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constitutional

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constitutional

constitutional Sentence Examples

  • The constitutional history of Aegina is unusually simple.

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  • It is, however, to be noticed that absolute monarchies are confined to the east of Europe and to Asia, Japan being the only established constitutional monarchy east of the Carpathians.

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  • The breach with Rome and the subjection of the church in England to the royal supremacy had been practically achieved before Cranmer's appointment as archbishop: and he had little to do with the other constitutional changes of Henry's reign.

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  • In a monarchy, despotic or constitutional, there cannot in strictness be an aristocracy, because the whole political power cannot be vested in the noble Venice class.

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  • His military genius was displayed in the Social War and the campaigns against Mithradates; while his constitutional reforms, although doomed to failure from the lack of successors to carry them out, were a triumph of organization.

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  • On American Presbyterianism, see Charles Hodge, Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America,1706-1788(2 vols., Philadelphia, 1839-1840); Records of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America from 1706 to 1788 (ibid., 1841); Richard Webster, History of the Presbyterian Church in America (ibid., 1858); E.

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  • But from such glimpses of early Attic history as we can get the union of the Attic towns would seem to have been completed before the constitutional struggle began.

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  • In addition to settling the crown the act contained some important constitutional provisions, of which the following are still in force.

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  • He was a judge of the New Hampshire Court of Common Pleas in 17761 777, a member (and speaker) of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1776 until 1782, a member of the state Constitutional Convention of 1778 and of the state Senate in 1784-1785, and in1783-1784was again a member of Congress.

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  • Early in 1787 King was moved by the Shays Rebellion and by the influence of Alexander Hamilton to take a broader view of the general situation, and it was he who introduced the resolution in Congress, on the 21st of February 1787, sanctioning the call for the Philadelphia constitutional convention.

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  • In 1862, misled by the constitutional tendency of Austrian politics, he publicly declared in favour of the Great German party.

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  • He had plundered the national revenues and scorned constitutional government.

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  • Cromwell's government seemed now established on the firmer footing of law and national approval, he himself obtaining the powers though not the title of a constitutional monarch, with a permanent revenue of £1,300,000 for the ordinary expenses of the administration, the command of the forces, the right to nominate his successor and, subject to the approval of parliament, the members of the council and of the new second chamber now established, while at the same time the freedom of parliament was guaranteed in its elections.

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  • The military rule excited universal hostility; there was an earnest desire for a settled and constitutional government, and the revival of the monarchy in the person of Cromwell appeared the only way of obtaining it.

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  • The oprichina was no constitutional innovation.

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  • Its constitutional origin was analogous to that of the star chamber and the court of requests.

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  • His deposition has been ascribed to a formal act of the Witan, but this seems an antedating of constitutional methods and the circumstances point to a palace revolution.

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  • He now felt ashamed of his speech with its constitutional tendency and sought an opportunity of effacing it.

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  • Modern historians, although less rhetorical, speak in the highest terms of the importance of Magna Carta, the view of most of them being summed up in the words of Dr Stubbs: "The whole of the constitutional history of England is a commentary on this charter."

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  • The duke of Dorset's reappointment to the lord-lieutenancy in 1751, with his son Lord George Sackville as secretary of state for Ireland, strengthened the primate's position and enabled him to triumph over the popular party on the constitutional question as to the right of the Irish House of Commons to dispose of surplus Irish revenue, which the government maintained was the property of the Crown.

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  • In November 1895 he himself formed a cabinet of a pronouncedly radical type, the main interest of which was attached to its fall, as the result of a constitutional crisis arising from the persistent refusal of the senate to vote supply.

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  • Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (1897); Sir F.

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  • Next Spanish hides, with the tails still preserving their twist and the angle of elevation they had when the oxen that wore them were careering over the pampas of the Spanish Main--a type of all obstinacy, and evincing how almost hopeless and incurable are all constitutional vices.

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  • - Russia was described in the Almanach de Gotha for 1910 as " a constitutional monarchy under an autocratic tsar."

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  • Firmness such as this secured for him the support of all constitutional elements, and after three years premiership his position was infinitely stronger than at the outset.

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  • At the general elections of March I9o9, over a score of Clerical deputies were returned, Clericals of a very mild tone who had no thought of the temporal power and were supporters of the monarchy and anti-socialists; where no Clerical candidate was in the field the Catholic voters plumped for the constitutional candidate against all representatives of the Extreme Left.

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  • He endeavoured to deprive his son of his constitutional right to act as lieutenant-general of Aragon during his father's absence.

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  • His shrewd sense of political expediency and his loyalty to constitutional principles saved .him from the error of obstructing the advent and driving into an aati-dynastic attitude politicians who had succeeded in winning popular favor.

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  • At first he supported the ministry, but when they began to show signs of reaction he separated from them, and gradually came to be at the head of the constitutional opposition.

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  • In March 1821, Count Santorre di Santarosa and other conspirators informed Charles Albert of a constitutional and anti-Austrian plot, and asked for his help. After a momentary hesitation he informed the king; but at his request no arrests were made, and no precautions were taken.

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  • The fundamental law was altered in 1848 and the Dutch monarchy, from being autocratic, became henceforth constitutional.

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  • Whilst Russia, Austria, Prussia and France were becoming powerful monarchies with centralized administration, Poland had remained a weak feudal republic with an elected king chosen under foreign influence and fettered by constitutional restrictions.

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  • The new dynasty had consequently a constitutional basis.

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  • The repose of a constitutional king may suit me.

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  • The municipal elections in several of the larger cities, which had hitherto been regarded as strongholds of socialism, marked an overwhelming triumph for tJic constitutional parties, notably in Milan, Turin and Genoa, for the strikes had wrought as much harm to the working classe1 as to the bourgeoisie.

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  • The name is generally applied not only to the order of Ku Klux Klan, but to other similar societies that existed at the same time, such as the Knights of the White Camelia, a larger order than the Klan; the White Brotherhood; the White League; Pale Faces; Constitutional Union Guards; Black Cavalry; White Rose; The '76 Association; and hundreds of smaller societies that sprang up in the South after the Civil War.

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  • He was a member of the Missouri Constitutional Convention of 1820, and was elected to the state House of Representatives in 1820 and to the state Senate in 1822, serving one term in each house.

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  • constitutional parties by intimacy with strong monarchical states such as Germany and Austria.

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  • In 1890 changes in the school system unfavourable to the Roman Catholic Church led to a constitutional struggle, to which was due the defeat of the Federal ministry in 1896.

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  • Pike, A Constitutional History of the House of Lords (1894); W.

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  • In 1858 Carson City was laid out, and in the following year the people of Carson county held a mass meeting and chose delegates to a constitutional convention, which met at Genoa on the 18th of July 1859, and in ten days drafted a constitution.

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  • Delegates to a constitutional convention accordingly drafted a frame of government, which on the lath of January 1864 was submitted to a popular vote and overwhelmingly defeated.

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  • The third constitutional convention in its history now met at Carson City and drew up a constitution which was duly ratified.

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  • He served in the Virginia house of delegates in 1823-1827, in the state constitutional convention of 1829-1830, and from 1831 to 1837 in the National House of Representatives, being chairman of the committee on foreign affairs in 1835-1836.

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  • He was president of the Virginia constitutional convention of 1851, and from 1853 until his death at Paris on the 3rd of October 1859, was United States minister to France.

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  • This society, which arose out of the public excitement created by the war between France and Austria, had for its object the formation of a national party which should strive for the unity and the constitutional liberty of the whole Fatherland.

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  • The National Verein, its work being done, was now dissolved; but Bennigsen was chiefly instrumental in founding a new political party - the National Liberals, - who, while they supported Bismarck's national policy, hoped to secure the constitutional development of the country.

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  • It is said that during his residence in Sweden Panin, who certainly had a strong speculative bent, conceived a fondness for constitutional forms of government.

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  • Assuming then the leadership of the constitutional opposition, he combated the alliance between the Di Rudini cabinet and the subversive parties, criticized the financial schemes of the treasury minister, Luzzatti, and opposed the "democratic" finance of the first Pelloux administration as likely to endanger financial stability.

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  • 1901) he once more became leader of the constitutional opposition, and in the autumn of the year founded a daily organ, Il Giornale d'Italia, the better to propagate moderate Liberal ideas.

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  • In order to meet the universal discontent and the financial difficulties constitutional government was introduced; a parliament was established in which all races of the empire were represented, and in place of centralized despotism was established Liberal centralization under Schmerling and the German Liberals.

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  • He was criticised by the vestals of constitutional tradition for having declared war without consulting Parliament and for not having summoned it until several months later.

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  • 2 1913); although a Giolittian majority was again returned, his opponents, not only among the Socialists but also among the constitutional parties, were now more numerous, and he felt that opposition to his rule was growing in the country at large even more than in Parliament.

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  • The recent advent of constitutional government may improve the condition of the Jews.

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  • F.) Modern Constitutional.

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  • - Cretan constitutional history may be said to date from 1868, when, after the suppression of an insurrection which had extended over three years, the Turkish government consented to grant a certain measure of autonomy to the island.

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  • This arrangement, which was duly carried out, was avowedly " provisional " and satisfied neither party, leading in Greece especially to the military and constitutional crises of 1909 and 1910.

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  • Acting on the constitutional principle that the king's right to convene did not interfere with the church's independent right to hold assemblies, they sat till the 10th of December, deposed all the Scottish bishops, excommunicated a number of them, repealed all acts favouring episcopacy, and reconstituted the Scottish Kirk on thorough Presbyterian principles.

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  • Later constitutional theory held that the repression of civil discord was also one of the motives for the institution of a dictatorship. Such is the view expressed by Cicero in the De legibus (iii.

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  • Adopting the motto, "My strength is the love of my people," he ruled in strict accordance with constitutional principles, though not hesitating to make the fullest use of the royal prerogative when the intervention of the crown seemed to be required by circumstances.

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  • There was a brief reaction: Henry Stuart Foote (1800-1880), Unionist, was elected governor in 1851 over Davis, the States' Rights candidate, and in the same year a Constitutional Convention had declared almost unanimously that "the asserted right of secession".

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  • Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.

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  • North Carolina sent delegates to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787, but the state convention, at Hillsboro, called to pass upon the constitution for North Carolina, did not meet until the 21st of July 1788, when ten states had already ratified.

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  • Ten years later, however, at the election of assemblymen, 33 of the western counties polled an extra-legal vote on the question of calling a constitutional convention, and 30,000 votes were cast for it to only l000 against it.

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  • Caldwell (1818-1874), there was some improvement in the condition of affairs, and in 1875 a constitutional convention, in session at Raleigh, with the Democrats slightly in the majority, amended the constitution, their work being ratified by the people at the state election in 1876.

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  • Bassett, Constitutional Beginnings of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1894); The Regulators of North Carolina (Washington, 1894); and Slavery in the State of North Carolina (Baltimore, 1899), are all trustworthy.

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  • He was a member of the state constitutional convention of 1876.

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  • His dismissal along with other officers was the occasion of another paper controversy in which Conway was defended by Horace Walpole, and gave rise to much constitutional dispute as to the right of the king to remove military officers for their conduct in parliament - a right that was tacitly abandoned by the Crown when the Rockingham ministry of 1765 reinstated the officers who had been removed.

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  • He destroyed no town nor did he put the captive kings to death; in Babylonia he behaved like a constitutional monarch; by the Persians his memory was cherished as "the father of the people" (Herod.

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  • "limited" or "constitutional monarchy," as opposed to "absolute" or "autocratic monarchy."

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  • It exhibits an accurate knowledge of French constitutional history skilfully applied in an attempt to show that an existing actual grievance was not only philosophically unjust but constitutionally illegal.

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  • The indignation with which the queen repelled the idea may have made him think of the duke of Orleans as a possible constitutional king, because his title would of necessity be parliamentary.

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  • He then argued at length that the correct assumption was that both the general government and the state government were "all agents of the same supreme power, the people," that the people had established the Constitution of the United States and that in the Supreme Court, established under that Constitution, was vested the final decision on all constitutional questions.

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  • A sailors' and fishermen's Harbour of Refuge, free library, constitutional club and technical school are maintained.

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  • Medley, English Constitutional History (1907); H.

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  • Time was on the side of the moderates; they succeeded in placing General Pichegru, already known for his tendencies towards constitutional monarchy, in the presidential chair of the Council of Five Hundred; and they proceeded to agitate, chiefly through the medium of a powerful club founded at Clichy, for the repeal of the revolutionary and persecuting laws.

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  • Keeping the electoral machinery almost unchanged (save that the lists of notables were to be permanent) Bonaparte entirely altered the upper parts of the constitutional pyramid reared by the philosopher.

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  • The fact that the three new consuls had entered upon office and set the constitutional machinery in motion fully six weeks before the completion of the plebiscite, detracts somewhat from the impressiveness of the vox populi on that occasion.

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  • The constitutional changes of August 1802, initiated solely by Bonaparte, made France an absolute monarchy.

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  • On his way to Paris he had been profuse in promises of reform and constitutional rule.

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  • The autocrat felt cramped and chafed on all sides by the necessity of posing as a constitutional sovereign; and, while losing something of the old rigidity, he lost very much of the old energy, both in thought and action.

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  • As Chateaubriand remarked, in reference to Louis XVIII.'s constitutional charter, the new constitution - La Benjamine, it was dubbed - was merely a slightly improved charter.

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  • that, if a single province could interpose a " bully's veto," constitutional and peaceful agitation would be discredited throughout the British Empire and the civilized world.

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  • His policy was to preserve constitutional government in the South and strengthen the anti-war party in the North by convincing it that the Lincoln administration had abandoned such government; to the same end he urged, in 1864, the unconditional discharge of Federal prisoners in the South.

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  • From 1871 to 1873 he edited the Atlanta Daily Sun, and he published A Constitutional View of the Late War between the States (2 vols., 1868-1870), perhaps the best statement of the southern position with reference to state sovereignty and secession; The Reviewers Reviewed (1872), a supplement to the preceding work; and A Compendium of the History of the United States (1875; new ed., 1883).

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  • John Adams had none of the qualities of popular leadership which were so marked a characteristic of his second cousin, Samuel Adams; it was rather as a constitutional lawyer that he influenced the course of events.

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  • During the same period we also note the development of certain families, thanks to the accumulation of wealth by trade, and here we get the beginnings of that commercial aristocracy whose evolution was the dominant factor in the constitutional history of the republic.

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  • It proved a disastrous failure, and on the return of the shattered remnants (1171) a great constitutional reform seemed necessary.

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  • The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.

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  • The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1903.

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  • The membership in each house, however, is slightly above these figures, owing to a system of fractional representation and to the constitutional amendment of 1903 which allows each county at least one representative in the House of Representatives.

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  • His administration was characterized by the final struggle with the Indians and by a bitter conflict between the executive and the legislature, which greatly influenced the constitutional history of the state.

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  • OSTRACISM, a political device instituted, probably by Cleisthenes in 508 B.C., as a constitutional safeguard for the Athenian democracy.

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  • 446-466 and Greek Constitutional Antiquities (Eng.

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  • Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities (1896); histories of Greece in general.

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  • Ernst, Constitutional History of Boston (Boston, 1894); H.

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  • On the 14th of July 1791 the Constitutional Society of Birmingham arranged a dinner to celebrate the anniversary of the fall of the Bastille.

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  • In 67 and 66 Catulus unsuccessfully opposed, as prejudicial to constitutional freedom, the Gabinian and Manilian laws, which conferred special powers upon Pompey.

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  • On the constitutional and 1 The bibliography of the Fourth Crusade is discussed in Klimke, Die Quellen zur Geschichte des vierten Kreuzzuges (Breslau, 1875).

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  • The constitutional qualifications for suffrage are: the age of twenty-one years, citizenship in the United States or presentation of naturalization certificates at registration centres, residence in the state one year and in the county six months, and registration.

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  • All these are constitutional provisions.

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  • He was a member of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790, and of the Pennsylvania Assembly in 1790, 1791, and 1792, and rose with surprising rapidity, despite his foreign birth and his inability to speak English with correctness or fluency.

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  • Thus, in regard to the Jay treaty, he defended the constitutional right of the house to consider the treaty, but he did not urge rejection in this specific case.

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  • The Federalists bore down on him unmercifully, and even attempted (1798) a constitutional amendment in regard to citizenship, partly, it appears, in order to drive him from office.

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  • The councils were of various types, each with a constitutional history of its own.

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  • (5) Constitutional History: The Aristotelian " Constitution of Athens "; U.

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  • Gilbert, Greek Constitutional Antiquities (Eng.

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  • Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History (Oxford, 1896), ch.

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  • He appeared personally before successive legislative committees, and in 1846 published a pamphlet, "The Reorganization of the Judiciary," which had its influence in persuading the New York State Constitutional Convention of that year to report in favour of a codification of the laws.

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  • After the Bourbon restoration Lanjuinais consistently defended the principles of constitutional monarchy, but most of his time was given to religious and political subjects.

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  • His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.

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  • The second and third sets elucidate the actual structure of the molecule: these are known as " constitutional properties."

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  • Again, as Romulus was the author of the patrician groundwork of the constitution, so Servius was regarded as the originator of a new classification of the people, which laid the foundation of the gradual political enfranchisement of the plebeians (for the constitutional alterations with which his name is associated, see Rome: Ancient History; for the Servian Wall see Rome: Archaeology).

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  • The student of English constitutional history will observe the success with which Friends have, by the mere force of passive resistance, obtained, from the legislature and the courts, indulgence for all their scruples and a legal recognition of their customs. In American history they occupy an important place because of the very prominent part which they played in the colonization of New Jersey and Pennsylvania.

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  • He served as a Free Soiler in the Massachusetts house of representatives from 1849 to 1853, and was speaker in 1851 and 1852; he was president of the state Constitutional Convention of 1853, and in the same year was elected to the national House of Representatives as a coalition candidate of Democrats and Free Soilers.

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  • von Hoist, The Constitutional and Political History of the United States (Chicago, 1899).

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  • But the width of his intellectual sympathies, joined to a constitutional indecision and vis inertiae, prevented him from doing more enduring work.

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  • The consistent firmness with which he adhered to the cause of constitutional liberalism during the many changes of his times gained him the highest respect of his countrymen, by whom he was styled the Aristides of the French tribune.

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  • Acting strictly in a constitutional manner, Milner thereupon (Oct.

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  • From it dates also the constitutional recognition of the public schools.

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  • By 1863 two parties had arisen among the loyal classes: one of radicals, who demanded the calling of a constitutional convention and the abolition of slavery; the other of conservatives.

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  • They, therefore, wanted still another constitutional convention.

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  • Something of political freedom was enjoyed during the two terms of Spanish constitutional government under the constitution of 1812.

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  • Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."

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  • The inapplicability of many laws passed for the Peninsula - all of which under a constitutional system would apply to Cuba as to any other province, unless that system be modified - was indeed notorious; and Cuban opinion had repeatedly, through official bodies, protested against laws thus imposed that worked injustice, and had pleaded for special consideration of colonial conditions.

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  • The Liberal party was of growing radicalism, the Union Constitutional party of growing conservatism; and after 1893 a Reformist party was launched that drew the compromisers and the waverers.

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  • The demands of the Liberals were as in 1868; those for personal and property rights were much more definitely stated, and among explicit reforms demanded were the separation of civil and military power, general recognition of administrative responsibility under a colonial autonomous constitutional regime; also among economic matters, customs reforms and reciprocity with the United States were demanded.

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  • On the 23rd of February 1895 General Calleja suspended the constitutional guarantees.

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  • A constitutional convention sat at Havana from the 5th of November 1900 to the 21st of February 1901.

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  • In temporal matters the sultan is a constitutional monarch, advised by a cabinet formed of executive ministers who are the heads of the various departments of state, and who are responsible to the elected Turkish parliament.

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  • The enforcement of these reforms, however, was postponed sine die owing to the revolution which transformed the Ottoman Empire into a constitutional state; and the powers, anticipating an improvement in the administration of Macedonia by the new government, withdrew their military officers in the summer of 1908.

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  • Otherwise the revolution was effected almost without bloodshed; for a time the insurgent bands disappeared in Macedonia, and the rival " nationalities " - Greek, Albanian, Turk, Armenian, Servian, Bulgarian and Jew - worked harmoniously together for the furtherance of common constitutional aims. On the 6th of August Kiamil Pasha, an advanced Liberal, became grand vizier, and a new cabinet was formed, including a Greek, Prince Mavrocordato, an Armenian, Noradounghian, and the Sheikh-ul-Islam.

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  • Her own preference for a moderate republic or a constitutional monarchy was quite sincere, and, even if it had not been so, her own character and Napoleon's were too much alike in some points to admit of their getting on together.

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  • THE NATIONAL CONVENTION, in France, the constitutional and legislative assembly which sat from the 10th of September 1792 to the 26th of October 1795 (the 4th of Brumaire of the year IV.).

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  • He suffered from infancy from great fragility of health, and nearly died in 1858 of gastric fever, which left much constitutional weakness behind it.

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  • For the revision of the constitution it is necessary that two-thirds of the members elected to each house of the legislature vote for the call of a constitutional convention, that a majority of all electors voting at the next general election approve the call for the convention, and that the convention consist of as many members as the house of representatives, who shall be chosen in the same manner, and shall meet within three months after the general 1 At International Falls on Rainy River and at Duluth on the St Louis immense water-power is utilized for manufacturing.

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  • The legislature meets biennially in odd-numbered years, the session being limited to ninety days by a constitutional amendment of 1888.

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  • The constitutional conventions of 1845 and 1875, and the state convention which issued the call for the National Liberal Republican convention at Cincinnati in 1872, met here, and so for some of its sessions did the state convention of 1861-1863.

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  • Arrested at Varennes, and brought back to Paris, he was maintained as a constitutional king, and took his oath on the 13th of September 1791.

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  • In 1853 he took a prominent part in the state constitutional convention.

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  • Before taking his seat he served also as a member of the state constitutional convention, where he opposed the grant of universal suffrage.

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  • He at first favoured internal improvements, and in 1824 proposed a constitutional amendment to authorize such undertakings, but the next year took ground against them.

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  • He also presided, as an eminent constitutional lawyer, over a committee set up in that year to consider the reconstruction of the House of Lords, and spent much labour in a task which all parties were disposed to shirk.

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  • "The case," says Henry Adams, "proved impeachment to be an impracticable thing for partisan purposes, and it decided the permanence of those lines of constitutional development which were a reflection of the common law."

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  • The retirement of the timid primate left him without an equal in the Estate of Clergy, and it was very largely due to his co-operation that the king was able to carry through the famous "Act of Unity and Security" which converted Sweden from a constitutional into a semi-absolute monarchy.

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  • Unrepresentative though it was - for the industrial working-classes had no share in it - it at once gave voice to the demand for a constitutional system.

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  • In any case Frederick William, uneasy enough as a constitutional king, would have been impossible as a constitutional emperor.

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  • Taylor, Political rand Constitutional History of Roane (1899).

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  • Gilbert, Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens (Eng.

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  • Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History, 100 ff.; H.

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  • The lowest rate of illiteracy is to be found in the southern half of the republic. Public instruction is, by constitutional provision, under secular control, but religious denominations are permitted to have their own schools.

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  • There was no freedom of the press, however, until 1821, when the abolition of the censorship and the constitutional struggle in Portugal gave rise to a politicaldiscussion that marked the opening of a new era in the development of the nation, and aroused an intellectual activity that has been highly productive in journalistic and polemical writings.

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  • On his return to Rio de Janeiro on the 12th of October he was proclaimed constitutional emperor with great enthusiasm.

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  • The two Andradas, who imagined they could govern the young emperor as a sovereign of their own creation, encountered great opposition in the constitutional assembly, which had been opened in Rio in May 1823, to discuss the project of a new constitution.

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  • To save the Austrian provinces of Hungary, the archduke Matthias, setting aside his semi-lunatic imperial brother Rudolph, thereupon entered into negotiations with Bocskay, and ultimately the peace of Vienna was concluded (June 23, 1606), which guaranteed all the constitutional and religious rights and privileges of the Hungarians both in Transylvania and imperial Hungary.

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  • He protests in favour of Lord Monteagle's motion for inquiry into the sliding scale of corn duties; of Lord Normanby's motion on the queen's speech in 1843, for inquiry into the state of Ireland (then wholly under military occupation); of Lord Radnor's bill to define the constitutional powers of the home secretary, when Sir James Graham opened Mazzini's letters.

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  • At the same time he practically told the Senate that the South would secede in the event of the election of a radical Republican to the presidency; and on the 10th of January 1861, not long after the election of Lincoln, he argued before that body the constitutional right of secession and declared that the treatment of the South had become such that it could no longer remain in the Union without being degraded.

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  • Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.

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  • The chief events of his administration, which has been called the " era of good feeling," were the Seminole War (1817-18); the acquisition of the Floridas from Spain (1819-21); the "Missouri Compromise " (1820), by which the first conflict over slavery under the constitution was peacefully adjusted; the veto of the Cumberland Road Bill (1822) 1 on constitutional grounds; and - most 1 The Cumberland (or National) Road from Cumberland, Maryland, to Wheeling, West Virginia, was projected in 1806, by an appropriation of 1819 was extended to the Ohio River, by an act of 1825 (signed by Monroe on the last day of his term of office) was continued to Zanesville, and by an act of 1829 was extended westward from Zanesville.

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  • Hungary is a constitutional monarchy, its monarch bearing the title of king.

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  • The tendency towards a representative system of government had begun, but the almost uninterrupted anarchy which marked the last thirty years of the Arpad rule was no favourable time for constitutional development.

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  • This treaty is remarkable as being the first constitutional compact between the ruling dynasty and the Hungarian nation.

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  • To this weakened and terrorized assembly the emperorking explained that he had the right to treat Hungary as a conquered country, but that he was prepared to confirm its constitutional liberties under three conditions: the inaugural diploma was to be in the form signed by Ferdinand I., the crown was to be declared hereditary in the house of Habsburg, and the 31st clause of the Golden Bull, authorizing armed resistance to unconstitutional acts of the sovereign, was to be abrogated.

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  • The Austrian diet was transferred on the i 5th of November to Kremsier, remote from revolutionary influences; and, though the government still thought it prudent to proclaim its constitutional principles, it also proclaimed its intention to preserve the unity of the monarchy.

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  • Moreover, he was not bound by the constitutional obligations unwillingly accepted by his uncle.

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  • 5) emphasizing the fact that the national defence was purely constitutional, and menacing all who might be led astray from this standpoint by republican aspirations.

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  • 26, 1861), which proposed to convert the Reichsrath into a constitutional representative assembly, with two chambers, to which all the provinces of the empire February were to send deputies.

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  • Hungary was now a free and independent modern state; but the very completeness and suddenness of her constitutional victory made it impossible for the strongly flowing current of political life to keep within due bounds.

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  • the king, weary of the tactics of a minority which for years had terrorized every majority and prevented the government from exercising its proper constitutional functions, had resolved to show the Magyars that he was prepared to rule unconstitu 1 The Austrian court resented especially the decree proclaiming national mourning for Louis Kossuth, though no minister was present at the funeral.

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  • The Liberal party, however, realized the abyss towards which they were hurrying the country, and united their efforts to come to a constitutional understanding with the king.

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  • This was at once followed by an anti-ministerial fusion of the extremists of all parties, including seceders from the government (known as the T C Constitutional party); and when the diet reassembled, the opposition broke into the House by force and wrecked all the furniture, so that a session was physically impossible (Jan.

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  • The reception it met with was not calculated to encourage constitutional methods.

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  • Those ministers who belonged to the constitutional and popular parties, i.e.

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  • constitutional, the natural course would have been for the king to have sent for Mr Kossuth, who commanded the strongest party in the parliament, and to have entrusted him with the formation of a government.

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  • 1900); Janos Majlath, Geschichte der Magyaren (5 vols., 3rd ed., Regensburg, 1852-1853)-somewhat out of date (it first appeared in 1828), but useful for those who like a little more detail; Count Julius Andrassy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, translated by C. Arthur and Ilona Ginever (London, 1908), containing an interesting comparison with English constitutional development; C. M.

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  • (c) Constitutional: Anton von Virozsil, Das Staatsrecht des Konigreichs Ungarn (3 vols., Pest, 1865); S.

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  • Among the newer writers on common and commercial law may be mentioned Wenczal, Zlinsky, ZsgOd, Gustave Schwarz, Alexander Plosz, Francis Nagy and Neumann; on constitutional law, Korbuly, Boncz, Stephen Kiss, Ernest Nagy, Kmety, Arthur Balogh, Ferdinandy, Bela Grunwald, Julius Andrassy and Emeric Ha j nik; on administration, George Fesiis, Kmety and Csiky; on finance, Mariska, Exner and Laszlo.

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  • In harmony with the conditions of his age, he approved of absolute governments, though at the same time they must, he thought, be controlled by constitutional laws.

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  • Abroad the new King's position was prejudiced by the hideous crime which led to his accession, but among his own people this was from the first atoned for by the introduction of a real constitutional regime and increased political stability.

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  • - The advocates of political cooperation between Serb and Croat saw their opportunity in the constitutional conflict which broke out between Crown and Parliament in Hungary: and on Oct.

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  • In Croatia alone was there even a semblance of constitutional government.

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  • After affirming that the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes constitute a single nation and appealing to the right of self-determination, it declared in favour of complete national unity under the Karagjorgjevic dynasty, " a constitutional democratic and parliamentary monarchy, equality of the three national names and flags, of the Cyrilline and Latin alphabets, and of the Orthodox Catholic and Mussulman religions, equal rights for all citizens, universal suffrage in parliamentary and municipal life, and the freedom of the Adriatic to all nations."

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  • The most instructive classification of the " variations " exhibited by fully formed organisms consists in the separation in the first place of those which arise from antecedent congenital, innate, constitutional or germinal variations from those which arise merely from the operation of variation of the environment or the food-supply upon normally constituted individuals.

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  • Aptitudes and want of aptitude, which are innate and constitutional, are transmitted to offspring, but not the results of experience, education and training.

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  • In 1863 he obtained a professorship at the Milan Technical Institute; in 1867 he was appointed professor of constitutional law at Padua, whence he was transferred to the university of Rome.

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    0
  • By 1892 the Uitlanders began to feel that if they were to obtain any redress for their grievances combined constitutional action was called for, and the first reform move ment began.

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  • In 1 743 a new journal, Old England; or, the Constitutional Journal appeared.

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  • It is, however, by his Constitutional History of England that he is most widely known as a historian.

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  • Its companion volume of Select Charters and other Illustrations of English Constitutional History, admirable in itself, has a special importance in that its plan has been imitated with good results both in England and the United States.

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  • His merits as an author are often judged solely by his Constitutional History.

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  • The learning and insight which this book displays are unquestionable: it is well planned, and its contents are well arranged; but constitutional history is not a lively subject, and, in spite of the skill with which Stubbs handled it and the genius displayed in his narrative 04 chapters, the book does not afford an adequate idea of his place as a writer of history.

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  • When elected by his native department to the Convention in 1792 he was acting as vicar to his uncle Bernard Font (1 7 23-1800), the constitutional bishop of Pamiers.

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  • We see it exemplified in plant life in circumstances which are unnatural to the life of the plant, and the prevalence of certain constitutional tendencies among the inhabitants of crowded cities bears evidence to the same law.

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  • Whenever these conditions are infringed his powers of resistance to disease are lessened, and certain tendencies begin to show themselves, which are generally termed constitutional.

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    0
  • On the 10th of March 1848 Antonelli became premier of the first constitutional ministry of Pius IX., a capacity in which he displayed consummate duplicity.

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  • Dion's idea seems to have been to make Dionysius something like a constitutional sovereign, and with this view he brought him into contact with Plato.

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    0
  • Lardaceous disease, however, here and in other regions, now appears to be due to the specific toxins of pyogenetic micro-organisms. In stone of the kidney a great advance has been made in treatment by operative means, and the formation of these stones seems to recent observers to depend less upon constitutional bent (gout) than upon unhealthy local conditions of the passages, which in their turn again may be due to the action of microorganisms.

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  • He served in the constitutional guard of the king, and remained in Paris till the execution of Louis XVI.

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  • Firth, Municipal London (1876); Walter Delgray Birch, Historical Charters and Constitutional Documents of the City of London (1884, 1887); J.

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  • The proclamation of the king's daughter Isabella as heiress was almost the occasion of an armed conflict between him and the naval authorities at Ferrol, who were partisans of the constitutional cause.

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  • The difficulty he found in obtaining supplies was very great, for the coast towns - and notably Bilbao - were constitutional in politics.

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  • Yet by the beginning of June 1835 he had made the Carlist cause triumphant to the north of the Ebro, and had formed an army of more than 30,000 men, of much better quality than the constitutional forces.

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  • He voted with the Orleanists the "Constitutional Laws" of 1875, and approved of MacMahon's parliamentary coup d'etat on the 16th of May 1877.

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  • Palgrave, History of the English Commonwealth; Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, i.; Pollock and Maitland, history of English Law, i.; H.

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  • Two months later the duke of Calabria, who had been appointed protector of the city in 1325, died, and further constitutional reforms were made.

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  • The weakness of the government becoming every day more apparent, several constitutional changes were made, and many old institutions, such as that of the podesta and capitano del popolo, were abolished; finally in 1502, in order Piero Capponi.

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  • FRANCOIS CHABOT (1757-1794), French revolutionist, had been a Franciscan friar before the Revolution, and after the civil constitution of the clergy continued to act as "constitutional" priest, becoming grand vicar of Henri Gregoire, bishop of Blois.

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  • For feudalism in England see the various constitutional histories, especially W.

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  • The aim of the French Canadian opposition at this time was to obtain financial and also constitutional reforms. Matters came to a head when the legislative assembly of Lower Canada refused supplies and Papineau arranged for concerted action with William Lyon Mackenzie, the leader of the reform party in Upper Canada.

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  • But the attitude of the opposition remained no less hostile than before, and in March 1837 the governor was authorized to reject the demand for constitutional reform and to apply public funds in his control to the purposes of government.

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  • The leading Peruvian authors on constitutional and legal subjects are Dr Jose Santistevan, who has published volumes on civil and criminal law; Luis Felipe Villaran (subsequently rector of the university at Lima), author of a work on constitutional right; Dr Francisco Garcia Calderon (once president of Peru), author of a dictionary of Peruvian legislation, in two volumes; Dr Francisco Xavier Mariategui, one of the fathers of Peruvian independence; and Dr Francisco de Paula Vigil (1792-1875), orator and statesman as well as author, whose work, Defensa de los gobiernos, is a noble and enlightened statement of the case for civil governments against the pretensions of the court of Rome.

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  • Gamarra, born at Cuzco in 1785, never accommodated himself to constitutional usages; but he attached to himself many loyal and devoted friends, and, with all his faults he loved his country and sought its welfare according to his lights.

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  • He was elected constitutional president on the 10th of April 1845.

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  • In 1787, with Roger Sherman and William Samuel Johnson (1727-1819), he was one of Connecticut's delegates to the constitutional convention at Philadelphia, in which his services were numerous and important.

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  • Hoar concerning Ellsworth's work in the constitutional convention.

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  • of Hoveden; the same author's Constitutional History of England, vol.

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  • Until 1909, when a constitutional amendment was adopted, he had no power of veto, and his very limited nominal powers of appointment and removal are controlled by a rotten-borough Senate.

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  • When the constitutional convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 to frame a constitution for a stronger Federal government, the agriculturists of Rhode Island were afraid that the movement would result in an interference with their local privileges, and especially with their favourite device of issuing paper money, and the state refused to send delegates, and not until the Senate had passed a bill for severing commercial relations between the United States and Rhode Island, did the latter, in May 1790, ratify the Federal constitution, and then only by a majority of two votes.

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  • The city of Providence issued a call for a constitutional convention in 1796, and similar efforts were made in 1799, 1817, 1821, 1822 and 1824, but nothing was accomplished.

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  • A constitutional amendment of 1888 extended to them the right of suffrage in state and national elections, and an amendment of 1909 partially remedied the evils in the system of apportionment.

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  • A constitutional amendment of 1900 dispensed with the session of the legislature at Newport.

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  • Mowry, The Dorr War; or the Constitutional Struggle in Rhode Island (Providence, 1901); Records of the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantation, 1636-1792 (io vols., Providence, 1856-65); Rhode Island Historical Society, Collections (to vols., to be continued, Providence, 1827-1902); Proceedings and Publications, 23 numbers (Providence, 1872-1902, to be continued).

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  • But it makes some difference to the future of a democratic state whether its leading men are eagerly on the look-out for something to revolutionize, or approach a constitutional change by the gradual processes of conviction and conversion.

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  • The year 1881 saw the nation divided into political parties and within measured distance of constitutional government.

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  • The outcome was of importance far beyond the narrow limits of the duchy; for all Germany watched the constitutional experiments of the southern states.

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  • The signing on the 28th of June 1859 of a concordat with the Holy See, by which education was placed under the oversight of the clergy;and the establishment of religious orders was facilitated, led° to a constitutional struggle, which ended in 1863 with the victory ' Frederick assumed the title of grand-duke on the 5th of :September 1856.

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  • In 1867, on the accession to the premiership of Julius von Jolly (1823-1891), several constitutional changes in a Liberal direction were made; responsibility of ministers, freedom of the press, compulsory education.

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  • A constitutional settlement was effected by the end of 1689, almost all the disputed points between king and parliament being settled in favour of the latter.

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  • At any rate it seems certain from the little we know of the early constitutional history of Athens, that the Eupatridae represent the only nobility that had any political recognition in early times.

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  • Gilbert, Greek Constitutional Antiquities, p. tot et seq.

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  • Constitutional symptoms appear as a rule in less than fifteen minutes: prostration, staggering, cold sweats, vomiting, feeble and quick pulse, dilatation of the pupil, and slight mental disturbance.

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  • In from twelve to twenty-four hours these severe constitutional symptoms usually pass off, but in the meantime the swelling and discoloration have spread enormously.

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  • The first constitutional symptoms appear in fifteen minutes to two hours.

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  • still spoke of the reunion of Lithuania with Poland under constitutional forms. But the project lapsed because already then any measure of self-government by extending the power of the Polish" szlachta "(land-owning noble class) in Lithuania menaced Russia's influence in that country which strategically rounded off her north-western frontier.

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  • Sir Edward Frankland,showed how it could be derived from, and converted into, ethane; and thus determined it to be ethane in which one hydrogen atom was replaced by a hydroxyl group. Its constitutional formula is therefore CH3�CH2.OH.

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  • Stubbs, Constitutional History; and H.

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  • With the aid of its philosophy she created her new Christian theology; its polity furnished her with the most exact constitutional forms; its jurisprudence, its trade and commerce, its art and industry, were all taken into her service; and she contrived to borrow some hints even from its religious worship. With this equipment she undertook, and carried through, a world-mission on a grand scale.

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  • Though his fame has become dimmed in comparison with that of Shaftesbury, Russell and Sidney, he was not less conspicuous in the parliamentary proceedings of Charles II.'s reign, and he left a more permanent mark than any of them on the constitutional changes of the period.

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  • Ultimately in July 1918 there was published an elaborate report, drawn up and signed by the Viceroy as well as by the Secretary of State, recommending a series of constitutional reforms which should give the Indian peoples a large and real share in their own government.

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  • Under Emmanuel Philibert Savoy lost all traces of constitutional government and became an absolute despotism of the type then predominating throughout the greater part of Europe.

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  • In 1850 he was a member of the state constitutional convention, and in 1854 took an active part in organizing the "Anti-Nebraska men" (later called Republicans) of his state, and was by them sent to Congress.

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  • A regulation excluding Maltese from the navy (because of their speaking on board a language that their officers did not understand) provoked from Trinity College, Cambridge, the Strickland correspondence in The Times on the constitutional rights of the Maltese, and a leading article induced the Colonial Office to try an experiment known as the Strickland-Mizzi Constitution of 1887.

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  • Also parliamentary papers for Grievances of the Maltese Nobility, and Constitutional Changes.

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  • Stubbs's Constitutional History of England, vol.

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    0
  • New elections in the autumn of 1848 returned a constitutional majority, but it ended by voting in favour of a constituent assembly.

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  • A part of the Liberals, however, still believed in the possibility of a constitutional grand-duke who could be induced for a second time to join Piedmont in a war against Austria, whereas the popular party headed by F.

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  • His first great work, The View of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages,,was produced in 1818, and was followed nine years later by the Constitutional History of England.

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    0
  • The Constitutional History of England takes up the subject at the point at which it had been dropped in the View of the Middle Ages, viz.

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  • The sensitive impartiality which withheld him from touching perhaps the most interesting period in the history of the constitution did not save him from the charge of partisanship. The Quarterly Review for 1828 contains an article on the Constitutional History, written by Southey, full of railing and reproach.

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  • The work, he says, is the "production of a decided partisan," who "rakes in the ashes of long-forgotten and a thousand times buried slanders, 1 Lord Brougham, overlooking the constitutional chapter in the Middle Ages, censured Hallam for making an arbitrary beginning at this point, and proposed to write a more complete history himself.

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  • His view of constitutional history was that it should contain only so much of the political and general history of the time as bears directly on specific changes in the organization of the state, including therein judicial as well as ecclesiastical institutions.

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  • In this he was helped by his legal training, and it was doubtless this fact which made the Constitutional History one of the text-books of English politics, to which men of all parties appealed, and which, in spite of all the work of later writers, still leaves it a standard authority.

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  • Like the Constitutional History, the Introduction to the Literature of Europe continues one of the branches of inquiry which had been opened in the View of the Middle Ages.

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  • Santander combated this proposal, urging him to resume his station as constitutional president, and declaring his own conviction that the troubles and agitations of the country could only be appeased by the authority and personal influence of the liberator himself.

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  • Before his arrival, however, he issued simultaneously three separate decrees - one granting a general amnesty, another convoking a national convention at Ocana, and a third for establishing constitutional order throughout Colombia.

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  • The old state capitol, dating from 1839, is of considerable interest; in it were held the secession convention (1861), the "Black and Tan Convention" (1868), and the constitutional convention of 1890, and in it Jefferson Davis made his last speech (1884).

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  • Like the previous constitutions of 1776, 1792 and 1831, it was promulgated by a constitutional convention without submission to the people for ratification, and amendments may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of each house in two consecutive legislatures.

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  • His brother Thomas made some mark as a Constitutional bishop and member of the Convention.

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    0
  • In spite of his activity at the bar, Tilden maintained an interest in politics, serving in the State Assembly in 1846 and in the state constitutional conventions of 1846 and 1867.

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  • Her courageous bearing during the return from Varennes had greatly impressed Barnave, and he now approached her on behalf of the Feuillants and the constitutional party.

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    0
  • In 1763 the great constitutional questions arising out of the arrest of Wilkes began to be sharply canvassed.

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  • In 1793 he supported Grey's motion for a return to the old constitutional system of representation, and so earned the title to be regarded as one of the earliest promoters of the cause of parliamentary reform; and he was one of the founders of the "Society of the Friends of the People."

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  • The judicial system, revised by a constitutional amendment of 1891, consists of a supreme court of three members, elected for a term of six years, with civil jurisdiction only, largely appellate; a court of criminal appeals, of three members, elected for six years, with appellate jurisdiction in criminal cases; courts of civil appeals (number determined by the legislature) of three members each, elected for six years; district courts, each with one judge, elected for four years, with original jurisdiction in the more important civil and criminal (felony) cases and a limited appellate jurisdiction; county and justice of the peace courts with original jurisdiction in misdemeanours and petty civil cases.

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  • In 1908-09 there was an unsuccessful attempt to pass in the legislature a constitutional amendment providing for state-wide prohibition; the amendment was favoured by the Democratic state platform, but the hostility of the legislature to Governor Campbell, who favoured the amendment, secured its defeat.

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    0
  • A statute of 1899, authorized by a constitutional amendment of 1897, instituted a system of pensions for Confederate veterans.

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    0
  • Delegates to a new constitutional convention were elected in 1868, the constitution framed by this body was ratified in November 1869, state officers and congressmen were elected the same day, the new legislature ratified the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, and on the 30th of March 1870 Texas was readmitted to the Union.

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  • The victory of the Radicals resulted in the establishment of a railway rate commission, based upon a constitutional amendment of 1890 and a statute of 1891, the passage of an alien land law in 1891, which was declared unconstitutional and amended in 1892, the adoption of the Australiaw ballot system for cities and towns of more than io,000 inhabitants (1892), the retirement of Roger Q.

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  • One of the earliest and most determined of the partisans of a constitutional monarchy under the duke of Orleans, he was deputy for Bayonne in July 1830, when his house in Paris became the headquarters of the revolutionary party.

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  • From July 16 to September 28 he acted as president of the Constitutional Convention of Pennsylvania.

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  • The result of these interviews was a series of projects of reform, including a constitutional system based on a series of dumas, the cantonal assembly (volost) electing the duma of the district, the dumas of the districts electing that of the province or government, and these electing the Duma of the empire.

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  • Chesle, 1 dominated the constitutional history of Russia in the 10th century and the early years of the 20th.

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  • On his public life and constitutional reforms see Theodor Schiemann, Geschichte Russlands unter Kaiser Nikolaus I., Bd.

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  • The others, followed by the greater number of the clergy throughout France, refused, and thenceforth looked on Talleyrand as a schismatic. He did not long continue to officiate, as many of the so-called "constitutional" clergy did; for, on the 21st of January 1791, he resigned the see of Autun, and in the month of March was placed under the ban of the church by the pope.

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  • They both loved France and the cause of constitutional liberty.

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  • His efforts as constitutional king were paralysed by the rivalry between the various Spanish factions, but with the approval of his father he rejected all idea of a coup d'etat.

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  • The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.

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    0
  • Taylor, Constitutional and Political History of Rome (1899).

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    0
  • On being summoned by the commissioners of the allied powers at Copenhagen to bring about a union between Norway and Sweden in accordance with the terms of the treaty of Kiel, and then return to Denmark, he replied that, as a constitutional king, he could do nothing without the consent of the Storthing, to the convocation of which a suspension of hostilities on the part of Sweden was the condition precedent.

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  • He had been designed by his parents for the military profession, but the new light which now broke in upon him determined him to devote his entire energies to the abolition of the existing feudal system and to the establishment of a constitutional government.

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    0
  • In 1910 he had published a volume of speeches, which was translated into English, and in 1919 he brought out a work on political conflicts and constitutional reform.

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  • In 1801 he was elected to the state constitutional convention, in 1803 was a member of the state assembly, and in 1804 was elected to the national House of Representatives, but became a judge of the state supreme court, and served as such until 1807.

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  • In 1821 he was president of the state constitutional convention.

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  • It has been amended with considerable freedom (37 amendments up to 1907), but with more conservatism than has often prevailed in the constitutional reform of other states; so that the constitution of Massachusetts is not so completely in harmony with modern democratic sentiment as are the public opinion and statute law of the state.

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  • The commonwealth, for example, is still denominated " sovereign," and education is not declared a constitutional duty of the commonwealth.

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    0
  • Real toleration in public opinion grew slowly through the 18th century, removing the religious tests of voters; and a constitutional amendment in 1821 explicitly forbade such tests in the case of office-holders.

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    0
  • Spencer, Constitutional Conflict in Provincial Massachusetts (Columbus, 0., 1905); and the annual Public Documents of Massachusetts, embracing the reports of all state officers and institutions.

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    0
  • In 1915 he was chosen a delegate to the State Constitutional Convention, taking an active part in its proceedings.

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  • 2 The same assumption would supply a reason for 1 Neither Herodotus nor Thucydides tells us anything as to its powers; but their silence on this point need not surprise us, as they had no especial occasion for referring to the subject, and in general it may be said that before the 4th century B.C. writers took little interest in the constitutional history of the remote past.

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  • Gilbert, Constitutional Antiquities of Athens and Sparta (Eng.

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    0
  • Gasquet, Sketch of Monastic Constitutional History (being the preface to the 2nd ed., 1895, of the trans.

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    0
  • Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional Antiquities (London, 1896); for the Periclean cleruchs see Pericles; Delian League.

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  • In Greek constitutional history the decision of - " that which seemed good to " - an assembly was called a (567µm (i.e.

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  • Morris was one of Pennsylvania's representatives in the constitutional convention of 1787, and took an active part in the debates.

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  • Even though the supreme court should decide such legislation to be within the grant of powers to the general government, the distrust and opposition, on constitutional grounds, of so large a portion of the people, could not but go far to defeat the object sought."

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  • In 1894 he was president of the New York state constitutional convention.

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  • The constitutional changes since 18 4 6 affect principally the judiciary and cities.

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    0
  • A constitutional convention met and proposed a new constitution in 1867, but every article was rejected by the people save one relating to the judiciary, which was adopted separately as an amendment in 1869.

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  • For the classified service of the state and of the minor civil divisions, except cities, the commission makes rules (subject to the governor's approval and to statutory and constitutional provisions) governing the classification of offices, the examination of candidates for office, and the appointment and promotion of employees.

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  • When a majority of the constitutional convention of 1787 had approved of the new constitution Hamilton alone of the three New York delegates remained to sign it; and when, after °its ratification by eight states, the New York convention met at Poughkeepsie (June 17, 1788) to consider ratification, two-thirds of the members were opposed to it.

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  • Politically, the anti-rent associations which were formed often held the balance of power between the Whigs and the Democrats, and in this position they secured the election of Governor John Young (Whig) as well as of several members of the legislature favourable to their cause, and promoted the passage of the bill calling the constitutional convention of 1846.

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  • Lincoln, The Constitutional History of New York (5 vols., Rochester, T906) is an elaborate and able study of the growth of the constitution.

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  • The first constitutional Government which came into power in Turkey after the revolution speedily found itself opposed by the "Young Turk" Committee of Union and Progress - the same occult body which had organized and carried through the revolution.

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  • Within a few weeks they had procured the downfall of Kiamil Pasha, the first Grand Vizier of the constitutional period.

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  • For twenty years thereafter the political history of the colony consisted of two long, intermittent struggles - one constitutional between the central government (first seated in Auckland, but after 1864 in Wellington) and the powerful provincial councils, of which there were nine charged with important functions and endowed with the land revenues and certain rating powers.

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  • His successors, Sir George Bowen, Sir James Ferguson, the marquess of Normanby and Sir Hercules Robinson, were content to be constitutional governors and to respect strictly the behests of the colonial office.

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  • Ballance at once raised the pay of members from £150 to £240 a year, but otherwise directed his energies to constitutional reforms and social experiments.

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  • Theramenes specially studied the constitutional side of this movement and formulated a new party-cry, " the constitution of our fathers."

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  • knowledge of the constitutional side of the revolution and of Theramenes' activity is somewhat fragmentary.

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  • The Landesausschuss, a constitutional body with parliamentary privileges, consists of 58 members, 34 being appointed out of their number by the various district councils (Bezirkstage), 4 by the large towns, and 20 by the rural districts.

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  • They took the title of the Constitutional party, and Sir John Fraser was chosen as chairman.

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  • Saxony is a constitutional monarchy and a member of the German empire, with four votes in the Bundesrath (federal council) and twenty-three in the Reichstag (imperial diet).

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  • Bernhard von Lindenau was the head of the first responsible cabinet, and the first constitutional assembly sat from the 27th of January 1833 till the 30th of October 1834.

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  • c. The political or constitutional sovereign: the body of persons in whom the actual power at any moment or ultimately resides.

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  • Cooley, Constitutional Limitations, p. 1).

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  • See the contrary view presented by Professor Burgess, Political Science or Constitutional Law, i.

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  • Even if the origin was a compact or contract, after the "United States" were formed by a "constitutional act" there no longer existed a mere contractual relation: there existed a state to which all were subject, and which all must obey (von Stengel, Staatenbund and Bundesstaat; Jahrbuch fiir Gesetzgebung, 1898, p. 754; Cooley, Principles of Constitutional Law, pp. 21, 102).

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  • Cooley, Constitutional Limitations (6th ed., 1890); Jellinek, Ueber Staatsfragmente (1896); J.

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  • Burgess, Political Science and Constitutional Law (Boston, 1899) C. E.

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  • Domitian had been arbitrary and high-handed, and had heaped favours on the soldiery while humiliating the senate; Nerva showed himself anxious to respect the traditional privileges of the senate, and such maxims of constitutional government as still survived.

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  • This attempt also failed; for the Germans were numerically too weak, ' For Hungary, as the other constitutional half of the old AustroHungarian Monarchy, see the separate article under that heading; also Bosnia-Herzegovina, and the articles on the different " succession states " which were formed on the break-up of the monarchy in 1918.

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  • could not forgive Kdrber for prevailing upon him to promise to take the oath to the constitution, since the constitution was no longer tenable and Stiirgkh had already prepared constitutional amendments; on the other hand Charles's assumption of the supreme command of the army was opposed to Korber's taste.

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  • Both the Southern Sla y s and Czechs immediately made constitutional declarations; the former demanded a national union of the Southern Slays, the latter a territorial union of the lands S.

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  • On June 24 1917 the Emperor appointed as prime minister his former tutor, the Ritter von Seidler,2 who summoned a Ministry of mere officials, just to carry on business for the time being; any constitutional reorganization was still postponed.

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  • 1862 at Schwechat, near Vienna) was secretary to the Chamber of Commerce in the mountain town of Leoben; then an official in the Ministry of Agriculture, and from June i 1917 Minister of Agriculture; he was also a university reader in constitutional law.

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  • - Hussarek,' who was appointed prime minister on July 24, declared his programme to be parliamentary government, with reconciliations of the nationalities, and constitutional and administrative reform.

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  • 1 Hussarek again gave the Reichsrat a chance; he recognized expressly the right of the peoples to free self-determination, adopted the standpoint of national autonomy, championed Polish independence, and announced the union of all the Southern Sla y s of Austria by constitutional means.

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  • In addition to this there was another quite exceptional source of difficulties which had the most serious consequences for Austria, namely her relation with Hungary, due to the peculiar constitutional structure of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.

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  • The legislature may propose amendments to the constitution by a majority vote of all members elected to each of the two houses, or may issue a call for a constitutional convention by a two-thirds' majority.

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  • A constitutional amendment pro viding for minority representation in the House of Representatives was rejected in 1889 by a large popular vote.

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  • Under a constitutional amendment, adopted by popular vote on the 8th of November 1898, 5% of the legal voters of the state may require the legislature to submit to popular vote at the next general election measures which they wish enacted into law, or measures already passed by the legislature which have not 'yet gone into force.

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  • A constitutional ordinance forbidding the manufacture, importation and sale of intoxicants was adopted on the 1st of October 1889 by a vote of 40,234 to 34,510.

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  • In 1801 he presided over the state constitutional convention, and from 1808 to 1810 was again in the Assembly.

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  • In 1818 he was again elected to the Assembly; in 1819 he became a regent of the State University of which he was for a time chancellor; and in 1821 he was a delegate to the New York constitutional convention.

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  • He was a member of the Massachusetts Constitutional Convention of 1779-1780, became the first governor of the state, and served from 1780 to 1785 and again from 1787 until his death.

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  • The circumstances Lord Pal- are of extreme interest for the light they throw on the queen's estimate of her constitutional position and authority.

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  • Such an act she must regard as failing in sincerity to the crown, and justly to be visited by the exercise of her constitutional right of dismissing that minister.

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  • Eventually, on 31st January 1854, Lord John Russell took occasion to deny most emphatically that Prince Albert interfered unduly with foreign affairs, and in both houses the statesmen of the two parties delivered feeling panegyrics of the prince, asserting at the same time his entire constitutional right to give private advice to the sovereign on matters of state.

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  • Her letter to the emperor, pervaded with he religious and almost mystic sentiments which predominate in the queen's mind, particularly since the death of Prince Albert, seems to have made a deep impression on the sovereign who, amid the struggles of politics, had never completely repudiated the philanthropic theories of his youth, and who, on the battlefield of Solferino, covered with the dead and wounded, was seized with an unspeakable horror of war."Moreover, Disraeli's two premierships (1868, 1874-80) did a good deal to give new encouragement to a right idea of the constitutional function of the crown.

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  • The queen was privately opposed to Gladstone's Home Rule policy; but she observed in public a constitutional reticence on the subject.

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  • As his trusted adviser, Miot de Melito, observed in his memoirs, Joseph tried to be constitutional king of Spain, whereas after the experience of the years 1808-1809 he could only succeed in the Peninsula by becoming "the mere instrument of a military power."

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  • In 1907 the legislature proposed an amendment providing for the application of initiative and referendum to statutory laws and constitutional amendments; two years later the legislature passed a substitute resolution, which omits the clause regarding amendments of the constitution, and which, if passed by the legislature of 2922 will be put to popular vote at the general election of 1912.

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  • In accordance with the Enabling Act, which received the president's approval on the 22nd of February 1889, a constitutional convention met at Bismarck on the 4th of July following, and drafted a frame of government for the state of North Dakota.

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  • In dealing with constitutional matters he sometimes attaches too much weight to words and formal aspects.

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  • The governor-general not only has supreme executive authority, but can of his own accord pass laws and regulations, except in so far as these, from their nature, belong of right to the home government, and as he is bound by the constitutional principles on which, according to the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India, passed by the king and StatesGeneral in 1854, the Dutch East Indies must be governed.

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  • Stubbs, Constitutional History of England (3 vols., London, 1874-1878); A.

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  • Special provision is made in the Constitutional Charter of the republic (in accordance with the terms of the Treaty of St.

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  • To make any alteration in its frontiers a constitutional law is required - a law which, as opposed to an ordinary law, has to be passed by a three-fifths majority of Parliament.

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  • The constitutional charter thus represents an honest effort to set up a truly democratic: republic which shall fairly meet the demands of the varied races and religions within its borders.

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  • A constitutional court decides whether laws promulgated by Parliament are in harmony with the charter of the constitution.

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  • They were opposed to the Soviets, but while favouring a constitutional Russia were against any intervention in that country.

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  • He was elected to the Virginia State Senate for two terms (1899-1903) and was a member of the State Constitutional Convention in 1901.

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  • Gilbert, Constitutional Antiquities of Sparta and Athens (Eng, trans., 1895), pp. 49 ff.; Studien zur altspartanischen Geschichte (Göttingen, 1872), pp. 131 ff.; G.

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  • His censorship - which he retained for five years, in spite of the lex Aemilia which limited the tenure of that office to eighteen months - was remarkable for the actual or attempted achievement of several great constitutional changes.

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  • When things came to a deadlock the king tactfully intervened and voluntarily relinquished his hereditary title to Lithuania, thus placing the two countries on a constitutional equality and preparing the way for fresh negotiations in the future.

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  • This constitutional reform was severely criticized by contemporary political experts.

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  • But, though driven from the field, the agitation simmered all over the country for nearly two years longer, and was only terminated, in1609, by a general amnesty which excluded every prospect of constitutional reform.

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  • In time of peace his power was little more than that of the responsible minister of a constitutional republic; but in time of warfare he was a dictator, and disobedience to his orders in the field was punishable by death.

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  • was disqualified by constitutional indolence from taking any active part in affairs.

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  • Thus wealth, position, court influence and ability combined gave the Czartoryscy a commanding position in Poland, and, to their honour be it said, they had determined from the first to save the Republic, whose impending ruin in existing circumstances they clearly foresaw, by a radical constitutional reconstruction which was to include the abolition of the liberum veto and the formation of a standing army.

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  • In a word constitutional government had practically ceased, and Poland had become an arena in which contesting clans strove together for the mastery.

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  • It is highly doubtful whether, with the best efforts on both sides, a constitutional government could have been worked by a Russian autocrat, and an assembly of men who inherited the memories and characters of the Poles.

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  • On the other hand, the Poles were also to blame for the failure of constitutional government.

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  • Laud's complete neglect of the national sentiment, in his belief that the exercise of mere power was sufficient to suppress it, is a principal proof of his total lack of true statesmanship. The hostility to "innovations in religion," it is generally allowed, was a far stronger incentive to the rebellion against the arbitrary power of the crown, than even the violation of constitutional liberties; and to Laud, therefore, more than to Strafford, to Buckingham, or even perhaps to Charles himself, is especially due the responsibility for the catastrophe.

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  • The Connexion's Constitutional Deed was formally completed in 1826.

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  • Dittenberger; Roman history and constitutional antiquities that of Theodor Mommsen (1817-1903), who was associated in Latin epigraphy with E.

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  • Daunou (October 1795), which divided the pupils of the " central schools " into three groups, according to age, with corresponding subjects of study: (r) twelve to fourteen, = drawing, natural history, Greek and Latin, and a choice of modern languages; (2) fourteen to sixteen, - mathematics, physics, chemistry; (3) over sixteen, - general grammar, literature, history and constitutional law.

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  • Any constitution or constitutional amendment proposed by such constitutional convention comes into effect only if approved by a majority of the votes cast in a popular election.

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  • A constitutional provision makes each stockholder in a state bank liable to the amount of his share or shares for all the bank's debts and liabilities.

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  • So, when during the Civil War Maryland was largely under Federal control and the demand arose for the abolition of slavery by the state, another constitutional convention was called, in 1864, which framed a constitution providing that those who had given aid to the Rebellion should be disfranchised and that only those qualified for suffrage in accordance with the new document could vote on its adoption.

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  • Harry, The Mar y land Constitution of 1851, Johns Hopkins University Studies in Historical and Political Science (Baltimore, 1902), contains an account of the agitation from 1835 to 1850 for constitutional reform; B.

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  • Mereness, Maryland as a Proprietary Province (New York, 1901), a constitutional history of the province in the light of its industrial and social development, contains a bibliography; and Bernard 1 Resigned on the 6th of May 1808.

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  • In November of this year Stratford became chancellor, and for the next ten years he was actively engaged in public business, being the king's most prominent adviser and being politically, says Stubbs, the "head of the Lancastrian or constitutional party."

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  • The well-established doctrine that the House of Lords could not amend, though it might reject, a money-bill, coupled with the fact that it never had gone so far as to reject a budget, was relied on by the extremists as dictating the obvious party tactics; and before the year 1909 opened, the possibility of the Lords being driven to compel a dissolution by standing on their extreme rights as regards the financial provision for the year was already canvassed in political circles, though it was hardly credited that the government would precipitate a constitutional crisis of such magnitude.

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  • The Unionists gained a hundred seats over their previous numbers, but the constitutional issue undoubtedly helped the government to win a victory, depending indeed solely on the votes of the Labour members and Irish Nationalists, which a year before had seemed improbable.

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  • A truce was called, and a conference arranged between four leaders from each side - Mr Lloyd George being one - to consider whether compromise on the constitutional question was not feasible.

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  • In1779-1780he was president of the constitutional convention of Massachusetts, also serving as chairman of the committee by which the draft of the constitution was prepared.

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  • 8vo; Vindication of the Privileges of the People in respect to the Constitutional Right of Free Discussion, &c., Lond.

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  • Lieutenant-governor Beckham, elected in 1900 to fill out the unexpired term of Governor Goebel (assassinated in 1900), was re-elected in 1903, the leading lawyers of the state holding that the constitutional inhibition on successive terms did not apply in such a case.

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  • The municipalities are divided into six classes according to population, a classification which permits considerable special local legislation in spite of the constitutional inhibition.

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  • They naturally assumed the leadership in the Constitutional Union movement of 1860, casting the vote of the state for Bell and Everett.

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  • of 1849 (Frankfort, 1849); The Official Report of the Proceedings and Debates of the Constitutional Convention of 1890 (4 vols., Frankfort, 1890); B.

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  • In constitutional history he is remembered as the last of the great justiciars.

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  • The senate, in virtue of its constitutional prerogative, had assigned amongst the Transpadanes for the aquisition of full political rights, which had been denied them by Sulla's settlement.

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  • The so-called First Triumvirate was formed, and constitutional government ceased to exist save in name.

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  • Its of peace ceased when the life of the cloister had to be exchanged for the discipline of the camp; so in the sketch of the the older orders, which preserved to their members certain constitutional rights.

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  • In Spain they came back with Ferdinand VII., but were expelled at the constitutional rising in 1820, returning in 1823, when the duke of Angouleme's army replaced Ferdinand on his throne; they were driven out once more by Espartero in 1835, and have had no legal position since, though their presence is openly tolerated.

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  • A constitutional amendment of 1890 permits the re-election of the president without limit, the original clause prohibiting such a re-election.

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  • The latter were at first presided over by Zuloaga, who, proving incompetent, was replaced at the end of 1858 by Pezuela, who early in 1859 gave place to Miguel Miramon, a young, able and unscrupulous soldier who was shortly afterwards accepted as " constitutional " president by his party.

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  • In a ruler of his character it is not surprising that the Revolution and its developments had produced an unconquerable suspicion of constitutional principles and methods, which the Liberal agitations in Germany tended to increase.

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  • But though reluctant to play the part of a constitutional king, Frederick William maintained to the full the traditional character of "first servant of the state."

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  • New Hampshire is the only state in the Union in which amendments to the constitution may be proposed only by a constitutional convention, and once in seven years at the general election a popular vote is taken on the necessity of a revision of the constitution.

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  • officers, the attorney-general, auditor, important administrative boards, coroners and certain naval and military officers; they have power to pardon offences; and they may exercise some control over expenditure through the constitutional requirement of the governor's warrant for drawing money from the treasury.

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  • Even as the minister of a constitutional monarch his intolerance of interference or joint authority, his temper at once imperious and intriguing, his inveterate inclination towards brigue, that is to say, underhand rivalry and caballing for power and place, showed themselves unfavourably; and his constant tendency to inflame the aggressive and chauvinist spirit of his country neglected fact, was not based on any just estimate of the relative power and interests of France, and led his country more than once to the verge of a great calamity.

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  • Gallicanism had two distinct sides, a constitutional and a dogmatic, though both were generally held together, the second serving as the logical basis of the first.

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  • Constitutional Gallicanism dealt with the relation of church and state in France.

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  • Moreover, special provision had been made in the Constitutional Act of 1791 for the liberal endowment of the Protestant religion, then identified in the official mind with the Church of England, through what were afterwards known as the Clergy Reserves, being one-seventh of the lands of the new townships opened for settlement.

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  • In1785-1788he was speaker of the Pennsylvania general assembly (then consisting of only one house); he was a member of the Federal Constitutional Convention of 1787, and president of the state supreme executive council (or chief executive officer of the state) in 1788-1790.

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  • He was president of the Pennsylvania Constitutional Convention of 1789-1790; was the first governor of the state, from 1790 to 1 799, after the adoption of the new state constitution; and during the Whisky Insurrection assumed personal command of the Pennsylvania militia.

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  • Campbell, who in 1829 had been elected to the Constitutional Convention of Virginia by his anti-slavery neighbours, now established The Millennial Harbinger (1830-1865), in which, on Biblical grounds, he opposed emancipation, but which he used principally to preach the imminent Second Coming, which he actually set for 1866, in which year he died, on the 4th of March, at Bethany, West Virginia, having been for twenty-five years president of Bethany College.

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  • the names, functions and powers of the houses of the legislature, the chief executive officials, and the courts of justice, with provisions regulating the electoral franchise; Provisions creating, or directing the creation of, a system of local government for cities and rural areas; Miscellaneous provisions relating to law and administration, including the militia, revenue and taxation, state prisons and hospitals, agriculture, banking and other corporations, railways, labor questions; Provisions for the amendment of the constitution; A schedule prescribing the method of submitting the draft constitution to the vote of the people, with temporary provisions regulating the mode of tranfition from the old constitutional arrang~ments to the new ones.

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  • Such amendments have latterly come to include many matters not strictly constitutional,and so to constitute a species of direct legislation by the people similar in principle to what is called in Switzerland the Referendum.

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  • The power of making appointments to the administrative service would invest him with a vast influence but for the constitutional requirement of securing the consent of the Senate to the more important appointments made.

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  • This duty of interpretation belongs to all tribunals, but as constitutional cases are, if originating in a lower court, usually carried by appeal to the Supreme Court, men have grown accustomed to talk of the Supreme Court as in a special sense the guardian of the Constitution.

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  • The Federal courts never deliver an opinion on any constitutional question unless or until that question is brought before them in the form of a lawsuit.

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  • There have, however, been instances in which the court has virtually changed its view on a constitutional question, and it is understood to be entitled so to do.

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  • Cooley, A Treatise on the Constitutional Limitations which rest upon the Legislative Power of the States of the A merican Union (6th ad., Boston, 1890) is one of the most useful secondary works.

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  • Willoughby, The American Constitutional System (New York, 1904); Emlin McClain, Constitutional Law in the United States (ibid., ioo5); P. S.

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  • Howards Introduction to the Local Constitutional History of the United States (Baltimore, 1889) is of use, although the authors theories, are questionable.

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  • For a digest of some of these see Digest of City Charters, together with other Statutory and Constitutional Provisions relating to Cities, prepared for the Chicago Charter Convention by A.

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  • C. Flare, American Constitutional Law, (2 vols., ibid., 1889); E.

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  • Elliott, Biographical Story of the Constitution (New York, 1910); Woodrow Wilson, Constitutional Government in the United States (ibid., rev. ed., 1908); and especially important are the decision of the United States Supreme Court, known by the name of the reporter until 1874A.

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  • The best collection of Cases on Constitutional Law is by J.

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  • I, 2) upon the power of the Federal government to lay direct taxes has been interpreted by the Supreme Court, by a bare majority, in such a way as to make very difficult, if not impossible, the imposition of an income tax (although, it may be added, such taxes had been unanimously held constitutional by the court in earlier decisions, which rested in turn upon interpretations of the constitutional provision just referred to given by the court when it counted among its members justices who had been members of the convention that framed the constitution).

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  • The entire Federal system is the result, partly of constitutional provisions, partly of experience.

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  • The lastinasmuch as an income tax that i~ constitutional can perhaps not be framedis the only promising source that can give the addition to the Federal revenues that must be needed in case the customs or the excise revenues are reduced.

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  • This was one of the acts brought up against him by the senatus-consulte of the 3rd of April 1814, which pronounced his fall "considering that he has violated the constitutional laws by the decrees on the state prisons."

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  • His mind gradually turned from belief in the efficacy of violent measures to the acceptance of constitutional methods; and in his last book, King Stork and King Log, he spoke with approval of the efforts of politicians on the Liberal side to effect, by argument and peaceful agitation, a change in the attitude of the Russian government towards various reforms. Stepniak constantly wrote and lectured, both in Great Britain and the United States, in support of his views, and his energy, added to the interest of his personality, won him many friends.

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  • Greenidge, Handbook of Greek Constitutional History, pp. 83-85; G.

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  • A prevailingly French type of government was now no longer adequate in Canada, and in 1791 was passed by the British parliament the Constitutional Act, separating Canada at the Ottawa river into two parts, each with its own government; Lower Canada, chiefly French, retaining the old system of laws, with representative institutions now added, and Upper Canada, on the purely British model.

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  • At first he seemed inclined to act with moderation and on lines of constitutional agitation, but soon, carried away by fanaticism, ambition and vanity, he turned to armed organization against the government.

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  • Trifling acts of her father are described at length in exaggerated terms, while little notice is taken of important constitutional matters.

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  • The Supreme Court dismissed the bill on the grounds that equity has no jurisdiction over political matters; that, assuming the fraudulent character of the objectionable constitutional provisions, the court was in effect asked to assist in administering a fraud; and that relief "must be given by them {the people of the state} or by the legislative and political departments of the government of the United States."

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  • The State's Rights party, joined by many Democrats, founded the Southern Rights party, which demanded the repeal of the Compromise, advocated resistance to future encroachments and prepared for secession, while the Whigs, joined by the remaining Democrats, formed the party known as the "Unionists," which unwillingly accepted the Compromise and denied the "constitutional" right of secession.

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