How to use Constant in a sentence
Anything was better than this constant conflict.
Could she be constant in her attachments?
It was dark, but the constant lightning flashes exposed a world of wildly waving branches.
Constant repetition makes it easier to learn how to spell a word.
The enormous study was full of things evidently in constant use.Advertisement
Constant practice makes the fingers very flexible, and some of my friends spell rapidly--about as fast as an expert writes on a typewriter.
The entire trip took just over an hour with the driver, a volunteer from Amarillo, Texas who never stopping his constant drawl of friendly conversation, little of which Dean heard.
While back-country skiing was also popular, the ever constant danger of killing snow slides made marked trails a safer method of enjoying this vigorous sport.
Alex and Bill had run a water line to the hutches, so they had a constant supply of fresh water.
You've been the one constant in my life since this mess started.Advertisement
Only once afterward in fifteen years was their constant companionship broken for more than a few days at a time.
An IV in her arm dripped a constant dose of powerful anesthetic.
Soldiers were passing in a constant stream along the street blocking it completely, so that Alpatych could not pass out and had to wait.
Indeed, I feel that the success is hers more than mine; for she is my constant inspiration....
Sackler and DeLeo, partners for nearly 12 years, had more in common than their constant arguing would suggest.Advertisement
Thanks for your help, but around here we're waging a constant war against nature.
During these years there was constant warfare between the English and the Scots on the border, but in May 1524 Albany was obliged to retire to France.
She learned it gladly when she discovered that she could herself read what she had written; and this still affords her constant pleasure.
Her make-up was smeared from walking through the Monterey mists, her maid-of-honor dress wrinkled from constant sitting and standing.
Forced to flee by the treachery of the very men whom he had succoured, he lived for a time in constant fear of being captured by Saul, and at length took refuge with Achish king of Gath and established himself in Ziklag.Advertisement
Prince Andrew was on duty that day and in constant attendance on the commander-in-chief.
C. Druce's will; and the case became the subject of constant proceedings in the law-courts without result.
You'd think the plan was to help the survivors, but I'm in a constant battle with others who want to wipe out everything east of the Mississippi and just start over.
It is marked by the constant and continuous absorption of a certain quantity of oxygen and bythe exhalation of a certain volume of carbon dioxide and water vapour.
In the article Thermodynamics it is shown that the amount of heat required to raise a given weight of a gas through a certain range of temperature is different according as the gas is maintained at constant pressure, the volume in creasing, or at constant volume, the pressure increasing.Advertisement
Anyone projecting an end to the historical constant of war had better be ready to overcome no small amount of justified skepticism.
In a sleigh drawn by two gray trotting-horses that were bespattering the dashboard with snow, Anatole and his constant companion Makarin dashed past.
There was no other purr aside from the constant, low hum similar to the hum surrounding electric wires.
When a water jet serves as collector, the pressure under which it issues should be practically constant.
His attention to all trade questions was close and constant; he was a member of the council of trade and plantations appointed in 1670, and was its president from 1672 to 1676.
In Ireland the game took root very gradually, but in Ulster, owing doubtless to constant intercourse with Scotland, such clubs as have been founded are strong in numbers and play.
For reasons of health it may be assumed that no system of heating is advisable which does not provide for a constant renewal of the air in the locality warmed.
To the saintliness of the cloister he added the wisdom of the man of the world; he was constant in misfortune, not elated by prosperity, never "carrying things to the sweating-point'," but preserving, in a time of universal corruption, unreality and self-indulgence, a nature sweet, pure, self-denying, unaffected.
An electuary of opium, known as Mithradatum, was invented by Mithradates VI., king of Pontus, who lived in constant fear of being poisoned, and tested the effects of poisons on criminals, and is said to have taken poisons and their antidotes every day in the year.
The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
The need for a constant supply of water is partly based upon the constitution of protoplasm, so far as we know it.
This system of channels is in communication with the outer atmosphere through numerous small apertures, known as stomata, which are abundant upon the leaves and young twigs, and gaseous interchange between the plant and the air is by their assistance rendered constant and safe.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
Many Staphylinidae are constant inmates of ants' nests.
He was in constant fear of assassination and distrusted all around him.
In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
Lucy eventually realized that her constant attraction the the casanova of the town could only end in disaster.
Linss (6) found that an insulated conductor charged either positively or negatively lost its charge in the free atmosphere; the potential V after time t being connected with its initial value Vo by a formula of the type V = Voe - at where a is constant.
One of the constant features of respirationthe exhalation of carbon dioxide can still be observed.
To obtain a correct idea of this region it must be borne in mind also that the course of the river and the features of the country on both banks are subject to constant fluctuation.
The fundamental uniform fact in nature is constant change (lravra Xwpei Kai ovSiv Ova); everything both is and is not at the same time.
Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.
To the men of the middle ages, in any case, St Catherine was very real; she was ranked with the fourteen most helpful saints in heaven, and was the constant theme of preachers and of poets.
In this capacity he exercised a wide influence on local opinion, and the revolt of the Newcastle electorate in later years against doctrinaire Radicalism was largely due to his constant preaching of a broader outlook on national affairs.
Constant use, increased friction (m o r e especially at high speeds), and damage to the rotator will alter an ascertained log error; head or following seas, strong winds, currents and tidal streams also FIG.
The best way of deducing r„ is to select portions of the dynamometer record where the speed is constant.
The lead is variable in the Stephenson link motion, whilst in the Walschaert and the Joy gears it is constant.
In a particular case where the boiler pressure was maintained constant at 130 lb per square inch, and the cut-off was approximately 20% of the stroke, the values c =55 and b=o 031 were deduced, from which it will be found that the value of the piston speed corresponding to the maximum horsepower is 887 ft.
It is necessary that the voltage of the current shall be constant whatever be the increase of the speed of the train, and therefore of the dynamo.
In most of the systems that have been proposed this result is attained by electrical regulation; in one, however, a mechanical method is adopted, the dynamo being so' hung that it allows the driving belt to slip when the speed of the axle exceeds a certain limit, the armature thus being rotated at an approximately constant speed.
It is with a full knowledge of these difficulties in the way of investigation that they maintain that unmistakably genuine phenomena are of constant occurrence.
Among the Jews the preaching of the prophets had been a constant protest against the grosser forms of sacrifice, and there are indications that when Christianity arose bloody sacrifices were already beginning to fall into disuse; a saying which was attributed by the Ebionites to Christ repeats this protest in a strong form, "I.
Of this invocation, which is constant in all Eastern rituals, there are few, though sufficient, surviving traces in Western rituals.'
Traces remain of the circuit wall, and of a sanctuary with copious terra-cotta offerings; the large necropolis yields constant loot to illicit excavation.
In Turkish cemeteries the cypress "Dark tree, still sad when others' grief is fled, The only constant mourner o'er the dead" is the most striking feature, the rule being to plant one for each interment.
He constructed a map of as many as 576 of these lines, the principal of which he denoted by the letters of the alphabet from A to G; and by ascertaining their refractive indices he determined that their relative positions are constant, whether in spectra produced by the direct rays of the sun, or by the reflected light of the moon and planets.
His manners, if formal, were refined; his conversation, when he felt himself at home, interesting and unaffected; and that he was capable alike of feeling and inspiring a very constant friendship there are many witnesses to show.
This affords an example of a principle which had been stated by Hess in a very general form under the name of the Law of Constant Heat Sums - namely, that the thermal effect of a given chemical action is the same, independently of the character and number of the stages in which it takes place.
The total thermal effect, too, which is associated with the transformation, must be the same, whether the transformation is conducted directly or indirectly (Hess's Law of Constant Heat Sums), since the thermal effect depends only on the intrinsic energies of the initial and final systems.
Throughout his life, and to the very end, "work" was his constant inspiration.
His words to Benjamin Constant - "I am growing old.
The two authors were in constant communication, and the classifications they adopted had much in common.
When no external force acts, the case which we shall consider, there are three integrals of the equations of motion (i.) T =constant, x 2 +x 2 +x 2 =F 2, a constant, (iii.) x1y1 +x2y2+x3y3 =n = GF, a constant; and the dynamical equations in (3) express the fact that x, x, xs.
Numbers of Scotch sailors and of English deserters served in the Dutch fleet in this war - the bad administration of the navy and the constant ill-treatment of the crews having caused bitter discontent.
If now it is required to find the heat of formation of the compound CO, which cannot be directly ascertained, we have merely to subtract the second equation from the first, each symbol representing constant intrinsic energy, and thus we obtain C+0 - 00= 26300 cal., or C+0=C0+26300 cal., that is, the heat of formation of a gramme-molecule of carbon monoxide is 26300 cal.
It has already been stated that the heats of neutralization of acids and bases in aqueous solution are additively composed of two terms, one being constant for a given base, the other constant for a given acid.
Canaan (Palestine and the south Phoenician coast land) and Amor (Lebanon district and beyond) were under the constant supervision of Egypt, and Egyptian officials journeyed round to collect tribute, to attend to complaints, and to assure themselves of the allegiance of the vassals.
This involved constant contact with officials of the warring countries, especially those of Germany, but he soon showed that the work was entirely neutral.
The political history during the royal period is, like that of the other colonies, the story of a constant struggle between the representatives of the people and the representatives of the crown.
The history of Pomerania, as distinct from that of Pomerellen, consists mainly of an almost endless succession of divisions of territory among the different lines of the ducal house, and of numerous expansions and contractions of territory through constant hostilities with the elector of Brandenburg, who claimed to be the immediate feudal superior of Pomerania, and with other neighbouring rulers.
As in the Oligochaeta the peristomial segment is often without setae; but this character is not by any means so constant as in the Oligochaeta.
Their position varies, but is constant for the species, and they are rarely found behind the gonads.
Taylor did not vacate his fellowship at Cambridge before 1636, but he spent, apparently, much of his time in London, for Laud desired that his "mighty parts should be afforded better opportunities of study and improvement than a course of constant preaching would allow of."
Here he became private chaplain to Richard Vaughan, 2nd earl of Carbery (1600-1686), whose hospitable mansion, Golden Grove, is immortalized in the title of Taylor's still popular manual of devotion, and whose first wife was a constant friend of Taylor.
A year or two later field trials were begun in England, with the final result that basic slag has become recognized as a valuable source of phosphorus for growing crops, and is now in constant demand for application to the soil as a fertilizer.
Meantime hostilities more car less constant continued with England, but, though in 1322 Edward made an incursion as far as Edinburgh, the internal weakness of his government prevented his gaining any real success, while in October of this year Bruce again ravaged Yorkshire, defeated the English near Byland, and almost captured their king.
His general formula for getting at the number of units in any sensation is S = C log R, where s stands for the sensation, R for the stimulus numerically estimated, and c for a constant that must be separately determined by experiment in each particular order of sensibility.
That work was carried out by Benjamin Constant in concert with the emperor.
The secret of this character lies evidently in a constant attempt to express an ideal in forms more and more closely approaching to realities.
Nevertheless, the constant increase of our knowledge of insect forms renders classification increasingly difficult, for gaps in the series become filled, and while the number of genera and families increases, the distinctions between these groups become dependent on characters that must seem trivial to the naturalist who is not a specialist.
In so large and so homogeneous a group as that of the true Passerines, a constant 1 An abstract is contained in the Minute-book of the Scientific Meetings of the Zoological Society, 26th June and 10th July 1838.
The channel required constant dredging and was altogether inconvenient; yet for many years it remained the main sea approach to Venice.
There was a constant feud between the chief of Bobbili and the raja of Vizianagram; and when Bussy marched to restore order the raja persuaded him that the fault lay with the chief of Bobbili and joined the French with 11,000 men against his rival.
The lemniscate of Bernoulli may be defined as the locus of a point which moves so that the product of its distances from two fixed points is constant and is equal to the square of half the distance between these points.
Several facts point to the conclusion that the primary use of this secretion was the formation of egg-cases or cocoons by the female, for this is the only constant use for which the silk is employed, without exception, by all species.
In this table measurements of price movements stated both absolutely and as percentages of price levels are given, because authorities have expressed doubts as to whether the former or the latter might be expected to remain constant, other things being equal, when price rose.
Before the accession of Zengi, there had been constant fighting, which had led, however, to no definite result, between the various Mahommedan princes and the Franks of northern Syria.
The constant pressure of Tancred of Antioch and Baldwin de Burgh of Edessa led to a series of retaliations between 11 io and 1115; Edessa was attacked in 1110, 1111, 1112 and 1114; and in 1113 Maudud of Mosul had even penetrated as far as the vicinity of Acre and Jerusalem.
But it is important to bear in mind the continuity of the Crusades - the constant flow of new forces eastward and back again westward; for this alone explains why the Crusades formed a great epoch in civilization, familiarizing, as they did, the West with the East.
The haemoglobin would, by its pre-eminent properties of fixing oxygen, serve to furnish the nerve system, which more than any other requires a constant supply, with the necessary oxygen.
With respect to the sense organs of the Nemertines, we find that eyes are of rather constant occurrence, although many Heteronemertines living in the mud appear to be blind.
Each instrument is accompanied by a pair of weights and by a square root table, so that the product of the square root of the number corresponding to the position of the sliding weight and the ascertained constant for each weight, gives at once the value of the current in amperes.
When the English colonies of the Carolinas and Georgia were founded, there was constant friction with Florida.
The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of the British.
But there is some evidence that, in accordance with the strong and constant tradition among the alchemists, the idea of transmutation did originate in Egypt with the Greeks of Alexandria.
Thus, in the treatise known as Physica et Mystica and falsely ascribed to Democritus (such false attributions are a constant feature of the literature of alchemy), various receipts are given for colouring and gilding metals, but the conception of transmutation does not occur.
The museums, enriched by a constant inflow of works of art and inscriptions, have been carefully and scientifically arranged, and afford opportunities for systematic study denied to scholars of the past generation.
But his whole official career was a constant struggle with narrow routine and personal jealousy on the part of the boyars and clerks of the council.
Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.
When the same two elements combine together to form more than one compound, the different masses of one of the elements which unite with a constant mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another.
This formula, notwithstanding many attempts at both disproving and modifying it, has well stood the test of time; the subject has been the basis of constant discussion, many variations have been proposed, but the original conception of Kekule remains quite as convenient as any of the newer forms, especially when considering the syntheses and decompositions of the benzene complex.
The next advance was made by Joseph Louis Proust, whose investigations led to a clear grasp of the law of constant proportions.
Experiment, however, showed that while the quotient on the left hand of this equation was fairly constant for a great number of substances, yet its value was not gR but 7 R; this means that the critical density is, as a general rule, 3.7 times the theoretical density.
This states that " the atomic heat (the product of the atomic weight and specific heat) of all elements is a constant quantity."
The value of this constant when 11= i is about 6.4; Dulong and Petit, using 0=1, gave the value.
Nilson and Pettersson's observations on beryllium and germanium have shown that the atomic heats of these metals increase with rise of temperature, finally becoming constant with a value 5.6.
In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.
The identity of the four valencies of the carbon atom follows from the fact that the heats of combustion of methane, ethane, propane, trimethyl methane, and tetramethyl methane, have a constant difference in the order given, viz.
It therefore appears that the difference between the heats of combustion of two adjacent members of a series of homologous compounds is practically a constant, and that this constant has two average values, viz.
It is remarkable that the difference in the heats of formation of ketones and the paraffin containing one carbon atom less is 67.94 calories, which is the heat of formation of carbon monoxide at constant volume.
P. Dale; the more simple formula (n - i)/d, which remained constant for gases and vapours, but exhibited slight discrepancies when liquids were examined over a wide range of temperature, being adopted.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Mossotti found a relation between the dielectric constant and the space actually occupied by the molecules, viz.
K= (I +2a)/(I -a), or a=(K-I)/(K+2), where K is the dielectric constant and a the fraction of the total volume actually occupied by matter.
Since a/d is the real specific volume of the molecule, it is therefore a constant; hence (N2-I)/(N2+2)d is also a constant and is independent of all changes of temperature, pressure, and of the state of aggregation.
The relation they suspected to be of the form -yS = KT, where K is a constant analogous to R, and S the surface containing one gramme-molecule, y and T being the surface tension and temperature respectively.
This is of constant occurrence in classical pianoforte music, in which thick chords are subjected to polyphonic laws only in their top and bottom notes, while the inner notes make a solid mass of sound in which numerous consecutive fifths and octaves are not only harmless but essential to the balance of tone.
At the end of each twig is a membrane pierced by pores, and a number of cilia depend into the lumen of the tube; these cilia maintain a constant motion.
Constant punitive measures were carried on by the military police; but in December 1892 a police column proceeding to establish a post at Sima was heavily attacked, and simultaneously the town of Myitkyina was raided by Kachins.
All the well-known breeds of dogs are highly artificial and their maintenance requires the constant care of the breeder in mating, and in rejecting aberrant progeny.
As regards domestic morality, the system offered constant facilities for libertinism, and tended to subvert domestic peace by compromising the dignity and ruining the happiness of the wife.
Though the Roman slaves were not, like the Spartan Helots, kept obedient by systematic terrorism, their large numbers were a constant source of danger.
He had constant encounters with the mob, but his tact and courage never failed.
As this led to constant disputes, Henry VII.
During the 14th century there were constant quarrels between the citizens and the abbey of St Mary's about the suburb of Bootham, which the citizens claimed as within the jurisdiction of the city, and the abbey as a separate borough.
The favouring bionomic conditions are those of a relatively constant environment under which relatively stereotyped responses are advantage ous.
Natural selection which, under a uniform and constant environment, leads to the survival of relatively fixed and definite modes of response, under an environment presenting a wider range of varying possibilities leads to the survival of plastic accommodation through intelligence.
Its ten Sephiroth are made up of the grosser elements of the former three worlds; they consist of material substance limited by space and perceptible to the senses in a multiplicity of forms. This world is subject to constant changes and corruption, and is the dwelling of the evil spirits.
The heading "Measurement of Dynamical Quantities" includes the topics units, measurements, and the constant of gravitation.
On the 12th of July 1444 a ten years' peace was signed with Hungary, whereby Walachia was placed under the suzerainty of that country; and, wearied by constant warfare and afflicted by the death of his eldest son, Prince Ala-ud-din, Murad abdicated in favour of his son Mahommed, then only fourteen years of age, and retired to Magnesia (1444).
The Kurds, the constant oppressors of that people, had received official recognition and almost complete immunity from the control o f the civil law by being formed into a Y g eo Y manry frontier-guard known as the Hamidian cavalry.
Crete being thus removed from the scope of her action, Turkey found ample occupation in the almost constant turbulence of the Yemen, of Albania and of Macedonia.
With horses only just recovering from an epidemic, they proved quite unequal to the task of catching the Cossacks, who swarmed round them in every direction, never accepting an engagement but compelling a constant watchfulness for which nothing in their previous experience had sufficiently prepared the French.
Narbonne's place had been supplied by Benjamin Constant, whom she first met at Coppet in 1794, and who had a very great influence over her, as in return she had over him.
She journeyed, in company with Constant, by Metz and Frankfort to Weimar, and arrived there in December.
She was again at Coppet in the summer of 1808 (in which year Constant broke with her, subsequently marrying a German lady) and set to work at her book, De l'Allemagne.
There is no direct evidence of it, but the conduct of her close ally Constant may be quoted in its support, and it is certain that she had no affection for the Bourbons.
Take away her assiduous frequentation of society, from the later philosophe coteries to the age of Byron - take away the influence of Constant and Schlegel and her other literary friends - and probably little of her will remain.
Since the beginning of the 19th century they have been bigoted Wahhabis, though previously regarded by their neighbours as very lax Mahommedans; during Mehemet Ali's occupation of Nejd their constant raids on the Egyptian communications compelled him to send several punitive expeditions into the district, which, however, met with little success.
It would seem that, on the whole, nitrogen compounds in the ocean (whether existing in the organic or inorganic forms) remain constant in amount.
The quantities of oxygen and carbonic acid in the sea are nearly constant so far as we can determine.
The bed of the great river maintains a fairly constant position between its extreme banks, but the channels within that bed are so constantly shifting as to require close supervision on the part of the navigation authorities; so much detritus is carried down as to form a perpetually changing series of obstructions to steamer traffic.
In batteries which use acids as the electrolyte, a film of hydrogen tends to be deposited on the copper or platinum electrode; but, to obtain a constant electromotive force, several means were soon devised of preventing the formation of the film.
Constant cells may be divided into two groups, according as their action is chemical (as in the bichromate cell, where the hydrogen is converted into water by an oxidizing agent placed in a porous pot round the carbon plate) or electrochemical (as in Daniell's cell, where a copper plate is surrounded by a solution of copper sulphate, and the hydrogen, instead of being liberated, replaces copper, which is deposited on the plate from the solution).
Hence it is probable that in cases where the transport number keeps constant with 00000 0 0.
Again, water, the best electrolytic solvent known, is also the body of the highest specific inductive capacity (dielectric constant), and this property, to whatever cause it may be due, will reduce the forces between electric charges in the neighbourhood, and may therefore enable two ions to separate.
The number of undissociated molecules is then I - a, so that if V be the volume of the solution containing I gramme-molecule of the dissolved substance, we get q= and p= (I - a)/V, hence x(I - a) V =yd/V2, and constant = k.
The value of k, however, does not keep constant so satisfactorily in the case of highly dissociated substances, and empirical formulae have been constructed to represent the effect of dilution on them.
This is fully borne out by the experiments of Julius Thomsen, who found that the heat of neutralization of one gramme-molecule of a strong base by an equivalent quantity of a strong acid was nearly constant, and equal to 13,700 or 13,800 calories.
In the case of weaker acids, the dissociation of which is less complete, divergences from this constant value will occur, for some of the molecules have to be separated into their ions.
In order that the current should be maintained, and the electromotive force of the cell remain constant during action, it is necessary to ensure that the changes in the cell, chemical or other, which produce the current, should neither destroy the difference between the electrodes, nor coat either electrode with a non-conducting layer through which the current cannot pass.
As an example of a fairly constant cell we may take that of Daniell, which consists of the electrical arrangement - zinc zinc sulphate solution copper sulphate solution copper, - the two solutions being usually separated by a pot of porous earthenware.
In spite of this appearance, however, while the supply of copper is maintained, copper, being more easily separated from the solution than zinc, is deposited alone at the cathode, and the cell remains constant.
When the solutions may be taken as effectively dilute, so that the gas laws apply to the osmotic pressure, this relation reduces to E _ nrRT to c1 ey gE c2 where n is the number of ions given by one molecule of the salt, r the transport ratio of the anion, R the gas constant, T the absolute temperature, y the total valency of the anions obtained from one molecule, and c i and c 2 the concentrations of the two solutions.
To pass a steady current in the direction opposite to this electromotive force of polarization, the applied electromotive force E must exceed that of polarization E', and the excess E - E' is the effective electromotive force of the circuit, the current being, in accordance with Ohm's law, proportional to the applied electromotive force and represented by (E - E')/ R, where R is a constant called the resistance of the circuit.
Planck 2 enables us to calculate the diffusion constant of dissolved electrolytes.
In this manner the diffusion constant can be calculated in absolute units (HC1= 2.49, HN03 = 2.27, NaC1=1.12), the unit of time being the day.
By experiments on diffusion this constant has been found by Scheffer, and the numbers observed agree with those calculated (HC1= 2.30, HNO 3 = 2 22, NaCI = I II).
This dual government was a constant cause of friction between the Servians and the Turks, and on the occasion of one conflict between the two parties the Turkish commander of the fortress bombarded the Servian part of the town (June 1862).
But the government and the people displayed a memorable and exemplary energy, under the constant supervision of the king, the queen, and burgomaster Nansen.
Block rubber is considered to possess certain advantages in securing a constant proportion of water, and in being satisfactory for transport.
The probabilities are that in the end the production of a rubber as nearly as possible free from water and impurities and of constant composition will be realized as best meeting the requirements of the modern manufacturer.
As soon as the output of plantation rubber of constant composition has reached much larger dimensions it is probable that the manufacturer will be able to dispense with washing.
These require constant shifting because the objects are in contact at many points, and because the top ones shield those below from the depositing action of the current.
Hence processes have been patented in which the objects to be plated are suspended in revolving drums between the anodes, the rotation of the drum causing the constant renewal of surfaces and affording a burnishing action at the same time.
The necessity of a constant protest against polytheism led to a tenacious insistence on the divine unity, and the task was to reconcile this unity with the deity of Jesus Christ.
The two methods have been conducted so as to be in constant touch, though the nature of the results obtained by the one differs much from those which flow naturally from the other.
It is the resultant of k polynomials each of degree m-I, and thus contains the coefficients of each form to the degree (m-I)'-1; hence the total degrees in the coefficients of the k forms is, by addition, k (m - 1) k - 1; it may further be shown that the weight of each term of the resultant is constant and equal to m(m-I) - (Salmon, l.c. p. loo).
As new axes of co-ordinates we may take any other pair of lines through the origin, and for the X, Y corresponding to x, y any new constant multiples of the sines of the angles which the line makes with the new axes.
By means of the Grand Junction and Oxford canals especially, constant communication is maintained between the Thames and the great industrial centres of England.
It forms gigantic deposits of almost constant thickness, embedded between a floor of limestone and a roof of porphyry.
The indirect method is based upon the observed constant of aberration or the displacement of the stars due to the earth's motion.
If V denote the potential, F the resultant force, X, Y, Z, its components parallel to the co-ordinate axes and n the line along which the force is directed, then - sn = F, b?= X, - Sy = Y, -s Surfaces for which the potential is constant are called equipotential surfaces.
The potential due to a thin magnet at a point whose distance from the two poles respectively is r and r' is V =m(l/r=l/r') (8) When V is constant, this equation represents an equipotential surface.
If r and r' make angles 0 and 0 with the axis, it is easily shown that the equation to a line of force is cos 0 - cos B'= constant.
A thin sheet of magnetic matter magnetized normally to its surface in such a manner that the magnetization at any place is inversely proportional to the thickness h of the sheet at that place is called a magnetic shell; the constant product hI is the strength of the shell and is generally denoted by 4, or 4.
Moreover, it is not constant, being an apparently arbitrary function of H or of B; in the same specimen its value may, under different conditions, vary from less than 2 to upwards of 5000.
The principal points of difference are that (I) the magnetic permeability, unlike the electric conductivity, which is independent of the strength of the current, is not in general constant; (2) there is no perfect insulator for magnetic induction, which will pass more or less freely through all known substances.
Therefore and m = v I - 'm of d22 (47) constant cell B21 its object is to produce inside the tube a magnetic field equal and opposite to that due to the earth's magnetism.
For a series of experiments made with the same coil this fraction is constant, and we may write SB = kD.
Denoting by W the work in ergs done upon a cubic centimetre of the metal (=_fHdB or f HdI), he finds W =nips approximately, where n 47r is a number, called the hysteretic constant, depending upon the metal, and B is the maximum induction.
The value of the constant / 7 ranges in different metals from about o ooI to 0.04; in soft iron and steel it is said to be generally not far from 0.002.
The effective number of turns in the coil surrounding the test rod can be varied by means of three dial switches (for hundreds, tens and units), which also introduce compensating resistances as the number of effective turns in the coil is reduced, thus keeping the total resistance of the circuit constant.
If the field is uniform, H=O/wd, where 0 is the rotation, d the thickness of the substance arranged as a plate at right angles to the direction of the field, and w Verdet's constant for the substance.
Since Verdet's constant is somewhat uncertain for different batches of glass even of the same quality, each plate should be standardized in a field of known intensity.
Ann., 18 95, 54,655), who found the limiting values of to be 7.5 to 9.5 for iron, and 11.2 to 13.5 for steel, remaining constant up to H = 06; by P. Culmann (Elekt.
While therefore the initial susceptibility of nickel is less than that of iron and steel, the range of magnetic force within which it is approximately constant is about one hundred times greater.
On the application of a small magnetizing force to a bar of soft annealed iron, a certain intensity of magnetization is instantly produced; this, however, does not remain constant, but slowly increases for some seconds or even minutes, and may ultimately attain a value nearly twice as great as that observed immediately after the force was applied.'
Honda subjected tubes of iron, steel and nickel to the simultaneous action of circular and longitudinal fields, and observed the changes of length when one of the fields was varied while the other remained constant at different successive values from zero upwards.
They consider, however, that Kirchhoff's theory, which assumes change of magnetization to be simply proportional to strain, is still in its infancy, the present stage of its evolution being perhaps comparable with that reached by the theory of magnetization at the time when the ratio I/H was supposed to be constant.
For strong magnetizing forces (which in these experiments did not exceed II= 48.9) the permeability remains almost constant at its initial value (about 400), until the temperature is within nearly i oo of the critical point; then the permeability diminishes more and more rapidly until the critical point is reached and the magnetization vanishes.
Experiments were made at several constant temperatures with varying magnetic fields, and also at constant fields with rising and falling temperatures.
Experiments with the sample of unannealed iron failed to give satisfactory results, owing to the fact that no constant magnetic condition could be obtained.
It is suggested that a permanent magnet might conveniently be " aged " (or brought into a constant condition) by dipping it several times into liquid air.
The tranverse electromotive force is equal to KCH/D, where C is the current, H the strength of the field, D the thickness of the metal, and K a constant which has been termed the rotatory power, or rotational coefficient.
Wills found that the suceptibility was constant in fields ranging from 4200 to 15,000.
Du Bois believes this to be an important general law, applicable to the case of every paramagnetic substance, and suggests that the product KB should be known as " Curie's constant " for the substance.
In the course of constant efforts to secure the mark the brothers Frederick and Dietrich defeated the troops of King Albert at Lucka in May 1307 and secured partial possession of their lands.
In strong contrast to the ungainly toucan is the tiny humming-bird, whose beautiful plumage, swiftness of flight and power of wing are sources of constant wonder and admiration.
Even where settlements have been located, constant effort is required to keep the vegetation down.
His extreme liberalism prevented his opposing the spread of Socialist doctrines preached far and wide by Benjamin Constant.
Building and the allied trades are chronically brisk, owing to the constant development of the city.
Of the king's sons Robert, though titular count of Maine, was kept in leading strings; and even William Rufus, who was in constant attendance on his father, never held a public office.
The constant practice has been to reordain unconditionally Anglican priests and deacons.
As the grandson of St Ladislaus, Manuel had Hungarian blood in his veins; his court was the ready and constant refuge of the numerous Magyar malcontents, and he aimed not so much at the conquest as at the suzerainty of Hungary, by placing one of his Magyar kinsmen on the throne of St Stephen.
His care for the common people was sincere and constant, but his beneficial efforts in this direction were thwarted by the curious interaction of two totally dissimilar social factors, feudalism and Hussitism.
Immediately after this proclamation Gdrgei disappeared with his army among the hills of Upper Hungary, and, despite the difficulties of a phenomenally severe winter and the constant pursuit of vastly superior forces, fought his way down to the valley of Hernad - and safety.
Thus, while of German periodicals ap p earing in Hungary there were in 1871 only 85, they increased in 1880 to 114, in 1885 to 141; and they were, at the beginning of 1895, still 128, in spite of the constant spread of that process of Magyarization which has, since 1880, considerably changed the linguistic habits of the people of Hungary.
We know that log l oN(I+9) = log l oN+log 10 (I+0), and inspection of a table of logarithms shows that, when 0 is small, log 10 (I+B);s approximately equal to X0, where X is a certain constant, whose value is.
There is no doubt that there was a constant traffic between Greece and India, and it is more than probable that an exchange of produce would be accompanied by a transference of ideas.
The component vibrations at P due to the successive zones are thus nearly equal in amplitude and opposite in phase (the phase of each corresponding to that of the infinitesimal circle midway between the boundaries), and the series which we have to sum is one in which the terms are alternately opposite in sign and, while at first nearly constant in numerical magnitude, gradually diminish to zero.
In the applications with which we are concerned, t, n are very small quantities; and we may take P = x yn - At the same time dS may be identified with dxdy, and in the de nominator p may be treated as constant and equal to f.
B) - f S,u ds (along The new wave-surface is formed in such a position that the optical distance is constant; and therefore the dispersion, or the angle through which the wave-surface is turned by the change of refrangibility, is found simply by dividing (5) by the distance AB.
In the present application 4' is not necessarily equal to; but if P correspond to a line upon the grating, the difference of retardations for consecutive positions of P, so far as expressed by the term of the first order, will be equal to mX (m integral), and therefore without influence, provided v (sin 0-sin0') = nzX (11), where a denotes the constant interval between the planes containing the lines.
The constant care bestowed by his father on his education resulted in an honourable but not particularly distinguished career for young Stanhope.
His tastes were those of a student, and he did not disguise his dislike of public functions and the constant little journeys which take up so much of a bishop's time.
His nose is not only the flattest, but also the smallest among the IndoChinese; his eyes are rarely oblique; his mouth is large and his lips thick; his teeth are blackened and his gums destroyed by the constant use of the betel-nut, the areca-nut and lime.
His works were studied and _learned by heart by the great Latin writers of the Renaissance, such as Erasmus and Melanchthon; and Casaubon, in his anxiety that his son should write a pure Latin style, inculcates on him the constant study of Terence.
He found by patient inquiry that several physical features and the dimensions of certain bones or bony structures in the body remain practically constant during adult life.
The importance of Crispi in Italian public life depended less upon the many reforms accomplished under his administrations than upon his intense patriotism, remarkable fibre, and capacity for administering to his fellow-countrymen the political tonic of which they stood in constant need.
Upon the fall of his cabinet Antonelli created for himself the governorship of the sacred palaces in order to retain constant access to and influence over the pope.
The " Albertine " system plays a comparatively insignificant part in the annual flood rise of the White Nile, but to its waters are due the maintenance of a constant supply to this river throughout the year.
In the military history of all these centuries constant allusion is made to the Rhine, its passages and its fortresses.
Once prime minister, his personal popularity proved to be a powerful unifying influence in a somewhat heterogeneous party; and though the illness and death (August 30, 1906) of his wife (daughter of General Sir Charles Bruce), whom he had married in 1860, made his constant attendance in the House of Commons impossible, his domestic sorrow excited widespread sympathy and appealed afresh to the affection of his political followers.
The best-known accounts of Cirey life, those of Madame de Grafigny, date from the winter of 1738-39; they are somewhat spiteful but very amusing, depicting the frequent quarrels between Madame du Chatelet and Voltaire, his intense suffering under criticism, his constant dread of the surreptitious publication of the Pucelle (which nevertheless he could not keep his hands from writing or his tongue from reciting to his visitors), and so forth.
The resident, Freytag, was not a very wise person (though he probably did not, as Voltaire would have it, spell "poesie" "poeshie"); constant references to Frederick were necessary; and the affair was prolonged so that Madame Denis had time to join her uncle.
In the 17th and 18th centuries it was a favourite duellingground, and in the present day it is not infrequently the scene of political and other popular demonstrations (as is also Trafalgar Square), while the neighbourhood of Marble Arch is the constant resort of orators on social and religious topics.
The police have powers of control over vehicles and exercise them admirably; their work in this respect is a constant source of wonder to foreign visitors.
A constant supply is maintained generally throughout " Water London," although a suspension between certain hours has been occasionally necessitated, as in 1895 and 1898, when, during summer droughts, the East London supply was so affected.
The estimated cost was between three and four millions sterling, to be met by a toll, and it was urged that a uniform depth, independent of tides, would be ensured above the dam, that delay of large vessels wishing to proceed up river would thus be obviated, that the river would be relieved of pollution by the tides, and the necessity for constant dredging would be abolished.
This constant burning of large portions of the city is a marked feature of its early history, and we must remember that, although stone buildings were rising on all sides, these were churches, monasteries, and other public edifices; the ordinary houses remained as before, small wooden structures.
The dedications of many of the churches indicate their great age, but the constant fires in London destroyed these buildings.
In the middle ages there was a constant succession of pageants, processions and tournaments.
Fleet Street was the show-place of London, in which were exhibited a constant succession of puppets, naked Indians and strange fishes.
There were really constant disagreements, and sometimes the king degraded the mayor and appointed a custos or warden in his place.
About this time Dingiswayo was captured and put to death by Zwide, chief of the Undwandwe clan, with whom he had waged constant war.
Their first cost is great and they are dangerous for new men, as they require constant alertness, presence of mind, and a certain knack in using them.
In spite of the discouraging conditions in which they found themselves, and of the constant annoyance suffered from hostile artillery fire, the troops were in fair heart, while the tactical efficiency of the recently created divisions, which had not been of a high standard when they arrived in the theatre of war, had appreciably progressed.
Taxes and land revenue are light; markets for the disposal of produce are constant and prices good; while fresh land is still available in most districts.
The purple-blue of cobalt, the chrome green or yellow of chromium, the dichroic canarycolour of uranium and the violet of manganese, are constant.
The desired result is obtained either by moving the manufactured goods gradually away from a constant source of heat, or by placing them in a heated kiln and allowing t he heat gradually to die out.
Constancy of composition of the raw materials and their careful and thorough admixture in constant proportions are therefore essential to the production of the required glasses.
The stages of the process so far described generallyoccupy from 36 to 60 hours, and during this time the constant care and watchfulness of those attending the furnace is required.
The manufactured goods are either removed gradually from a constant source of heat by means of a train of small iron trucks drawn along a tramway by an endless chain, or are placed in a heated kiln in which the fire is allowed gradually to die out.
The demand constantly increases, and, owing to constant improvements in material in the moulds and in the methods of working, the supply fully keeps pace with the demand.
The bottles are stacked in iron trucks, which, when full, are moved slowly away from a constant source of heat.
It would appear not improbable that the former was the case, for it must be remembered that articles formed of glass were in the later days of Roman civilization in constant daily use, and that the making of glass was carried on, not as now in large establishments, but by artisans working on a small scale.
The coefficient of expansion is constant for such metals only as crystallize in the regular system; the others expand differently in the directions of the different axes.
The general colour of the upper parts and sides of the adult is a tawny yellowish brown, sometimes having a grey or silvery shade, but in some cases dark or inclining to red; and upon these and other differences, which are probably constant locally, a number of sub-species have been named.
These equations can be made to represent the state of convective equilibrium of the atmosphere, depending on the gas-equation p = pk =RA (6) where 0 denotes the absolute temperature; and then d9 d p R dz - dz (p) n+ 1' so that the temperature-gradient deldz is constant, as in convective equilibrium in (I I).
With uniform temperature, taking h constant in the gas-equation, dp / dz= =p / k, p=poet/ k, (9) so that in ascending in the atmosphere of thermal equilibrium the pressure and density diminish at compound discount, and for pressures p 1 and 1, 2 at heights z 1 and z2 (z1-z2)11?
Taking the axis of x for an instant in the normal through a point on the surface H = constant, this makes u = o, = o; and in steady motion the equations reduce to dH/dv=2q-2wn = 2gco sin e, (4) where B is the angle between the stream line and vortex line; and this holds for their projection on any plane to which dv is drawn perpendicular.
Calling the sum of the pressure and potential head the statical head, surfaces of constant statical and dynamical head intersect in lines on H, and the three surfaces touch where the velocity is stationary.
The curves 0 = constant and 4, = constant form an orthogonal system; and the interchange of 0 and 4, will give a new state of uniplanar motion, in which the velocity at every point is turned through a right angle without alteration of magnitude.
If other vortices are present, any one may be supposed to move with the velocity due to the others, the resultant stream function being = gy m log r =log IIrm; (9) the path of a vortex is obtained by equating the value of 1P at the vortex to a constant, omitting the rm of the vortex itself.
Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.
If the liquid is stirred up by the rotation R of a cylindrical body, d4lds = normal velocity reversed dy = - Rx- Ry ds (5) ds 4' + 2 R (x2 + y2) = Y, (6) a constant over the boundary; and 4,' is the current-function of the relative motion past the cylinder, but now V 2 4,'+2R =o, (7) throughout the liquid.
Then 4, =o over the cylinder r = a, which may be considered a fixed post; and a stream line past it along which 4, = Uc, a constant, is the curve (r - ¢2) sin 0=c, (x2 + y2) (y - c) - a 2 y = o, (3) a cubic curve (C3).
An angular velocity R, which gives components - Ry, Ix of velocity to a body, can be resolved into two shearing velocities, -R parallel to Ox, and R parallel to Oy; and then ik is resolved into 4'1+1'2, such that 4/ 1 -R-Rx 2 and 1//2+IRy2 is constant over the boundary.
The circulation being always zero round a small plane curve passing through the axis of spin in vortical motion, it follows conversely that a vortex filament is composed always of the same fluid particles; and since the circulation round a cross-section of a vortex filament is constant, not changing with the time, it follows from the previous kinematical theorem that aw is constant for all time, and the same for every cross-section of the vortex filament.
To determine the motion of a jet which issues from a vessel with plane walls, the vector I must be constructed so as to have a constant (to) (II) the liquid (15) 2, integrals;, (29) (30) (I) direction 0 along a plane boundary, and to give a constant skin velocity over the surface of a jet, where the pressure is constant.
Taking Ox along OS, the Stokes' function at P for the source S is p cos PSx, and of the source H and line sink OH is p(a/f) cos PHx and - (p/a) (PO - PH); so that = p (cos PSx+f cos PHx PO a PH), (q) and Ili = -p, a constant, over the surface of the sphere, so that there is no flow across.
An elongated body like a ship has c 2 -c 1 positive, and the couple N tends to disturb the axial movement and makes it unstable, so that a steamer requires to be steered by constant attention at the helm.
Constant intercourse was kept up between Babylonia and the west, Babylonian officials and troops passing to Syria and Canaan, while " Amorite " colonists were established in Babylonia for the purposes of trade.
In other species there is a definite arrangement of the leaves, some with and others without tendrils opposite to them, the numerical order remaining constant or nearly so.
Here the tropical heat is tempered by constant trade winds, there is perfect immunity from hurricanes, the soil is peculiarly suited for cane-growing, and by the use of specially-prepared fertilizers and an ample supply of water at command for irrigation the land yields from 50 to 90 tons of canes per acre, from which from 12 to 14% of sugar is produced.
It has been found in practice advantageous to prepare the canes for crushing in the mills, as above described, by passing them through a pair of preparing rolls which are grooved or indented in such manner as to draw in and flatten down the canes, no matter in which way they are thrown or heaped upon the canecarrier, and thus prepare them for feeding the first mill of the series; thus the work of crushing is carried on uninterruptedly and without constant stoppages from the mills choking, as is often the case when the feed is heavy and the canes are not prepared.
The sugar thus produced, by constant stirring and evaporation almost to dryness, forms a species of small-grained concrete.
Concordia discors pointed out the absurdity of the constant tendency to multiply oaths, while "remonstrances," "narratives," "queries," "prescriptions," "vindications," "declarations" and "statements" were scattered broadcast.
In the centre of the town are a number of irregular and narrow streets, and the river, polluted by the refuse of dye-works and factories, constitutes a constant eyesore.
The tapeworm most frequently found in man in Western Europe is the Taenia solium, which is constant wherever pork is consumed, and is more common in parts where raw or imperfectly cooked pork is eaten.
Constant hoeing or harrowing to maintain a natural soil mulch layer of 2 or 3 in.
We may consider that, in country districts, constant soil moisture is one of the chief factors; while in the case of urban outbreaks mere soil moisture is subsidiary to other more potent causes.
England, France, Spain and Austria have been fairly constant producers.
The specific gravity of zinc cannot be expected to be perfectly constant; according to Karsten, that of pure ingot is 6.915, and rises to 7.191 after rolling.
The shares, when made of the same material, required constant sharpening; this necessity was removed by the device, patented by Robert Ransome in 1803, of chilling and so hardening the under-surface of the share; the upper surface, which is soft, then wears away more quickly than the chilled part, whereby a sharp edge is always assured.
During this period they were engaged in constant strife with the neighbouring kingdoms of Hadramut and Katabania.
The early years of the Omayyads were years of constant strife in Arabia.
His success was constant and the caliphate was brought very low by him.
Each oration forms the substance of a Magama,while the Magamas themselves are united to one another by the constant meetings of narrator and scholar.
Were it not for the use of some such device the arc would be liable to constant fluctuation and to frequent extinction.
Many of the furnaces now in constant use depend mainly on this principle, a core of granular carbon fragments stamped together in the direct line between the electrodes, as in Acheson's carborundum furnace, being substituted for the carbon pencils.
Not merely because of its central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy.
His last years were embittered by remorse, by gloomy forebodings, and by constant suspicion, for he had always been in the habit of employing a system of espionage, and only then experienced its evil effects.
The rainfall in the first geographical division is pretty constant, and may reach a yearly average of about 22 in.
Over the second and third divisions the rainfall is less constant, and its yearly average may not exceed 17 in.
The presence of the Romans, and the constant introduction of the Italians, first as slaves, and quite recently as colonists, has also added an Italian element to the north Tunisian population.
From 1631 to 1702 the office of Bey was hereditary in the descendants of Mural, a Corsican renegade, and their rivalry with the Deys and internal dissensions kept the country in constant disorder.
From November to April there are usually constant dryness, a clear sky, and considerable, though by no means oppressive, heat.
If the substance operated upon be practically pure to start with, or the product of distillation be nearly of constant composition, the operation is termed "purification by distillation" or "rectification"; the latter term is particularly used in the spirit industry.
Of the third type is the Warren column consisting of a spiral kept at a constant temperature by a liquid bath.
Both components come over in a constant proportion until one disappears; it is then necessary to raise the temperature in order to distil the residue.
When distilling a mixture of partially miscible components a distillate of constant composition is obtained so long as two layers are present, i.e.
On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.
This will then distil at a constant temperature.
On distilling such a mixture, a mixture of constant composition will distil first, leaving in the distilling flask one or other of the components according to the composition of the mixture.
At one time it was thought that these mixtures of constant boiling-point (an extended list is given in Young's Fractional Distillation) were definite compounds.
The above theory, coupled with such facts as the variation of the composition of the constant boiling-point fraction with the pressure under which the mixture is distilled, the proportionality of the density of all mixtures to their composition, &c., shows this to be erroneous.
One remarkable feature of the Speculum Historiale is Vincent's constant habit of devoting several chapters to selections from the writings of each great author, whether secular or profane, as he mentions him in the course of his work.
Signs are also not wanting that Christina was growing weary of the cares of government; while the importunity of the senate and Riksdag on the question of her marriage was a constant source of irritation.
His youth was marked by a constant willingness to rebel against merely official authority; to genuine excellence, whether moral or intellectual, he was always ready to pay unbounded deference.
From this time forth the poet enjoyed the constant favour of the sovereign, though he could never be moulded into a conventional courtier.
In February 1852 the Whig government was defeated on a Militia Bill, and Lord John Russell was succeeded by Lord Derby, formerly Lord Stanley, with Mr Disraeli, who now his constant companions were Homer and Dante, and entered office for the first time, as chancellor of the exchequer and leader of the House of Commons.
He was invited to Geneva in 1.557, and to England again in 1561, but declined both invitations, maintaining, however, a constant correspondence with Jewel and other English prelates and reformers until his death at Zurich on the 12th of November 1562.
Here the reefs are generally less perfect than elsewhere, seldom forming complete central lagoons, and as they were formerly exposed to the constant attacks of the Mopla pirates from India, the people are hardier and more vigorous than their less warlike southern neighbours.
He first exhibited at the Academy in 1853, and was a constant contributor to its exhibitions till his death.
The most instructive example of the application of relations (I) and (2) is afforded by the change of state of a substance at constant temperature and pressure.
If, starting from E, the same amount of heat h is restored at constant pressure, we should arrive at the point F on the adiabatic through B, since the substance has been transformed from B to F by a reversible path without loss or gain of heat on the whole.
In order to restore the substance to its original temperature 0' at constant pressure, it would be necessary to supply a further quantity of heat, H, represented by the area between the two adiabatics from FC down to the absolute zero.
The whole quantity of heat required to raise the temperature from 0" to 0' at constant pressure along the path EC is H+h, which is equal to S(0' - o"), where S is the specific heat at constant pressure.
Since h = s (o' - 0"), the difference S - s between the specific heats at constant pressure and volume is evidently H/(o' - o").
Since the amounts of heat supplied at constant pressure from E to F and from E to C are in the limit proportional to the expansions EF and EC which they produce, the ratio S/s is equal to the ratio ECÃ†F.
The value of the specific heat s at constant volume can also be measured in a few cases, but it is generally necessary to deduce it from that at constant pressure, by means of relation (6).
It is often impossible to observe the pressure-coefficient dp/de directly, but it may be deduced from the isothermal compressibility by means of the geometrically obvious relation, BE = (BEÃ†C) XEC. The ratio BEÃ†C of the diminution of pressure to the increase of volume at constant temperature, or - dp/dv, is readily observed.
The change of energy at constant volume is simply sdo, the change at constant temperature is (odp/de - p)dv, which may be written dE/de (v const) =s, dE/dv (0 const) =odp/do - p .
A similar expression for the variation of the specific heat S at constant pressure is obtained from the second expression in (8), by taking p and 0 as independent variables; but it follows more directly from a consideration of the variation of the function (E+pv).
To find the total heat of a substance in any given state defined by the values of p and 0, starting from any convenient zero of temperature, it is sufficient to measure the total heat required to raise the substance to the final temperature under a constant pressure equal to p. For instance, in the boiler of a steam engine the feed water is pumped into the boiler against the final pressure of the steam, and is heated under this constant pressure up to the temperature of the steam.
Observing that F is a function of the co-ordinates expressing the state of the substance, we obtain for the variation of S with pressure at constant temperature, dS/dp (0 const) '=' 2 F/dedp =-0d 2 v/d0 2 (p const) (12) If the heat supplied to a substance which is expanding reversibly and doing external work, pdv, is equal to the external work done, the intrinsic energy, E, remains constant.
The lines of constant energy on the diagram are called Isenergics.
The equation to the lines of constant total heat is found in terms of p and 0 by putting dF=o and integrating (it).
The coefficient of expansion at constant pressure is equal to the coefficient of increase of pressure at constant volume.
If we also assume that they are constant with respect to temperature (which does not necessarily follow from the characteristic equation, but is generally assumed, and appears from Regnault's experiments to be approximately the case for simple gases), the expressions for the change of energy or total heat from 00 to 0 may be written E - Eo = s(0 - 0 0), F - Fo = S(0-00).
In thiscase the ratio of the specific heats is constant as well as the difference, and the adiabatic equation takes the simple form, pv v = constant, which is at once obtained by integrating the equation for the adiabatic elasticity, - v(dp/dv) =yp.
The specific heats may be any function of the temperature consistently with the characteristic equation provided that their difference is constant.
The most natural method of procedure is to observe the deviations from Boyle's law by measuring the changes of pv at various constant temperatures.
A sufficient test, in addition to Boyle's law, is the condition dE/dv=o at constant temperature.