Constituted Sentence Examples
This work (1783) constituted Mendelssohn the Luther of the German Jews.
But despite all these measures the men, who had till then constituted an army, flowed all over the wealthy, deserted city with its comforts and plentiful supplies.
Past experience constituted another important factor in establishing the interpretation of signs noted.
This day the horrible appearance of the battlefield overcame that strength of mind which he thought constituted his merit and his greatness.
From information he had received the evening before, from the sound of wheels and footsteps heard by the outposts during the night, by the disorderly movement of the Russian columns, and from all indications, he saw clearly that the allies believed him to be far away in front of them, and that the columns moving near Pratzen constituted the center of the Russian army, and that that center was already sufficiently weakened to be successfully attacked.Advertisement
But now they wanted her to sacrifice the very thing that constituted the whole reward for her self-sacrifice and the whole meaning of her life.
These three groups traveling together--the cavalry stores, the convoy of prisoners, and Junot's baggage train--still constituted a separate and united whole, though each of the groups was rapidly melting away.
And this very absence of an aim gave him the complete, joyous sense of freedom which constituted his happiness at this time.
From this fundamental difference between the view held by history and that held by jurisprudence, it follows that jurisprudence can tell minutely how in its opinion power should be constituted and what power-- existing immutably outside time--is, but to history's questions about the meaning of the mutations of power in time it can answer nothing.
Shortly below Kut-el-Amara all traces of ancient canalization on the east side vanish, and it would appear as though much of that region, now largely under water at flood time, constituted an inland sea.Advertisement
On the 13th of February 1880, the minister of war, Dr Carlos Pellegrini, summoned the principal officers connected with the Tiro Nacional, General Bartolome Mitre, his brother Emilio, Colonel Julio Campos, Colonel Hilario Lagos and others, and warned them that as officers of the national army they owed obedience to the national government, and would be severely punished if concerned in any revolutionary outbreak against the constituted authorities.
The competence of the Russian parliament' thus constituted is strictly limited.
It has been found by experience also that wines which are normally constituted as regards the relative proportions of their various constituents, provided that the quantities of these do not fall below certain limits, are likely to develop well, whereas wines which, although perfectly sound, show an abnormal constitution, will rarely turn out successful.
This called forth the organized opposition of the Hasidim (_ " the pious "), who constituted themselves champions of the Law.
In her face there was none of the ever-glowing animation that had formerly burned there and constituted its charm.Advertisement
In her despair she turned for comfort and counsel to Sainte-Beuve, now constituted her regular father confessor.
Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
We do not, however, know its date, save that, if not Domitian's work, it was carried out soon after his death, and the whole frontier thus constituted was reorganized, probably by Hadrian, with a continuous wooden palisade reaching from Rhine to Danube.
He may, in fact, be called the father of modern pathology, for his view, that every animal is constituted by a sum of vital units, each of which manifests the characteristics of life, has almost uniformly dominated the theory of disease.since the middle of the 59th century, when it was enunciated.
When Bulgaria under the Berlin Treaty was constituted an autonomous principality under the suzerainty of Turkey, the tsar recommended his nephew to the Bulgarians as a candidate for the newly created throne, and Prince Alexander was elected prince of Bulgaria by unanimous vote of the Grand Sobranye (April 29, 1879).Advertisement
In 1827 and 1829, an English company endeavoured to plant a settlement at the Swan river, and this, added to a small military station established in 1825 at King George Sound, constituted Western Australia.
It constituted the most common form of divination in ancient Babylonia, where it can be traced back to the 3rd millennium B.C. Among the Etruscans the prominence of the rite led to the liver being looked upon as the trade-mark of the priest.
This stroke, which would most probably have given the victory to the king, was prevented by the "Eastern Association," a union of Norfolk, Suffolk, Essex, Cambridgeshire and Hertfordshire, constituted in December 1642 and augmented in 1643 by Huntingdonshire and Lincolnshire, of which Cromwell was the leading spirit.
The Pindaris were put down, Amir Khan submitting and signing a treaty which constituted him the first ruler of the existing state of Tonk.
Since by international agreement the wilful damage of a cable has been constituted a criminal offence, and the cable companies have avoided crossing the fishing banks, or have adopted the wise policy of refunding the value of anchors lost on their cables, the number of such fractures has greatly diminished.Advertisement
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
In 1868 the International Bureau of Telegraphic Administrations was constituted at Berne, and a convention was formulated by which a central office was appointed to collect and publish information and generally to promote the interests of international telegraphy.
Here the main chain of the Alps (as marked by watershed) recedes so far to the north that it has never constituted the frontier.
Cisalpine Gaul, including the whole of northern Italy, still constituted a province, an appellation never applied to Italy itself.
Kant swept away, so far as his influence extended, such " dogmatic metaphysics " and the old-fashioned theism which it constituted or included; but Kant himself introduced, in his own more sceptical yet also more moral type of theistic doctrine, a new trichotomy - God, Freedom, Immortality, the three " postulates " of the practical reason."
The sub-epithelial layer thus primarily constituted may be recruited by immigration from without of other FIG.
Rhayader constituted one of the group of boroughs comprising the Radnor parliamentary district until the Redistribution Act of 1885.
And it is a plausible conjecture that the vegetation of the globe had already in its main features been constituted at this period much as it exists at the present moment.
Their distinctive and adaptive characteristics doubtless began to be established as soon as the phanerogamic flora was constituted.
As far as the Khabur Mesopotamia seems to have been a wellinhabited country from at least the 15th century B.C., when it constituted the Hittite kingdom of Mitanni, down to about the 12th century A.D., and the same is true of the country on the Syrian side of the Euphrates as far as the eastern limit of the Palmyrene.
The republic was formally constituted in 1830.
He deprived Taenberht, archbishop of Canterbury, of several of his suffragan sees, and assigned them to Lichfield, which, with the leave of the pope, he constituted as a separate archbishopric under Hygeberht.
The Bashkirs, Meshcheryaks and Teptyars rendered able service to the Russian government against the Khirgiz, and until 1863 they constituted a separate Cossack army.
What constituted in this primitive system of inheritance the strength of a claim was often not easily determined, and even when the legal question was clear enough the law was not always respected by the contending parties.
Those of them who lived on the outskirts of the pacified territory adopted a mode of life similar to that of their hereditary opponents, and constituted a peculiar class known as Cossacks, living more by flocks and The h e rds and by marauding expeditions than by a ri y g p ?'
He not only insisted that his daughter's religion should be duly respected, but he constituted himself the protector of the Orthodox population and this led to a new war in 1499, which went on till 1503, when it was concluded by the cession to Russia of Chernigov, Starodub and 17 other towns.
Under pressure from Treaty of England and France the Egyptians retreated and the Unklar- Russian forces were withdrawn, but the tsar had mean- Skelessl, while (July 8, 1833) concluded with the sultan the 1833' treaty of Unkiar-Skelessi, which constituted ostensibly a defensive and offensive alliance between the two Powers and established virtually a Russian protectorate over Turkey.
The American railways do not have to face this situation; but, after a long term of years, when they were allowed to do much as they pleased, they have now been brought sharply to book by almost every form of constituted authority to be found in the states, and they are suffering from increased taxation, from direct service requirements, and from a general tendency on the part of regulating authorities to reduce rates and to make it impossible to increase them.
Though a busy colliery may send off its product by the train-load to an important town, the wagons will usually be addressed to a number of different consignees at different depots in different parts of the town, and therefore the train will have to be broken up somewhere short of its destination and its trucks rearranged, together with those of other trains similarly constituted, into fresh trains for conveyance to the various depots.
A conference between the three powers was thereupon held at Berlin, and a treaty was executed by those powers and by Samoa, on the 14th of June 1889, by virtue of which the independence and autonomy of the islands were guaranteed, Malietoa was restored as king, and the three powers constituted themselves practically a protectorate over Samoa, and provided a chief justice and a president of the municipality of Apia, to be appointed by them, to aid in carrying out the provisions of the treaty.
The Deutero-Isaiah closes a great prophetic succession, which begins with Amos, continues in Isaiah in even greater splendour with the added elements of hope and Messianic expectation, and receives further accession in Jeremiah with his special teaching on inward spiritual and personal religion which constituted the new covenant of divine grace.
Ezekiel's system constituted an ecclesiastical in place of a political organization, a church-state in place of a nation.
The statement, however, remains virtually true, since Judaism is mainly constituted by the body of legal precepts called the Torah, and, moreover, by the postexilian Torah.
Circumcision and Sabbath, separation from marriage with a foreigner, which rendered a Jew unclean, as well as strict conformity to the precepts of the Torah, constituted henceforth an adamantine bond which was to preserve the Jewish communities from disintegration.
Manufactures based on the products of mines and quarries (chemicals, glass, clay, stone and metal works) constituted about one-fifth of the whole product.
That Diptera of the type of the common house-fly are often in large measure responsible for the spread of such diseases as cholera and enteric fever is undeniable, and as regards blood-sucking forms, in addition to those to which reference has already been made, it is sufficient to mention the vast army of pests constituted by the midges, sand-flies, horseflies, &c., from the attacks of which domestic animals suffer equally with man, in addition to being frequently infested with the larvae of the bot and warble flies (Gastrophilus, Oestrus and Hypoderma).
Archelaus temporized; the loyalty of the people no longer constituted a valid title to the throne; his succession must first be sanctioned by Augustus.
They constituted his real fighting force, and to their fanatical courage his victories were due.
Individuals are constituted not by the material element but by their independent existence, i.e.
Ecclesiastically the county constituted an irchdeaconry in the diocese of Lichfield, comprising the six deaneries of Derby, Ashbourne, High Peak, Castillar, Chesterfield and Repington.
In 1704 he lost his sight and was constituted a "veteran," a dignity which preserved to him the privileges, while it exempted him from the duties, of an academician.
In the absence of artificial grasses and roots, hay was very valuable; it constituted almost the only winter food for live stock, which were consequently in poor condition in spring.
A portion of the manor, generally about a third, constituted the lord's demesne, which, though sometimes separate, usually consisted of strips intermingled with those of his villeins.
In 1883 the veterinary department of the Privy Council - which had been constituted in 1865 when the country was ravaged by cattle plague - was abolished by order in council, and the " Agricultural Department " was substituted, but no alteration was effected in the work of the department, so far as it related to animals.
The essays on Bentham and Coleridge constituted the first manifesto of the new spirit which Mill sought to breathe into English Radicalism.
The lord of the manor with his officials and retainers, the peasantry bound to him by ties of personal dependence and mutual rights and obligations, constituted a little world, in which we can watch the play of motives and passions not so dissimilar as we are sometimes led to believe from those of the great modern world.
The rest of the Venetian mainland (the districts between the rivers Adige and Ticino) went to the newly constituted Cisalpine republic, France gaining the Ionian Isles and the Venetian fleet.
On the 21st of April 1801 he issued a decree which constituted Piedmont as a military district dependent on France; for various reasons he postponed the final act of incorporation to the 21st of September 1802.
The "freedom of man" is constituted, not by a supposed ability to do anything he may choose, but in the power to identify himself with that true good which reason reveals to him as his true good.
Moral goodness cannot be limited to, still less constituted by, the cultivation of self-regarding virtues, but consists in the attempt to realize in practice that moral ideal which self-analysis has revealed to us as our ideal.
In 1679, however, New Hampshire was constituted a separate province, and Portsmouth was the capital until 1775.
In 1900 the acreage of cereals constituted 68.4% of the acreage of all crops, and the acreage of Indian corn, wheat and oats constituted 99.3% of the total acreage of cereals.
Under Charlemagne it constituted a margravate, which in 843 passed into the hands of Louis the German, whose grandson Arnulf was the first to bear the title of duke of Carinthia.
Benjamin Franklin, who was born and spent his boyhood in Boston, left boo() to the city in his will; it amounted in 1905 to $403,000, and constituted a fund to be used for the good of the labouring class of the city.
Of the foreign-born population these elements constituted respectively 35.6, 24 o, 7.6, 7 o, 6.7 and 5.3%.
The legal relationship of landlord and tenant is constituted by a lease, or an agreement for a lease, by assignment, by attornment and by estoppel.
A Crofters' Commission constituted under the acts has power to fix fair rents, and the crofter on renunciation of his tenancy or removal from his holding is entitled to compensation for permanent improvements.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
Hence at first, in 1882, they were used only by a section of the market constituted of members who had voluntarily agreed to do business with one another upon these terms alone.
In other words, the Druids constituted the learned and the priestly class, and they were in addition the chief expounders and guardians of the law.
Each town with its surrounding district seems to have constituted a small separate state; the conduct of affairs naturally devolved upon the noble families.
Fourteen months later (February 1854) Great Britain renounced sovereignty over the farmers settled beyond the Orange, and Moshesh found himself face to face with the newly constituted Free State.
The muscular layers by which the body-wall is constituted have been very differently and to some extent confusingly described by the successive authors on Nemertean anatomy.
These posterior brain-lobes, which in all Heteronemertines are in direct continuity of tissue with the upper pair of principal lobes, cease to have this intimate connexion in the Metanemertini; and, although still constituted of (I) a ciliated duct, opening out externally, (2) nervous tissue surrounding it, and (3) histological elements distinctly different from the nervous, and most probably directly derived from the oesophageal outgrowths, they are nevertheless here no longer constantly situated behind the upper brain-lobes and directly connected with them, but are found sometimes behind, sometimes beside and sometimes before the brain-lobes.
In 1663 Ienzance was constituted a coinage town for tin.
In Berthelot's opinion, the Syriac portions represent a compilation of receipts and processes undertaken in the Syrian school of medicine at Bagdad under the Abbasids in the 9th or 10th century, and to a large extent constituted by the earlier translations made by Sergius of Resaena in the 6th century.
This sulphur again was not ordinary sulphur, but some principle derived from it, which constituted the philosopher's stone or elixir - white for silver and yellow or 1 " Some traditionary knowledge might be secreted in the temples and monasteries of Egypt; much useful experience might have been acquired in the practice of arts and manufactures, but the science of chemistry owes its origin and improvement to the industry of the Saracens.
The aristocratic council of the Areopagus constituted the chief criminal court, and nominated the magistrates, among whom the chief archon passed judgment in family suits, controlled admission to the genos or clan, and consequently the acquisition of the franchise.
On the 29th of January 1850 Henry Clay presented the famous resolution which constituted the basis of the ultimate compromise.
The court was surrounded with arcades, all of which constituted the prayer chamber, so that its plan is necessarily different to the normal type; the existing buildings date only from the first half of the 17th century, as the whole mosque was destroyed by a torrent in 1626.
The few laboratories existing in the opening decades were ill-fitted, and the exorbitant fees constituted a serious bar to general instruction, for these institutions received little government support.
King John (1201) constituted Helleston a free borough, established a gild merchant, and granted the burgesses freedom from toll and other similar dues throughout the realm, and the cognizance of all pleas within the borough except crown pleas.
Of these 1,000 constituted the royal corps (TO ecynpa TO f3ao-tXtK6V).
The trial of Babeuf and his accomplices was fixed to take place before the newly constituted high court of justice at Vendome.
Charles the Bold maintained the traditions of his house as a patron of literature, and showed special favour to Chastellain, who, after being constituted indiciaire or chronicler of the order of the Golden Fleece, was himself made a knight of the order on the 2nd of May 1473.
Dublin Yearly Meeting, constituted in 1670, is independent of London Yearly Meeting (see below).
Holdings of more than 32 acres constituted only 7% of the total.
Foreigners constituted 25.6% of the population in the city of Havana; only 7% in Pinar del Rio province.
In consequence of the piling up of the exterior public debt as described above, it amounted after the issue of " general debt " in 1875 to £T1 9 o,750,000, and swallowed up annually upwards of Tio,000,000, or nearly half the revenue of the empire as it was then constituted.
It was granted a separate court of quarter sessions in 1890, it was constituted a county borough in 1888, and, by letters patent dated the 28th of October 1905, it was created a city and the dignity of lord mayor conferred on its chief magistrate.
The second of these brings the act of benediction into contact with the principle of consecration; for by the formal blessing by the duly constituted authority persons, places and things are consecrated, i.e.
Its principal courts are constituted of an equal number of ministers and laymen.
Lands and lordships thus bestowed constituted the appanages, which interfered so greatly with the formation of ancient France.
The sable, however, which formerly constituted the wealth of Siberia, is now exceedingly scarce.
Here they constituted themselves a free confederacy of many distinct tribal groups, each preserving the traditional customs, religious rites and even the very names of their original villages.
The metals used in different combinations included tin, aluminium, arsenic, antimony, bismuth and boron; each of these, when united in certain proportions with manganese, together with a larger quantity of copper (which appears to serve merely as a menstruum), constituted a magnetizable alloy.
An electrically neutral atom is believed to be constituted in part, or perhaps entirely, of a definite number of electrons in rapid motion within a " sphere of uniform positive electrification " not yet explained.
Formerly Brazil constituted an ecclesiastical province under the metropolitan jurisdiction of an archbishop residing at Bahia, with 11 suffragan bishops, 12 vicars-general and about 2000 curates.
The Jesuits from the first moment of their landing in Brazil had constituted themselves the protectors of the natives, and though strenuously opposed by the colonists and ordinary clergy, had gathered the Indians together in many aldeas, over which officials of their order exercised spiritual and temporal authority.
The second difficulty was the war waged by religious fanatics under the leadership of Antonio Maciel, known as " Conselheiro," against the constituted authorities of Brazil.
Chase and Judge John C. Underwood constituted the United States circuit court sitting for Virginia before which the case was brought in December 1868; the court was divided, the chief justice voting to sustain the motion and Underwood to overrule it.
In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the crown.
Nominalism was at first met by the opposition of the church and the constituted authorities.
Each group of principalities constituted a separate aimak, and each principality a separate hoshun.
In November the same year he was elected and crowned by a properly constituted diet at Szekesfehervar (Stuhlweissenburg).
Moreover, a neo-acquisita commissio was constituted to inquire into the title-deeds of the Magyar landowners in the old Turkish provinces, and hundreds of estates were transferred, on the flimsiest of pretexts, to naturalized foreigners.
After much negotiation a new cabinet was finally constituted on the 17th of January 1910.
Of a more general character, and combining the merits of the above schools, are the works of the authors who constituted the socalled "Debreczen Class," which boasts the names of the naturalist and philologist John Foldi, compiler of a considerable part of the Debreczeni magyar grammatica; Michael Fazekas, author of Ludas Matyi (Vienna, 1817), an epic poem, in 4 cantos; and Joseph Kovacs.
The discordance of their results incited Laplace to a searching examination of the whole subject of planetary perturbations, and his maiden effort was rewarded with a discovery which constituted, when developed and completely demonstrated by his own further labours and those of his illustrious rival Lagrange, the most important advance made in physical astronomy since the time of Newton.
Meanwhile the newly constituted " Party of Right," resting upon a narrow Catholic clerical basis, aimed at the reunion of Dalmatia with CroatiaSlavonia in the so-called Triune Kingdom, within whose bounds it affected to deny the very existence of Serbs.
During 1919 internal politics centred in a struggle between the Radicals, who still possessed the best party machine and stood for a narrowly Serbian as opposed to a Yugoslav programme, and the newly constituted Democratic party, which absorbed most of the Serbian Opposition parties, the old Serbo-Croat coalition of Zagreb, and the Slovene Liberals.
In many respects Wotton was simply an exponent of Aristotle, whose teaching, with various fanciful additions, constituted the real basis of zoological knowledge throughout the middle ages.
The most instructive classification of the " variations " exhibited by fully formed organisms consists in the separation in the first place of those which arise from antecedent congenital, innate, constitutional or germinal variations from those which arise merely from the operation of variation of the environment or the food-supply upon normally constituted individuals.
The stage upon which we will fix our attention is that where the one procession bisects the intervals between the other, so that a new simple procession is constituted, containing the same number of members as before the insertion of the plate, but now spaced at intervals only half as great.
Other reserves have been constituted in the north of the province.
The paper notes already issued had been constituted by law legal tender for all debts, but in 1868 their power of actual purchase was only 30% compared with that of gold, and by 1870 it had fallen as low as 25%.
Of the 554 men who constituted the British force on Majuba, 92 were killed and 134 wounded, Sir George Colley himself being amongst those who were slain.
In January 1899 Mr Chamberlain pointed out in a despatch to President Kruger that the dynamite monopoly constituted a breach of the London Convention.
The same thing is seen from the fact that the heresy of the Marcionites was already showing itself in this district, for (in Tixeront's words) " heresies, in the first centuries at feast, only spread in already constituted Christian communities."
Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.
It was formerly in the ancient parish of Eglwysilan, but from that and Bedwas (Mon.) an ecclesiastical parish was formed in 1850, while the whole of the parishes of Eglwysilan and Llanfabon, with a total acreage of 14,426, were in 1893 constituted into an urban district; its population in 1901 was 15,385, of which 4343 were in the "town" ward.
The Anglo-Saxon Leechdoms 1 of the 11th century, published in the Rolls series of medieval chronicles and memorials, admirably illustrate the mixture of magic and superstition with the relics of ancient science which constituted monastic medicine.
A chapter was constituted, the bishop being dean; amongst its members was a canon missioner (the first to be appointed in England), and the Scholae Cancellarii were founded after the Lincoln pattern.
The chapel was used as the parish church of St Mary-le-Strand (1564-1717) and constituted a Chapel Royal in 1773; but there are no remains of the rest of the foundation.
As regards administration,Lord Llandaff's Commission recommended the creation Metro- of a Water Trust, and in 1902 the Metropolis Water Act constituted the Metropolitan Water Board to purchase politan and carry on the undertakings of the eight companies, Water and of certain local authorities.
Dulwich College originated in the foundation of the College of God's Gift by Edward Alleyn in 1626, and is now constituted as one of the principal English public schools.
The Port of London Authority, as constituted by the act of 1908, is a body corporate consisting of a chairman, vice-chairman, 17 members elected by payers of dues, wharfingers and owners of river craft, I member elected by wharfingers exclusively, and To members appointed by the following existing bodies - Admiralty (one); Board of Trade (two); London County Council (two from among its own members and two others); City Corporation (one from among its own members and one other); Trinity House (one).
The vestries so elected for the twenty-two larger parishes were constituted the local authorities.
The act of 1899 swept away all these distinctions, and constituted the new borough councils in every case the overseers for every parish within their respective boroughs, except that the town clerk of each borough performs the duties of overseers with respect to the registration of electors.'
He ruled from the Pongolo river on the north to the Umkomanzi river on the south, and inland his power extended to the foot of the Drakensberg; thus his territory coincided almost exactly with the limits of Zululand and Natal as constituted in 1903.
Colenso (a daughter of Bishop Colenso) constituted herself his champion in the press of Natal and Great Britain.
The third natural division of Burma is the old province of Tenasserim, which, constituted in 1826 with Moulmein as its capital, formed the nucleus from which the British supremacy throughout Burma has grown.
At the principal towns benches of honorary magistrates, exercising powers of various degrees, have been constituted.
Each of the seven arti maggiori or greater gilds was organized like a small state with its councils, statutes, assemblies, magistrates, &c., and in times of trouble constituted a citizen militia.
In April 1480 a balia was formed, and its most important act was the creation at Lorenzo's instance of the Council of Seventy; it was constituted for five years, but it became permanent, and all its members were Lorenzo's friends.
It is thus not only a general word for a prince or sovereign, but also the common word for a feudal superior, and particularly of a feudal tenant holding directly of the king, a baron (q.v.), hence a peer of the realm, a member of the House of Lords, constituted of the lords temporal and the lords spiritual; this is the chief modern usage.
In 1871 he became president of the newly constituted Reichskanzleramt.
The chronology of this expansion is entirely unknown, nor can we recover with certainty the names of the cities which constituted the two leagues of twelve founded in the conquered districts on the analogy of the original league in Etruria proper (below).
The faithful performance of all the duties he had assumed in homage constituted the vassal's right and title to his fief.
This is true; but we may easily exaggerate it into a falsehood by saying that a piece of experience is entirely constituted by its relation to other experiences.
The Guelph and popular element which constituted the force and prosperity of Florence was hostile to Pisa, and led to its downfall.
Under the guidance of General Caceres a junta was then formed to carry on the government until an election for the presidency should be held and the senate and cham- Ch o eres in ber of deputies constituted.
By the provisions of this act an electoral committee was constituted, composed of nine members, two of these nominated by the senate, two by the chamber of deputies, four by the supreme court, and one by the president with the consent of his ministers.
In consequence of dissensions amongst the members of the election committee constituted by the act of 1896, the president ordered the suppression of this body.
From 1780 to 1785 he was a member of the governor's council of Connecticut, which, with the lower house before 1784 and alone from 1784 to 1807, constituted a supreme court of errors; and from 1785 to 1789 he was a judge of the state superior court.
When counties were first organized in New York, in 1683, Nantucket and the neighbouring islands were erected into Dukes county, but in 1695, after annexation to Massachusetts, Nantucket Island, having been set apart from Dukes county, constituted Nantucket county, and in 1713 Tuckernuck Island was annexed to it.
In 1867 Trieste and the adjoining territory was constituted into a separate crown land.
It was constituted a free borough under the title of the mayor, aldermen and burgesses of Hadleigh.
Ctenostomata the colony is similarly constituted, a branched stolon giving off the zooids, which are not connected with one another.
The hosiery and knit goods constituted 3.9% of the total value of that product of the entire country.
Thus, too, each science rests on the truths of the sciences that precede it, while it adds to them the truths by which it is itself constituted.
During practically the entire period before the Civil War their note issues constituted a smaller proportion of the capital stock than those of any other state.
From about 1845 to 1880 most of the immigrants were Irish, but since 1880 the French-Canadians have constituted the chief element.
Others maintain that only the seaboard was included in the province, the inland cities being constituted self-governing, "protected" communities.
He stood equally remote from the old Voluntary principle, that " the State had nothing to do with religion," and from the sacerdotal position that the clergy stood in an apostolic succession, and either constituted the Church or were the persons into whose hands its guidance had been committed.
In the days of the great dilettante Yoshimasa (1449-1490), lacquer experts devised a new style, laka-makie, or decoration in relief, which immensely augmented the beauty of the ware, and constituted a feature altogether special to Japan.
For when the state constituted itself virtually the sole owner of railways, it necessarily assumed responsibility for extending them so that they should suffice to meet the wants of a nation numbering some 50 millions.
In the and century, with the inland districts, it constituted a subdivision of the province of Syria, having Emesa (Homs)for its capital.
The events of 1860 led to the formation of the privileged Lebanon province, finally constituted in 1864.
The Lebanon has now been constituted a sanjak or mutessariflik, dependent directly on the Porte, which acts in this case in consultation with the six great powers.
Since 1887 the management of the town had been entrusted to a nominated sanitary board, under the chairmanship of the mining commissioner appointed by the South African Republic. In 1890 elected members had been admitted to this board, but at the end of 1897 an elective stadsraad (town council) was constituted, though its functions were strictly limited.
The town was constituted a suffragan see by Henry II.
The foreign whites alone constituted 10.4% of the total number of persons engaged in agricultural pursuits; 11.4% of those in professional services; 2 5.7% in domestic and personal services; 19.2% in trade and transportation; and 30.6% of those engaged in manufacturing and mechanical industries.
In addition to these, the native whites of foreign parentage constituted, in agriculture, &c., Io 6%; in professional service, 20.6%; in domestic and personal service, 16.4%; in trade and transportation, 25.7% in manufacturing and mechanical, 25.4% of all those engaged in those occupations.
The work upholds the doctrine of resistance, but affirms that resistance must come from properly constituted authorities and objects to anything which savours of anabaptism or other extreme views.
A council of government, of which the members were nominated, was constituted by letters patent in 1835, but this measure only increased the agitation for a representative legislature.
Her dramatic genius gave a new reading to the parts, and during these years the admirers of the two leading actresses of Europe practically constituted two rival schools of appreciation.
No one was able to guess, even in the vaguest way, the exact interpretation of these odd characters; but, on the other hand, no one could doubt that they constituted a system of writing, and that the piles of inscribed tablets were veritable books.
The ditch was choked, the gates were unprotected; the tumbled mass of irregular mud buildings which constituted the city clung tightly to the walls; there were no gun emplacements.
The English, who constituted the centre and rear, stood out on the starboard tack.
The District of Almora was constituted in 1891, together with Naini Tal, by a redistribution of the two former districts of Kumaon and the Tarai.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
On his return he was contemplating emigration to New England, when in June 1773 Lord North, on the recommendation of Lord Barrington, appointed him a member of the newly constituted supreme council of Bengal at a salary of io,000 per annum.
District councils are constituted, on which the European merchants and planters are represented.
Wissmann remained in the country until 1891 as commissioner, and later (1895-1896) was for eighteen months governor of the colony - as the German sphere had been constituted by proclamation (1st of January 1897).
When the Constituent Assembly, on the 26th of February 1790, decreed the division of France into departments, Anjou and the Saumurois,with the exception of certain territories, formed the department of Maine-et-Loire, as at present constituted.
The conflict of idealism with these two lines of criticism - the accusation of subjectivism on the one side of intellectualism and rigid objectivism on the other - may be said to have constituted the history of Anglo-Saxon philosophy during the first decade of the 20th century.
There are several hundred private schools, whose pupils constituted in1905-190615.7% of the total school-enrolment of the state.
In Utrecht, however, power was henceforth concentrated in the gilds, which became not only trade but political associations, which together constituted the sovereign community.
By this act the old English Benedictine line was perpetuated; and in 1619 a number of English monks professed in Spain were aggregated by pontifical act to these representatives of the old English Benedictines, and thus was constituted the present English Benedictine congregation.
A group of abodes, however joined together, constituted the village or home of the tribe, and there was added to these a town hall or large assembly structure where men gathered and gossiped, and where all dramatic and religious ceremonies were held.
Poor dugouts and rafts, made by tying reeds together, constituted the water-craft of California and Mexico until Central America is reached.
The headship of the clan was sometimes hereditary, sometimes elective, but each clan had a totemic name, and the clans together constituted the tribe, the bond being not land, but blood.
On the establishment of the Bahmani dynasty in the Deccan (1348) Berar was constituted one of the four provinces into which their kingdom was divided, being governed by great nobles, with a separate army.
This treaty, which constituted the kingdom of Westphalia and the duchy of Warsaw, registers the nadir of Prussia's humiliation under Napoleon.
The first synchronous census of the colony, as it was then constituted, took place in 1865, on a fairly comprehensive schedule.
Some further alterations in the constitution affecting the courts were made in 1869, 1879, 1888, 1894, 1899 and 1909, and the system as at present constituted comprises a supreme court of ninetyseven justices, an appellate division of the same, a court of appeals, a court of claims and local courts.
Formerly Kerbela was a self-governing hierarchy and constituted an inviolable sanctuary for criminals; but in 1843 the Turkish government undertook to deprive the city of some of these liberties and to enforce conscription.
A still simpler form of siren may be constituted with a good spinning-top, a perforated card disk, and a tube for blowing with.
By the Sand River Convention, independence had been granted to the Boers living " north of the Vaal," and the dispute turned on the question as to what stream constituted the true upper course of that river.
This organization, known as the Oranjie Unie, was formally constituted in May 1906, but had been in existence for some months previously.
It contains the largest copper producing district in the world, and in 1907 mined more copper than any other state or territory except Arizona; this metal constituted nearly three-fourths in value of the state's mining products in 1907, the total value being $60,663,511 and that of copper $44, 8 5 2, 75 8.
The latter, indeed, was more than a friend, he was a disciple; and Montaigne, just as he had constituted Mlle de Gournay his "fille d'alliance," bestowed on Charron the rather curious compliment of desiring that he should take the arms of the family of Montaigne.
The Railway Department was originally constituted in 1840, and performs multifarious duties under various railway acts, including the inspection of railways before they are open, inquiries into accidents, reports on proposed railways, approval of by-laws, appointment of arbitrators in disputes, as well as many duties under private railway.
Wheat constituted 60.7% of the total for all cereals, Indian corn 21.1%, oats 11.9% and barley 5.8%.
She went even further than this attempt to conciliate Irish feeling, and to show her recognition of the gallantry of the Irish soldiers she issued an order for them to wear the shamrock on St Patrick's Day, and for a new regiment of Irish Guards to be constituted.
By the operation of the Judicature Act one supreme court with several divisions was constituted; each division could administer the whole law; the conflict of divergent systems of law was largely overcome by declaring that when they were at variance, the principles of equity should prevail over the doctrines of the common law.
The growing season is too short for maize or Indian corn, which constituted only I.
The products of the flour and grist mills increased in value from $4,134,023 in 1900 to $6,463,228 in 1905, and in this last year constituted in value 63.3% of the total factory products of the state.
This latter was the continuation through southern Siam of the line already constructed from Bangkok south-west to Petchaburi (110 m.), with funds borrowed, under a recent agreement, from the Federated (British) Malay States government, which work, following upon surveys made in 1907, was begun in 1909 under the direction of a newly constituted southern branch of the Royal Railways department.
These three deeds or enactments constituted the early constitution of the South Netherlands, which, with one important modification in the time of Charles V., remained intact till the Brabant revolution in the reign of Joseph II.
Constituted a duchy in 1452 in favour of Borso d'Este, and enlarged and strengthened by Hercules II., it became the ducal residence on the incorporation of Ferrara with the States of the Church (1598).
If the aether were itself constituted of discrete molecules, on the model of material bodies, such transparency would not be conceivable.
It has been maintained since the times of the early Greek philosophers, and possibly even more remote ages, that matter is constituted of independent indestructible units, which cannot ever become divided by means of any mutual actions they can exert.
Rankine, was therefore much vivified by Lord Kelvin's specification (Comptes Rendus, 1889) of a material gyrostatically constituted medium which would possess this character.
The work was known as the Historia Ecclesiastica Tripartita, and constituted during the middle ages the principal text-book of church history in the West.
The union between Church and State thus constituted continued unbroken in the East throughout the middle ages.
The assertion of the deity of the Son incarnate in Christ raised another problem which constituted the subject of dispute in the Christological controversies of the 4th and following centuries.
Where there were one bishop and a number of presbyters and deacons in a church, the presbyters constituted the bishop's council, and the deacons his assistants in the management of the finances and charities and in the conduct of the services.
So long as each church had its own bishop the presbyters constituted simply his council, but with the growth of diocesan episcopacy it became the custom to put each congregation under the care of a particular presbyter, who performed within it most of the pastoral duties formerly discharged by the bishop himself.
That at least the greater offices were hereditary - as in the case of the sons of Zadok, who succeeded to the royal priesthood in Jerusalem after the fall of Abiathar - was almost a matter of course as society was then constituted, but there is not the slightest trace of an hereditary hierarchy officiating by divine right, such as existed after the exile.
The Czechoslovaks have constituted a considerable army, fighting on three different battle-fields and attempting, in Russia and Siberia, to arrest the Germanic invasion.
It was constituted in 1918 by the fusion of two existing Protestant bodies, the Reformed (Calvinist) Church and the Evangelical (Lutheran) Church.
The remnant was constituted as the so-called Congress Kingdom under the emperor of Russia as king (tsar) of Poland.
Before the rebellion Yun-nan Fu had a prosperous aspect; the shops were large and well supplied with native silken goods, saddlery, &c., while English cotton, Russian cloths and raw cotton from Burma constituted the main foreign merchandise.
The Old Catholic Communion, however, was formally constituted, with Reinkens at its head as bishop, and it still continues to exist (see OLD Catholics).
In the same year it was made the countyseat of the newly constituted county of Dauphin, and its name was changed to Louisburg; but when, in 1791, it was incorporated as a borough, the present name was again adopted.
By a law of the 19th of December 1900, Algeria was constituted a legal personality, with power to own goods, contract loans, &c., and a decree of 1901 placed the customs department, until then directed from Paris, under the control of the governor-general, whose hands were also strengthened in various minor matters.
Muller divides the tribe into three families, Cypridinidae, Halocypridae, and the heartless Polycopidae, which constituted the tribe Cladocopa of Sars.
It constituted itself the accredited organ of moderate Whig public opinion.
No battles were fought in Kentucky during the War of 1812, but her troops constituted the greater part of the forces under General William Henry Harrison.
The district of Ballia, constituted in 1879, occupies an angle at the junction of the Gogra with the Ganges, being bordered by two districts of Behar.
On the 18th of May 18 43 470 clergymen withdrew from the general assembly and constituted themselves the Free Church of Scotland, with Dr Chalmers as moderator.
His refusal of this post was overruled, so he entered on his office on the 13th of April; and two days after, the newly constituted Society took its formal corporate vows in the basilica of San Paolo fuori le mura.
Of the total population in 1890 the rural constituted 6 7.4% and the urban 37.6%, but in 1900 the rural constituted only 53.3% of the total and the urban 46.7%.
Each town is constituted a school district, and some special districts are organized under special acts of the legislature.
Thereupon Mason, in January 1679, petitioned the king to appoint a governor who should have jurisdiction over all the lands which he claimed, and on the 18th of September of this year New Hampshire was constituted a separate province with a government vested in a president and council appointed by the king and an assembly chosen by the people.
That portion lying to the south of the Molopo river was described as British Bechuanaland, and was constituted a crown colony.
This always begins at the place where the attached flagellum emerges from the body; and its free edge is really constituted by the latter, which forms a flageIlar border.
He subsequently founded, near the castle, the Benedictine priory of St John, which he endowed and constituted a cell of Battle Abbey.
Du Bellay maintained that the French language as it was then constituted was too poor to serve as a medium for the higher forms of poetry, but he contended that by proper cultivation it might be brought on a level with the classical tongues.
This native population remained, and constituted the majority of the inhabitants of the rural parts and almost the sole inhabitants of the towns.
The Roman province of Galatia, constituted 25 B.C., included the greater part of the country ruled by Amyntas, viz.
By monarchians of the former class Christ was held to be a mere man, miraculously conceived indeed, but constituted the Son of God simply by the infinitely high degree in which he had been filled with Divine wisdom and power.
It was therefore not the quantity or quality of the food eaten that constituted the meal a Lord's Supper; nor even the circumstances that they ate it " in church," as was assumed by those guilty of the practices here condemned; but only the pervading sense of brotherhood and love.
The old " three-decker forts, five in number, which formerly constituted the principal defences of the place, and defied the Anglo-French fleets during the Crimean War, are now of secondary importance.
The great river thus constituted drains an area of about 1,250,000 sq.
In 1900 the two foreign elements constituted one-third of the total population.
The same sex constituted only 37-5% (34.6 0/c, in 1880) of the wage-earners of the third group; the South also showing here, as is natural in view of its colored class, much the highest and the Wescern division of states much the lowest percentage.
The two together constituted the third region of Augustus.
In 1898, owing to the influx of miners, the Yukon territory was constituted and granted a limited measure of self-government.
The right of having separate schools has been extended to the newly constituted provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan.
The right of appeal from the supreme court, thus constituted, to the judicial committee of the privy council marks, in questions judicial, Canada's place as a part of the British empire.
At the conclusion of the Greek War of Independence, in 1830, the island was delivered from the Turkish sway, and constituted a part of the newly established Greek state.
In 1899 it was constituted a separate nome (pop. 1907, 116,903).
The Pseudolamellibranchia included the oyster, scallop and their allies which formerly constituted the order Monomyaria, having only a single large adductor muscle or in addition a very small anterior adductor.
It was constituted in 1875 out of the unwieldy district of Tirhoot.
It is their merit from a Mahommedan point of view to have re-established the power of orthodox Islam and delivered the Moslem world from the subversive influence of the ultra-Shiite tenets, which constituted a serious danger to the duration of Islam itself.
Dixmude constituted in effect one of the principal points of passage of the Yser and, at the end of Oct.
The metaphysical or ontological part of psychology is in Wundt's view the actual part, and with this the science of nature and the science of mind are to be brought into relation, and thus constituted as far as possible philosophical sciences.
In 1060 the community was withdrawn from the authority of the patriarch of Constantinople, and a monastic republic was practically constituted.
A loss of £120,000,000 sterling within 13 years, falling on a limited area, and on one class within these two countries, constituted indeed a calamity on a national scale, calling for national effort to contend with its devastating action.
The object of this proposal was to give effect to the idea that the existing " permanent " court lacked the essential characteristics of national courts of justice in not being ready at all times to hear cases, and in needing to be specially constituted for every case submitted to it.
The North-West Frontier Province as now constituted may be described as the country of the Pathans (q.v.).
The conclusion which was originally drawn from this fact that helium is a mixture of two gases has not been confirmed, as one of the spectra of oxygen is similarly constituted.
The subject-matter of his orations, and his peculiar treatment of his themes, no doubt also, at least at first, constituted a considerable part of his attractive influence.
He now constituted himself the literary apologist of the Elizabethan settlement.
Renouvier (q.v.)has worked out an idealism which he calls "Neo-criticisme," rejecting the thing-in-itself, while limiting knowledge to phenomena constituted by a priori categories.
Victims of the communal claims at Rome, they constituted themselves the champions of similar claims in northern Italy, and their alliance with the Lombard communes ultimately led to success.
Here, even after 1831 the Roman Catholics constituted three-eighths of the population.
The note of the pope to Rampolla of the 8th of October 1895, in consequence of the celebrations on the 10th of September, declared, in terms more decided than any that had until then been uttered, that the papacy required a territorial sovereignty in order to ensure its full independence, and that its interests were therefore incompatible with the existence of the kingdom of Italy as then constituted.
Lucian's Christ, then, was not " perfect man," for that which constituted in him the personal element was a divine essence; nor was he " perfect God," for the divine essence having become a person was other than the One God, and of a nature foreign to him.
Silesia was henceforth constituted as a separate principality, and in 1201 its political severance from Poland became complete.
The first church in New Jersey, at Bergen, in 1661, was quickly followed by others at Hackensack and Passaic. After English rule in 1664 displaced Dutch in New York, the relations of the Dutch churches there were much less close with the state Church of Holland; and in 1679 (on the request of the English governor of New York, to whom the people of New Castle appealed) a classis was constituted for the ordination of a pastor for the church in New Castle, Delaware.
Of the existence of any regularly constituted companionships of the first kind there is no trustworthy evidence until between two and three centuries after fraternities of the second kind had been organized.
It also was secularized in 1789, and in 1862 was constituted an order of merit for science, literature and art, in five classes.
Furs have constituted the price of redemption for royal captives, the gifts of emperors and kings, and the peculiar badge of state functionaries.
What, for a conscious experience so constituted as Hume will admit, is the precise significance of such belief in real existence ?
It constituted a little city within the city, with separate houses, and usually a church, hospital and guest-house, the whole being under the government of a mistress (magistra).
The early history of the thesmothetae is not clear, but this much is certain that there is no adequate reason for supposing, as many historians do, that in early times, they, with the three chief archons, constituted a collective or collegiate magistracy.
They constituted "the council of the bishop."
In lieu of calling the different subsidiary associations by the ordinary term " Lodges," the name was given of " Habitations," which could be constituted with thirteen members.
Republican and Socialist agitation, culminating in a series of dangerous risings, strengthened the position of the king as defender of middle-class interest; and since the middle classes constituted the pays legal which alone was represented in Parliament, he came to regard his position as unassailable, especially after the suppression of the risings under Blanqui and Barbes in 1839.
A w-suit awarded the property to the branch making its headsarters at Indianapolis, whereon the other party, numbering, ooo, that met at Philadelphia, constituted themselves the nited Evangelical Church.
In this respect the diet fairly reflected the place of Germany in Europe- The constitution was the work of the powers, The which in all matters arising out of it constituted the question final court of appeal.
They constituted themselves a preliminary parliament (Vorparlament), and at once began to provide for the election of a national assembly.
About the time that the Prussian parliament was thus created, and that the emperor Ferdinand resigned, the Frankfori parliament succeeded in formulating the fundamental me queslaws, which were duly proclaimed to be those of Ger- tion of tin many as it was now to be constituted.
The representatives of the states favorable to this proposal, ic, Austria, Luxemburg, Denmark and the four kingdoms, came together in Frankfort on the 4th of September 1850, constituted themselves a Plenum of the old diet and refused to admit the other states except under the terms of the act of 1815.
On the 26th of February 1908 the discussion on this bill was continued, Count Arnim defending it on the ground that conciliation had failed and other measures must now be triedl The Poles were aiming at raising their standard of civilization and learning and thus gradually expelling the Germans, and this, together with the rapid growth of the Polish population, constituted a grave danger.
As early as 1797 500,000 acres of crown lands were set apart for educational purposes, and a well-organized system of education now exists, which, since 1876, has constituted a department of the provincial government.
An undated charter from Hamo de Massey, lord of the barony, in the reign of Edward I., constituted Altrincham a free borough, with a gild merchant, the customs of Macclesfield, the right to elect reeves and bailiffs for the common council and other privileges.
When the Royal Society of Canada was constituted he was the first to occupy the presidential chair, and he also acted as president of the British Association at its meeting at Birmingham in 1886, and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.
Bodies were established for executive, financial and judicial purposes, the Austrian lands constituted one of the imperial circles which were established in 1512, and in 1518 representatives of the various diets (Landtage) met at Innsbruck, a proceeding which marks the beginning of an organic unity in the Austrian lands.
The Holy Empire, in spite of the protests of the Holy See, was not restored, Austria preferring the loose confederation of sovereign states (Staatenbund) actually constituted under her presidency.
Once more the ministry conceded all the demands of the insurgents, and even went so far as to hand over the public treasury and the responsibility of keeping order to a newly constituted Committee of Public Safety.
The result of the elections of 1897 was the return of a House so constituted as to make any strong government impossible.
The "philosophic" declamations perhaps constituted its chief interest for the general public, and its significance as a contribution to democratic propaganda.
In Northern Nigeria up to the moment of the British occupation the foreign trade was chiefly in the hands of Tripoli Arabs whose caravans crossed the desert at great risk and expense, and carried to the markets of Kuka and Kano tea, sugar and other European goods, taking away the skins and feathers which constituted the principal articles of export to the Mediterranean coast.
As in India, the village with its lands and cultivation was constituted the unit of assessment, and the provinces were divided into districts under native headmen responsible for the collection of the tax, and its payment to the paramount chief, who in turn rendered the assigned share to district and village chiefs, to the officers of state recognized by government and to the government itself.
The defensive force - the Northern Nigeria Regiment of the West African Frontier Force - is constituted by law, and the proclamation contains a military code based on the Army Act with modifications necessary in local circumstances.
As first constituted it consisted of a French, an Austrian, and an Italian member; a British member was added in 1877 and a German and a Russian member in 1885.
This was constituted in 1886 and was chiefly made up of the net savings of the Egyptian government on its share of the annual surpluses from revenue.
The Conversion Economies Fund was also placed at the free disposal of the Egyptian government- The General Reserve Fund ceased to exist, but for the better security of the bondholders a reserve fund of Li,8oo,ooo was constituted and left in the hands of the Caisse to be used in the highly improbable event of the land tax being insufficient to meet the debt charges.
Such an incident, which might have constituted a precedent for more important acts of a similar kind, could hardly be overlooked by the British representative.
In the country, Land Commissions similarly constituted deal with many questions affecting agricultural holdings.
The monarchy, now dominant, and far wealthier than before, rested upon the support of the great nobles, many of whom held their lands by feudal tenure, and constituted the royal Raad, or council.
In 1901 the population was 630, 245, showing a decrease of 4% in the decade; on the area as now constituted it was 80 9,499.
Again, as is well known, many species of marine algae growing in the region between the limits of high and low water are so constituted that they are exposed to the air twice a day without injury.
Other instances of the isomorphism of thallous with potassium salts are the nitrates, phosphates, hydrazoates, sulphates, chromates, selenates, and the analogously constituted double salts, and also the oxalates, racemates and picrates.
Towards the close of the reign of Claudius, Gallio was proconsul of the newly constituted senatorial province of Achaea, but seems to have been compelled by ill-health to resign the post within a few years.
The figures show that the holdings under 50 acres constituted fully two-thirds of the total holdings and that, though no very decided alteration in the size of farms was in progress, the larger portion of the cultivated land was held in farms of between 50 and 300 acres.
Traquhair, as royal commissioner, prorogued parliament; negotiations with the king in London had no result; and in 1640 the prorogation was contemned, and though opposed by Montrose, the parliament constituted itself, with no royal warrant.
They constituted themselves a presbytery, and maintained that the covenants were perpetually binding.
In its origin a revolt against feudal oppression, it became, under the leadership of Munzer, a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force his ideal Christian commonwealth, with absolute equality and the community of goods.
With regard to the ancient Egyptians, however, we learn that the huntsmen Historic constituted an entire sub-division of the great second Field dresses and furniture were ornamented with similar subjects.2 The game pursued included the lion, the wild ass, the gazelle and the hare, and the implements chiefly employed seem to have been the javelin and the bow.
Eastern Rumelia was constituted an autonomous province of the Turkish empire by the Berlin treaty of 1878; but on the 18th of September 1885, after a bloodless revolution, it was united with Bulgaria (q.v.).
The ruin of the dynasty came, however, from those Turkish slaves who were constituted as a royal bodyguard by Moqtasim (833-842).
It was to Si-gan Fu that the emperor and dowager empress retreated on the capture of Peking by the allied armies in August 190o; and it was once again constituted the capital of the empire until the following spring when the court returned to Peking, after the conclusion of peace.
They first appear in history at the time of the Jugurthine War (110-106 B.C.), when Mauretania west of the Mulucha was under the government of a king called Bocchus, and appears to have constituted a regular and organized state.
He studied both law and medicine, but found his real vocation in politics, and at once constituted himself a champion of the most advanced opinions.
Under the head of notion are considered, firstly, the subjective forms of conception, judgment and syllogism; secondly, their realization in objects as mechanically, chemically or teleologically constituted; and thirdly, the idea first of life, and next of science, as the complete interpenetration of thought and objectivity.
He came back from Italy with a new philosophy of life, a philosophy at once classic and pagan, and with very definite ideas of what constituted literary excellence.
He showed, moreover, as a Liverpool man, his strong sympathy with Ulster, threatened by the Home Rule bill; he went over to Ireland and constituted himself Sir Edward Carson's principal lieutenant in the resistance which he was organizing in North-East Ulster against Home Rule.
Two conceptions lay at the basis - the thought of the spiritual priesthood of all believers and the belief that the state was a divine ordinance, that the magistracy might represent the whole body of believers and that discipline and administration might be exercised through courts constituted somewhat like the consistorial courts of the medieval bishops, their members being appointed by the magistracy.
His studies included all the wide range of subjects, classics, science and philosophy, which constituted the curriculum of the Renaissance savants.
Richard (1225-1272), king of the Romans, constituted Dunheved a free borough, and granted to the burgesses freedom from pontage, stallage and suillage, liberty to elect their own reeves, exemption from all pleas outside the borough except pleas of the crown, and a site for a gild-hall.
His translation to Canterbury in 1868 (he had refused the archbishopric of York in 1862) constituted a recognition of his work, but made no break in it.
An exception to this form of government is constituted by the Tuareg, whose organization, owing to their peculiar circumstances of life, is monarchical.
He issued the first charter to the citizens, and constituted them a free Saxon community having their own magistrate, an advantage over all other towns of his dominions.
Its vegetation is in point of fact of a composite character, and is constituted by the meeting and more or less blending of adjoining floras, - those of Persia and the south-eastern Mediterranean area to the north-west, of Siberia to the north, of China to the east, and of Malaya to the south-east.
Thus was constituted the dual system of government, by which the British received all the revenues and undertook to maintain an army for the defence of the frontier, while the criminal jurisdiction vested in the nawab.
By the Indian Councils Act 1861 the governor-general's council and also the councils at Madras and Bombay were augmented by the addition of non-official members, either natives or Europeans, for legislative purposes only; and by another act passed in the same year high courts of judicature were constituted out of the existing supreme courts and company's courts at the presidency towns.
The regno, as it was called by the Italians, constituted a state apart, differing in social institutions, foreign relations, and type of home government, from the commonwealths and tyrannies of upper Italy.
The Sardinian Admiral Persano's salute of nineteen guns on the occasion of Garibaldi's official call constituted a practical recognition of his dictatorship by the Sardinian (Piedmontese) government.