How to use Constitution in a sentence
He contended such a visit was in violation of the Fourth Amendment of the Constitution.
In 1872, an entirely new constitution was adopted.
The constitution may be amended by either of two methods.
In constitution these cats are extremely delicate.
At a representative conference in London in 1875 the constitution of the council was agreed upon.Advertisement
The addition of the Fourteenth and Fifteenth Amendments to the U.S. Constitution caused a divided reaction.
In 1852, a change took place in its constitution.
It was colonized by Megara, and its constitution and buildings are known from numerous inscriptions.
The synod seems to have remained without a constitution and without subscription until 1729, when it adopted the Westminster standards.
Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating?Advertisement
In July 1865, when politics had shifted from the basis of the 1861 Constitution, he laid down office, and retired from public affairs.
His constitution of the 1st of March 1519 condemned the king of Spain's claim to refuse the publication of papal bulls.
The constitution of the state was framed by a convention that sat at Denver from December 1875 to March 1876.
The Regulating Act, passed by Lord North's ministry in 1773, effected considerable changes in the constitution of the Bengal government.
Having refused to accept the civil constitution of the clergy, Dillon had to leave Narbonne in 1790, then to emigrate to Coblenz in 1791.Advertisement
In correspondence with the fundamental constitution of the zooid, each of the three segments has its own body-cavity separated from the others.
The act which Pitt successfully carried in the following year introduced a new constitution, in which Hastings felt that he had no place.
He organized the national guard, applied the civil constitution of the clergy, and regulated the finances of the city so as to tax the rich heavily and spare the poor.
After serving in the Maryland convention which ratified for that state the Federal Constitution, and there vigorously opposing ratification, though afterwards he was an ardent Federalist, he became in 1791 chief judge of the Maryland general court, which position he resigned in 1796 for that of an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.
The only motive for advocating it is the prejudice of absolute idealism which would deny that sensation has any part whatever in the constitution of experience.Advertisement
Peru is a centralized republic, whose supreme law is the constitution of 1860.
Like the other states of South America its constitution provides for popular control of legislation and the execution of the laws through free elections and comparatively short terms of office, but in practice these safeguards are often set aside and dictatorial methods supersede all others.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
Fifteen amendments have thus been added to the constitution of 1842.
From 1789 to 1796 he was one of the first senators from Connecticut under the new Constitution.Advertisement
At the beginning of the 11th century the citizens established a constitution, composed of a general council or legislative assembly and a credenza or executive; and during the next century they were engaged in wars with Venice and Vicenza for the right of water-way on the Bacchiglione and the Brenta - so that, on the one hand, the city grew in power and selfreliance, while, on the other, the great families of Camposampiero, D'Este and Da Romano began to emerge and to divide the Paduan district between them.
The most important domestic event of Grant's first term as president was the adoption of the fifteenth amendment to the Constitution on the 30th of March 1870, providing that suffrage throughout the United States should not be restricted on account of race, colour or previous condition of servitude.
Kopp devoted himself especially to physico-chemical inquiries, and in the history of chemical theory his name is associated with several of the most important correlations of the physical properties of substances with their chemical constitution.
At the outbreak of the revolution of 1820 the king called him to his councils, and when the constitution had been granted Colletta was sent to put down the separatist rising in Sicily, which he did with great severity.
And, after much debate, as to the constitution of the new republic, Savonarola's influence carried the day in favour of Soderini's proposal of a universal or general government, with a great council on the Venetian plan.
Great as was his popularity as a preacher, it was in the arena of ecclesiastical debate that his ability chiefly showed itself, and probably no other single man had from first to last so large a share in shaping the constitution and guiding the policy of the Free Church.
Although this Great Being evidently exceeds the utmost strength of any, even of any collective, human force, its necessary constitution and its peculiar function endow it with the truest sympathy towards all its servants.
Administration.-The state is governed under the constitution of 1842, with amendments adopted in 1854, 1864, 1886, 1888, 1889, 1892, 1893, 1900, 1903, 1909.
So far as state and national elections are concerned, the privilege was extended to native non-freeholders by the constitution of 1842, to naturalized foreigners who had served in the Civil War by an amendment of the 7th of April 1886, and to all adult male citizens by the amendment of the 4th of April 1888.
Amendments to the constitution must be passed by both houses of the General Assembly at two consecutive sessions, and must then be ratified by three-fifths of the electors of the state present and voting thereon in town and ward meetings.
When the constitutional convention met in Philadelphia in 1787 to frame a constitution for a stronger Federal government, the agriculturists of Rhode Island were afraid that the movement would result in an interference with their local privileges, and especially with their favourite device of issuing paper money, and the state refused to send delegates, and not until the Senate had passed a bill for severing commercial relations between the United States and Rhode Island, did the latter, in May 1790, ratify the Federal constitution, and then only by a majority of two votes.
A convention summoned without any authority from the legislature, and elected on the principle of universal manhood suffrage, met at Providence, October 4-November 18, 1841, and drafted a frame of government which came to be known as the People's Constitution.
A second convention met on the call of the legislature in February 1842 and adopted the so-called Freeman's Constitution.
The Freeman's Constitution, modified by another convention, which held its session at Newport and East Greenwich, September 12-November 5, 1842, was finally adopted by popular vote on November 21-23, 1842.
Since the adoption of the constitution the conditions have become worse owing to the extensive immigration of foreigners into the large cities and the gradual decay of the rural towns.
Soil temperature is partly dependent on the direct rays of the sun, partly on the color and constitution of the soil, and partly on the water content of the soil.
In the higher plants the structures which have been often described as centrosomes are too indefinite in their constitution.
In 1853, after the grant of a constitution to New Zealand, he took up his residence in the colony, and immediately began to act a leading part in colonial politics.
In December 1854, after a fatiguing address to a public meeting, followed by prolonged exposure to a south-east gale, his constitution entirely broke down.
He grouped around him all the leading writers, publicists and progressive young men of the day; declaimed against prejudices; stimulated the timid; inspired the lukewarm with enthusiasm; and never rested till the constitution of the 3rd of May 1791 had been carried through.
On the triumph of the reactionaries and the fall of the national party, he secretly placed in the king's hands his adhesion to the triumphant Confederation of Targowica, a false step, much blamed at the time, but due not to personal ambition but to a desire to save something from the wrqck of the constitution.
From Switzerland he passed in six months to England, where he formed acquaintances with other French exiles and with prominent British statesmen, and imbibed a lasting admiration for the English Constitution.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
It needed a change in the constitution to give the consulship to Lucius Sextius; it needed only union and energy in the electors to give it to Gaius Marius.
This same general idea comes out both in the constitution of Servius and in the constitution of Solon, though the application of the principle is different in the two cases.
The constitution was practically Presbyterian.
The most celebrated among the many reform decrees issued by Gregory was the constitution determining for the first time the form of conclave at papal elections, which in large measure has remained ever since the law of the church.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
Sandys's edition of the Constitution of Athens (p. 56, c. 14 note).
Pretending to maintain the Solonian constitution (as he could well afford), he realized that people would never recognize the deception if a sufficient degree of prosperity were ensured.
It is noteworthy that even the third Duma in its address to the throne, if it avoided the tabooed word " Constitution," avoided also all mention of autocracy.
In this way the fundamental laws were suspended not only in Poland but in St Petersburg and other parts of the empire during the greater part of the four years succeeding the grant of the constitution.
Nevada is governed under the original constitution of 1864, with the amendments adopted in 1880, 1889, 1904 and 1906.
In 1782 Gadsden was again elected a member of his state legislature; he was also elected governor, but declined to serve on the ground that he was too old and infirm; in 1788 he was a member of the convention which ratified for South Carolina the Federal constitution; and in 1790 he was a member of the convention which framed the new state constitution.
A fourth class of bodies, the constitution of which is still in some doubt, comprises comets and meteors.
His naturally feeble constitution, further weakened by excessive study, broke down finally in 1832.
In the same year Piero Soderini was chosen gonfalonier for life, in accordance with certain changes in the constitution of the state, which were intended to bring Florence closer to the Venetian type of government.
The constitution by which Delaware is governed was adopted in 1897.
Its character is distinctly democratic. The property qualification of state senators and the restriction of suffrage to those who have paid county or poll taxes are abolished; but suffrage is limited to male adults who can read the state constitution in English, and can write their names, unless physically disqualified, and who have registered.
In 1907 an amendment to the constitution was adopted, which struck out from the instrument the clause requiring the payment of a registration fee of one dollar by each elector.
Important innovations in the constitution of 1897 are the office of lieutenantgovernor, and the veto power of the governor which may extend to parts and clauses of appropriation bills, but a bill may be passed over his veto by a three-fifths vote of each house of the legislature, and a bill becomes a law if not returned to the legislature withil l ten days after its reception by the governor, unless the session of the legislature shall have expired in the meantime.
Legislative divorces are forbidden by the constitution, and a statute of 1901 subjects wife-beaters to corporal punishment.
The maintenance of a system of public schools is rendered compulsory by the state constitution, and a new compulsory school law came into effect in 1907.
In 1776 a state government was organized, representative of the Delaware state, the term " State of Delaware " being first adopted in the constitution of 1792.
In 1866, 1867 and 1869, respectively, the legislature refused to ratify the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth amendments to the Federal constitution.
According to the constitution of 1831 the unit of representation in the legislature was the county; inasmuch as the population of New Castle county has exceeded after 1870 that of both Kent and Sussex, the inequality became a cause of discontent.
This is partly eradicated by the new constitution of 1897, which reapportioned representation according to electoral districts, so that New Castle has seven senators and fifteen representatives, while each of the other counties has seven senators and ten representatives.
For law and administration see Constitution of Delaware (Dover, 1899) and the Revised Code of 1852, amended 1893 (Wilmington, 1893).
In 1848 he was one of those who asked King Charles Albert for the constitution.
This association offered a vigorous opposition to the movement, which succeeded only when it was too late, for obtaining alterations in the constitution limiting the power of the Emperor and laying the foundations of real parliamentary government in the Empire and in Prussia.
As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
Administration.-Texas as a part of Mexico was governed under the constitution (1827) of the "Free State of Coahuila and Texas"; a separate constitution adopted in 1835 was never recognized by the Mexican government and never went into effect.
The Texan Declaration of Independence, adopted in November 1835, was accompanied by a provisional constitution; and with the Declaration of Independence of March 1836 there were adopted an executive ordinance and a constitution.
An amendment to the constitution may be proposed by a two-thirds vote of all members elected to each house of the legislature, and is adopted if it is approved by a majority of the popular vote on the amendment.
Their number, originally ninety-three, is determined by apportionment bills passed after the publication of each Federal census, but under the constitution it can never exceed one hundred and fifty.
The maximum permitted by the constitution is $250,000 per annum.
New loans were made during the Civil War, but they were repudiated by the constitution of 1866, and were made void by the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal constitution.
The constitution of 1876 forbids the borrowing of money except to supply casual deficiencies of revenue (amount limited to $200,000 at a time), repel invasion, suppress insurrection, defend the state in war, or pay existing debts.
Owing to a clause in the constitution forbidding the issue of bank charters, the financial business of the state was controlled by national and private banks until 1904, when the constitution was amended and provision was made for the incorporation of state banks under a system of state supervision, regulation and control, deposits being guaranteed as in the Oklahoma banking system.
Wharton and Henry Smith (1794-1851) until 1835, when Santa Anna overthrew the federal constitution of 1824 and established a dictatorship. A consultation of representatives from the various settlements met at San Felipe de Austin, October to November 1835.
Under Austin's influence the delegates rejected an independence resolution and recommended a union with the Mexican Liberals for the restoration of the constitution of 1824.
A convention, assembled in the town of Washington on the ist of March, adopted a declaration of independence on the 2nd and a republican constitution on the 17th.
Delegates to a new constitutional convention were elected in 1868, the constitution framed by this body was ratified in November 1869, state officers and congressmen were elected the same day, the new legislature ratified the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Amendments, and on the 30th of March 1870 Texas was readmitted to the Union.
The constitution now in force was adopted in 1857, the constitution of 1846 having been superseded chiefly on account of its prohibition of banking corporations.
The present constitution also provides that the question, "Shall there be a convention to revise the constitution and amend the same?"
In 1882 an amendment to the constitution was passed prohibiting the manufacture and the sale of intoxicating liquors within the state.
The state has no bonded debt, and the constitution forbids it to incur debts exceeding in the aggregate a quarter of a million dollars, except for warlike purposes or for some single work to which the people give their consent by vote; the constitution also forbids any county or municipal corporation from incurring an indebtedness exceeding 5% of the value of its taxable property.
This was largely overcome by the year 1857, and yet the constitution of that date prohibits any legislation of primary importance relating to banks without referring the matter to a direct vote of the people.
On the 3rd of August he became president of the Chamber of Deputies, and on the 9th he received in this capacity Louis Philippe's oath to the new constitution.
The atomic theory is a theory of the constitution of bodies which asserts that they are made up of atoms. The opposite theory is that of the homogeneity and continuity of bodies, and asserts, at least in the case of bodies having no apparent organization, such, for instance, as water, that as we can divide a drop of water into two parts which are each of them drops of water, so we have reason to believe that these smaller drops can be divided again, and the theory goes on to assert that there is nothing in the nature of things to hinder this process of division from being repeated over and over again, times without end.
This we may regard as one extreme of the various opinions about the constitution of bodies.
In this way the science of hydrostatics may be built upon an experimental basis, without any consideration of the constitution of a fluid as to whether it is molecular or continuous.
In May 1787 he was elected a delegate to the Convention which drew up the Federal Constitution, this body thus having a member upon whom all could agree as chairman, should Washington be absent.
He opposed over-centralization of government and favoured the Connecticut Compromise, and after the work of the Convention was done used his influence to secure the adoption of the Constitution.'
The opportunity thus given for debate naturally stimulated the movement in favour of constitutional government, which received new impulses from the sympathetic attitude of the emperor Alexander II., his grant in 1879 of a constitution to the liberated principality of Bulgaria, and the multiplication of Nihilist outrages which pointed to the necessity of conciliating Liberal opinion in order to present a united front against revolutionary agitation.
The promulgation of this truncated constitution was greeted by a furious agitation, culminating in September in a general strike, rightly described as the most remarkable political phenomenon of modern times.
In the former there had been a fusion between the Radicals, supporters of the autonomy of Poland and a federal constitution for the empire, and the Independence party (Osvobozhdenya) formed by political exiles at Paris in 1903, the fusion taking the name of Constitutional Democrats, known (from a word-play on the initials K.D.) as " Cadets."
In the zemstvo congress of November the " Cadets " protested against the " grant " of a constitution already elaborated, and demanded the convocation of a Constituent Assembly.
The Commission had much difficulty at the beginning in securing the testimony of witnesses, who invoked the Constitution of the United States as a bar against selfincrimination, and the immunity clause of the act had to be amended before testimony could be obtained.
This is in line with the provisions in the Constitution of the United States regarding the protection of property, but the difficulty in applying the principle to the railway situation lies in the fact that costs have to be met by averaging the returns on the total amount cf business done, and it is often impossible, in specific instances, to secure a rate which can be considered to yield a fair return on the specific service rendered.
The constitution requires that the number of senators shall be not less than one-third nor more than onehalf the number of members of the Assembly, and that the total membership of both houses shall not exceed seventy-five.
The constitution requires that township and county governments shall be uniform throughout the state.
There are a number of unusual provisions in the constitution of Nevada.
Amendments to the constitution must be passed by a majority of each house of the legislature at two consecutive sessions and submitted to a vote of the people at the next regular election.
The constitution provides that a special state tax, at a rate of not over two mills on the dollar, may be levied for school purposes.
The actual borrowing capacity of the state is limited by its constitution to $300,000, except for the extraordinary purpose of repelling invasion or suppressing insurrection.
In 1858 Carson City was laid out, and in the following year the people of Carson county held a mass meeting and chose delegates to a constitutional convention, which met at Genoa on the 18th of July 1859, and in ten days drafted a constitution.
In December 1862 the Territorial legislature passed an act " to frame a constitution and state government for the state of Washoe."
Moreover, as state officers were to be chosen at the same time that the constitution was voted on, disappointed candidates for party nominations fought against ratification.
As a result, the constitution was rejected while officers to act under it were at the same time duly elected.
Early in 1864, when it became evident that two more Republican votes might be needed in the United States Senate for reconstruction purposes, party leaders at Washington urged the people of Nevada to adopt a constitution and enter the Union as a patriotic duty, and on the 21st of March 1864 Congress passed an act to enable the people of the Territory to form a state government.
The Federalist Party, which may be regarded as definitely organized practically from 1791, was led, leaving Washington aside, by Alexander Hamilton and John Adams. A nationalization of the new central government to the full extent warranted by a broad construction of the powers granted to it by the constitution, and a correspondingly strict construction of the powers reserved to the states and the citizens, were the basic principles of Hamilton's policy.
In the same convention he served on the committee which drafted the first constitution for Virginia, and was elected governor of the State - to which office he was re-elected in 1777 and 1778, thus serving as long as the new constitution allowed any man to serve continuously.
Moreover, in the state convention called to decide whether Virginia should ratify the Federal Constitution he led the opposition, contending that the proposed Constitution, because of its centralizing character, was dangerous to the liberties of the country.
Of these the most original and valuable is the Critical Period volume, a history of the consolidation of the states into a government, and of the formation of the constitution.
It was then governed by consuls, but various changes of constitution supervened in the direction of enlarging the governing body.
Its sympathies were always Guelphic, and it was closely allied with Florence, which it assisted in the battle of Monteaperto (1260), and its constitution owed much to her model.
In 849 and 846 other indecisive battles were fought, but the precise constitution of the coalition is not recorded.
Under the constitution of Caracalla (198-217) all inhabitants of the Roman empire enjoyed the civil rights of the Cives Romani (Scherer, Die Rechtsverhaltnisse der Juden, p. Io).
These academies were organized on both scholastic and popular lines; their constitution was democratic. An outstanding feature was the Kallah assemblage twice a year (in Elul at the close of the summer, and in Adar at the end of the winter), when there were gathered together vast numbers of outside students of the most heterogeneous character as regards both age and attainments.
But the day of medieval intolerance had passed, and in 1867 the new constitution " abolished all disabilities on the ground of religious differences," though anti-Semitic manipulation of the law by administrative authority has led to many instances of intolerance.
As in Austria, so in Hungary, these rights were granted by the constitution of 1867.
The Greek constitution admits no religious disabilities, but anti-Semitic riots in Corfu and Zante in 1891 caused much distress and emigration.
The modified constitution of February 1907 curtailed the large exceptional legislative and administrative Dowers then accorded.
In general the Cretan constitution is characterized by a conservative spirit, and contrasts with the ultra-democratic systems. established in Greece and the Balkan States.
The new constitution, however, proved costly and unworkable, and failed to satisfy either section of the population.
On the 4th of September 1896 the assembly formally accepted the new constitution and declared its gratitude to the powers for their intervention.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
On the 27th of April 1899 a new autonomous constitution was voted by a constituent assembly, and in the following June the local administration was handed over to Cretan officials by the international authorities.
The extensive powers conferred by the constitution upon Prince George were increased by subsequent enactments.
Venezelo and his followers, having obtained an amnesty, laid down their arms. A commission appointed by the powers to report on the administrative and financial situation drew up a series of recommendations in January 1906, and a constituent assembly for the revision of the constitution met at Canea in the following June.
Zaimis, as high commissioner, took the oath to the new constitution elaborated after much debate by the Cretan national assembly.
The reading in public of his two treatises De Potestate ecclesiastica and De Reformatione Ecclesiae revealed, besides ideas very peculiar to himself on the reform and constitution of the church, his design of reducing the power of the English in the council by denying them the right of.
In accordance with authority conferred by the home-rule amendment of the state constitution, a charter, submitted by a special commission, was accepted by the citizens on July I 1913.
Antonius in 44 B.C. carried a law abolishing the dictatorship as a part of the constitution.
In addition to the ordinary suffrage qualifications of age, sex, and residence, the voter must have paid all taxes due from him for the two years immediately preceding the election, and he must be able to read any section of the constitution or "be able to understand the same when read to him, or give a reasonable interpretation thereof."
The constitution goes into minute detail in prohibiting local, private and special legislation.
Under the present constitution they are "fully emancipated from all disability on account of coverture," and are placed on an equality with their husbands in acquiring and disposing of property and in making contracts relative thereto.
The convict lease system was abolished by the constitution of 1890 (the provision to take effect on the 31st of December 1894), and state farms were purchased in Rankin, Hinds and Holmes counties.
These acts of repudiation were sanctioned by the constitution of 1890.
The whites maintained their supremacy by very dubious methods until the adoption of the constitution of 1890 made it no longer necessary.
The present constitution, as amended, prescribes that no convention of the people of the state may be called by the legislature unless by the concurrence of two-thirds of all the members of each house followed by an affirmative vote of a majority of the electors voting on the question; and that an amendment to the constitution may be adopted only by a three-fifths vote of each house followed by an affirmative vote of the majority of electors voting on the question.
This body is not, however, a special board, as in Maine, New Hampshire, and Massachusetts, but a kind of administrative cabinet as in Iowa, consisting of the secretary of state, the auditor, the treasurer, and the superintendent of 2 The changes made in 1875 were adopted in a convention, were ratified in 1876, and were so numerous that the amended constitution is frequently referred to as the Constitution of 1876.
The Senate is composed of fifty members elected biennially by senatorial districts as nearly as possible equal to one another in population, and the House of Representatives (in the Constitution of 1776 called the House of Commons) of one hundred and twenty, elected biennially and chosen by counties' according to their population, each county having at least one representative, no matter how small its population.
By the constitution personal property to the value of $500 and any homestead to the value of $1000 is exempt from sale for debt, except for taxes on the homestead, or for obligations contracted for the purchase of said premises.
Until 1905 the only grounds for an absolute divorce were 1 Under the Constitution of 1776 senators were elected by counties, one for each county, and representatives also by counties, two for each county - in addition, the towns of Edenton, Newbern, Wilmington, Salisbury, Hillsboro and Halifax each elected one representative; and a property qualification - a freehold of 50 acres held for six months before an election - was imposed on electors of senators.
The lease system does not prevail, but the farming out of convict labour is permitted by the constitution; such labour is used chiefly for the building of railways, the convicts so employed being at 'all times cared for and guarded by state officials.
This of course impaired the obligation of a contract, but under the Eleventh Amendment to the Constitution of the United States the bondholders could not bring suit against the state in the Federal courts.
Their labours ended, however, in another provincial government by a Council of Safety, and the drafting of North Carolina's first state constitution was left to a constitutional convention which assembled at Halifax on the 12th of November.
North Carolina sent delegates to the Philadelphia Constitutional Convention of 1787, but the state convention, at Hillsboro, called to pass upon the constitution for North Carolina, did not meet until the 21st of July 1788, when ten states had already ratified.
On the first day of this convention the opponents to the constitution, among whom were most of the delegates from the western counties, were ready to reject it without debate, but yielded to a proposal for discussing it clause by clause.
At the conclusion of the debate the convention by a vote of 184 to 84 declared itself unwilling to ratify the constitution until a bill of rights had been added and it had been amended in several other particulars so as to guarantee certain powers to the states.
A second convention met at Fayetteville in November 1789 and the constitution was speedily ratified (on the 13th) by a vote of 195 to 77.
When the state constitution of 1776 was adopted the counties were so nearly equal in population that they were given equal representation in the General Assembly, but the equality in population disappeared in the general westward movement, and in 1790 the West began to urge a new division of the state into representative districts according to population and taxation.
The effect of this was that in January 1835 the legislature passed a bill for submitting the question legally to all the voters of the state, although this bill itself limited the proposed convention's power relating to representation by providing that it should so amend the constitution that senators be chosen by districts according to public taxes, and that commoners be apportioned by districts according to Federal representation, i.e.
Caldwell (1818-1874), there was some improvement in the condition of affairs, and in 1875 a constitutional convention, in session at Raleigh, with the Democrats slightly in the majority, amended the constitution, their work being ratified by the people at the state election in 1876.
The two principal railway corporations, the Southern and the Seaboard Air Line, contended that the act was clearly contrary to the Eighth Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which forbids the imposition of excessive fines.
But the mental constitution of Asiatics is less easily modified than their institutions, and even Japan has assimilated European methods rather than European ideas.
He calls them "natural judgments," "natural suggestions," "judgments of nature," "judgments immediately inspired by our constitution," "principles of our nature," "first principles," "principles of common sense."
In 1911 he made a violent speech in the Grand Sobranje, opposing the amendment to the constitution by which the King was given the right to make secret treaties, and in 1913 he openly accused the King of having brought about the calamitous war with Serbia.
The wild excesses of his youth and their terrible punishment had weakened his strong constitution, and his parliamentary labours completed the work.
Dumont was a Genevese exile, and an old friend of Romilly's, who willingly prepared for him those famous addresses which Mirabeau used to make the Assembly pass by sudden bursts'of eloquent declamation; Claviere helped him in finance, and not only worked out his figures, but even wrote his financial discourses; Lamourette wrote the speeches on the civil constitution of the clergy; Reybaz not only wrote for him his famous speeches on the assignats, the organization of the national guard, and others, which Mirabeau read word for word at the tribune, but even the posthumous speech on succession to the estates of intestates, which Talleyrand read in the Assembly as the last work of his dead friend.
He was a member of Rogers' Rangers in the Seven Years' War, served in the War of Independence, was for several years a member of the New Hampshire legislature, was a delegate to the New Hampshire convention which ratified the Federal constitution, and was a justice of the court of common pleas for his county.
Webster argued that the Federal Constitution gave to Congress control over interstate commerce, and that any interference .by the legislature of a state with this commerce was unconstitu - tional and void.
In 1820 Webster took an important part in the convention called to revise the constitution of Massachusetts, his arguments in favour of removing the religious test, in favour of retaining property representation in the Senate, and in favour of increasing the independence of the judiciary, being especially notable.
Webster's brief reply drew from Hayne a second speech, in which he entered into a full exposition of the doctrine of nullification, and the important part of Webster's second reply to Hayne on the 26th and 27th of January is a masterly exposition of the Constitution as in his opinion it had come to be after a development of more than forty years.
He then argued at length that the correct assumption was that both the general government and the state government were "all agents of the same supreme power, the people," that the people had established the Constitution of the United States and that in the Supreme Court, established under that Constitution, was vested the final decision on all constitutional questions.
Whatever may be said of the original creation of the Constitution, whether by the states or by the people, its development under the influences of a growing nationalism was a strong support to Webster's argument, and no other speech so strengthened Union sentiment throughout the North; its keynote was "Liberty and Union, now and forever, one and inseparable."
At the beginning of the quarrel of the North and the South over the organization of the territory acquired from Mexico, Calhoun contended that the Constitution of the United States extended over this territory and carried slavery with it, but Webster denied this on the ground that the territory was the property of, not part of, the United States, and Webster's view prevailed.
He had convinced the majority of the people that the government created by the Constitution was not a league or confederacy, but a Union, and had all the powers necessary to its maintenance and preservation.
He had con - vinced the Supreme Court, and established the principle in American jurisprudence, that whenever a power is granted by a Constitution, everything that is fairly and reasonably involved in the exercise of that power is granted also.
By the bill for the incorporation of Alsace and German Lorraine, introduced into the German parliament in May 1871, it was provided that the sole and supreme control of the two provinces should be vested in the German emperor and the federal council until the 1st of January 1874, when the constitution of the German empire was established.
Herschel, had the chief part in shaping its constitution.
In 1250 it received a town constitution and Lubeck rights from Duke Wratislaw of Pomerania.
This masterly attack upon Blackstone's praises of the English constitution was variously attributed to Lord Mansfield, Lord Camden and Lord Ashburton.
His constitution, weakly in childhood, strengthened with advancing years so as to allow him to get through an incredible amount of sedentary labour, while he retained to the last the fresh and cheerful temperament of a boy.
The growth of a science is much like the growth of a constitution.
In general, however, his views at that time were republican; he belonged to the club of Friends of the Constitution at Valence, spoke there with much acceptance, and was appointed librarian to the club.
For the constitution of the year 1795 which inaugurated the period of the Directory (1795-1799) see French Revolution.
Its constitution was drawn up in the spring of 1797 by committees appointed, and to some extent supervised, by him; and he appointed the first directors, deputies and chief administrators of the new state (July 1797).
These violent oscillations not only weakened the fabric of the Republic, but brought about a situation in which Bonaparte easily paralysed both the executive and the legislative powers so ill co-ordinated by the constitution of the year 1795.
A majority of the Ancients was ready to support Sieyes and make drastic changes in the constitution; but in the Council of Five Hundred the prevalent feeling was democratic or even Jacobinical.
With this aim in view he sought to find a man possessing ability in war and probity in civil affairs, who would act as figure-head to his long projected constitution.
A fortnight passed before he decided to support Sieyes in effecting a change in the constitution; and by then he had captivated all men except Bernadotte and a few intransigeant Jacobins.
Lucien now consolidated the work of the soldiery by procuring from the Ancients a decree which named Bonaparte, Sieyes and Ducos as provisional consuls, while a legislative commission was appointed to report on necessary changes in the constitution.
Only by degrees did the events of the 19th of Brumaire stand out in their real significance; for the new consuls, installed at the Luxemburg palace, and somewhat later at the Tuileries, took care that the new constitution, which they along with the two commissions were now secretly drawing up, should not be promulgated until Paris and France had settled down to the ordinary life of pleasure and toil.
The feelings of suprise at the clemency and moderation with which the victors used their powers predisposed men everywhere to accept their constitution.
Improving upon the procedure of the Convention in Vendemiaire 1795, Bonaparte procured the nomination of three consuls in an article of the new constitution; they were Bonaparte (First Consul), Cambaceres and Lebrun.
To the senate, thus chosen "from above," was allotted the important task of supervising the constitution, and of selecting, from among the notabilities of the nation, the members of the Corps Legislatif and the Tribunate.
The new constitution was promulgated on the 15th of December 1799 and in a plebiscite held during January 1800 it received the support of 3,011,007 voters, only 1562 persons voting against it.
The relations between national and local authorities fluctuated considerably during the Directory; and it is noteworthy that the constitution of December 1799 placed local administration merely under the control of ministers at Paris.
It is significant that Bonaparte proposed this bill (drafted in the Council of State) to the Tribunate and the Corps Legislatif on the very day on which it was first certainly known that France had accepted the new constitution.
Napoleon (who now used his Christian name instead of the surname Bonaparte) thereupon sent proposals for various changes in the constitution, which were at once registered by the obsequious Council of State and the Senate on the 4th of August (16 Thermidor) 1802.
This body received the right of deciding by senatus consulta all questions not provided for by the constitution; the Corps Legislatif and Tribunate might also thenceforth be dissolved at its bidding.
The measure proved to be the deportation of the leading Jacobins; and a cloak of legality was cast over this extraordinary proceeding by a special decree of the senate (avowedly the guardian of the constitution) that this act of the government was a "measure tending to preserve the constitution" (5th of January 1801).
The body charged with the guarding of the constitution was thus brought by Bonaparte to justify its violation; and a way was thus opened for the legalizing of further irregularities.
In April 1802 he procured the passing of a senatus consultum granting increased facilities for the return of the emigres; with few exceptions they were allowed to return, provided that it was before the 23rd of September 1802, and, after swearing to obey the new constitution, they entered into possession of their lands which had not been alienated; but barriers were raised against the recovery of their confiscated lands.
The senate, as usual, took the lead in suggesting some such change in the constitution; and it besought Napoleon "to complete his work by rendering it, like his glory, immortal."
The changes brought about by this constitution were mainly titular.
But the chief problem centred in the constitution.
At Lyons, on the 13th of March, Napoleon had issued an edict dissolving the existing chambers and ordering the convocation of a national mass meeting, or Champ de Mai, for the purpose of modifying the constitution of the Napoleonic empire.
As Chateaubriand remarked, in reference to Louis XVIII.'s constitutional charter, the new constitution - La Benjamine, it was dubbed - was merely a slightly improved charter.
The constitution of Wareham underwent a change during the years 1326-1338, when the governing body of the bailiffs and commonalty were replaced by the mayor and bailiffs.
His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth.
While in London Adams published a work entitled A Defence of the Constitution of Government of the United States (1787).
The palace as we now see it was begun about 1300 by Doge Pietro Gradenigo, who soon after the closing of the great council gave its permanent form to the Venetian constitution.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
By this reform two important offices in the Venetian constitution - the privy council (consiglieri ducali) and the senate (the pregadi or invited) - came into being.
The secrecy of its deliberations and the rapidity with which it could act made it a useful adjunct to the constitution, and it gradually absorbed many of the more important functions of the state.
With the creation of the Council of Ten the main lines of the Venetian constitution were completed.
Parallel with the senate, but extraneous to the main lines of the constitution, came the Council of Ten.
Above the senate and the Ten came the Collegio or cabinet, the administrative branch of the constitution.
At the apex of the pyramid came the doge and his council, the point of highest honour and least weight in the constitution.
Ohio is governed under the constitution of 1851 as amended in 1875, 1883, 1885, 1 9 02, 1 9 03, and 1905.
The constitution requires that all elections be by ballot, and the Australian ballot system was adopted in 1891; registration is required in cities having a population of 11,800 or more.
As a result of the dispute between Governor Arthur St Clair and the Territorial legislature, the constitution of 1802 conferred nearly all of the ordinary executive functions on the legislature.
The governor's control over appointments was strengthened by the constitution of 1851 and by the subsequent creation of statutory offices, boards and commissions, but the right of veto was not given to him until the adoption of the constitutional amendments of 1903.
The constitution provides for a reapportionment every ten years beginning in 1861.
Under the constitution of 1802 judges were chosen by the legislature, but since 1851 they have been elected by direct popular vote - the judges of the supreme court being chosen at large.
The constitution provides that the terms of supreme and circuit judges shall be such even number of years not less than six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - that of the judges of the common pleas six years, that of the probate judges four years, that of other judges such even number of years not exceeding six as may be prescribed by the legislature - the statutory provision is six years - and that of justices of the peace such even number of years not exceeding four as may be thus prescribed - the statutory provision is four years.
The county and the township are the units of the rural, the city and the village the units of the urban local The provision for circuit courts was first made in the constitution by an amendment of 1883.
Under the constitution of 1802, municipal corporations were established by special legislation.
The constitution of 1851, however, provided for a general law, and the legislature in 1852 enacted a "general municipal corporations act," the first of its kind in the United States.
In order to comply with the court's interpretation of the constitution, municipalities were divided into only two classes, cities and villages, the former having a population of five thousand or more; the chief officials in both cities and villages were the mayor, council, treasurer and numerous boards of commissions.
The constitution of 1851 practically deprived the legislature of the power to create new obligations.
For the administration see the Constitution of the State of Ohio, adopted June 1851 (Norwalk, Ohio, 1897), and amendments of 1903 and 1905 published separately; the annual reports of the state treasurer, auditor, board of state charities and commissioner of common schools, the Ellis municipal code (1902) and the Harrison school code (1904).
Its political importance really was that it transferred the protection of the constitution from the Areopagus to the Ecclesia.
Aristotle's Constitution of Athens (c. 22) gives a.
In that year he was ordered to the west coast of Africa, where he visited Dahomey, and contracted fever, which told severely on his constitution.
At the Charlestown navy-yard (1800) there are docks, manufactories, foundries, machine-shops, ordnance stores, rope-walks, furnaces, castingpits, timber sheds, ordnance-parks, ship-houses, &c. The famous frigate " Independence " was launched here in 1814, the more famous " Constitution " having been launched while the yard was still private in 1797.
The city was warmly in favour of the adoption of the federal constitution of 1787; even Samuel Adams was rejected for Congress because he was backward in its support.
Soon the growing desire for liberty made itself felt in Hesse, and in 1820 Louis gave a constitution to the land; various forms were carried through; the system of government was reorganized, and in 1828 Hesse-Darmstadt joined the Prussian Zollverein.
The constitution of 1820, subject to four subsequent modifications, is still the law of the land, the legislative power being vested in two chambers and the executive power being exercised by the three departments of the ministry of state.
In 78 he was consul with Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, who after the death of Sulla proposed the overthrow of his constitution, the re-establishment of the distribution of grain, the recall of the banished, and other democratic measures.
This series of operations proves the constitution of the acid.
Under the state constitution of 1875 it has had the right, since attaining a population of 100,000, to form a charter for itself.
Bergman (1784) Charles Hatchett (1798) and others also expressed views with regard to the constitution and origin of bitumens.
Government.-The present constitution was framed in 1885 and was ratified by the people in 1886.
Its most important feature, when compared with the previous constitution of 1868, is its provision for the choice of state officials other than the governor (who was previously chosen by election) by elections instead of by the governor's appointment, but the governor, who serves for four years and is not eligible for the next succeeding term, still appoints the circuit judges, the state' attorneys for each judicial circuit and the county commissioners; he may fill certain vacancies and may suspend, and with the Senate remove officers not liable to impeachment..
The office of lieutenantgovernor was abolished by the present constitution.
To these requirements the payment of a poll-tax has been added by legislative enactment, such an enactment having been authorized by the constitution.
Insane persons and persons under guardianship are excluded by the constitution, and " all persons convicted of bribery, perjury, larceny or of infamous crime, or who shall make or become directly or indirectly interested in any bet or wager the result of which shall depend upon any election," or who shall participate as principal, second or challenger in any duel, are excluded by legislative enactment.
Amendments to the constitution may be made by a three-fifths vote of each house of the legislature, ratified by a majority vote of the people.
The Civil War, however, interrupted the early progress, and the present system of common schools dates from the constitution of 1868 and the school law of 1869.
The state constitution prescribes that " white and colored children shall not be taught in the same school, but impartial provision shall be made for both."
The legislature of 1866 rejected the Fourteenth Amendment to the Federal Constitution, and soon afterwards Florida was made a part of the Third Military District, according to the Reconstruction Act of 1867.
A factional strife in the dominant party, the Republican, now began; fifteen delegates withdrew from the convention; the others framed a constitution, and then resolved themselves into a political convention.
A new constitution was framed and was ratified by the electors, and Florida passed from under a quasi-military to a full civil government on the 4th of July 1868.
His duties are described in detail by the king's regulations, but may be summed up as consisting of seeing that the charges are in order, pointing out any informalities or defects in the charges or in the constitution of the court, seeing that any witness required by prosecutor or prisoner is summoned, keeping the minutes of the proceedings, advising on matters of law which arise at any time after the warrant for the courtmartial is issued, drawing up the findings and sentence, and forwarding the minutes when completed to the admiralty.
Of its municipal constitution little is known, indeed in an inscription of the end of the Republic it is spoken of both as a colonic and a municipium.
These discoveries of Geoffroy and Scheele formed the basis of Chevreul's researches by which he established the constitution of oils and the true nature of soap. In the article Oils it is pointed out that all fatty oils and fats are mixtures of glycerides, that is, of bodies related to the alcohol glycerin C 3H5(OH)3 i and some fatty acid such as palmitic acid (C 16 H 31 0 2)H.
After a short interval Cambaceres was, by the constitution of December 1799, appointed second consul of France - a position which he owed largely to his vast legal knowledge and to the conviction which Sieyes entertained of his value as a manipulator of public assemblies.
The anxiety, fatigue and cold to which he was thus exposed, affecting a constitution naturally weak, laid the foundation of the disease to which he afterwards succumbed.
The constitution of 1787 was then before the public, and Gallatin, with his dislike of strong government still upon him, threw himself into opposition and became one of the founders of the Anti-Federalist, or, as it was afterwards called, the Republican party.
Besides completing the gigantic Olympieum he enlarged the circuit of the city walls to the east, enclosing the area now covered by the royal and the build- public gardens and the Constitution Square.
But in other respects the new constitution tended to arrest development.
The constitution which he promulgated (508/7) gave expression to the change of political feeling by providing a national basis of franchise and providing a new state organization.
He amended the constitution in some respects, and instituted a new national festival, the Panhellenica.
Identifying himself with the Democratic party, he served in the state House of Representatives in 1848, and was a prominent member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850-1851, a representative in Congress (1851-18s5), commissioner of the United States General Land Office (1855-1859), a United States senator (1863-1869), and governor of Indiana (1873-1877).
The island is treated as an outlying territory; it has not been brought within the full purview of the Japanese constitution.
The constitution of Porto Rico is contained in an act of the Congress of the United States (the Foraker Act) which came into operation in May 1900.
The constitution requires that at least five of the eleven members of the Executive Council shall be native inhabitants of Porto Rico; in practice the six members who are also heads of the administrative departments have been Americans while the other five have been Porto Ricans.
In the struggle against the Jansenists he used all the influence he had with the clergy to secure the passage of the apostolic constitution of the 31st of March 16 J3 (Relation de ce qui s'est fait depuis 1653 Bans les assemblies des iveques au sujet des cinq propositions, 1657); but in the rebellion raised by Retz, archbishop of Paris, against the king, he took the part of the king against the pope.
The settlers who had flocked to California after the discovery of gold in 1848 adopted an antislavery state constitution on the 13th of October 1849, and applied for admission into the Union.
Placed under arrest with the Girondins, he escaped to Rennes where he drew up a pamphlet denouncing the constitution of 1793 under the curious title Le Dernier Crime de Lanjuinais (Rennes, 1793).
He was a member of the Virginia Committee of Safety from August to December 1775, and of the Virginia Convention in 1775 and 1776; and in 1776 he drew up the Virginia Constitution and the famous Bill of Rights, a radically democratic document which had great influence on American political institutions.
He was a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1776-1780 and again in 1787-1788, and in 1787 was a member of the convention that framed the Federal Constitution, and as one of its ablest debaters took an active part in the work.
He objected to the large and indefinite powers given by the completed Constitution to Congress, so he joined with Patrick Henry in opposing its ratification in the Virginia Convention (1788).
Changes of the first and second kind, according to our views of the constitution of molecules, are probably of very rare occurrence; in fact, chemical action appears almost always to involve the occurrence of both these kinds of change, for, as already pointed out, we must assume that the molecules of hydrogen, oxygen and several other elements are diatomic, or that they consist of two atoms. Indeed, it appears probable that with few exceptions the elements are all compounds of similar atoms united together by one or more units of affinity, according to their valencies.
But the belief died hard; the synthesis of urea remained isolated for many years; and many explanations were attempted by the vitalists (as, for instance, that urea was halfway between the inorganic and organic kingdoms, or that the carbon, from which it was obtained, retained the essentials of this hypothetical vital force), but only to succumb at a later date to the indubitable fact that the same laws of chemical combination prevail in both the animate and inanimate kingdoms, and that the artificial or laboratory synthesis of any substance, either inorganic or organic, is but a question of time, once its constitution is determined.'.
We now proceed to consider the properties, syntheses, decompositions and constitution of the benzene complex.
Identity in composition, but difference in constitution, is generally known as " isomerism " (q.v.), and compounds satisfying this relation differ in many of their physical properties.
The molecular volume is additive in certain cases, in particular of analogous compounds of simple constitution.
While certain additive relations hold between some homologous series, yet differences occur which must be referred to the constitution of the molecule.
In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.
He altered the constitution of the praetorian guard, in which only Italians, formed into nine cohorts, were enrolled.
In 1787 he was a member of the Pennsylvania convention which adopted the Federal constitution, and thereafter he retired from public life, and gave himself up wholly to medical practice.
By other decrees the jurisdiction of the court of Rome was much limited, and rules were even made for the election of popes and the constitution of the Sacred College.
The era of the great councils of the 15th century was closed; the constitution of the Church remained monarchical.
We have seen that slavery was a fundamental element of the old Roman constitution.
The Declaration of the Rights of Man in August 1789 seemed to meet their claims, but in March 1790 the assembly, alarmed by rumours of the discontent and disaffection of the planters in San Domingo, passed a resolution that it had not been intended to comprehend the internal government of the colonies in the constitution framed for the mother country.
The issue of the violent and treacherous conduct of Bonaparte towards the island was that the blacks drove from their soil the forces sent to subdue them, and founded a constitution of their own, which was more than once modified.
The words " slave" and " slavery " were, however, excluded from the constitution, " because," as Madison says," they did not choose to admit the right of property in man " in direct terms; and it was at the same time provided that Congress might interdict the foreign slave trade after the expiration of twenty years.
In February 1784 Wesley's deed of declaration gave the conference a legal constitution.
For several years he lingered in the south, his constitution finally broken.
At the age of twenty he was fitted, in six months, for college, and in 1819, graduated with highest honours, from the Brown University at Providence, Rhode Island, having devoted himself so unremittingly to his studies as to weaken further his naturally feeble constitution.
In 1849 they received a constitution.
The first specific legislation on the subject was enacted on the 12th of February 1793, and like the Ordinance for the Northwest Territory and the section of the Constitution quoted above, did not contain the word "slave"; by its provisions any Federal district or circuit judge or any state magistrate was authorized to decide finally and without a jury trial the status of an alleged fugitive.
By the state constitution of 1898 and by amendments of 1902 and 1904 tax exemptions for ten years were granted to newly-built railroads completed before 1909.
The constitution of 1812 allowed the General Assembly to name the governor from the two candidates receiving the highest number of votes; gave the governor large powers of appointment, even of local functionaries; and required a property qualification for various offices, and even for voters.
The constitution of 1845 made the popular suffrage final in the choice of the governor, abolished property qualifications, and began to pare executive powers for the benefit of the General Assembly or the people.
The last constitution (1898, with 26 amendments 1898-1906), unlike all others after that of 1812, was not submitted to the people for ratification.
Under this constitution sessions of the General Assembly are biennial (meeting the second Monday in May in even-numbered years) and are limited to sixty days.
The number of senators is fixed by the constitution at 39; the number of representatives is to be not more than 116 or less than 98.
Contingent appropriations are forbidden, and the constitution contains a long list of subjects on which special laws may not be passed.
The constitution prohibits lotteries and the sale of lottery tickets.
The constitution requires that a voter must (in addition to other qualifications) either be able to show conclusively ability to read and write, or be the owner of property within the state assessed at not less than $300, on which, if personalty, all taxes are paid.
The constitution provides that no person less than 60 years of age shall be permitted to vote unless he has paid an annual poll-tax of one dollar for the two years next preceding the year in which he offers to vote.
Suffrage was by this constitution first extended to women tax-payers in questions " submitted to the tax-payers, as such."
The United States left the task of altering the laws to the people, as far as there was no conflict between them and the Constitution of the United States and fundamental American legal customs. Copies of the Spanish codes were very rare, and some of them could not be had in the colonies.
The constitution of 1879 was illiberal in this respect, but a healthier public opinion soon prevailed.
The money given by the state to the public schools is distributed among the parishes according to their school population, and the constitution of 1898 set a generous minimum to such aid.
The State Board of Charities and Correction, for which the constitution of 1898 first made pro vision, and which was organized under an act of 1904, is composed of six members, appointed by the governor for six years, with the governor as ex-officio chairman.
The leasing or hiring of state convicts is prohibited by the constitution, but parish convicts may be hired or leased for farm and factory work, work on roads and levees, and other public undertakings.
In November 1811 a convention met at New Orleans and framed a constitution under which, on the 30th of April 181 2, the Territory of Orleans became the state of Louisiana.
The former prevailed, and by a convention that assembled in April 1864 a constitution was framed closely following that of 1852 but repudiating the debt incurred by Louisiana as one of the Confederate states and abolishing slavery.
A clause in the constitution of 1864 provided for the reconvening of the convention in certain circumstances, but this clause referred only to necessities prior to the establishment of a government, and had therefore determined.
A constitution of 1868 gave suffrage to the blacks, and disfranchised all whites made ineligible to office under the proposed Fourteenth Amendment to the national Constitution, and also (practically) those who had by word, pen or vote defended secession.
But like the "Tribunes" and "Consuls" of the constitution of the year VIII., it was taken from.
The constitution upon which the government of Cuba rests was framed during the period of the United States military government; it was adopted the 21st of February 1901, and certain amendments or conditions required by the United States were accepted on the 12th of June 1901.
Both provinces and municipalities are forbidden by the constitution to contract debts without a coincident provision of permanent revenue for their settlement.
Primary education is declared by the constitution to be free and compulsory; and its expenses are paid by the central government so far as it may be beyond the power of the province or municipality to bear them.
Under the constitution of the Republic the sphere of individual liberty is large and constitutionally protected against the government.
Something of political freedom was enjoyed during the two terms of Spanish constitutional government under the constitution of 1812.
Politically his rule was marked by the proclamation at Santiago in 1836, without his consent, of the Spanish constitution of 1834; he repressed the movement, and in 1837 the deputies of Cuba to the Cortes of Spain (to which they were admitted in the two earlier constitutional periods) were excluded from that body, and it was declared in the national constitution that Cuba (and Porto Rico) should be governed by " special laws."
The Spanish constitution of 1876 was proclaimed in Cuba in 1881.
In the determination of the relations that should subsist between the new republic and the United States certain definite conditions known as the Platt Amendment were finally imposed by the United States, and accepted by Cuba (12th of June 1901) as a part of her constitution.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
Government was maintained under the Cuban flag, - the diplomatic and consular relations with even the United States remaining in outward forms unchanged; and the regular forms of the constitution were scrupulously maintained so far as possible.
The reforms in Turkey certainly encouraged the Serb and Moslem inhabitants of the occupied territory to petition the emperor for the grant of a constitution similar to that in force in the provinces of Austria proper.
The general assembly of the state met at Fayetteville in 1787, 1788 and 1789 (Newbern, Tarboro, Hillsboro and Fayetteville all being rivals at this time for the honour of becoming the permanent capital); and in 1789 the Federal constitution was here ratified for North Carolina.
So also did the " Midhat Constitution " promulgated by Abd-ul-Hamid almost immediately after his accession to the throne, owing largely to the reactionary spirit at that time of the' Ulema and of the sultan's immediate advisers, but almost, if not quite, in equal measure to the scornful reception of the Constitution by the European powers.
In July of that year the sultan Abd-ul-Hamid capitulated to the Young Turks and restored by Irade (July 24) the constitution which he had granted in December 1876 and suspended on the 14th of February 1878.
A new constitution, differing from that of Abd-ul-Halnid only in some matters of detail, was promulgated by imperial Irade of the 5th of August 1909.
Under the reformed constitution every senator is entitled to a salary of £Tloo per month, any remuneration which he may receive from the government for other services to be deducted from the senatorial allowance which, however, it may of course exceed.