Constantine sentence example
Constantine has been described by the orthodox historians of his time as a.
The premature death of Constantine, in May 641, left Heracleonas sole ruler.
The better sources make Sardica the scene of meeting and name Eusebius (of Nicomedia) as the prelate who attended Constantine.
To return to the evolution of ecclesiastical jurisdiction from the time of Constantine.
The family was illustrious and wealthy, and claimed descent from Constantine.Advertisement
The orthodoxy of the Eastern Church was also a result of the Church's development after the time of Constantine.
A number of usurpers laid claim to the throne, the most important of whom was Constantine.
It comprised the principalities of Tribunia or Travunja, with its capital at Trebinje; and Hlum or Hum, the Zachlumia of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, who gives a clear picture of this region as it was in the 10th century.'
The siege had lasted fifty-three days when, on the 29th of May 1453, a tremendous assault was successful; the desperate efforts of the Greeks were unavailing, Constantine himself falling among the foremost defenders of the breach.
During the campaign Peter had entered into alliance with the hospodars of Moldavia and Walachia, respectively Demetrius Cantemir and Constantine Brancovano, from whom he had received material assistance.Advertisement
In pursuance of this agreement Constantine Ypsilanti was appointed to Walachia and Alexander Muruzi to Moldavia - both devoted to Russian interests.
The place thereafter was subject either to the rulers of Tunis or of Constantine, but the citizens were noted for their frequent revolts.
And the Church policy, as old as the times of Constantine, to crush utterly the man who brings more problems and pressure than the bulk of traditional Christians can, at the time, either digest or resist with a fair discrimination, seemed to the authorities the one means to save the very difficult situation.
Dolmens, however, occur in great numbers in Tunisia and the province of Constantine.
Cirta (Constantine) and Bulla Regia (Hammam Darraj), its chief towns, received coloniae of soldiers and veterans, as well as Theveste (Tebessa) and Thamugas (Timgad).Advertisement
In all the towns of Algeria and Tunisia museums have been founded for storing the antiquities of the region; the most important of these are the museums of St Louis, Carthage and the palace of Bardo (musee Alaoui) near Tunis, those of Susa, Constantine, Lambessa, Timgad, Tebessa, Philippeville, Cherchel and Oran.
A visit to the Russian capital in November still further established his influence, and in 1862 he was appointed adjutant to the grand-duke Constantine.
Their history may be said to end with the reign of Constantine the Great.
When Constantine deposed the orthodox bishops who resisted, Auxentius was installed into the seat of Dionysius, bishop of Milan, and came to be regarded as the great opponent of the Nicene doctrine in the West.
A considerable fragment has been preserved from the sixth book, entitled Hitrpta KWVVTavTCVOUIroX€WS, a history of Byzantium from its earliest beginnings till the time of Constantine the Great.Advertisement
The emperors, however, favoured the cult, which was the army's favourite until Constantine destroyed its hopes.
Pope Stephen reconsecrated bishops consecrated in the usual way by his schismatical predecessor Constantine.
To these may be added a very short disquisition on the same subject addressed to Adalbold, and a similar one, on one of his own spheres, addressed to Constantine, abbot of Micy.
Constantine was martyred 684 by Simeon whom Constantine Pogonatus had sent to repress the movement.
The dictionary of mythology entitled 'Iwvca ("Collection of Violets"), which formerly used to be ascribed to her, was not composed till 1543 (Constantine Palaeokappa).Advertisement
Trajan as represented on the Arch of Constantine, Roman Art, Plate III., fig.
But Constantine, exhausted by the war with the Arabs, was unable to prevent the Bulgars, a tribe of Finno-Ugrian race, from crossing the Danube and settling in the district where their name still survives.
In order to restore peace in the church, Constantine summoned an ecumenical council (the sixth) at Constantinople, which held its sittings from the 7th of November 680 to the 16th of September 681.
As Theodosius is said to have left Britain in a sound and secure condition it has been suggested that to him was due the wall of the later Londinium, but there is little or no evidence for this opinion, and according to an old tradition Constantine the Great walled the city at the request of his mother Helena, presumed to be a native of Britain.
Howel Dda, king of West Wales, Owen, king of Cumbria, Constantine, king of the Scots, and Ealdred of Bamburgh, and henceforth he calls himself "rex totius Britanniae."Advertisement
In 934 he invaded Scotland by land and sea, perhaps owing to an alliance between Constantine and Anlaf Sihtricsson.
This confederacy of 937 was joined by Constantine, king of Scotland, the Welsh of Strathclyde, and the Norwegian chieftains Anlaf Sihtricsson and Anlaf Godfredsson, who, though they came from Ireland, had powerful English connexions.
Domitius Alexander, to declare war against Constantine as having brought about the death of his father Maximianus.
His intention of carrying the war into Gaul was anticipated by Constantine, who marched into Italy.
The ignorant assert that Constantine first gave temporal power to the See of Rome; it was already bestowed by Christ Himself, the true King and Priest, as inalienable from its nature and absolutely unconditional.Advertisement
After the marriage of his daughter Helena to Constantine he was first proclaimed "basileopater" in 919 and soon after crowned colleague of his son-in-law.
His reign, which was uneventful, except for an attempt to check the accumulation of landed property, was terminated by his own sons, Stephen and Constantine, who in 944 carried him off to the island of Prote and compelled him to become a monk.
Indeed his dominion became an object of uneasiness to the jealous statecraft of Byzantium, and Constantine Porphyrogenitus, writing for his son's instruction in the government, carefully enumerates the Alans, the Petchenegs, the Uzes and the Bulgarians as the forces he must rely on to restrain it.
It was, however, from a power that Constantine did not consider that the overthrow of the Khazars came.
Numerous fragments are also contained in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.Advertisement
The second railway connects the capital with the frontier of Algeria, where, at Suk Ahras, it joins the main line to Constantine, Algiers, &c. This line was built by the Bone-Guelma Company.
The Siegestor (or gate of victory) is a modern imitation of the arch of Constantine at Rome, while the stately Propylaea, built in 1854-1862, is a reproduction of the gates of the Athenian Acropolis.
Farther still on the right the 5th column (cavalry under Prince John of Liechtenstein) was to hold the northern part of the plateau, south of the Briinn-Olmiitz road; across the road itself was the corps of Prince Bagration, and in rear of Liechtenstein's corps was the reserve (Russians under the grand-duke Constantine).
The last serious attempt of the allies in the centre led to some of the hardest fighting of the day; the Russian Imperial Guard under the grand-duke Constantine pressed closely upon St Hilaire and Vandamme on the plateau, and only gave way when the French Guard and the Grenadiers came into action.
In middle age he became a convert to Christianity, and about 306 he went to Gaul (Treves) on the invitation of Constantine the Great, and became tutor to his eldest son, Crispus.Advertisement
Even when Constantine came of age,.
At length Constantine had her arrested, but foolishly pardoned her shortly afterwards.
On his return to Constantinople, Constantine managed to escape to the Asiatic coast, but being brought back practically by force he was seized and blinded.
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
In the printed text this document, entitled An Invective Against the Armenians, is dated 800 years after Constantine, but the author Isaac Catholicos almost certainly belonged to the earlier time.Advertisement
Desiring to wed the daughter of Constantine, king of Constantinople, he sends twelve envoys to ask her in marriage.
The character of Constantine in many respects resembles that of Alexius Comnenus; the slaying of a tame lion by one of the gigantic followers of Rother is founded on an incident which actually took place at the court of Alexius during the crusade of i ioi under duke Well of Bavaria, when King Rother was composed about 1160 by a Rhenish minstrel.
To check the inroads of the barbarians on the north of the Black Sea, Diocletian had resolved to transfer his capital to Nicomedia; but Constantine, struck with the advantages which the situation of Byzantium presented, resolved to build a new city there on the site of the old and transfer the seat of government to it.
The emperor Constantine, while advancing towards Rome from Gaul, besieged and took Verona (312); it was here, too, that Odoacer was defeated (499) by Theodoric the Goth, Dietrich von Bern - i.e.
His eldest son, Charles Constantine, succeeded to no more than the county of Vienne.
During the 15th century the grammarian, Constantine Lascaris, taught in Messina; and Bessarion was for a time archimandrite there.
The Bassarab dynasty became extinct with Constantine Sherban in 1658.
After a short stay at Constantinople, which his son Constantine had successfully defended against renewed incursions by the Avars, Heraclius resumed his attacks upon the Persians (627).
While Constantine at the beginning of his reign (313) declared complete religious liberty, and kept on the whole to this declaration, yet he confined his favours to the orthodox hierarchical church, and even by an edict of the year 326 formally asserted the exclusion from these of heretics and schismatics.
The Historia Augusta, which includes the lives of the emperors from Hadrian to Numerianus (117-284), is the work of six writers, four of whom wrote under Diocletian and two under Constantine.
In the closing years of Alexander's reign events in Poland cast their shadow before them, and in answer to political conspiracies Novosiltsov, formerly adviser to the Grand Duke Constantine as governor of Poland, upon his transfer to Lithuania initiated the persecution of liberal thought.
Cornelius Sulla for the payment of his soldiers; Nero removed no fewer than 500 bronze statues from the sacred precincts; Constantine the Great enriched his new city by the sacred tripod and its support of intertwined snakes dedicated by the Greek cities after the battle of Plataea.
Two treatises are sometimes erroneously attributed to him, one on the Emotions, the other a commentary on Aristotle's Ethics (really by Constantine Palaeocappa in the 16th century, or by John Callistus of Thessalonica).
The Imperial or Constantinian Indiction is so called because its establishment is attributed to Constantine.
From Rome it passed to Constantinople; at the end of the 9th century it was diligently studied by Leo VI., who himself wrote a work on tactics; and in the middle of the 10th century Constantine Porphyrogenitus mentioned it as one of the most valuable books in the imperial library.
Scipio's arrival in Africa in 204 gave him another chance, and no sooner had he joined the Roman general than he crushed his old enemy Syphax, and captured his capital Cirta (Constantine).
The constitutional changes of Diocletian and Constantine extended still further the power of the praefect, in whom, after the disbanding of the guards and the removal from Rome of the highest officials, the whole military, administrative and judicial powers were centred.
Down to the time of Constantine, who deprived the office of its military character, the prefecture of the guards was regularly held by tried soldiers, often by men who had fought their way up from the ranks.
Further, the praetorian praefect acquired, in addition to his military functions, a criminal jurisdiction, which he exercised not as the delegate but as the representative of the emperor, and hence it was decreed by Constantine (331) that from the sentence of the praetorian praefect there should be no appeal.
Under Constantine the institution of the magistri militum deprived the praetorian prefecture altogether of its military character, but left it the highest civil office of the empire.
Fragments of his universal history (`Iaropia KaBoXLKi 7), from the time of the Assyrian empire to his own days, his autobiography, and his life of Augustus (Bios Kacaapos) have been preserved, chiefly in the extracts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
In 312 the Praetorian Guard was suppressed by Constantine.
It is surprising to observe how early the Christian Church assumed the form of a state, and how speedily upon entering into its momentous alliance with the Roman imperial government under Constantine it acquired the chief of the and rerc prerogatives it v'as so long to retain.
In short, if we recall the characteristics of the Church in the Weft from the times of Constantine to those of Theodoric - its reliance upon the civil power for favours and protection, combined with its assumption of a natural superiority over the civil power and its innate tendency to monarchical unity - it becomes clear that Gregory VII.
Though nominally emperor from 912-959, it was not until 945 that Constantine could really be called sole ruler.
Though wanting in strength of will, Constantine possessed intelligence and many other good qualities, and his reign on the whole was not unsatisfactory.
Constantine was a painter and a patron of art, a literary man and a patron of literature; and herein consists his real importance, since it is to works written by or directly inspired by him that we are indebted for our chief knowledge of his times.
Shortly after this successful campaign he was seized with an illness, and believing it mortal appointed as his successor Constantine Ducas, to the exclusion of his own brother John.
Coeffeteau won considerable distinction in the controversy against the Protestant reformers and also wrote a History of Rome from Augustus to Constantine.
The accounts of his papacy preserved in the Liber pontificalis are little else than a record of the gifts said to have been conferred on the Roman church by Constantine the Great.
The story of his having baptized Constantine is pure fiction, as almost contemporary evidence shows the emperor to have received this rite near Nicomedia at the hands of Eusebius, bishop of that city.
The so-called Donation of Constantine was long ago shown to be spurious, but the document is of very considerable antiquity and, in Dellinger's opinion, was forged in Rome between 752 and 777.
According to this view the church was pure and uncorrupt till the time of Constantine, when Pope Sylvester gained the first temporal possession for the papacy, and so began the system of a rich, powerful and worldly church, with Rome for its capital.
Indeed the development of the whole hierarchy above the congregational bishop was largely influenced by the imperial system, especially after Church and State came into alliance under Constantine.
It is also implied in the congregational form and spirit of the earliest liturgies; but most of all in the discipline of the church before Constantine.
Algeria contains important deposits of phosphorite, especially near Tebessa and at Tocqueville in the province of Constantine.
The extreme licence of the Heliopolitan worship is often animadverted upon by early Christian writers, and Constantine, making an effort to curb the Venus cult, built a basilica.
We find little or no trace of them before Constantine made Christianity the state religion, i.e.
A large part of it remains as built by Constantine.
The circular church of Santa Costanza, also of the 4th century, served as a baptistery and contained the tomb of the daughter of Constantine.
St Agnes's bones are supposed to rest in the church of her name at Rome, originally built by Constantine and repaired by Pope Honorius in the 7th century.
All Europe, then, hailed with joy the exploit of Constantine Kanaris.
The intercourse between France and Siam began about 16So under Phra Narain, who, by the advice of his minister, the Cephalonian adventurer Constantine Phaulcon, sent an embassy to Louis XIV.
After the third partition the estates of the Czartoryskis were confiscated, and in May 1795 Adam and his younger brother Constantine were summoned to St Petersburg; later in the year they were commanded to enter the Russian service, Adam becoming an officer in the horse, and Constantine in the foot guards.
Constantine, recognizing the growing strength of the Church and wishing to enlist the loyal support of the Christians, treated them with increasing favour, and finally was baptized upon his death-bed (337).
On the death of Zajonczek in 1$26, the grand duke Constantine became Imperial lieutenant, and his administration, The Grand though erratic, was not unfavourable to displays nuke Con- of Polish nationality.
The Polish army had no stantine share in the Turkish War of 1829, largely, it is said, at the request of Constantine, who loved parades and thought that war was the ruin of soldiers.
The weakness of the Russian governor, General Gorchakov, in 1861 was a repetition of the feebleness of the Grand Duke Constantine in 1830.
In 1868 Count Constantine Tyszkiewicz published a valuable monograph on the Tombs of Lithuania and Western Ruthenia.
The printing of Greek began at Milan with the Greek grammar of Constantine Lascaris (1476).
It is divided, politically, into three departments, - Oran in the west, Algiers in the centre and Constantine in the east.
The Kebir or Rummel - the river is known by both names - is formed by the union of several small streams south of Constantine, and flows past that town N.W.
The Mejerda and its affluent the Mellegue, rivers of Tunisia, have their rise in Algeria, in the mountainous country east of Constantine.
One of the most remarkable groups of springs is near Guelma, in the department of Constantine.
Triassic rocks are considered to be present in Constantine and in the Jurjura.
To the Pliocene period the marine deposits of the Sahel of Algiers and of the Sahel Jijelli must be attributed; also the lacustrine marls and limestone of the basin of Constantine, and the ancient alluviums of the basins and depressions which bear no relation to the existing valleys.
The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.
Inland, besides Constantine, are the important towns of Tlemcen (24,060), Sidi bel Abbes (24,494), Mascara (18,989) and Blida (16,866).
Algeria is rich in minerals, found chiefly in the department of Constantine, where iron, lead and zinc, copper, calamine, antimony and mercury mines are worked.
A decree of 1857 granted to the Paris-Lyons Company the right to construct a line linking Algiers with Oran (266 m.) and Constantine (290 m.) and shorter lines joining the seaports to the trunk line, notably Philippeville to Constantine (54 m.).
By the Turks the country was divided into four provinces - Algiers and Titeri in the centre and south, Constantine in the east and Mascara or Oran in the west.'
Purely Mahommedan higher schools exist at Algiers, Tlemcen and Constantine.
At the beginning of the 16th century the native dynasties Constantine, and the bey of the west who resided at Y Mascara and afterwards at Oran.
He negotiated directly with the bey of Tunis with a view to installing as beys at Oran and Constantine Tunisian princes who recognized the authority of France.
At once firm and conciliatory, he had been able to attach to the French cause the natives whom the cruelty of Ahmed, bey of Constantine, had alienated.
Turning towards the east, Clausel organized at Bona the first expedition against Constantine.
Damremont, on his part, directed a second expedition on Constantine.
Marshal Sylvain Charles Valee (1773-1846), who replaced him, founded Philippeville to serve as a seaport for the region of Constantine, occupied Jijelli, and at the head of the expeditionary column returned from Constantine to Algiers by the interior, passing through Setif and les Portes de fer.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
The political history of the ancient world ends with the formation, under Diocletian and Constantine, of a universal state bearing the cast of Oriental as well as Graeco-Roman civilization.
The battlefield was the empire of Constantine and Theodosius.
He seems to have modified his doctrines through fear of Constantine.
From the plans of Todleben a new fort, Constantine, and four batteries were constructed (1856-1871) to defend the principal approach, and seven batteries to cover the shallower northern channel.
On his return to Poland in 1814, he entered the Russian army with the rank of a general officer, but a personal insult from the grand duke Constantine resulted in his retiring into private life.
The district called Dardania (in Upper Moesia), inhabited by the Illyrian Dardani, was formed into a special province by Diocletian with capital Naissus (Nissa or Nish), the birthplace of Constantine the Great.
By the partisans of the Empire, on the other hand, the Donation was looked upon as the fons et origo malorum, and Constantine was regarded as having, in his new-born zeal, betrayed his imperial trust.
The donations of Pippin and Charlemagne established him as sovereign de facto; the donation of Constantine was to proclaim him as sovereign de jure.
He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between 756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of Rome and the holy images.
In 330 it was enclosed by a basilica built by the orders of the emperor Constantine.
He was, indeed, received in St Petersburg with all honour; but as a diplomatist the "Iron Duke" - whom Nicholas, writing to his brother Constantine, described as "old.
The legends of the monks attribute the first religious settlements to the age of Constantine (274-337), but the hermitages are first mentioned in historical documents of the 9th century.
Under a constitution approved by the emperor Constantine Monomachos in 1045, women and female animals were excluded from the holy mountain.
Other interesting churches in the locality are those of St Petrock Minor, St Minver, St Michael, St Constantine, and, most remarkable of all, St Enodock's.
In the middle of the 8th century the emperor Constantine Copronymus settled a number of Armenian Paulicians in Thracia.
Long before Constantine we find her employing it in aid of the most distant churches, Territorial as far afield as Cappadocia and Arabia.
Her real Possessions property, confiscated under Diocletian, was restored of the Holy by Constantine, and since then had 'been continually See.
In the glitter that environs thee, rather wouldst thou be taken for the successor of Constantine than for the successor of Peter."
According to the general supposition, the negotiations which led to the excommunication of Arius and his followers among the presbyters and deacons took place in 318 or 319, but there are good reasons for assigning the outbreak of the controversy to the time following the overthrow of Licinius by Constantine, i.e.
It reached even the ears of Constantine.
Constantine accepted the decision of the council and resolved to uphold it.
Constantine, while strongly disposed at first to enforce the Nicene decrees, was gradually won to a more conciliatory policy by the influence especially of Eusebius of Caesarea and Eusebius of Nicomedia, the latter of whom returned from exile in 328 and won the ear of the emperor, whom he baptized on his death-bed.
Under the sons of Constantine Christian bishops in numberless synods cursed one another turn by turn.
Nisibis thrice endured unsuccessful siege (33 8, 346, 35 o), although meanwhile Constantine had suffered defeat at Singara (348).
Marco Botzaris's brother Kosta (Constantine), who fought at Karpenisi and completed the victory, lived to become a general and senator in the Greek kingdom.
Golitsuin was left in peace, however, and lived for the most part in retirement, till 1736, when he was arrested on suspicion of being concerned in the conspiracy of his son-in-law Prince Constantine Cantimir.
She formed a corps of Greek cadets, caused her younger grandson to be christened Constantine, and began the policy of presenting Russia to the Christian subjects of the Porte as their deliverer.
Forts Alexander and Constantine commanding the bridge are relics of the Russian occupation; the other forts are of TurkoVenetian origin.
Porphyrogenitus, but it is now generally bestowed upon Constantine, the brother and colleague of Basil II.
Thus he rewarded the Orthodox upstart, Prince Constantine Ortrogski, for his victory at Orsza by making him palatine of Troki, despite determined opposition from the Catholics; severely punished all disturbers of the worship of the Greek schismatics; protected the Jews in the country places, and insisted that the municipalities of the towns should be composed of an equal number of Catholics and Orthodox Greeks.
It is not possible to obtain even an approximate estimate of the numbers of the Christians at the time of Constantine.
The oracle continued to be consulted down to Christian times, until Constantine, and again later Theodosius, forbade the practice and closed the temple.
The donation made by Constantine to various churches of Rome of numerous estates belonging to the patrimonium Caesaris in the neighbourhood of Rome was of great historical importance, as being the origin of the territorial dominion of the papacy.
Under Jovian, Christianity was established as the state religion, and the Labarum of Constantine again became the standard of the army.
At the same time it is probable that, like Constantine's patronage of Christianity, his patronage of Buddhism, then the most rising and influential faith in India, was not unalloyed with political motives, and it is certain that his vast benefactions to the Buddhist cause were at least one of the causes that led to its decline.
This scheme, however, was defeated by the sudden elevation of Constantine at Eboracum (York) on the death of his father, and by the action of Maximianus and Maxentius in Italy.
It was at the instance of Galerius that the first of the celebrated edicts of persecution against the Christians was published, on the 24th of February 303, and this policy of repression was maintained by him until the appearance of the general edict of toleration (31 I), issued in his own name and in those of Licinius and Constantine.
The rest exists only in fragments preserved in Photius and the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
According to tradition the Vandals had been driven into Pannonia by the Goths in the time of Constantine.
Constantine Porphyrogenitus, in the 10th century, connects its early form, Lausa, with Xau, a "precipice."
In the division of Constantine, when the word " province " had lost its meaning, when Italy itself was mapped out into provinces, Sicily became one of these last.
Mezetius, commander of the Eastern army of Constans, revolted, but Sicily and Roman Italy kept their allegiance to the new emperor Constantine Pogonatus, who came in person to destroy him.
In 956 a peace or truce was made by the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
It should be compared with the De Cerimoniis of Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
A party too in Russia itself, headed by the tsar's brother the grand-duke Constantine, was clamorous for peace; but Alexander, after a vain attempt to form a new coalition, summoned the Russian nation to a holy war against Napoleon as the enemy of the orthodox faith.
When Julian visited the place in 362 the impudent population railed at him for his favour to Jewish and pagan rites, and to revenge itself for the closing of its great church of Constantine, burned down the temple of Apollo in Daphne.
Its inscribed stones date from the 4th century, one being in honour of Constantine the Great.
A further revision of this code is stated to have been made by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the son and successor of Leo, but this statement rests only on the authority of Theodorus Balsamon, a very learned canonist of the 12th century, who, in his preface to the Nomocanon of Patriarch Photius, cites passages from the Basilica which differ from the text of the code as revised by the emperor Leo.
This latter conclusion is the more probable from the circumstance, that the text of the code, as revised by the emperor Leo, agrees with the citations from the Basilica which occur in the works of Michael Psellus and Michael Attaliates, both of them high dignitaries of the court of Constantinople, who lived a century before Balsamon, and who are silent as to any second revision of the code having taken place in the reign of Constantine Porphyrogenitus, as well as with other citations from the Basilica, which are found in the writings of Mathaeus Blastares and of Constantine Harmenopulus, both of whom wrote shortly after Balsamon, and the latter of whom was far too learned a jurist and too accurate a lawyer to cite any but the official text of the code.
Thus (924) the English Chronicle - asserts that Constantine, king of Scotland, " chose Edward King to father and lord."
In Syria, the temple of Atargatis in Hierapolis was an immemorial resort of pilgrims. In Phoenicia, a similar significance was enjoyed by the shrine of Astarte, on the richly-watered source of the river Adonis, till, as late as the 4th century after Christ, it was destroyed by Constantine the Great.
The Sepulchre and the Hill of the Crucifixion were lost to the Christian pilgrim; and, consequently, before the era of Constantine, the one holy site in the town of Jerusalem was the so-called Coenaculum, which received its name in later years.
At the order of Constantine, the shrine of Venus above mentioned was destroyed, and the accumulated rubbish removed, till the ancient rockfoundation was reached.
The churches in Bethlehem and on the Mount of Olives were erected by Helena, the mother of Constantine, who herself undertook the pilgrimage to the Holy Land.
Eusebius, the contemporary of Constantine, is silent on this point.
Subsequently it was used as a personal title of honour for distinguished servants of Constantine I.
Under Constantine an entirely new meaning was given to the word Patrician.
The nine books of which it is composed begin with Constantine (323)(323) and come down to the death of Honorius (423); but according to his own statement he intended to continue it as far as the year 439 (see the Dedication of the work).
He was a member of the council of Basel, and dedicated to the assembled fathers a work entitled De concordantia Catholica, in which he maintained the superiority of councils over popes, and assailed the genuineness of the False Decretals and the Donation of Constantine.
By the early emperors it was allowed to fall into decay, but was afterwards restored by Constantine, from whom it took its modern name.
In his last years he travelled through Syria contending against the iconoclasts, and in the same cause he visited Constantinople at the imminent risk of his life during the reign of Constantine Copronymus.
But the choice was not justified, for Constantine, who as the friend and minister of Isaac had shown himself a capable statesman and financier, proved incompetent as an emperor.
In the year before Constantine's death the remnant of the Byzantine possessions in Italy was finally lost to the empire, and the chief town, Bari, taken by the Normans.
The conversion of Constantine to Christianity - or rather the profession of Christianity by Constantine - seemed likely to result in another Jewish persecution, foreshadowed by severe repressive edicts.
The story begins with Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who became fired with zeal to fix definitely the spots where the great events of Christianity had taken place, and in A.D.
His father Theodorus, one of the secretaries of the emperor Constantine Copronymus, had been scourged and banished for his zealous support of image-worship, and the son inherited the religious convictions of the father.
In 308, after the elevation of Licinius, he insisted on receiving the title of Augustus; on the death of Galerius, in 311, he succeeded to the supreme command of the provinces of Asia, and when Licinius and Constantine began to make common cause with one another Maximinus entered into a secret alliance with Maxentius.
He did for Buddhism what Constantine effected for Christianity; he organized it on the basis of a state religion.
In March 313 he married Constantia, half-sister of Constantine, at Mediolanum (Milan), in the following month inflicted a decisive defeat on Maximinus at Heraclea Pontica, and established himself master of the East, while his brother-in-law, Constantine, was supreme in the West.
In 314 his jealousy led him to encourage a treasonable enterprise on the part of Bassianus against Constantine.
In 323 Constantine, tempted by the "advanced age and unpopular vices" of his colleague, again declared war against him, and, having defeated his army at Adrianople (3rd of July 323), succeeded in shutting him up within the walls of Byzantium.
The defeat of the superior fleet of Licinius by Flavius Julius Crispus, Constantine's eldest son, compelled his withdrawal to Bithynia, where a last stand was made; the battle of Chrysopolis, near Chalcedon (18th of September), finally resulted in his submission.
Constantine is the residence of a general commanding a division, of a prefect and other high officials, is the seat of a bishop, and had a population in 1906 of 46,806, of whom 25,312 were Europeans.
The population of the commune, which includes the suburbs of Constantine, was 5 8, 435.
Constantine is walled, the extant medieval wall having been largely constructed out of Roman material.
Through the centre from north to south runs a street (the rue de France) roughly dividing Constantine into two parts.
The palace, built by Ahmed Pasha, the last bey of Constantine, between 1830 and 1836, is one of the finest specimens of Moorish architecture of the 19th century.
The native industry of Constantine is chiefly confined to leather goods and woollen fabrics.
Constantine, or, as it was orginally called, Cirta or Kirtha, from the Phoenician word for a city, was in ancient times one of the most important towns of Numidia, and the residence of the kings of the Massyli.
Frequently taken and retaken by the Turks, Constantine finally became under their dominion the seat of a bey, subordinate to the dey of Algiers.
In 1826 Constantine asserted its independence of the dey of Algiers, and was governed by Haji Ahmed, the choice of the Kabyles.
The Greek historians say nothing about Constantine having been made prisoner.
Constantine advanced with a numerous army, but was afraid of attacking the invaders.
Leo IV., the East Roman emperor, had recently died, leaving the crown to Constantine VI.
The state even afforded them protection against extreme cruelty on the part of their masters in respect of life and limb, but in laying down this rule English lawyers were able to follow the precedents set by late Roman jurisprudence, especially by measures of Hadrian, Antonine and Constantine the Great.
In 307 he brought the emperor Flavius Valerius Severus a captive to Rome, and also compelled Galerius to retreat, but in 308 he was himself driven by Maxentius from Italy into Illyricum, whence again he was compelled to seek refuge at Arelate (Arles), the court of his son-in-law, Constantine.
Here a false report was received, or invented, of the death of Constantine, at that time absent on the Rhine.
Serapis' (OsirisApis) who came to acquire the attributes of Aesculapius and of Pluto, god of the dead, sometimes had serpent-form, and even in the reign of Constantine popular belief connected the rise of the Nile with his agency (Frazer, Adonis, 398).
The term "Anatolia" appears first in the work of Constantine Porphyrogenitus (loth century).
In the realm of art the "middle ages" had already set in before Constantine robbed the arch of Titus to decorate his own, and before those museums of antiquity, the temples, were plundered by Christian mobs.
Valla by one vigorous effort destroyed the False Decretals and exposed the Donation of Constantine to ridicule, paving the way for the polemic carried on against the dubious pretensions of the papal throne by scholars of the Reformation.
In the time of Constantine, in return for assistance against the Bosporans and the native tribes, it regained its autonomy and received special privileges.
With the accession of Constantine, Christianity was introduced by the Romans into the parts of Wales already colonized, and the efforts of the Roman priests were later supplemented during the 5th, 6th and 7th centuries by the devoted labours of Celtic missionaries, of whom nearly five hundred names still remain on record.
He was born in the reign of Constantine (perhaps in 306) at or near Nisibis.
Meanwhile the persecutions of Constantine and Constantius brought about the decay of the Palestinian schools, and, probably in the 5th century, their recension of the Talmud was essentially complete.
Proofs of extensive Scandinavian settlement in Russia are to be found partly in the Russian names assigned to the Dnieper rapids by Constantine Porphyrogenitus, partly in references to this people made by foreign representatives at the court of Byzantium.
He identified himself entirely with Catharine's political ideas, even with that of re-establishing the Greek empire under her grandson Constantine.
In the time of Constantine I., according to Jordanes, they suffered a great defeat at the hands of Geberich, king of the Goths, their own king Visimar being killed, and the survivors were allowed by the Romans to settle in Pannonia.
He succeeded Leo II., but although chosen in 683 he was not ordained till 684, because the leave of the emperor Constantine was not obtained until some months after the election.
It leaves on the right the great Thermae of Constantine, of which the Austrians have cleared out the south-east part.
The gift, mentioned by Anastasius (in Sylv.), made by Constantine to the Vatican basilica, of a pharum of gold, garnished with Soo dolphins each holding a lamp, to burn before St Peter's tomb, points also to a custom well established before Christianity became the state religion.
By the time of Constantine the Great it seems to have been Christianized, and not long after it was the seat of an extensive bishopric. It was one of the first cities of Syria to be subjected to the Mahommedans, and it successfully resisted all the attempts of the Crusaders to wrest it from their hands.
The abuse naturally reappeared under a man like Domitian; the delators, with whom Vespasian had not interfered, although he had abolished trials for majestas, were again banished by Trajan, and threatened with capital punishment in an edict of Constantine; but, as has been said, the evil, which was an almost necessary accompaniment of autocracy, lasted till the end of the 4th century.
The remaining three are now our main sources for church history from Constantine to Theodosius II.
Christianity never succeeded in establishing itself here in the Byzantine period, though there was a bishopric of Tiberias, and a church built by Constantine.
The revolt of the Jews under Trajan, and earthquakes in the time of Constantius and Constantine the Great helped in turn to destroy it.
The 4 active divisions of the Greek army and 3 of the new divisions (5th, 6th, 7th) formed the main army in Thessaly under the Crown Prince Constantine, whose chief-of-staff was Gen.
A renewed frontal attack at the opportune moment broke into his position at Yenije Vardar, and, threatened on all sides, the Turks withdrew into Salonika, where their commander and 29,000 men surrendered to Constantine on the 9th.
Commanded by Constantine (since March 18, King of the Hellenes).
On the latter, the Bulgarian advance had come to a standstill, as soon as King Constantine had brought up his reserves, and the counter-offensive opened on the 3rd.
Geoffrey of Monmouth, in recording the death of Constantine, which took place about the middle of the 6th century (Historic britonum), states that he was buried "close by Uther Pendragon, within the structure of stones which was set up with wonderful art not far from Salisbury, and called in the English tongue, Stonehenge."
Constantine introduced a new partition of the empire into dioceses, and the church adopted a similar division.
This feeling died down to some extent when Constantine made use of the church to consolidate his empire.
In 1899 there was further an interchange of courtesies between the archbishop of Canterbury and Constantine V., patriarch of Constantinople.
Alexander Ypsilanti (1792-1828), eldest son of Constantine Ypsilanti, accompanied his father in 1805 to St Petersburg, and in 1809 received a commission in the cavalry of the Imperial Guard.
Demetrios Ypsilanti (1793-1832), second SOD of Prince Constantine, distinguished himself as a Russian officer in the campaign of 1814, and in the spring of 1821 went to the Morea, where the war of Greek independence had just broken out.
Aurelian is said to have won a victory over them, but the province of Dacia had to be given up. In the time of Constantine the Great Thrace and Moesia were again plundered by the Goths, A.D.
Constantine drove them back and concluded peace with their king Ariaric in 336.
Jordanes records several traditions of their conflicts with other Teutonic tribes, in particular a victory won by Ostrogotha over Fastida, king of the Gepidae, and another by Geberic over Visimar, king of the Vandals, about the end of Constantine's reign, in consequence of which the Vandals sought and obtained permission to settle in Pannonia.
He was not a great theologian nor a profound thinker, but he was the most learned man of his age, and stood high in favour with the emperor Constantine.
Other historical works still extant are the Martyrs of Palestine and the Life of Constantine.
The Life of Constantine, in four books, published after the death of the emperor, which occurred in 337, is a panegyric rather than a sober history, but contains much valuable material.
Thus the Church History, first by Stephanus (Paris, 1 554); by Valesius with copious notes, together with the Life of Constantine, the Oration in Praise of Constantine, and the Histories of Socrates, Sozomen, Theodoret, &c. (best edition that of Reading (Cambridge, 1720), in three volumes, folio); by Heinichen (1827, second edition 1868-1870 in three volumes, a very useful edition, containing also the Life of Constantine and the Oration in Praise of Constantine, with elaborate notes); by Burton (1838; a handy reprint in a single volume by Bright, 1881), and by many cthers.
Quarrels broke out between the sisters, and, in order to secure her position, Zoe married Constantine, with whom she shared the throne till her death in 1050.
In his old age Constantine, who had once been a famous warrior, utterly neglected the defences of the empire and reduced his army by disbanding 50,000 of his best troops; on the other hand, he spent extravagant sums on luxuries and the erection of magnificent buildings.
The most ancient form is Aspalathum, used in the 10th century by Constantine Porphyrogenitus.
Diocletian, the organizing genius, became a bloodthirsty monster, and Constantine, the murderer, a saint.
Eusebius' biography of Constantine shows what distortion of fact the father of Church history permitted himself, but the Ecclesiastical History was fortunately written for those who wanted to know what really happened, and remains to-day an invaluable repository of Christian antiquities.
Considerable fragments of the work are preserved in the excerpts of Constantine Porphyrogenitus and in SuIdas.
It is said that in the reign of Constantine Pogonatus (648-685) an architect named Callinicus, who had fled from Heliopolis in Syria to Constantinople, prepared a wet fire which was thrown out from siphons (TO bta Twv o wwwv ic4 €pbjsevov 7rUp u-ypov), and that by its aid the ships of the Saracens were set on fire at Cyzicus and their defeat assured.
The Russian Geographical Society presented him with the great Constantine medal, and from all parts of Europe he received medals and honorary diplomas.
His study of the Alexandrine theology, as well as of profane literature, brought him under the suspicions of the orthodox, and a former pupil of his, by name Constantine, accused him in an elegiac poem of having abandoned Christianity.
Michael Constantine Psellus the younger, born in 1018 (probably at Nicomedia; according to some, at Constantinople) of a consular and patrician family.
Under Constantine Monomachus (1042-1054) he became one of the most influential men lin the empire.
Under Isaac Comnenus and Constantine Ducas he exercised great influence, and was prime minister during the regency of Eudocia and the reign of his pupil Michael Parapinaces (1071-1078).
His illegitimate son and successor, Constantine erban (1654-58), was the last of the Bassaraba dynasty to rule over Walachia; and on his death the Turkish yoke again weighed heavier on his country.
Immediately on erban's death the boiars, to prevent the Porte from handing over the office to the Greek adventurer who bid the highest, proceeded to elect his sister's son Constantine Brancovan.
Constantine Mavrocordato was in this way hospodar of Walachia at six different times, and paid on one occasion as much as a million lion-dollars (40,000) for the office.
Constantine Mavrocordato was the author of really liberal reforms. He introduced an urbarium or land law, limiting to 24 the days of angaria, or forced labour, owed yearly by the peasants to their feudal lord.
In 1777 Constantine Murusi was made voivode of Moldavia in the same high-handed fashion.
On the accession of Constantine Ypsilanti (1802-6) in Walachia, and of Alexander Murusi (1802-6) in Moldavia, the Porte was constrained to issue a new hattisherif by which every prince was to hold his office for at least seven years, unless the protec- Porte satisfied the Russian minister that there were good and sufficient grounds for his deposition.
Next comes the legend of Constantine, of his town and his exploits - a remarkable collection of purely Byzantine legends.
Arius himself still lived, and his friend Eusebius of Nicomedia rapidly regained influence over the emperor Constantine.
It was brought to a close by the death of Constantine, and the accession as emperor of the West of Constantine II., who, in June 337, allowed Athanasius to return to Alexandria.
His position as bishop of Alexandria placed him, not under his patron Constantine, but under Constantius, another son of the elder Constantine, who had succeeded to the throne of the East.
Constantius decided to yield to the importunity of his brother Constans, who had succeeded Constantine II.
A series of his most defiant oppdnents had to go into banishment, Liberius of Rome, Hilarius of Poitiers and Hosius of Corduba, the last-named once the confidant of Constantine and the actual originator of the Ho y nousios, and now nearly a hundred years old.
Elne, the ancient Illiberis, was named Helena by the emperor Constantine in memory of his mother.
The work professes to have been written during the reigns of Diocletian and Constantine, and is to be regarded as the composition of six authors, - Aelius Spartianus, Julius Capitolinus, Aelius Lampridius, Vulcacius Gallicanus, Trebellius Pollio and Flavius Vopiscus - known as Scriptores Historiae Augustae, writers of Augustan history.
The name Albanum, from about 150 B.C. till the time of Constantine, meant a villa in the Alban territory.
In some of the tombs of these legionaries coins of Maxentius have been found, while the Liber Pontificalis records that Constantine gave to the church of Albano "omnia scheneca deserta vel domos intra urbem Albanensem," which has generally been taken to refer to the abandoned camp. It was at this period, then, that the civitas Albanensis arose.
He was of Illyrian origin; a fictitious connexion with the family of Claudius Gothicus was attributed to him by Constantine.
Having distinguished himself by his military ability and his able and gentle rule of Dalmatia, he was, on the 1 st of March 293, adopted and appointed Caesar by Maximian, whose step-daughter, Flavia Maximiana Theodora, he had married in 289 after renouncing his wife Helena (the mother of Constantine).
As has been remarked above, the terror of postbaptismal sin and the fact that only one restoration was allowable influenced many as late as the 4th century to remain catechumens all their lives, and, like Constantine, to receive baptism on the deathbed alone.
On the west coast there is a monastery of great wealth with a church founded by Constantine IX.
He served as a conscript in one of Constantine's campaigns, and on his return became a Christian (314); he at once went to live an eremitical life near Dendera by the Nile, putting himself under the guidance of an aged hermit.
But Henry made no endeavour for many years to utilize the papal grant of Ireland, which seems to have been made under the preposterous Donation of Constantine, the forged document which gave the bishop of Rome authority over all islands.
In two letters addressed to the emperors Constantine VIII.
After their father's death (963) he and his younger brother Constantine were nominal emperors during the actual reigns of Nicephorus Phocas, their stepfather, and John Tzimisces.
On the death of the latter (l0th of January 976) they assumed the sovereignty without a colleague, but throughout their joint reign Constantine exercised no power and devoted himself chiefly to pleasure.
The 1st hill is distinguished by the Seraglio, St Sophia and the Hippodrome; the 2nd by the column of Constantine and the mosque Nuri-Osmanieh; the 3rd by the war office, the Seraskereate Tower and the mosque of Sultan Suleiman; the 4th by the mosque of Sultan Mahommed II., the Conqueror; the 5th by the mosque of Sultan Selim; the 6th by Tekfour Serai and the quarter of Egri Kapu; the 7th by Avret Tash and the quarter of Psamatia.
The city was founded by Constantine the Great, through the enlargement of the old town of Byzantium, in A.D.
The creation of a new capital by Constantine was not an act of personal caprice or individual judgment.
When Constantine, therefore, established a new seat of government at Byzantium, he adopted a policy inaugurated before his day as essential to the preservation of the Roman dominion.
The landward wall started from a point near the present Stamboul custom-house, and reached the ridge of the 2nd hill, a little to the east of the point marked by Chemberli Tash (the column of Constantine).
According to Zosimus, the line of the landward walls erected by Constantine to defend New Rome was drawn at a distance of nearly 2 m.
It perpetuates the memory of the beautiful gateway which formed the triumphal entrance into the city of Constantine, and which survived the original bounds of the new capital as late as 1508, when it was overthrown by an earthquake.
It was to the ramparts of Constantine that the city owed its.
In the opinion of his courtiers, the bounds assigned to New Rome by Constantine seemed, it is said, too wide, but after some eighty years they proved too narrow for the population that had gathered within the city.
If we may trust two contemporary inscriptions, one Latin, the other Greek, still found on the gate Yeni Mevlevi Khaneh Kapusi (Porta Rhegium), the capital was again fully armed, and rendered more secure than ever, by the prefect Constantine, in less than two months.
The Mese linked together the great fora of the city, - the Augustalon on the south of St Sophia, the forum of Constantine on the summit of the 2nd hill, the forum of Theodosius I.
The forum of Constantine was a great business centre.
Its most remarkable monument was the column of Constantine, built of twelve drums of porphyry and bearing aloft his statue.
The imperial palace, founded by Constantine and extended by his successors, occupied the territory which lies to the east of St Sophia and the Hippodrome down to the water's edge.
St Irene, founded by Constantine, and repaired by Justinian, is in its present form mainly a restoration by Leo the Isaurian, in the middle of the 8th century.
So much did the race-course (begun by Severus but completed by Constantine) enter into the life of the people that it has been styled " the axis of the Byzantine world."
It is connected by railway with Constantine, Batna and Biskra.
The town derives its importance from being the port of Constantine.
Nor was the distinction obliterated by the recognition of Christianity as the state religion under Constantine.
According to the emperor Constantine Porphyrogenitus, the emperor Heraclius (610-640) invited the Serbs to come over to settle down in the devastated north-western provinces of the Byzantine empire and to defend them against the incursions of the Avars.
They were much used by Constantine Lascaris in his Greek grammar and by Urban of Belluno (end of 15th cent.).
He soon found himself at variance with the Prince, who inaugurated in Crete very much the same autocratic policy that his elder brother, King Constantine, subsequently adopted in Greece in '9 ' 5-7.
But Venizelos' decision to accept this offer was incontinently vetoed by King Constantine; and Venizelos was forced to resign, though supported by a strong parliamentary majority and an all but unanimous public opinion.
King Constantine thereupon sent for Venizelos, and, after telling him that he would never consent to Greece drawing the sword against the allies of Germany, asked for his resignation.
To the Premier's remonstrance that, after the recent verdict of the general election in favour of his policy, the Crown was not entitled to refuse its sanction, Constantine replied that in matters of foreign policy he did not consider himself bound to follow the national will, feeling himself " personally responsible to God alone."
His call for volunteers was responded to with enthusiasm by all parts of Greece not held by Constantine's troops, and 60,000 men were soon gathered at Salonika.
When at last England and France proceeded to dethrone King Constantine, Venizelos returned to Athens a few days after his removal (June 27 1917) and took over the government of the whole of Greece.
His first measure was to convoke the Chamber elected in June 1915, whose dissolution by Constantine in Nov.
Had Alexander lived until after the election, Constantine would hardly have succeeded in making his return good.
After the election, and Constantine's return to Athens as King, a noticeable revulsion of feeling set in, especially in provinces where the anti-Venizelist vote had been strong.
With the accession of Constantine Pogonatus in 668 the controversy once more revived, and the new emperor resolved to summon a general council.
Constantina, corresponding closely in extent to the modern French province of Constantine.
The former, better known as Amlaib (Olaf) Cuaran, married the daughter of Constantine, king of Scotland, and fought at Brunanburh (938).
At the close of the 15th century the city was governed by the archbishop in the name of the pope; but in 1428 Constantine, son of John VI., managed to get possession of it for a time.
After Constantine the emperors of the East in the 4th century merely put in an occasional appearance at Rome; they resided at Milan.
This new faith had appeared to Constantine likely to infuse young and healthy blood into the Empire.
The emperors Probus, Constantine, Julian and Valentinian, themselves foreigners, were worn out with repulsing these repeated assaults, and the general enervation of society did the rest.
Thus Rome allowed the wolves to mingle with the dogs in watching over the flock, just at a time when the civil wars of the 4th century had denuded the Rhenish frontier of troops, whose numbers had already been diminished by Constantine.
But in 797 the empress of Constantinople had just deposed her son Constantine VI.
Under Constantine it was united into one province with Umbria, an arrangement which subsisted until at least 400, as the Notitia speaks of a "consularis Tusciae et Umbriae."
In 321 Constantine, seeing probably that he had been wrong in abandoning his usual policy of toleration, sought to retrace his steps by granting the Donatists liberty to act according to their consciences, and declaring that the points in dispute between them and the orthodox should be left to the judgment of God.
The second part is the collection of councils, classified according to their regions, as it figures in the Hispana; the few spurious pieces which are added, and notably the famous Donation of Constantine, were already in existence.
Unwilling to grant a request counter to the papal claim (based on the forged Donation of Constantine) to dominion over the islands of the sea, Adrian made Henry a conciliatory proposal, namely, that the king should become hereditary feudal possessor of Ireland while recognizing the pope as overlord.
Before the partition, Tiridates, converted by St Gregory, " the Illuminator," had established Christianity as the religion of the state, and set an example followed later by Constantine.
He had a share in exposing the frauds of Constantine Simonides, who had asserted that the Codex Sinaiticus brought by Tischendorf from the Greek monastery of Mount Sinai was a modern forgery of which he was himself the author.
How far the Christian feeling of the 4th and 5th centuries was from being settled in favour of the employment of the fine arts is shown by such a case as that of Eusebius of Caesarea, who, in reply to a request of Constantia, sister of Constantine, for a picture of Christ, wrote that it was unlawful to possess images pretending to represent the Saviour either in his divine or in his human nature, and added that to avoid the reproach of idolatry he had actually taken away from a lady friend the pictures of Paul and of Christ which she had.
With regard to the symbol of the cross, its public use dates from the time of Constantine, though, according to many Christian archaeologists it had, prior to that date, a very important place in the so-called "disciplina arcani."
He was captured and beheaded with his accomplices in November 742, and in February 754 Constantine held in the palace of Hieria a council of 388 bishops, mostly of the East; the patriarchs of Rome, Antioch, Alexandria and Jerusalem refused to attend.
Irene's patriarch Nicephorus was now deposed and one Theodotus, a kinsman of Constantine Copronymus, consecrated in his place on the ist of April 815.
But Constantine refused aid, and the pope turned to the Frankish King Pippin.
In the Roman empire, after Constantine, the title rector was borne by governors of provinces subordinate to the prefects or exarchs.
The Eski Juma, or Old Mosque, is another interesting basilica, evidently later than Constantine, with side aisles and an apse without side chapels.
Constantine repaired the port, and probably enriched the town with some of its buildings.
The first fruits of this arrangement, which was based on no firmer foundation than the forged "Donation of Constantine" (q.v.), but destined to give to the papacy a position of independence towards both the Eastern and Western Empires, was the reduction in the autumn, with Norman aid, of Galera, where the anti-pope had taken refuge, and the end of the subordination of the papacy to the Roman nobles.
Rescripts of Constantine (326)(326) and Julian (362) are dated from Spoleto.