Constantine has been described by the orthodox historians of his time as a.
The premature death of Constantine, in May 641, left Heracleonas sole ruler.
But after Bennigsen's departure, the Grand Duke Tsarevich Constantine Pavlovich joined the army.
But a suspicion that he and Martina:had murdered Constantine led soon after to a revolt, and to the mutilation and banishment of the supposed offenders.
Constantine the Great, who generally resided here from 306 to 331, and his successors also, beautified the city with public works, and villas arose upon the hill-sides.
After the holy sites had been determined, Constantine gave orders for the construction of two magnificent churches, the one over the tomb and the other over the place where the cross was discovered.
603 Constantine son of Rhydderch (?) Iudruis (?) d.
Aldred, the son of Eadulf, who now ruled north of the Tyne, appealed to Constantine II., king of the Scots, for help, but the Scottish and Northumbrian armies were defeated at Corbridge.
The present church of the Holy Sepulchre stands on the site upon which one of the churches of Constantine was built, but the second church, the Basilica of the Cross, has completely disappeared.
It was at Naissus that Constantine the Great was born in A.D.
She had opportunities of sending her letters to the Grand Duke Constantine Pavlovich, who commanded the Guards.
The heir to the throne was the late tsar's eldest brother, Constantine, but he declined, for private reasons, to accept the succession, and a few days elapsed before the second brother, I., Nicholas, was proclaimed emperor.
On the Constantins platz stands the magnificent brick basilica, probably of the age of Constantine, though the south and east walls are modern.
Dubrovin, president of the Union of the Russian People and organizer of pogroms, having written a letter of congratulation to the tsar on the occasion of the coup d'etat, received a gracious reply; the hideous reign of terror of the " Black Hundred " in Odessa did not prevent the Grand-duke Constantine from accepting the badge of membership of the Union.
A late authority states that he was succeeded by his son Constantine, but the subsequent kings were descended from another branch of the same family.
270, but restored and embellished by Constantine, who made it his principal residence, and founded what is now the suburb of Trinquetaille.
After the time of Constantine, the administration of Sardinia was separated from that of Corsica, each island being governed by a praeses dependent on the vicarius urbis Romae.
Auxiliary sources for the medieval romance-writers were: - the opuscule (4th century) known as Alexandri magni iter ad Paradisum, a fable of Eastern origin directed against ambition; the Itinerarium Alexandri (340), based partly on Julius Valerius and dedicated to Constans, son of the emperor Constantine; the letter of Alexander to Aristotle (Epist.
According to Agathangelus, Tiridates went to Rome with Gregory, Aristaces, son of Gregory, and Albianos, head of the other priestly family, to make a pact with Constantine, newly converted to the faith, and receive a pallium from Silvester.
Though it must have lost much of its importance through the construction of the Via Traiana, the last portion from Tarentum to Brundusium was restored by Constantine about A.D.
The toleration edicts of Galerius and of Constantine and Licinius were published during his pontificate, which was also marked by the holding of the Lateran synod in Rome (313) at which Caecilianus, bishop of Carthage, was acquitted of the charges brought against him and Donatus condemned.
Immediately after his accession, while he was engaged in a campaign against the Arabs, his brother-in-law, an Armenian named Artavasdus, a supporter of the image-worshippers, had been proclaimed emperor, and it was not till the end of 743 that Constantine re-entered Constantinople.
under the Moslems (1890); Fergusson, Temples of the Jews (1878); Hayter Lewis, Holy Places of Jerusalem(' 888); Churches of Constantine at Jerusalem (1891); Guthe, "Ausgrabungen in Jer.," in Zeitschrift d.
CONSTANTINE PETROVICH KAUFMANN (1818-1882), Russian general, was born at Maidani on the 3rd of March 1818.
The better sources make Sardica the scene of meeting and name Eusebius (of Nicomedia) as the prelate who attended Constantine.
To return to the evolution of ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the time of Constantine.
had already been described in the Church service as " the ruler and autocrat of all Russia, the new Tsar Constantine in the new city of Constantine Moscow," but on no previous occasion had a grand-prince been crowned under that title.
The family was illustrious and wealthy, and claimed descent from Constantine.
A number of usurpers laid claim to the throne, the most important of whom was Constantine.
It comprised the principalities of Tribunia or Travunja, with its capital at Trebinje; and Hlum or Hum, the Zachlumia of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who gives a clear picture of this region as it was in the 10th century.'
The siege had lasted fifty-three days when, on the 29th of May 1453, a tremendous assault was successful; the desperate efforts of the Greeks were unavailing, Constantine himself falling among the foremost defenders of the breach.
During the campaign Peter had entered into alliance with the hospodars of Moldavia and Walachia, respectively Demetrius Cantemir and Constantine Brancovano, from whom he had received material assistance.
In pursuance of this agreement Constantine Ypsilanti was appointed to Walachia and Alexander Muruzi to Moldavia - both devoted to Russian interests.
(2) Another town which in Roman times was called Tipasa is in the department of Constantine, Algeria, 55 m.
The place thereafter was subject either to the rulers of Tunis or of Constantine, but the citizens were noted for their frequent revolts.
And the Church policy, as old as the times of Constantine, to crush utterly the man who brings more problems and pressure than the bulk of traditional Christians can, at the time, either digest or resist with a fair discrimination, seemed to the authorities the one means to save the very difficult situation.
At first there were only three dioceses: Carthaginiensis, Hipponiensis (headquarters Hippo Diarrhytus, now Bizerta), and Numidica (headquarters Cirta, now Constantine).
In Diocletian's great reform of the administrative system of the empire, the whole of Roman Africa, with the exception of Mauretania Tingitana (which was attached to the province of Spain), constituted a single diocese subdivided into six provinces: Zeugitana (Carthage), Byzacium (Hadrumetum, now Susa), Numidia Cirtensis (Cirta, Constantine), Tripolitana (Tripolis), Mauretania Sitifensis (Sitifis, Setif), and Mauretania Caesariensis (Caesarea, now Cherchel).
Dolmens, however, occur in great numbers in Tunisia and the province of Constantine.
Cirta (Constantine) and Bulla Regia (Hammam Darraj), its chief towns, received coloniae of soldiers and veterans, as well as Theveste (Tebessa) and Thamugas (Timgad).
Among the principal of these are: - Memoires de la Societe archeologique de Constantine, Bulletin de la Societe geographique et archeologique d'Oran, Revue africaine of Algiers, to which we should add the Revue archeologique of Paris, the Archives des missions scientifiques and the Bulletin archeologique du Comite des travaux historiques and the Melanges of the French School at Rome.
In all the towns of Algeria and Tunisia museums have been founded for storing the antiquities of the region; the most important of these are the museums of St Louis, Carthage and the palace of Bardo (musee Alaoui) near Tunis, those of Susa, Constantine, Lambessa, Timgad, Tebessa, Philippeville, Cherchel and Oran.
Doublet; of Constantine by G.
In the department of Constantine, which is peculiarly rich in Roman remains, Tebessa has been most carefully explored by M.
A visit to the Russian capital in November still further established his influence, and in 1862 he was appointed adjutant to the grand-duke Constantine.
Their history may be said to end with the reign of Constantine the Great.
When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West.
A considerable fragment has been preserved from the sixth book, entitled Hitrpta KWVVTavTCVOUIroX€WS, a history of Byzantium from its earliest beginnings till the time of Constantine the Great.
The emperors, however, favoured the cult, which was the army's favourite until Constantine destroyed its hopes.
Pope Stephen reconsecrated bishops consecrated in the usual way by his schismatical predecessor Constantine.
at Heliopolis in the 15th century B.C., was brought over from Egypt by Constantine the Great and erected in the Circus Maximus, being ultimately re-erected in 1552 by Pope Sixtus V.
at Rome, Montpellier and Paris), dedicated to his friend and correspondent Constantine of Fleury.
To these may be added a very short disquisition on the same subject addressed to Adalbold, and a similar one, on one of his own spheres, addressed to Constantine, abbot of Micy.
3 The adoption of Christianity by Constantine as the official religion of the Roman Empire had an unfortunate effect on the position of the Christians in Persia.
That important legal work, The Laws of the Emperors Constantine, Theodosius and Leo, which was composed in Greek about 475, and " which lies at the root of all subsequent Christian Oriental legislation in ecclesiastical, judicial and private matters" (Wright), must have been repeatedly translated into Syriac. The oldest form is contained in a British Museum MS. which dates from the earlier part of the 6th century, and this was edited by Land (Anecd.
One Constantine, however, of Mananali, a canton on the western Euphrates 60-70 m.
Constantine was martyred 684 by Simeon whom Constantine Pogonatus had sent to repress the movement.
In 752 Constantine V.
EUDOCIA MACREMBOLITISSA (c. 1021 - 1096), daughter of John Macrembolites, was the wife of the Byzantine emperor Constantine X., and after his death (1067) of Romanus IV.
The dictionary of mythology entitled 'Iwvca ("Collection of Violets"), which formerly used to be ascribed to her, was not composed till 1543 (Constantine Palaeokappa).
Trajan as represented on the Arch of Constantine, Roman Art, Plate III., fig.
LATERAN COUNCILS, the ecclesiastical councils or synods held at Rome in the Lateran basilica which was dedicated to Christ under the title of Salvator, and further called the basilica of Constantine or the church of John the Baptist.
But Constantine, exhausted by the war with the Arabs, was unable to prevent the Bulgars, a tribe of Finno-Ugrian race, from crossing the Danube and settling in the district where their name still survives.
In order to restore peace in the church, Constantine summoned an ecumenical council (the sixth) at Constantinople, which held its sittings from the 7th of November 680 to the 16th of September 681.
Constantine V >>
As Theodosius is said to have left Britain in a sound and secure condition it has been suggested that to him was due the wall of the later Londinium, but there is little or no evidence for this opinion, and according to an old tradition Constantine the Great walled the city at the request of his mother Helena, presumed to be a native of Britain.
Howel Dda, king of West Wales, Owen, king of Cumbria, Constantine, king of the Scots, and Ealdred of Bamburgh, and henceforth he calls himself "rex totius Britanniae."
In 934 he invaded Scotland by land and sea, perhaps owing to an alliance between Constantine and Anlaf Sihtricsson.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
330) by Constantine the Great.
Domitius Alexander, to declare war against Constantine as having brought about the death of his father Maximianus.
His intention of carrying the war into Gaul was anticipated by Constantine, who marched into Italy.
Constantine Bruno, baron Kervyn de Lettenhove >>
The ignorant assert that Constantine first gave temporal power to the See of Rome; it was already bestowed by Christ Himself, the true King and Priest, as inalienable from its nature and absolutely unconditional.
(Lecapenus), who shared the imperial throne with Constantine VII.
After the marriage of his daughter Helena to Constantine he was first proclaimed "basileopater" in 919 and soon after crowned colleague of his son-in-law.
His reign, which was uneventful, except for an attempt to check the accumulation of landed property, was terminated by his own sons, Stephen and Constantine, who in 944 carried him off to the island of Prote and compelled him to become a monk.
Indeed his dominion became an object of uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.
It was, however, from a power that Constantine did not consider that the overthrow of the Khazars came.
Numerous fragments are also contained in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
The second railway connects the capital with the frontier of Algeria, where, at Suk Ahras, it joins the main line to Constantine, Algiers, &c. This line was built by the Bone-Guelma Company.
The Siegestor (or gate of victory) is a modern imitation of the arch of Constantine at Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
The last serious attempt of the allies in the centre led to some of the hardest fighting of the day; the Russian Imperial Guard under the grand-duke Constantine pressed closely upon St Hilaire and Vandamme on the plateau, and only gave way when the French Guard and the Grenadiers came into action.
- xii.) conduct us through sacred and secular history down to the triumph of Christianity under Constantine.
In middle age he became a convert to Christianity, and about 306 he went to Gaul (Treves) on the invitation of Constantine the Great, and became tutor to his eldest son, Crispus.
CONSTANTINE VI., grandson of Constantine V., was emperor 780-797.
Even when Constantine came of age,.
At length Constantine had her arrested, but foolishly pardoned her shortly afterwards.
On his return to Constantinople, Constantine managed to escape to the Asiatic coast, but being brought back practically by force he was seized and blinded.
With Constantine VI.
Constantine VII >>
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
In the printed text this document, entitled An Invective Against the Armenians, is dated 800 years after Constantine, but the author Isaac Catholicos almost certainly belonged to the earlier time.
Desiring to wed the daughter of Constantine, king of Constantinople, he sends twelve envoys to ask her in marriage.
The character of Constantine in many respects resembles that of Alexius Comnenus; the slaying of a tame lion by one of the gigantic followers of Rother is founded on an incident which actually took place at the court of Alexius during the crusade of i ioi under duke Well of Bavaria, when King Rother was composed about 1160 by a Rhenish minstrel.
To check the inroads of the barbarians on the north of the Black Sea, Diocletian had resolved to transfer his capital to Nicomedia; but Constantine, struck with the advantages which the situation of Byzantium presented, resolved to build a new city there on the site of the old and transfer the seat of government to it.
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von Bern - i.e.
His eldest son, Charles Constantine, succeeded to no more than the county of Vienne.
During the 15th century the grammarian, Constantine Lascaris, taught in Messina; and Bessarion was for a time archimandrite there.
The Bassarab dynasty became extinct with Constantine Sherban in 1658.
After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars, Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627).
While Constantine at the beginning of his reign (313) declared complete religious liberty, and kept on the whole to this declaration, yet he confined his favours to the orthodox hierarchical church, and even by an edict of the year 326 formally asserted the exclusion from these of heretics and schismatics.
The Historia Augusta, which includes the lives of the emperors from Hadrian to Numerianus (117-284), is the work of six writers, four of whom wrote under Diocletian and two under Constantine.
In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.
Cornelius Sulla for the payment of his soldiers; Nero removed no fewer than 500 bronze statues from the sacred precincts; Constantine the Great enriched his new city by the sacred tripod and its support of intertwined snakes dedicated by the Greek cities after the battle of Plataea.
Two treatises are sometimes erroneously attributed to him, one on the Emotions, the other a commentary on Aristotle's Ethics (really by Constantine Palaeocappa in the 16th century, or by John Callistus of Thessalonica).
in 1905, and another, Constantine, crown prince of Greece, married a sister of the German emperor William II.
The Imperial or Constantinian Indiction is so called because its establishment is attributed to Constantine.
GREGORY II., pope from 715 to 731, succeeded Constantine I., whom he accompanied from Constantinople in 710.
BONA (BONE), a seaport of Algeria, in 36° 53' N., 7° 46' E., on a bay of the Mediterranean, chief town of an arrondissement in the department of Constantine, 220 m.
From Rome it passed to Constantinople; at the end of the 9th century it was diligently studied by Leo VI., who himself wrote a work on tactics; and in the middle of the 10th century Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentioned it as one of the most valuable books in the imperial library.
The emperor Constantine VI.
was at this time exhibiting some interest in Italian affairs, and Adalgis the Lombard was still residing at his court; so Charles sought to avert danger from this quarter by consenting in 781 to a marriage between Constantine and his own daughter Rothrude.
Scipio's arrival in Africa in 204 gave him another chance, and no sooner had he joined the Roman general than he crushed his old enemy Syphax, and captured his capital Cirta (Constantine).
432, for instance, Constantine (Euseb.
The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.
Down to the time of Constantine, who deprived the office of its military character, the prefecture of the guards was regularly held by tried soldiers, often by men who had fought their way up from the ranks.
Further, the praetorian praefect acquired, in addition to his military functions, a criminal jurisdiction, which he exercised not as the delegate but as the representative of the emperor, and hence it was decreed by Constantine (331) that from the sentence of the praetorian praefect there should be no appeal.
Under Constantine the institution of the magistri militum deprived the praetorian prefecture altogether of its military character, but left it the highest civil office of the empire.
Fragments of his universal history (`Iaropia KaBoXLKi 7), from the time of the Assyrian empire to his own days, his autobiography, and his life of Augustus (Bios Kacaapos) have been preserved, chiefly in the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
In 312 the Praetorian Guard was suppressed by Constantine.
It is surprising to observe how early the Christian Church assumed the form of a state, and how speedily upon entering into its momentous alliance with the Roman imperial government under Constantine it acquired the chief of the and rerc prerogatives it v'as so long to retain.
In short, if we recall the characteristics of the Church in the Weft from the times of Constantine to those of Theodoric - its reliance upon the civil power for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency to monarchical unity - it becomes clear that Gregory VII.
1457) showed the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence to the Apostles' Creed.
(I) Basil, bishop of Ancyra from 336 to 360, a semiArian, highly favoured by the emperor Constantine, and a great polemical writer; none of his works are extant.
Though nominally emperor from 912-959, it was not until 945 that Constantine could really be called sole ruler.
Though wanting in strength of will, Constantine possessed intelligence and many other good qualities, and his reign on the whole was not unsatisfactory.
Constantine was a painter and a patron of art, a literary man and a patron of literature; and herein consists his real importance, since it is to works written by or directly inspired by him that we are indebted for our chief knowledge of his times.
(5) Two treatises on military subjects are attributed to him; one on tactics, which, as the title shows, was really written by his grandson Constantine VIII., the other a description of the different methods of fighting in fashion amongst different peoples.
On Constantine VII.
Constantine VIII >>
Shortly after this successful campaign he was seized with an illness, and believing it mortal appointed as his successor Constantine Ducas, to the exclusion of his own brother John.
Coeffeteau won considerable distinction in the controversy against the Protestant reformers and also wrote a History of Rome from Augustus to Constantine.
The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber pontificalis are little else than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Roman church by Constantine the Great.
The story of his having baptized Constantine is pure fiction, as almost contemporary evidence shows the emperor to have received this rite near Nicomedia at the hands of Eusebius, bishop of that city.
The so-called Donation of Constantine was long ago shown to be spurious, but the document is of very considerable antiquity and, in Dellinger's opinion, was forged in Rome between 752 and 777.
According to this view the church was pure and uncorrupt till the time of Constantine, when Pope Sylvester gained the first temporal possession for the papacy, and so began the system of a rich, powerful and worldly church, with Rome for its capital.
Indeed the development of the whole hierarchy above the congregational bishop was largely influenced by the imperial system, especially after Church and State came into alliance under Constantine.
It is also implied in the congregational form and spirit of the earliest liturgies; but most of all in the discipline of the church before Constantine.
Algeria contains important deposits of phosphorite, especially near Tebessa and at Tocqueville in the province of Constantine.
(In 1901 a violent storm further damaged the temples and forced the gateway out of the perpendicular.) The other ruins include a triumphal arch of Constantine, a still serviceable bridge and a square keep or tower of late date.
The extreme licence of the Heliopolitan worship is often animadverted upon by early Christian writers, and Constantine, making an effort to curb the Venus cult, built a basilica.
We find little or no trace of them before Constantine made Christianity the state religion, i.e.
A large part of it remains as built by Constantine.
The circular church of Santa Costanza, also of the 4th century, served as a baptistery and contained the tomb of the daughter of Constantine.
St Agnes's bones are supposed to rest in the church of her name at Rome, originally built by Constantine and repaired by Pope Honorius in the 7th century.
All Europe, then, hailed with joy the exploit of Constantine Kanaris.
The intercourse between France and Siam began about 16So under Phra Narain, who, by the advice of his minister, the Cephalonian adventurer Constantine Phaulcon, sent an embassy to Louis XIV.
After the third partition the estates of the Czartoryskis were confiscated, and in May 1795 Adam and his younger brother Constantine were summoned to St Petersburg; later in the year they were commanded to enter the Russian service, Adam becoming an officer in the horse, and Constantine in the foot guards.
Constantine, recognizing the growing strength of the Church and wishing to enlist the loyal support of the Christians, treated them with increasing favour, and finally was baptized upon his death-bed (337).
Ecclesiastical Byzantinism is therefore not a product of the middle ages: it is the outcome of the development of the eastern half of the empire from the time of Constantine the Great.
The orthodoxy of the Eastern Church was also a result of the Church's development after the time of Constantine.
On the death of Zajonczek in 1$26, the grand duke Constantine became Imperial lieutenant, and his administration, The Grand though erratic, was not unfavourable to displays nuke Con- of Polish nationality.
The Polish army had no stantine share in the Turkish War of 1829, largely, it is said, at the request of Constantine, who loved parades and thought that war was the ruin of soldiers.
The weakness of the Russian governor, General Gorchakov, in 1861 was a repetition of the feebleness of the Grand Duke Constantine in 1830.
In 1868 Count Constantine Tyszkiewicz published a valuable monograph on the Tombs of Lithuania and Western Ruthenia.
The printing of Greek began at Milan with the Greek grammar of Constantine Lascaris (1476).
It is divided, politically, into three departments, - Oran in the west, Algiers in the centre and Constantine in the east.
long), formed by the union of several small streams in the department of Constantine, runs through a fertile valley and reaches the Mediterranean near Bona.
The Kebir or Rummel - the river is known by both names - is formed by the union of several small streams south of Constantine, and flows past that town N.W.
The Mejerda and its affluent the Mellegue, rivers of Tunisia, have their rise in Algeria, in the mountainous country east of Constantine.
One of the most remarkable groups of springs is near Guelma, in the department of Constantine.
Triassic rocks are considered to be present in Constantine and in the Jurjura.
To the Pliocene period the marine deposits of the Sahel of Algiers and of the Sahel Jijelli must be attributed; also the lacustrine marls and limestone of the basin of Constantine, and the ancient alluviums of the basins and depressions which bear no relation to the existing valleys.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
seaport and capital of the department of the same name, and Constantine (46,806), an inland town, capital of the department of Constantine.
Inland, besides Constantine, are the important towns of Tlemcen (24,060), Sidi bel Abbes (24,494), Mascara (18,989) and Blida (16,866).
of Constantine by the railway to Biskra, commands the passage of the Aures mountains by which the nomads of the Sahara were wont to enter the Tell.
On the railway between Constantine and Bona and 76 m.
Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.
A decree of 1857 granted to the Paris-Lyons Company the right to construct a line linking Algiers with Oran (266 m.) and Constantine (290 m.) and shorter lines joining the seaports to the trunk line, notably Philippeville to Constantine (54 m.).
By the Turks the country was divided into four provinces - Algiers and Titeri in the centre and south, Constantine in the east and Mascara or Oran in the west.'
Purely Mahommedan higher schools exist at Algiers, Tlemcen and Constantine.
(The lycees at Algiers, Oran and Constantine are open to Mahommedans, but few take advantage of them.) Besides the government schools there are establishments conducted by clerics and laymen.
At the beginning of the 16th century the native dynasties Constantine, and the bey of the west who resided at Y Mascara and afterwards at Oran.
He negotiated directly with the bey of Tunis with a view to installing as beys at Oran and Constantine Tunisian princes who recognized the authority of France.
At once firm and conciliatory, he had been able to attach to the French cause the natives whom the cruelty of Ahmed, bey of Constantine, had alienated.
Turning towards the east, Clausel organized at Bona the first expedition against Constantine.
Damremont, on his part, directed a second expedition on Constantine.
Marshal Sylvain Charles Valee (1773-1846), who replaced him, founded Philippeville to serve as a seaport for the region of Constantine, occupied Jijelli, and at the head of the expeditionary column returned from Constantine to Algiers by the interior, passing through Setif and les Portes de fer.
331, the emperor Constantine requested Eusebius, bishop of Caesarea, to provide him with fifty copies of the Old and New Testaments for use in the principal churches in Constantinople.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
The coinage standard, however, was always higher (18; the oldest gold shows 5056, the Campanian Roman 5054, the consular gold 5037, the aurei 5037, the Constantine solidi 5053 and the Justinian gold 4996.
and the sextula after Constantine had the name of solidus as a coin weight, or nomisma in Greek, marked N on the weights.
The political history of the ancient world ends with the formation, under Diocletian and Constantine, of a universal state bearing the cast of Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman civilization.
The battlefield was the empire of Constantine and Theodosius.
He seems to have modified his doctrines through fear of Constantine.
From the plans of Todleben a new fort, Constantine, and four batteries were constructed (1856-1871) to defend the principal approach, and seven batteries to cover the shallower northern channel.
On his return to Poland in 1814, he entered the Russian army with the rank of a general officer, but a personal insult from the grand duke Constantine resulted in his retiring into private life.
The district called Dardania (in Upper Moesia), inhabited by the Illyrian Dardani, was formed into a special province by Diocletian with capital Naissus (Nissa or Nish), the birthplace of Constantine the Great.
DONATION OF CONSTANTINE (Donatio Constantini), the supposed grant by the emperor Constantine, in gratitude for his conversion by Pope Silvester, to that pope and his successors for ever, not only of spiritual supremacy over the other great patriarchates and over all matters of faith and worship, but also of temporal dominion over Rome, Italy and "the provinces, places and civitates of the western regions."
By the partisans of the Empire, on the other hand, the Donation was looked upon as the fons et origo malorum, and Constantine was regarded as having, in his new-born zeal, betrayed his imperial trust.
to Charlemagne (778), is now indeed largely rejected; there is nothing in the letter to make such an assumption safe, and the same must be said of Friedrich's attempt to find such reference in the letter addressed in 785 by the same pope to Constantine VI., emperor of the East, and his mother Irene.
The donations of Pippin and Charlemagne established him as sovereign de facto; the donation of Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign de jure.
He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between 756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of Rome and the holy images.
(Argyrus), emperor 1028-1034, was an undistinguished Byzantine patrician, who was compelled by the dying emperor Constantine IX.
KANARIS (or CANARIS), CONSTANTINE (1790-1877), Greek patriot, belonged to the class of coasting sailors who produced if not the most honest, at least the bravest, and the most successful of the combatants in the cause of Greek independence.
In 330 it was enclosed by a basilica built by the orders of the emperor Constantine.
He was, indeed, received in St Petersburg with all honour; but as a diplomatist the "Iron Duke" - whom Nicholas, writing to his brother Constantine, described as "old.
The legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in historical documents of the 9th century.
Under a constitution approved by the emperor Constantine Monomachos in 1045, women and female animals were excluded from the holy mountain.
Other interesting churches in the locality are those of St Petrock Minor, St Minver, St Michael, St Constantine, and, most remarkable of all, St Enodock's.
In the middle of the 8th century the emperor Constantine Copronymus settled a number of Armenian Paulicians in Thracia.
Long before Constantine we find her employing it in aid of the most distant churches, Territorial as far afield as Cappadocia and Arabia.
Her real Possessions property, confiscated under Diocletian, was restored of the Holy by Constantine, and since then had 'been continually See.
In the glitter that environs thee, rather wouldst thou be taken for the successor of Constantine than for the successor of Peter."
According to the general supposition, the negotiations which led to the excommunication of Arius and his followers among the presbyters and deacons took place in 318 or 319, but there are good reasons for assigning the outbreak of the controversy to the time following the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine, i.e.
It reached even the ears of Constantine.
Constantine accepted the decision of the council and resolved to uphold it.
Constantine, while strongly disposed at first to enforce the Nicene decrees, was gradually won to a more conciliatory policy by the influence especially of Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his death-bed.
Under the sons of Constantine Christian bishops in numberless synods cursed one another turn by turn.
Nisibis thrice endured unsuccessful siege (33 8, 346, 35 o), although meanwhile Constantine had suffered defeat at Singara (348).
Marco Botzaris's brother Kosta (Constantine), who fought at Karpenisi and completed the victory, lived to become a general and senator in the Greek kingdom.
Golitsuin was left in peace, however, and lived for the most part in retirement, till 1736, when he was arrested on suspicion of being concerned in the conspiracy of his son-in-law Prince Constantine Cantimir.
She formed a corps of Greek cadets, caused her younger grandson to be christened Constantine, and began the policy of presenting Russia to the Christian subjects of the Porte as their deliverer.
ARGYROPULUS, or [[Argyropulo, John]] (c. 1416-1486), Greek humanist, one of the earliest promoters of the revival of learning in the West, was born in Constantinople, and became a teacher there, Constantine Lascaris being his pupil.
Forts Alexander and Constantine commanding the bridge are relics of the Russian occupation; the other forts are of TurkoVenetian origin.
in 1559 as a military body, though tradition assigns it to Constantine the Great and Pope Sylvester.
Lecapenus, one of the colleagues of Constantine VII.
Porphyrogenitus, but it is now generally bestowed upon Constantine, the brother and colleague of Basil II.
Constantine IX >>
Thus he rewarded the Orthodox upstart, Prince Constantine Ortrogski, for his victory at Orsza by making him palatine of Troki, despite determined opposition from the Catholics; severely punished all disturbers of the worship of the Greek schismatics; protected the Jews in the country places, and insisted that the municipalities of the towns should be composed of an equal number of Catholics and Orthodox Greeks.
of Constantine, Christianity had practically covered the whole' empire.
It is not possible to obtain even an approximate estimate of the numbers of the Christians at the time of Constantine.
The oracle continued to be consulted down to Christian times, until Constantine, and again later Theodosius, forbade the practice and closed the temple.
The donation made by Constantine to various churches of Rome of numerous estates belonging to the patrimonium Caesaris in the neighbourhood of Rome was of great historical importance, as being the origin of the territorial dominion of the papacy.
Under Jovian, Christianity was established as the state religion, and the Labarum of Constantine again became the standard of the army.
MANUEL CHRYSOLORAS [or] (c. 1355-1415), one of the pioneers in spreading Greek literature in the West, was born at Constantinople of a distinguished family, which had removed with Constantine the Great to Byzantium.
At the same time it is probable that, like Constantine's patronage of Christianity, his patronage of Buddhism, then the most rising and influential faith in India, was not unalloyed with political motives, and it is certain that his vast benefactions to the Buddhist cause were at least one of the causes that led to its decline.
This scheme, however, was defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) on the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and Maxentius in Italy.
It was at the instance of Galerius that the first of the celebrated edicts of persecution against the Christians was published, on the 24th of February 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration (31 I), issued in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine.
The rest exists only in fragments preserved in Photius and the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
(Diogenes), emperor 1068-1071, was a member of a distinguished Cappadocian family, and had risen to distinction in the army, when he was convicted of treason against the sons of Constantine X.
According to tradition the Vandals had been driven into Pannonia by the Goths in the time of Constantine.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the 10th century, connects its early form, Lausa, with Xau, a "precipice."
In the division of Constantine, when the word " province " had lost its meaning, when Italy itself was mapped out into provinces, Sicily became one of these last.
Mezetius, commander of the Eastern army of Constans, revolted, but Sicily and Roman Italy kept their allegiance to the new emperor Constantine Pogonatus, who came in person to destroy him.
In 956 a peace or truce was made by the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
At the Constantine age a new style begins, of hard pink ware, neatly made, and often with start-patterns made by a vibrating tool while the vessel rotated: this was mainly used for bowls and cups (P.E.).
the so-called classical period of Roman law down to the time of Alexander Severus (244); but the great majority are later, and belong to one or other of the four great eras of imperial legislation, the eras of Diocletian, of Constantine, of Theodosius II., and of Justinian himself.
It should be compared with the De Cerimoniis of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
A party too in Russia itself, headed by the tsar's brother the grand-duke Constantine, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon as the enemy of the orthodox faith.
But in the reorganization of the empire, begun by Diocletian and completed by Constantine, the word "diocese" acquired a more important meaning, the empire being divided into twelve dioceses, of which the largest - Oriens - embraced sixteen provinces, and the smallest - Britain - four (see Rome: Ancient History; and W.
When Julian visited the place in 362 the impudent population railed at him for his favour to Jewish and pagan rites, and to revenge itself for the closing of its great church of Constantine, burned down the temple of Apollo in Daphne.
Its inscribed stones date from the 4th century, one being in honour of Constantine the Great.
A further revision of this code is stated to have been made by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, cites passages from the Basilica which differ from the text of the code as revised by the emperor Leo.
This latter conclusion is the more probable from the circumstance, that the text of the code, as revised by the emperor Leo, agrees with the citations from the Basilica which occur in the works of Michael Psellus and Michael Attaliates, both of them high dignitaries of the court of Constantinople, who lived a century before Balsamon, and who are silent as to any second revision of the code having taken place in the reign of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, as well as with other citations from the Basilica, which are found in the writings of Mathaeus Blastares and of Constantine Harmenopulus, both of whom wrote shortly after Balsamon, and the latter of whom was far too learned a jurist and too accurate a lawyer to cite any but the official text of the code.
Thus (924) the English Chronicle - asserts that Constantine, king of Scotland, " chose Edward King to father and lord."
In the dynasty of Kenneth the succession to the crown alternated thus: he was succeeded by his brother Donald, who was followed by his nephew, Kenneth's son, Constantine; Constantine's brother, Aodh, followed; and henceforth till 957, the kings were alternately chosen from the houses of Constantine and Aodh.
In Syria, the temple of Atargatis in Hierapolis was an immemorial resort of pilgrims. In Phoenicia, a similar significance was enjoyed by the shrine of Astarte, on the richly-watered source of the river Adonis, till, as late as the 4th century after Christ, it was destroyed by Constantine the Great.
The Sepulchre and the Hill of the Crucifixion were lost to the Christian pilgrim; and, consequently, before the era of Constantine, the one holy site in the town of Jerusalem was the so-called Coenaculum, which received its name in later years.
The pilgrimage to Palestine received a powerful impetus from the erection of the memorial churches on the holy sites, under Constantine the Great, as described by Eusebius in his biography of the emperor (iii.
At the order of Constantine, the shrine of Venus above mentioned was destroyed, and the accumulated rubbish removed, till the ancient rockfoundation was reached.
The churches in Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives were erected by Helena, the mother of Constantine, who herself undertook the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Eusebius, the contemporary of Constantine, is silent on this point.
Subsequently it was used as a personal title of honour for distinguished servants of Constantine I.
Under Constantine an entirely new meaning was given to the word Patrician.
The nine books of which it is composed begin with Constantine (323)(323) and come down to the death of Honorius (423); but according to his own statement he intended to continue it as far as the year 439 (see the Dedication of the work).
He was a member of the council of Basel, and dedicated to the assembled fathers a work entitled De concordantia Catholica, in which he maintained the superiority of councils over popes, and assailed the genuineness of the False Decretals and the Donation of Constantine.
Constantine, q.v.), an ancient city of Numidia, in Africa, in the country of the Massyli.
By the early emperors it was allowed to fall into decay, but was afterwards restored by Constantine, from whom it took its modern name.
In his last years he travelled through Syria contending against the iconoclasts, and in the same cause he visited Constantinople at the imminent risk of his life during the reign of Constantine Copronymus.
But the choice was not justified, for Constantine, who as the friend and minister of Isaac had shown himself a capable statesman and financier, proved incompetent as an emperor.
In the year before Constantine's death the remnant of the Byzantine possessions in Italy was finally lost to the empire, and the chief town, Bari, taken by the Normans.
Constantine Pavlovich >>
The conversion of Constantine to Christianity - or rather the profession of Christianity by Constantine - seemed likely to result in another Jewish persecution, foreshadowed by severe repressive edicts.
The story begins with Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who became fired with zeal to fix definitely the spots where the great events of Christianity had taken place, and in A.D.
His father Theodorus, one of the secretaries of the emperor Constantine Copronymus, had been scourged and banished for his zealous support of image-worship, and the son inherited the religious convictions of the father.
onwards, the former territory of the Senones, which was at first associated with Umbria (with which indeed under Augustus it had formed the sixth region of Italy), but which after Constantine was always administered with Picenum.
In 308, after the elevation of Licinius, he insisted on receiving the title of Augustus; on the death of Galerius, in 311, he succeeded to the supreme command of the provinces of Asia, and when Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause with one another Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with Maxentius.
He did for Buddhism what Constantine effected for Christianity; he organized it on the basis of a state religion.
In March 313 he married Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (Milan), in the following month inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Heraclea Pontica, and established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.
In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise on the part of Bassianus against Constantine.
In 323 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July 323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium.
The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine's eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (18th of September), finally resulted in his submission.
CONSTANTINE, a city of Algeria, capital of the department of the same name, 54 m.
Constantine is the residence of a general commanding a division, of a prefect and other high officials, is the seat of a bishop, and had a population in 1906 of 46,806, of whom 25,312 were Europeans.
The population of the commune, which includes the suburbs of Constantine, was 5 8, 435.
Constantine is walled, the extant medieval wall having been largely constructed out of Roman material.
Through the centre from north to south runs a street (the rue de France) roughly dividing Constantine into two parts.
The palace, built by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture of the 19th century.
The native industry of Constantine is chiefly confined to leather goods and woollen fabrics.
Constantine, or, as it was orginally called, Cirta or Kirtha, from the Phoenician word for a city, was in ancient times one of the most important towns of Numidia, and the residence of the kings of the Massyli.
313 by Constantine it received the name which it still retains.
Frequently taken and retaken by the Turks, Constantine finally became under their dominion the seat of a bey, subordinate to the dey of Algiers.
In 1826 Constantine asserted its independence of the dey of Algiers, and was governed by Haji Ahmed, the choice of the Kabyles.
Tabari tells how he took the emperor Constantine prisoner in the year 114 (A.D.
732; but Constantine V.
The Greek historians say nothing about Constantine having been made prisoner.
In 750-751 the emperor Constantine V.
Constantine advanced with a numerous army, but was afraid of attacking the invaders.
Leo IV., the East Roman emperor, had recently died, leaving the crown to Constantine VI.
The state even afforded them protection against extreme cruelty on the part of their masters in respect of life and limb, but in laying down this rule English lawyers were able to follow the precedents set by late Roman jurisprudence, especially by measures of Hadrian, Antonine and Constantine the Great.
aopcpvpoyivvnros) was borne particularly by Constantine VII., Byzantine emperor, but was also used generally of those born of the Byzantine imperial family.
In 307 he brought the emperor Flavius Valerius Severus a captive to Rome, and also compelled Galerius to retreat, but in 308 he was himself driven by Maxentius from Italy into Illyricum, whence again he was compelled to seek refuge at Arelate (Arles), the court of his son-in-law, Constantine.
Here a false report was received, or invented, of the death of Constantine, at that time absent on the Rhine.
10 Constanti- bnaeke nople was similarly protected by the serpent-trophy of Delphi which Constantine removed thither; an emperor was said to have performed an enchantment over the monument well known in Greek history.'
Serapis' (OsirisApis) who came to acquire the attributes of Aesculapius and of Pluto, god of the dead, sometimes had serpent-form, and even in the reign of Constantine popular belief connected the rise of the Nile with his agency (Frazer, Adonis, 398).
The term "Anatolia" appears first in the work of Constantine Porphyrogenitus (loth century).
DUCAS (15th cent.), Byzantine historian, flourished under Constantine Xiii.
In the realm of art the "middle ages" had already set in before Constantine robbed the arch of Titus to decorate his own, and before those museums of antiquity, the temples, were plundered by Christian mobs.
Valla by one vigorous effort destroyed the False Decretals and exposed the Donation of Constantine to ridicule, paving the way for the polemic carried on against the dubious pretensions of the papal throne by scholars of the Reformation.
DUCAS, or Parapinaces, was the eldest Son of Constantine X.
and Constantine XI.
In the time of Constantine, in return for assistance against the Bosporans and the native tribes, it regained its autonomy and received special privileges.
With the accession of Constantine, Christianity was introduced by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five hundred names still remain on record.
He was born in the reign of Constantine (perhaps in 306) at or near Nisibis.
Meanwhile the persecutions of Constantine and Constantius brought about the decay of the Palestinian schools, and, probably in the 5th century, their recension of the Talmud was essentially complete.
LA CALLE, a seaport of Algeria, in the arrondissement of Bona, department of Constantine, 56 m.
Proofs of extensive Scandinavian settlement in Russia are to be found partly in the Russian names assigned to the Dnieper rapids by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, partly in references to this people made by foreign representatives at the court of Byzantium.
535, after expelling the Goths, and a second town probably grew up on the heights round it, for Constantine Porphyro, genitus, in the 10th century, alludes to "Lower Cattaro" (TO KetTw DEKdrepa).
He identified himself entirely with Catharine's political ideas, even with that of re-establishing the Greek empire under her grandson Constantine.
Vita Basilii, by his grandson Constantine VII.
In the time of Constantine I., according to Jordanes, they suffered a great defeat at the hands of Geberich, king of the Goths, their own king Visimar being killed, and the survivors were allowed by the Romans to settle in Pannonia.
He succeeded Leo II., but although chosen in 683 he was not ordained till 684, because the leave of the emperor Constantine was not obtained until some months after the election.
It leaves on the right the great Thermae of Constantine, of which the Austrians have cleared out the south-east part.
The gift, mentioned by Anastasius (in Sylv.), made by Constantine to the Vatican basilica, of a pharum of gold, garnished with Soo dolphins each holding a lamp, to burn before St Peter's tomb, points also to a custom well established before Christianity became the state religion.
5 Their use at funerals is illustrated by Eusebius's description of the burial of Constantine, s and Jerome's account of that of St Paula.
By the time of Constantine the Great it seems to have been Christianized, and not long after it was the seat of an extensive bishopric. It was one of the first cities of Syria to be subjected to the Mahommedans, and it successfully resisted all the attempts of the Crusaders to wrest it from their hands.
Under Constantine Samosata gave place as capital of Euphratensis to Hierapolis (Malal.
The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.
The remaining three are now our main sources for church history from Constantine to Theodosius II.
The chief sources from which he drew were: (1) the Church History, the Life of Constantine and certain theological works of Eusebius; (2) the Church History of Rufinus; (3) certain works of Athanasius; (4) the no longer extant /vva-ycoy'i of the Macedonian and semi-Arian Sabinus - a collection of acts of councils with commentaries, brought down to the reign of Theodosius I.
Thus, for example, he confesses that his reason for not giving an account of the wars of Constantine is his inability to ascertain anything certain about them (v.
Detached details are given also in works upon Constantine (Manso), Julian (Mi eke, Rode, Neumann, Rendall), Damasus (Rade), Arianism (Gwatkin's Studies of Arianism, which gives a severe but trustworthy criticism of Rufinus and discusses the manner in which Socrates was related to him), the emperors after Julian (De Broglie, Richter, Clinton, the Weltgeschichte of Ranke, the Gesch.
succeeded his father Constantine VII.
Christianity never succeeded in establishing itself here in the Byzantine period, though there was a bishopric of Tiberias, and a church built by Constantine.
The revolt of the Jews under Trajan, and earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine the Great helped in turn to destroy it.
The 4 active divisions of the Greek army and 3 of the new divisions (5th, 6th, 7th) formed the main army in Thessaly under the Crown Prince Constantine, whose chief-of-staff was Gen.
2 and 3, while Constantine attacked the Yenije Vardar position without success, Djavid fell upon the 5th Div.
A renewed frontal attack at the opportune moment broke into his position at Yenije Vardar, and, threatened on all sides, the Turks withdrew into Salonika, where their commander and 29,000 men surrendered to Constantine on the 9th.
Commanded by Constantine (since March 18, King of the Hellenes).
On the latter, the Bulgarian advance had come to a standstill, as soon as King Constantine had brought up his reserves, and the counter-offensive opened on the 3rd.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, in recording the death of Constantine, which took place about the middle of the 6th century (Historic britonum), states that he was buried "close by Uther Pendragon, within the structure of stones which was set up with wonderful art not far from Salisbury, and called in the English tongue, Stonehenge."
Constantine introduced a new partition of the empire into dioceses, and the church adopted a similar division.
This feeling died down to some extent when Constantine made use of the church to consolidate his empire.
This was published in 1900 at the Phanar press, erected as a memorial to Theodore of Tarsus, archbishop of Canterbury, by Greek and English churchmen, which was set up by the patriarch Constantine V.
The patriarch Constantine V.
In 1899 there was further an interchange of courtesies between the archbishop of Canterbury and Constantine V., patriarch of Constantinople.
His son Constantine (d.
Alexander Ypsilanti (1792-1828), eldest son of Constantine Ypsilanti, accompanied his father in 1805 to St Petersburg, and in 1809 received a commission in the cavalry of the Imperial Guard.
Demetrios Ypsilanti (1793-1832), second SOD of Prince Constantine, distinguished himself as a Russian officer in the campaign of 1814, and in the spring of 1821 went to the Morea, where the war of Greek independence had just broken out.
1835), third son of Prince Constantine, founded a princely family still settled near Briinn.
Aurelian is said to have won a victory over them, but the province of Dacia had to be given up. In the time of Constantine the Great Thrace and Moesia were again plundered by the Goths, A.D.
Constantine drove them back and concluded peace with their king Ariaric in 336.
Jordanes records several traditions of their conflicts with other Teutonic tribes, in particular a victory won by Ostrogotha over Fastida, king of the Gepidae, and another by Geberic over Visimar, king of the Vandals, about the end of Constantine's reign, in consequence of which the Vandals sought and obtained permission to settle in Pannonia.
He was not a great theologian nor a profound thinker, but he was the most learned man of his age, and stood high in favour with the emperor Constantine.
Other historical works still extant are the Martyrs of Palestine and the Life of Constantine.
The Life of Constantine, in four books, published after the death of the emperor, which occurred in 337, is a panegyric rather than a sober history, but contains much valuable material.
Thus the Church History, first by Stephanus (Paris, 1 554); by Valesius with copious notes, together with the Life of Constantine, the Oration in Praise of Constantine, and the Histories of Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, &c. (best edition that of Reading (Cambridge, 1720), in three volumes, folio); by Heinichen (1827, second edition 1868-1870 in three volumes, a very useful edition, containing also the Life of Constantine and the Oration in Praise of Constantine, with elaborate notes); by Burton (1838; a handy reprint in a single volume by Bright, 1881), and by many cthers.
The Life of Constantine and the Oration in Praise of Constantine are published by Valesius, Heinichen and others in their editions of the Church History, also in the first volume of the Berlin Academy's edition (ed.
Quarrels broke out between the sisters, and, in order to secure her position, Zoe married Constantine, with whom she shared the throne till her death in 1050.
In his old age Constantine, who had once been a famous warrior, utterly neglected the defences of the empire and reduced his army by disbanding 50,000 of his best troops; on the other hand, he spent extravagant sums on luxuries and the erection of magnificent buildings.
Constantine X >>
The most ancient form is Aspalathum, used in the 10th century by Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
Diocletian, the organizing genius, became a bloodthirsty monster, and Constantine, the murderer, a saint.
Eusebius' biography of Constantine shows what distortion of fact the father of Church history permitted himself, but the Ecclesiastical History was fortunately written for those who wanted to know what really happened, and remains to-day an invaluable repository of Christian antiquities.
La.urentius Valla's brilliant attack on the "Donation of Constantine" (1440), and Ulrich von Hutten's rehabilitation of Henry IV.
Euphrosyne, a daughter of Constantine VI.
BISKRA, a town of Algeria, in the arrondissement of Batna, department of Constantine, 150 m.
of the city of Constantine and connected with it and with Philippeville by rail.
Considerable fragments of the work are preserved in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and in SuIdas.
It is said that in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus (648-685) an architect named Callinicus, who had fled from Heliopolis in Syria to Constantinople, prepared a wet fire which was thrown out from siphons (TO bta Twv o wwwv ic4 €pbjsevov 7rUp u-ypov), and that by its aid the ships of the Saracens were set on fire at Cyzicus and their defeat assured.
The Russian Geographical Society presented him with the great Constantine medal, and from all parts of Europe he received medals and honorary diplomas.
From the time of the emperor Constantine I.
" Processions," "Stations," "Translations" for details of processions under Constantine, and Du Cange, s.v.
His study of the Alexandrine theology, as well as of profane literature, brought him under the suspicions of the orthodox, and a former pupil of his, by name Constantine, accused him in an elegiac poem of having abandoned Christianity.
Michael Constantine Psellus the younger, born in 1018 (probably at Nicomedia; according to some, at Constantinople) of a consular and patrician family.
Under Constantine Monomachus (1042-1054) he became one of the most influential men lin the empire.
Under Isaac Comnenus and Constantine Ducas he exercised great influence, and was prime minister during the regency of Eudocia and the reign of his pupil Michael Parapinaces (1071-1078).
io) was delivered in 321 to celebrate the fifteenth anniversary of the accession of Constantine the Great, and the fifth of his son Constantine's admission to the rank of Caesar.
9), celebrating the victory of Constantine over Maxentius, delivered in 313 at Augusta Trevirorum (Trier), has often been attributed to Nazarius, but the difference in style and vocabulary, and the more distinctly Christian colouring of Nazarius's speech, are against this.
His illegitimate son and successor, Constantine erban (1654-58), was the last of the Bassaraba dynasty to rule over Walachia; and on his death the Turkish yoke again weighed heavier on his country.
Immediately on erban's death the boiars, to prevent the Porte from handing over the office to the Greek adventurer who bid the highest, proceeded to elect his sister's son Constantine Brancovan.
Constantine Mavrocordato was in this way hospodar of Walachia at six different times, and paid on one occasion as much as a million lion-dollars (40,000) for the office.
Constantine Mavrocordato was the author of really liberal reforms. He introduced an urbarium or land law, limiting to 24 the days of angaria, or forced labour, owed yearly by the peasants to their feudal lord.
In 1777 Constantine Murusi was made voivode of Moldavia in the same high-handed fashion.
On the accession of Constantine Ypsilanti (1802-6) in Walachia, and of Alexander Murusi (1802-6) in Moldavia, the Porte was constrained to issue a new hattisherif by which every prince was to hold his office for at least seven years, unless the protec- Porte satisfied the Russian minister that there were good and sufficient grounds for his deposition.
Next comes the legend of Constantine, of his town and his exploits - a remarkable collection of purely Byzantine legends.
Arius himself still lived, and his friend Eusebius of Nicomedia rapidly regained influence over the emperor Constantine.
It was brought to a close by the death of Constantine, and the accession as emperor of the West of Constantine II., who, in June 337, allowed Athanasius to return to Alexandria.
His position as bishop of Alexandria placed him, not under his patron Constantine, but under Constantius, another son of the elder Constantine, who had succeeded to the throne of the East.
Constantius decided to yield to the importunity of his brother Constans, who had succeeded Constantine II.
A series of his most defiant oppdnents had to go into banishment, Liberius of Rome, Hilarius of Poitiers and Hosius of Corduba, the last-named once the confidant of Constantine and the actual originator of the Ho y nousios, and now nearly a hundred years old.
Elne, the ancient Illiberis, was named Helena by the emperor Constantine in memory of his mother.
The work professes to have been written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, and is to be regarded as the composition of six authors, - Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lampridius, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus - known as Scriptores Historiae Augustae, writers of Augustan history.
The name Albanum, from about 150 B.C. till the time of Constantine, meant a villa in the Alban territory.
In some of the tombs of these legionaries coins of Maxentius have been found, while the Liber Pontificalis records that Constantine gave to the church of Albano "omnia scheneca deserta vel domos intra urbem Albanensem," which has generally been taken to refer to the abandoned camp. It was at this period, then, that the civitas Albanensis arose.
FLAVIUS VALERIUS CONSTANTIUS, commonly called Chlorus (the Pale), an epithet due to the Byzantine historians, Roman emperor and father of Constantine the Great, was born about A.D.
He was of Illyrian origin; a fictitious connexion with the family of Claudius Gothicus was attributed to him by Constantine.
Having distinguished himself by his military ability and his able and gentle rule of Dalmatia, he was, on the 1 st of March 293, adopted and appointed Caesar by Maximian, whose step-daughter, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, he had married in 289 after renouncing his wife Helena (the mother of Constantine).
As has been remarked above, the terror of postbaptismal sin and the fact that only one restoration was allowable influenced many as late as the 4th century to remain catechumens all their lives, and, like Constantine, to receive baptism on the deathbed alone.
On the west coast there is a monastery of great wealth with a church founded by Constantine IX.
He served as a conscript in one of Constantine's campaigns, and on his return became a Christian (314); he at once went to live an eremitical life near Dendera by the Nile, putting himself under the guidance of an aged hermit.
~Ethelstans greatest and best-remembered achievement was his, decisive victory in 937 at Brunanburhan unknown spot, probably by the Solway Firth or the Ribbleover a great confederacy of rebel Danes of Yorkshire, Irish Danes from Dublin, the Scottish king, Constantine, and Eugenius, king of Strathclyde.
But Henry made no endeavour for many years to utilize the papal grant of Ireland, which seems to have been made under the preposterous Donation of Constantine, the forged document which gave the bishop of Rome authority over all islands.
In two letters addressed to the emperors Constantine VIII.
After their father's death (963) he and his younger brother Constantine were nominal emperors during the actual reigns of Nicephorus Phocas, their stepfather, and John Tzimisces.
On the death of the latter (l0th of January 976) they assumed the sovereignty without a colleague, but throughout their joint reign Constantine exercised no power and devoted himself chiefly to pleasure.
The 1st hill is distinguished by the Seraglio, St Sophia and the Hippodrome; the 2nd by the column of Constantine and the mosque Nuri-Osmanieh; the 3rd by the war office, the Seraskereate Tower and the mosque of Sultan Suleiman; the 4th by the mosque of Sultan Mahommed II., the Conqueror; the 5th by the mosque of Sultan Selim; the 6th by Tekfour Serai and the quarter of Egri Kapu; the 7th by Avret Tash and the quarter of Psamatia.
The city was founded by Constantine the Great, through the enlargement of the old town of Byzantium, in A.D.
The creation of a new capital by Constantine was not an act of personal caprice or individual judgment.
When Constantine, therefore, established a new seat of government at Byzantium, he adopted a policy inaugurated before his day as essential to the preservation of the Roman dominion.
" Of all the events of Constantine's life," says Dean Stanley, " this choice is the most convincing and enduring proof of his real genius."
The landward wall started from a point near the present Stamboul custom-house, and reached the ridge of the 2nd hill, a little to the east of the point marked by Chemberli Tash (the column of Constantine).
According to Zosimus, the line of the landward walls erected by Constantine to defend New Rome was drawn at a distance of nearly 2 m.
It perpetuates the memory of the beautiful gateway which formed the triumphal entrance into the city of Constantine, and which survived the original bounds of the new capital as late as 1508, when it was overthrown by an earthquake.
It was to the ramparts of Constantine that the city owed its.
In the opinion of his courtiers, the bounds assigned to New Rome by Constantine seemed, it is said, too wide, but after some eighty years they proved too narrow for the population that had gathered within the city.
Hippodrome Wall of Byzantium..,, --?--, Wall of Constantine Byzantine Walls .
If we may trust two contemporary inscriptions, one Latin, the other Greek, still found on the gate Yeni Mevlevi Khaneh Kapusi (Porta Rhegium), the capital was again fully armed, and rendered more secure than ever, by the prefect Constantine, in less than two months.
The Mese linked together the great fora of the city, - the Augustalon on the south of St Sophia, the forum of Constantine on the summit of the 2nd hill, the forum of Theodosius I.
The forum of Constantine was a great business centre.
Its most remarkable monument was the column of Constantine, built of twelve drums of porphyry and bearing aloft his statue.
The imperial palace, founded by Constantine and extended by his successors, occupied the territory which lies to the east of St Sophia and the Hippodrome down to the water's edge.
St Irene, founded by Constantine, and repaired by Justinian, is in its present form mainly a restoration by Leo the Isaurian, in the middle of the 8th century.
So much did the race-course (begun by Severus but completed by Constantine) enter into the life of the people that it has been styled " the axis of the Byzantine world."
PHILIPPEVILLE, a seaport of Algeria, chief town of an arrondissement in the department of Constantine, and 54 m.
It is connected by railway with Constantine, Batna and Biskra.
The town derives its importance from being the port of Constantine.
Nor was the distinction obliterated by the recognition of Christianity as the state religion under Constantine.
According to the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the emperor Heraclius (610-640) invited the Serbs to come over to settle down in the devastated north-western provinces of the Byzantine empire and to defend them against the incursions of the Avars.
the " first-crowned "), the monks Domentiyan and Theodosius, Archbishop Danilo, Gregorius Tsamblak, Stephen Lazarevich, prince of Servia, and Constantine the Philosopher.
1338), and Constantine the Philosopher's Life of Despot Stephen Lazarevich, written in 1432.
They were much used by Constantine Lascaris in his Greek grammar and by Urban of Belluno (end of 15th cent.).
He soon found himself at variance with the Prince, who inaugurated in Crete very much the same autocratic policy that his elder brother, King Constantine, subsequently adopted in Greece in '9 ' 5-7.
But Venizelos' decision to accept this offer was incontinently vetoed by King Constantine; and Venizelos was forced to resign, though supported by a strong parliamentary majority and an all but unanimous public opinion.
King Constantine thereupon sent for Venizelos, and, after telling him that he would never consent to Greece drawing the sword against the allies of Germany, asked for his resignation.
To the Premier's remonstrance that, after the recent verdict of the general election in favour of his policy, the Crown was not entitled to refuse its sanction, Constantine replied that in matters of foreign policy he did not consider himself bound to follow the national will, feeling himself " personally responsible to God alone."
1916) he gave up all hope of converting Constantine to his views.
25 1916 he took ship with his leading partizans for Crete, whence he sent out his proclamation to the Greek people, calling upon all true patriots to disavow Constantine and his fatal policy and to flock to the standard of the Entente.
His call for volunteers was responded to with enthusiasm by all parts of Greece not held by Constantine's troops, and 60,000 men were soon gathered at Salonika.
When at last England and France proceeded to dethrone King Constantine, Venizelos returned to Athens a few days after his removal (June 27 1917) and took over the government of the whole of Greece.
His first measure was to convoke the Chamber elected in June 1915, whose dissolution by Constantine in Nov.
Had Alexander lived until after the election, Constantine would hardly have succeeded in making his return good.