Conifers Sentence Examples
The conifers make the most effective screens.
Forest trees also suffer from their ravages, especially the conifers (Lophyrus pini).
In other cases the leaves last several years, as in conifers, and may sometimes be found on eleven-year-old shoots.
Straggling forests, mainly of conifers, characterize the high plateaus of central Utah.
It is one of the handsomest of conifers, forming an elongated cone of foliage, which in some gardens has already reached 70 or 80 ft.Advertisement
North of this southern hardwood forest there were pine forests on the sandier land, mixed hardwoods and conifers on the loam and clay, and tamaracks and cedar in the swamps.
The estate is famous for its plantations and Dutch gardens, the pinetum containing the most representative collection of araucarias, deodars and other conifers in Europe.
Its lower flanks are clothed with forests of beech, conifers and oak.
The order Cedrelaceae (which is entirely distinct from the Conifers) includes, along with the mahoganies and other valuable timber-trees, the Jamaica and the Australian red cedars, Cedrela odorata, and C. Toona respectively.
The upper regions of Mt Elgon, Mt Debasien and Mt Agoro are clothed with forests of conifers - juniper and yew - and witch-hazels (Trichocladus).Advertisement
About 857,000 acres, or 85% of the whole forest land, are planted with conifers; and about 143,000 acres, or 15%, with deciduous trees, among which beeches and birches are the commonest.
The Pacific coast Transition zone is noted for its forests of giant conifers, principally Douglas fir, Sitka spruce, Pacific cedar and Western hemlock, Here, too, mosses and ferns grow in profusion, and the sadal (Gaultheria shailon), thimble berry (Rubus nootkamus), salmon berry (Rubus spectabilis) and devils club, (Fatsia horr-ida) are characteristic shrubs.
The island has extensive forests of conifers with an undergrowth of ferns and flowering plants, and bears are numerous.
The seeds are sown in April, on rich ground, which should not be too highly manured; the young larches are planted out when two years old, or sometimes transferred to a nursery bed to attain a larger size; but, like all conifers, they succeed best when planted young; on the mountains, the seedlings are usually put into a mere slit made in the ground by a spade with a triangular blade, the place being first cleared of any heath, bracken, or tall herbage that might smother the young tree; the plants should be from 3 to 4 ft.
The larch is said not to succeed on arable land, especially where corn has been grown, but experience does not seem to support this view; that against the previous occupation of the ground by Scotch fir or Norway spruce is probably better founded, and, where timber is the object, it should not be planted with other conifers.Advertisement
The wood is the hardest and strongest of all the American conifers; it is durable and adapted for construction work or household furniture.
Cordaites, a tall plant (20-30 ft.) with yucca-like leaves, was related to the cycads and conifers; the catkin-like inflorescence, which bore yew-like berries, is called Cardiocarpus.
In England the pine is largely employed as a " nurse " for oak trees, its conical growth when young admirably adapting it for this purpose; its dense foliage renders it valuable as a shelter tree for protecting land from the wind; it stands the sea gales better than most conifers, but will not flourish on the shore like some other species.
Elms, limes and poplars are common north of the Tagus, ilexes, araucarias, myrtles, magnolias and a great variety of conifers in all parts.
It was the English botanist Robert Brown who first recognized this important distinguishing feature in conifers and cycads in 1825; he established the gymnospermy of these seed-bearing classes as distinct from the angiospermy of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons.Advertisement
The best known and by far the largest division of the Gymnosperms is that of the cone-bearing trees (pines, firs, cedars, larches, &c.), which play a prominent part in the vegetation of the present day, especially in the higher latitudes of the northern hemisphere; certain members of this class are of considerable antiquity, but the conifers as a whole are still vigorous and show but little sign of decadence.
The line of descent of recent cycads is comparatively clear in so far as they have undoubted affinity with Palaeozoic plants which combined cycadean and filicinean features; but opinion is much more divided as to the nature of the phylum from which the conifers are derived.
There is no doubt that the result of recent research and of work now in progress will be to modify considerably the grouping of the conifers.
The stems of cycads are often described as unbranched; it is true that in comparison with conifers, in which the numerous branches, Stem springing from the main stem, give a characteristic form to the tree, the tuberous or columnar stem of the Cyca daceae constitutes a striking distinguishing feature.
During the growth of the ovum nourishment is supplied from the contents of the cells immediately surrounding the egg-cell, as in the development of the ovum of Pinus and other conifers.Advertisement
Short and reticulately-pitted tracheal cells, similar to tracheids, often occur in the circummedullary region of cycadean stems. In an old stem of Cycas, Encephalartos or Macrozamia the secondary wood consists of several rather unevenly concentric zones, while in some other genera it forms a continuous mass as in conifers and normal dicotyledons.
The discovery by the Japanese botanist 'Erase of the development of ciliated spermatozoids in the pollen-tube of Ginkgo, in place of the non-motile male cells of typical conifers, served as a cogent argument in favour of separating the genus from the Coniferales and placing it in a class of its own.
Surrounding the pitted wall of the ovum there is a definite layer of large cells, no doubt representing a tapetum, which, as in cycads and conifers, plays an important part in nourishing the growing egg-cell.
A pendulous or weeping habit is assumed by some conifers, e.g.
Conifers are not infrequently seen in which a lateral branch has bent sharply upwards to take the place of the injured main trunk.
The flat branchlets of Cupressus, Thuja (arbor vitae), Thujopsis dolabrata (Japanese arbor vitae) are characteristic of certain types of conifers; in some cases the horizontal extension of the branches induces a dorsiventral structure.
A new genus of conifers, Taiwania, has recently been described from the island of Formosa; it is said to agree in habit with the Japanese Cryptomeria, but the cones appear to have a structure which distinguishes them from those of any other genus.
Sequoia sempervirens (redwood), Thuja occidentalis, &c. The leaves of conifers are characterized by their small size, e.g.
The occurrence of long and short shoots is a characteristic feature of many conifers.
The variation in leaf-form and the tendency of leaves to arrange themselves in various ways on different branches of the same plant are features which it is important to bear in mind in the identification of fossil conifers.
The long linear leaves of some species of Podocarpus, in which the lamina is traversed by a single vein, recall the pinnae of Cycas; the branches of some Dacrydiums and other forms closely resemble those of lycopods; these superficial resemblances, both between different genera of conifers and between conifers and other plants, coupled with the usual occurrence of fossil coniferous twigs without cones attached to them, render the determination of extinct types a very unsatisfactory and frequently an impossible task.
In the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to different interpretations of their morphology.
Robert Brown was the first to give a clear description of the morphology of the Abietineous cone in which carpels bear naked ovules; he recognized gymnospermy as an important distinguishing feature in conifers as well as in cycads.
Cordaites is an extinct type which in certain respects resembles Ginkgo, cycads and the Araucarieae, but its agreement with true conifers is probably too remote to justify our attri buting much weight to the bearing of the morphology of its female flowers on the interpretation of that of the Coniferae.
The nucleus of the microspore divides and gives rise to a small cell within the large cell, a second small cell is then produced; this is the structure of the ripe pollen-grain in some conifers (Taxus, &c.).
In the genus Sequoia there may be as many as sixty archegonia (Arnoldi and Lawson) in one megaspore; these occur either separately or in some parts of the prothallus they may form groups as in the Cupressineae; they are scattered through the prothallus instead of being confined to the apical region as in the majority of conifers.
The roots of many conifers possess a narrow band of primary xylem-tracheids with a group of narrow spiral protoxylem-elements at each end (diarch).
Wide areas are often exclusively occupied by conifers, which give the landscape a sombre aspect, suggesting a comparison with the forest vegetation of the Coal period.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.
The greater part of Africa north of the equator is without any representatives of the conifers; Juniperus procera flourishes in Somaliland and on the mountains of Abyssinia; a species of Podocarpus occurs on the Cameroon mountains, and P. milanjiana is widely distributed in east tropical Africa.
Nearly 60% of the entire duchy is occupied by arable land, and about 26% by forests, mainly consisting of conifers.
Evergreen oaks, chestnuts and conifers are the prevailing trees.
The conifers are spreading naturally.
Specimens of true Cycads or Conifers are rare or doubtful until we come to the latest Palaeozoic rocks.
Now that the numerous specimens of wood formerly referred to Coniferae are known to have belonged to distinct orders, but few true Palaeozoic Conifers remain to be considered.
The Permian, so far at least as its lower beds are concerned, shows little change from the Stephanian; Conifers of the Walchia type are especially characteristic. The remarkable Permo-Carboniferous flora of India and the southern hemisphere is described in the next section of this article.
With these occur several Conifers, among others Voltzia heterophylla and some twigs referred to the genus Albertia, bearing large leaves like those of Agathis australis and some of the Araucarias, also a few representatives of the Cycadales.
The Palaeozoic types are barely represented; the arborescent Vascular Cryptogams have been replaced by Cycads, Ginkgoales and Conifers as the dominant classes, while Ferns continue to hold their own.
An adequate account of fossil Mesozoic Conifers is impossible within the limits of this article.
Among the more abundant Conifers of Jurassic age may be mentioned such genera as Thuytes and Cupressites, which agree in their vegetative characters with members of the Cupressineae, but our knowledge of the cones is far from satisfactory.
No conclusive proof has so far been adduced of the existence in those days of the Cycads, nor is there more than partial evidence of the occurrence of genera which can be placed with confidence in any of the existing families of Conifers.
Arborescent Pteridophytes are barely represented, and such dominant types as Lepidodendron, Sigillaria, Calamites and Sphenophyllum have practically ceased to exist; Cycads and Conifers have assumed the leading role, and the still luxuriant fern vegetation has put on a different aspect.
Lester Ward records no fewer than 737 distinct forms, consisting chiefly of Ferns, Cycads, Conifers and Dicotyledons, the Ferns and Cycads being con fined mainly to the Older Potomac, FIG.
The Senonian strata have yielded 118 species, 21 of which are Cryptogams, 1 i Conifers, 5 Monocotyledons, 75 Dicotyledons.
Among the types of vegetation which make their appearance in Europe during the Oligocene period may be mentioned the Conifers Libocedrus salicornioides, several species of Chamaecyparis and Sequoia, Taxodium distichum and Glyptostrobus europaeus.
Moor Piece This block of semi-natural woodland is dominated by birch, with a fringe of conifers along the northwestern boundary.
Woodland on the estate extends to some 15 hectares and represents deciduous broadleaf and woodland dominated by conifers.
This includes fencing and felling conifers to make way for the natural regeneration and new planting of native species.
Illustrated bilingual manual on propagation of threatened conifers in Vietnam.
Sadly, the majority of these are fast growing conifers whose genetic origin is overseas.
The Hibberts only removed two small conifers to make way for the building.
Many non-native conifers, however, have been planted in this country for commercial purposes.
In addition to large stands of fast-growing conifers, there is extensive sweet chestnut coppice.
And without exotic conifers we would have no competitive forest industry in Scotland.
Some dwarf conifers are affected, with these the damage is done on their lee side, away from the wind.
There are also some specimen conifers, planted in the 1800's by the estate landowner of the time.
Don't have too many conifers or other evergreens in a garden or planting, no more than about a third of the total.
Recently planted species-rich hedges are included in this category. Planted Coniferous Woodland Dominated by cultivars of Pinus sylvestris and non-native conifers.
Suitable conifers include Scots pine, and introduced species such as Sitka spruce, European larch and hybrid larch.
The garden also has notable magnolias and camellias and a fine collection of conifers.
Other ancient woodland sites have been replanted with conifers or broadleaved plantations, or have been converted to other habitats or land use.
On conifers in California, the pathogen causes a needle blight and dieback of young shoots of Douglas fir and coastal redwood.
Goldcrest Regulus regulus heard singing in conifers near the hotel on a couple of occasions.
Follow right hand edge of field to reach stile at end of conifers.
Most of them are natives of the Old World, and chiefly of its eastern division, but several inhabit the western portion of North America, and one, C. githagineus (of which there seem to be at least two local races), is an especial native of the deserts, or their borders, of Arabia and North Africa, extending even to some of the Canary Islands - a singular modification in the habitat of a form which one would be apt to associate exclusively with forest trees, and especially conifers.
It is improbable, however, that the production of amber was limited to a single species; and indeed a large number of conifers belonging to different genera are represented in the amber-flora.
These Tertiary deposits are characterized by a rich fauna; fully developed leaves of poplars, numerous fruits of the mammoth tree, needles of several conifers, &c., being found in them, thus testifying to a climate once very much warmer.
Of deciduous trees the sycamore, wych-elm, horse-chestnut, beech, lime, plane and poplar may be used, - the abele or white poplar, Populus alba, being one of the most rapidgrowing of all trees, and, like other poplars, well suited for nursing other choicer subjects; while of evergreens, the holm oak, holly, laurel (both common and Portugal), and such conifers as the Scotch, Weymouth and Austrian pines, with spruce and (South.) silver firs and yews, are suitable.
In addition to the foliage-leaves several genera also possess scale-leaves of various kinds, represented by budscales in Pinus, Picea, &c., which frequently persist for a time at the base of a young shoot which has pushed its way through the yielding cap of protecting scales, while in some conifers the bud-scales adhere together, and after being torn near the base are carried up by the growing axis as a thin brown cap. The cypresses, araucarias and some other genera have no true bud-scales; in some species, e.g.
Taking first this most northerly locality, in Grinnell Land, we find the flora to comprise 2 horsetails, i i Conifers (including the living Pinus Abies), 2 grasses, a sedge, 2 poplars, a willow, 2 birches, 2 hazels, an elm, a Viburnum, a water-lily, and a lime.
Goldcrest Regulus regulus Heard singing in conifers near the hotel on a couple of occasions.
Some of what is called amber and copal in perfumery today is the resinous secretion of fossil conifers.
It takes more of the character of a large and dense spreading bush than of a tree, and is useful for grouping with other conifers.
This tree, more than most other Pines, illustrates the mistake of supposing that conifers should be clothed to the ground with branches, as the natural habit of such trees is often to shed their branches as other trees shed their leaves.
Is a good lawn tree, thriving in towns better than most conifers; it also bears cutting without injury, though naturally of a fine pyramidal habit.
It is of a deep glossy green, and on this account, and its dwarfed growth, is especially suitable for grouping with the larger conifers.
In England it is of proved hardiness, though neglected since the advent of Californian and other half-hardy conifers.
The branches are also whorled, making this one of the most characteristic of conifers.
Like all conifers, the Sciadopitys should be planted finally while small, larger trees being averse to removal.
The conifers are allowed to grow to a height of from 3 to 5 ft.
The chief trees are beech, oak and conifers.
Outflows of resinResinosisalro come under this general heading; but although some resin-fluxes are traced to the destructive action of Agaricus melleus in Conifers, others, as well as certain forms of Gummosis, are still in need of explanation.
The criticisms were directed chiefly to the inclusion of sand dune plants among halophytes, to the exclusion of halophytes from xerophytes, to the inclusion of bog xerophytes among hydrophytes, to the inclusion of all conifers among xerophytes and of all deciduous trees among mesophytes, and to the group of mesophytes in general.
The identity of plant form of many of the conifers of both temperate and of warm temperate districts is probably a matter of phylogenetic and not of ecological importance.
Amongst Conifers the archaic genera, Ginkgo and Araucarus still persist.
Evergreen oaks and Conifers form the forests.
Amongst Conifers Cedrus is especially noteworthy; it is represented by geographical races in the north-west Himalaya, in Syria, Cyprus and North Africa.
Amongst Cycads, Zamia is confined to the New World, and amongst Conifers, Araucaria, limited to the southern hemisphere, has scarcely less antiquity; Pinus reaches as far south as Cuba and Nicaragua.
Conifers are scantily represented by Callitris and Podocarpus, which is common to all three sub-regions; and Cycads by the endemic Encephalartos and Stangeria.
Conifers are rare, and the Scotch pine, which is abundant on the sandy plains, takes the place of the Abies.
In the Washoe Mountains, as in the rest of the Sierra Nevada range, there is a heavy growth of conifers, extending down to the very valleys; but in many places these mountains have been almost deforested to provide timbers for the mines.
A distinct connexion between the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon and that of eastern tropical Africa is observable not only in the great similarity of many of the more truly tropical forms, and the identity of families and genera found in both regions, but in a more remarkable manner in the likeness of the mountain flora of this part of Africa to that of the peninsula, in which several species occur believed to be identical with Abyssinian forms. This connexion is further established by the absence from both areas of oaks, conifers and cycads, which, as regards the first two families, is a remarkable feature of the flora of the peninsula and Ceylon, as the mountains rise to elevations in which both of them are abundant to the north and east.
As a picturesque tree, for park and ornamental plantation, it is among the best of the conifers, its colour and form contrasting yet harmonizing with the olive green and rounded outline of oaks and beeches, or with the red trunk and glaucous foliage of the pine.
The large branches droop, like those of the Norway spruce, but the sprays are much lighter and more slender, rendering the tree one of the most elegant of the conifers, especially when young.
The Douglas spruce (Pseudo-tsuga Douglasii), one of the finest conifers, often rises to a height of 200 ft.
The silver fir flourishes in a deep loamy soil, and will grow even upon stiff clay, when well drained - a situation in which few conifers will succeed.
The third zone is characterized by the predominance, up to 6000 ft., of the fir, pine and other conifers.
The name cedar is applied to a variety of trees, including species of several genera of Conifers, Juniperus, Thuja, Libocedrus and Cupressus.
Forests of conifers (Picea obovata) and deciduous trees - Przhevalsky's poplar, birch, mountain ash, &c., and a variety of bushes - are common everywhere.
The rarer conifers should be planted now and in June, after they have commenced to grow.
Many large trees which have been looked upon as conifers on account of their wood structure may perhaps belong more properly to the Cordaitales.
On the alpine range itself and its immediate branches, at a height of 6000 to 10,000 ft., we have abundant growth of large forest trees, among which conifers are the most noble and prominent, such as Cedrus Deodara, Abies excelsa, Pinuslongifolia, P. Pinaster,P. Pinea (the edible pine) and the larch.
The plants of the Lower Gondwanas consist chiefly of acrogens(Equisetaceae and ferns)and gymnogens (cycads and conifers), the former being the more abundant.
The same classes of plants occur in the Upper Gondwanas; but there the proportions are reversed, the conifers, and still more the cycads, being more numerous than the ferns, whilst the Equisetaceae are but sparingly found.
In the Himalayas themselves the deodar and other conifers form the bulk of the timber, while in the lower ranges, such as the Khasi hills in Assam, and those of Burma, various pines are prominent.
Depending mainly for food on the seeds of conifers, the movements of crossbills are irregular beyond those of most birds, and they would seem to rove in any direction and at any season in quest of their staple sustenance.
The saleable timber consists almost entirely of yellow pine, though there is a relatively small growth of other conifers and of hard-wood trees.
This was proved by Hooker to be the case with Himalayan conifers and rhododendrons, raised in Britain from seed gathered at different altitudes.
In this way hardy rhododendrons of choice sorts, greenhouse azaleas, the varieties of the orange family, camellias, roses, rare conifers, clematises and numerous other plants are increased.