserved the preliminary question, of " frankalmoign " or not, for a jury in the king's court.
Our knowledge of the chemical constitutions of the nucleus is due to the pioneer researches of Sir Lauder Brunton, Plosz, Miescher, Kossel and a host of more recent investigators.
In her internal government she showed herself anxious to promote the prosperity of her people, and to give more unity to an administration made up by the juxtaposition of many states and races with different characters and constitutions.
For administration: see reports of the various executive officers of the state (Baton Rouge); the various constitutions are printed in the report of the Secretary of State, as well as in B.
To all seeming the pope had admitted the canonicity of several of the decrees of Constance - for instance, he had submitted to the necessity of the periodical convocation of other councils; but from his reticence on some points, as well as from his general attitude and some of his constitutions, it appeared that the whole of the decrees of Constance did not receive his unqualified approval, and without any definite pronouncement he made some reservations in the case of decrees which were detrimental to the rights and pre-eminence of the Holy See.
Thorpe, Constitutions, Charters, and Organic Laws (Washington, 1909), vol.
Both unions had constitutions almost identical with that of the Afrikander Bond, and their aims were similar - to secure the triumph of Boer ideals in state and society.
In the great compilations of ecclesiastical law which arose in the East since the 4th century (see below: also Apostolic Constitutions) much of the material was taken from the writings of Hippolytus; how much of this is genuinely his, how much of it worked over, and how much of it wrongly attributed to him, can no longer be determined beyond dispute even by the most learned investigation.
The general decline in the quality of these bodies, and especially their proneness to pass ill-considered or pernicious bills at the instance of private promotors, has led to the restriction in recent years of their powers by the insertion in the state constitutions of many provisions forbidding the enactment of certain classes of measures, and regulating the procedure to be adopted in the passing, either of statutes generally or of particular kinds of statutes.
He therefore drew up constitutions, afterwards codified (see Migne, Patrol.
The great majority of these modern congregations of women follow the Augustinian rule, supplemented by special constitutions or by-laws; such are the Brigittines, the Ursulines and the Visitation nuns: others follow the rule of the third order of the Franciscans or other Mendicants (see Tertiaries).
Chief among them are: (1) The so-called Second Epistle; (2) two Epistles on Virginity; (3) the Homilies and Recognitions; (4) the Apostolical Constitutions; and (5) five epistles forming part of the Forged Decretals (see Decretals).
This Corpus juris, which bears and immortalizes Justinian's name, consists of the four books described above: (1) The authorized collection of imperial ordinances (Codex constitutionum); (2) the authorized collection of extracts from the great jurists (Digesta or Pandectae); (3) the elementary handbook (Institutiones); (4) the unauthorized collection of constitutions subsequent to the Codex (Novellae).
the varied and complicated Christian fellowships in the Roman Empire crystallized into close and mutually exclusive societies - churches with fixed constitutions and creeds, schools with distinctive esoteric doctrines, associations for worship with peculiar mysteries, and ascetic sects with.
In the former book he still makes large additions and alterations, but there is less scope for his prolixity than before; and in the latter, where he is no longer dealing with generalities, but making actual definitions, the Constitutions of necessity become more precise and statutory in form.
But as regards the first of these, it is rather a case of condensed citation than of misinterpretation; the second is explained by the writer's carelessness as shown in other passages, and all are solved if a considerable interval of time elapsed between the compilation of the Constitutions and the spurious Ignatian epistles.
With regard to the texts now in force, the name of jus antiquum, ancient law, has been given to the laws previous to the Corpus' juris canonici; the legislation of this Corpus has been called jus novum, new law; and finally, the name of recent law, jus novissimum, has been given to the law established by the council of Trent aid subsequent papal constitutions.
In 1253 he sent a further list of the first words (principia) of the complementary constitutions and decretals; but the result was practically nil and the popes gave up this system of successive additions.
If we now consider the laws in themselves, we shall find that the dispersed condition of the legislative documents has not been modified since the closure of the Corpus juris; on the contrary, the enormous number of pontifical constitutions, and of decrees emanating from the Roman Congregations, has greatly aggravated the situation; moreover, the attempts which have been made to resume the interrupted process of codification have entirely failed.
At least in legal theory, the only distinction between pre-Reformation and post-Reformation constitutions is in favour of the former - so long as they do not contravene the royal prerogative or the law of the land (see 25 Hen.
This was only a preliminary skirmish; the main battle opened in the following year, when the king, quite aware that he must for the future look on Thomas as his enemy, brought forward the famous Constitutions of Clarendon, of which the main purport was to assert the jurisdiction of the state over clerical offenders by a rather complicated procedure, while other clauses provided that appeals to Rome must not be made without the kings leave, that suits about land or the presentation to benefices, in which clerics were concerned, should be tried before the royal courts, and that bishops should not quit the realmunless they had obtained permission to do so from the king (see CLARENDON, CONSTITUTIONS OF).
Cut the waffle, look at the existing IIS and LA constitutions for the aims of that organization and merge them.
Simply by inhaling the mists released by any of these items, we can make our constitutions more robust and can increase our bodies' ability to fight microorganisms.
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