The Berlin congress decided that it should remain with Servia.
For destroying the "Albemarle" he was thanked by Congress and was promoted to be lieutenant-commander.
This led to his presenting at the close of the congress VI.
The United States Congress in1871-1872enacted a series of "Force Laws" intended to break up the secret societies and to control the Southern elections.
He was a member of Congress for many years, and was noted for his odd manners and strong self- will.
In 1896 a bill was passed by congress, which authorized the state by the issue of national bonds to assume the provincial external indebtedness.
He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States.
Application for admission to the Union was now made to Congress, and on the 31st of December 186 2 an enabling act was approved by President Lincoln admitting the state on the condition that a provision for the gradual abolition of slavery be inserted in the Constitution.
The Convention was reconvened on the 12th of February 1863, and the demand of Congress was met.
If we were left solely to the wordy wit of legislators in Congress for our guidance, uncorrected by the seasonable experience and the effectual complaints of the people, America would not long retain her rank among the nations.
In Congress he joined the radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard worker and ready speaker.
In 1899 the national Congress granted to the school 25,000 acres of mineral lands, of which 20,000 acres, valued at $200,000, were unsold in 1909.
In 1862 he was elected a member of Congress from the Ashtabula district of Ohio, and, resigning his.
He was a member of the New York Assembly in 1759-1769, a delegate to the Stamp Act Congress of 1765, a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 until his death and as such a signer of the Declaration of Independence, and in1777-1778was a member of the first state senate.
There was a struggle between the two branches of government, the Executive and Congress.
The combined complaints of the injured parties led Sparta to summon a Peloponnesian congress which decided on war against Athens, failing a concession to Megara and Corinth (autumn 432).
On the 31st of August of the same year a series of proposals upon the currency question was submitted to congress by the president, whose real object was to counteract the too rapid appreciation of the inconvertible paper money.
In 1814-1815, before the decrees of the Vienna Congress were known, an extraordinary attempt was made by Philippe d'Auvergne of the British navy, the cousin and adopted son of the last duke, to revive the ancient duchy of Bouillon.
After 445 Athens was hardly in a position to summon such a congress, and would not have sent to envoys out of 20 to northern and central Greece, where she had just lost all her influence; nor is it likely that the building of the Parthenon (begun not later than 447) was entered on before the congress.
In 1814 Consalvi went, as the pope's representative, to England to meet and confer with the allied sovereigns, and later in the year was sent as papal plenipotentiary to the congress of Vienna.
In 1815 he represented him at the congress of Vienna, and succeeded in obtaining for the Netherlands a considerable augmentation of territory.
The fifth Lambeth conference, following as it did close on the great Pan-Anglican congress, is remarkable mainly as a proof of the growth of the influence and many-sided activity of the Anglican Church, and as a conspicuous manifestation of her characteristic principles.
was well pleased with the arrangement, but the congress assigned Bouillon to the Netherlands.
APPORTIONMENT BILL, an act passed by the Congress of the United States after each decennial census to determine the number of members which each state shall send to the House of Representatives.
He began to take an active part in politics in 1844, and in 1845-1847 was a Democratic representative in Congress, where he advocated the Wilmot Proviso.
Congress, however, had now got their opportunity, and they used the time of national stress to bring increased pressure to bear upon the president.
Celman, acting upon the advice of General Roca, who recognized the strength of public opinion in the outbreak, placed his resignation in the hands of congress on the 31st of.
Ministers and people with few exceptions - the most notable being the Scotch Highlanders who had settled in the valley of the Mohawk in New York and on Cape Fear river in North Carolina - sided with the patriot or Whig party: John Witherspoon was the only clergyman in the Continental Congress of 1776, and was otherwise a prominent leader; John Murray of the Presbytery of the Eastward was an eloquent leader in New England; and in the South the Scotch-Irish were the backbone of the American partisan forces, two of whose leaders, Daniel Morgan and Andrew Pickens, were Presbyterian elders.
Hayes by a majority of less than 3000 votes; but the Democrats gained a majority in both branches of the state legislature, and Thurman was elected to the United States Senate, where he served from 1869 until 1881 - during the 46th Congress (1879-1881) as president pro tempore.
But the suppression of disorder did not relieve the tension between the congress and the executive.
The president had made up his mind that the sentence must be carried out; the congress by a great majority were resolved not to permit the death penalty to be inflicted.
The overtures were favourably received, the council at Brussels was forcibly dissolved, and a congress met at Ghent on the 10th of October to consider what measures must be taken for the pacification of the country.
He was one of the founders of the College of New Jersey (now Princeton University), was a member of the New York Council for some years before the War of Independence, a member and president of the First Provincial Congress of New York (1775), and a member of the Second Provincial Congress (1775-1776).
KU KLUX KLAN, the name of an American secret association of Southern whites united for self-protection and to oppose the Reconstruction measures of the United States Congress, 1865-1876.
The elections were controlled for a few years, and violence was checked, but the Ku Klux movement went on until it accomplished its object by giving protection to the whites, reducing the blacks to order, replacing the whites in control of society and state, expelling the worst of the carpet-baggers and scalawags, and nullifying those laws of Congress which had resulted in placing the Southern whites under the control of a party composed principally of ex-slaves.
The legislative power is vested in a congress of two chambers - the senate, composed of 30 members (two from each province and two from the capital), elected by the provincial legislatures and by a special body of electors in the capital for a term of nine years; and the chamber of deputies, of 120 members (1906), elected for four years by direct vote of the people, one deputy for every 33,000 inhabitants.
It was a one-sided struggle, for without the consent of the congress the president could not raise any money for supplies, and congress refused to vote the budget.
As the House would, at this ratio, have become unmanageably large, the ratio, which is first settled by Congress before apportionment, has been raised after each census, as will be seen from the accompanying table.
At the congress of Vienna, Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla were assigned to Marie Louise (daughter of Francis I.
In January 1895 a special session of congress was summoned to take into consideration the financial proposals of the government, which included an increase in the naval and military estimates.
In the meantime, Vermont continued as an independent state without any recognition from Congress until its admission into the Union on the 4th of March 1791.
In 1879 a congress assembled in the rooms of the Geographical Society at Paris, under the presidency of Admiral de la Ronciere le Noury, and voted in favour of the making of the Panama Canal.
The union in 1885 of Bulgaria with Eastern Rumelia, the severance of which had been the great triumph of the Berlin Congress, was another blow.
A constituent congress, in which each province had equal representation, was duly gress had (May 1, 1853) appointed Urquiza president of the confederation, and he established the seat of government at Parana.
A definite issue was therefore sought by the congress on which to join battle, and it arose out of the death sentences which had been pronounced on certain naval and military officers who had been implicated in the Santa Fe outbreak.
He was again sent to Berlin in 1871, acted as second plenipotentiary at the Berlin congress of 1878, and was sent in the same year to London, where he represented Austria for ten years.
8 and 9) and the report of the French Commission, 1859, the rise in pitch began at the Congress of Vienna in 1816, the military bands being the cause.
Winston was founded in 1851 as the countyseat and was named in honour of Major Joseph Winston (1746-1815), a famous Indian fighter, a soldier during the War of Independence and a representative in Congress in1793-1795and 1803-1807.
A court of arbitration appointed by the Continental Congress met at Trenton, New Jersey, in 1782, and on December 30th gave a unanimous decision in favour of Pennsylvania.
An attempt to hold a public procession of the Host in connexion with the Eucharistic Congress at Westminster in 1908, however, was the signal for the outburst of a considerable amount of opposition, and was eventually abandoned owing to the personal intervention of the prime minister.
In Congress he was a consistent defender of sound money and civil service reform; in municipal politics he was in favour of business administrations and opposed to partisan nominations.
1475) on an uti possidetis basis, a peace subsequently confirmed by the congress of Olmiitz (July 1479).
At the end of 1907 Italy was among the few Countries that had not adopted the reduction of postage sanctioned at the Postal Union congress, held in Rome in 1906, by which the rates became 23/4d.
The arrangements made by the allies in accordance with the treaty of Paris (June I 2, 1814) and the Final Act of the congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815), imposed on Italy boundaries which, roughly speaking, corresponded to those of the pre-Napoleonic era.
The pope, Pius VII., who had long been kept under restraint by Napoleon at Fontainebleau, returned to Rome in May 1814, and was recognized by the congress of Vienna (not without some demur on the part of Austria) as the sovereign of all the former possessions of the Holy See.
The congress of zemstvos, hitherto the focus of Liberalism, had petitioned the government, before the opening of the third Duma, to take measures for the restoration of order.
During a long and active life, he played many parts: professor of mathematics at the Elphinstone college (1854) founder of the Rast Goftar newspaper; partner in a Parsi business firm in London (1855); prime minister of Baroda (1874); member of the Bombay legislative council (1885); M.P. for Central Finsbury (1892-1895), being the first Indian to be elected to the House of Commons; three times president of the Indian National Congress.
16-17, July 24-25, September 25-28, October 30), and on the 1 5th of January 1777 adopted a declaration of independence, assumed the name New Connecticut and appointed Dr Jonas Fay (1 737 -, 818), Thomas Chittenden (1730-1797), Hemon Allen (1740-1788), Dr Reuben Jones and Jacob Bayley a committee to submit their proceedings to the Continental Congress.
The Piedmontese troops distinguished themselves in the field, gaining the sympathies of the French and English; and at the subsequent congress of Paris (1856), where Cavour himself was Sardinian representative, the Italian question was discussed, and the intolerable oppression of the Italian peoples by Austria and the despots ventilated.
unwarrantable interference, Austrias attempt to have him excluded from the Succession at the congress of Verona (1822).
But afterlong negotiations Congress the treaty of alliance was signed in January 1855, and iris, while Austria remained neutral, a well-equipped Piedmontese force of 15,000 men, under General La Marmora, sailed for the Crimea.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
Austria agreed on condition that Piedmont should disarm and should not be admitted to the congress.
As neither the Sardinian nor the Austrian government seemed disposed to yield, the idea of a congress had to be abandoned.
He suggested an international congress on the question; inspired a pamphlet, Le Pape el le Con grs, which proposed a reduction of the papal territory, and wrote to the pope advising him to cede Romagna in order to obtain better guarantees for the rest of his dominions.
The proposed congress fell through, and Napoleon thereupon raised the question of the cession of Nice and Savoy as the price of his consent to the union of the central provinces with the Italian kingdom.
Napoleon suggested his favorite expedient of a congress but the proposal broke down owing to Great Britains refusa:
On the occasion of the Metrical Congress, which met in Paris in 1872, he, however, successfully protested against the recognition of the Vatican delegate, Father Secchi, as a representative of a state, and obtained from Count de Rmusat, French foreign minister, a formal declaration that the presence of Father Secchi on that occasion could not constitute a diplomatic precedent.
Yet at that moment the adoption of a clear line of policy, in accord with the central powers, might have saved Italy from the loss of prestige entailed by her bearing in regard to the Russo-Turkish War and the Austrian acquisition of Bosnia, and might have prevented the disappointment subsequently occasioned by the outcome of the Congress of Berlin.
The treaty of San Stefano had led to the convocation of the Berlin Congress, and though Count Corti was by no means ignorant of the rumours concerning secret agreements between Germany, Austria Con~ss.
In1849-1851he was a representative in Congress from New Jersey.
He was elected to the House of Representatives of the last Royal .Assembly of New Hampshire and then to the second Continental Congress in 1775, and was a member of the first Naval Committee of the latter, but he resigned in 1776, and in June 1776 became Congress's agent of prizes in New Hampshire and in 1778 continental (naval) agent of Congress in this state, where he supervised the building of John Paul Jones's "Ranger" (completed in June 1777), the "America," launched in 1782, and other vessels.
He was a judge of the New Hampshire Court of Common Pleas in 17761 777, a member (and speaker) of the New Hampshire House of Representatives from 1776 until 1782, a member of the state Constitutional Convention of 1778 and of the state Senate in 1784-1785, and in1783-1784was again a member of Congress.
during the first Congress and the second session of the second Congress; a member of the New Hampshire House of Representatives in1801-1805and its speaker in 1803-1805; and governor of the state in1805-1809and in 1810-1812.
After this short ministry he represented his country with dignity and effect at the Hague peace congress, and in 1903 was nominated a member of the permanent court of arbitration.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
The tension thus produced between the two statesmen was increased by the political complications of 18 751878 in south-eastern Europe, which began with the Herzegovinian insurrection and culminated at the Berlin congress.
After the congress he continued to hold the post of minister for foreign affairs, but lived chiefly abroad, and resigned formally in 1882, when he was succeeded by M.
On the admission of Indiana as a state, Congress gave to it four sections of public land as a site on which to establish a state capital.
In the zemstvo congress of November the " Cadets " protested against the " grant " of a constitution already elaborated, and demanded the convocation of a Constituent Assembly.
The ordinary laws, too, had been suspended; the fining and confiscation of newspapers had been resumed, and the " Cadets " had been forbidden to hold a congress.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
Congress was petitioned to organize a separate Territory.
This attempt to create a new state proved abortive, however, and it was not till the mineral wealth of the Washoe Country became generally known that Congress took any action.
Early in 1864, when it became evident that two more Republican votes might be needed in the United States Senate for reconstruction purposes, party leaders at Washington urged the people of Nevada to adopt a constitution and enter the Union as a patriotic duty, and on the 21st of March 1864 Congress passed an act to enable the people of the Territory to form a state government.
By the Enabling Act Congress had extended the eastern boundary to the 38th meridian (W.
In accordance with his pre-election pledge, Congress was called to meet in extra session on the 15th of March to revise the tariff.
In 1774 and 1775 he was a delegate to the Continental Congress and served on three of its most important committees: that on colonial trade and manufactures, that for drawing up an address to the king, and that for stating the rights of the colonies.
In 1778 he was chosen a delegate to Congress, but declined to serve.
At the trades union congress in Sept.
Agriculture was again barred; indeed the Vienna congress of 1815 practically restored the old discriminations against the Jews.
An act of Congress of the 3rd of March 1803 reserved from sale section sixteen of the public lands in each township for educational purposes.
In 1819 Congress granted thirty-six sections of public land for the establishment of a university.
Congress granted another township (thirty-six sections) for the university in 1892, and its income is supplemented by legislative appropriations for current expenses and special needs.
The two agricultural and mechanical colleges were founded by the sale of public lands given by Congress under the Morrill Act of 1862.
Through the vigilance of Governor Tryon, however, the Assembly was prevented from sending delegates to the Stamp Act Congress.
The first Provincial Congress met at Newbern on the 25th of August 1774 and elected delegates to the Continental Congress.
When the governor learned that a second Provincial Congress was called to meet in April 1775 he resolved to convene the assembly on the same day.
But the assembly, the members of which were nearly the same as those of the congress, refused to interrupt the meeting of the congress, and in the next month the governor sought safety in flight, first to Fort Johnson on the Cape Fear below Wilmington and then to a man-of-war along the coast.
Several aged men also testified that they had heard a declaration of_independence read at Charlotte, the county-seat, in May 1775; and one of them stated that he had carried it to the Continental Congress.
The first and the second provincial congress did little except choose delegates to the Continental Congress and the management of affairs passed in large measure from the royal government to the several county committees.
The third provincial congress, which met on the 21st of August 1775, still required its members to sign an oath of allegiance to King George III.
The first sanction of independence by any body representing the whole province was given by the fourth Provincial Congress on the 12th of April 1776, and the same body immediately proceeded to the consideration of a new and permanent form of government.
Fournier, Der Congress von Chatillon (Vienna and Prague, 1900); P. Gruyer, Napoleon, roi de l'he d'Elbe (Paris, 1906); *H.
Every lineal descendant, over eighteen years of age, of any passenger of the "Mayflower" is eligible to membership. Branch societies have since been organized in several of the states and in the District of Columbia, and a triennial congress is held in Plymouth.
In this last body he urged the annexation of Texas, chiefly as a means of achieving more power for the South in Congress.
He was a representative in Congress, however, from 1873 to 1882, and was governor of Georgia in 1882-1883, dying in office, at Atlanta, on the 4th of March 1883.
Its duration was from the 3rd of July 1778 to the assembly of the congress of Teschen on the 10th of March 1779,and its total cost £4,350,000 and 20,000 men to all parties.
John Adams was a member of the Continental Congress from 1774 to 1778.
His influence in congress was great, and almost from the beginning he was impatient for a separation of the colonies from Great Britain.
Alone and singlehanded, Gallatin carried on the fight in congress.
On the 6th of May, the day after his arrival in Philadelphia, he was elected by the assembly of Pennsylvania a delegate to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia.
Haven (1810-1861), member of Congress from 1851 to 1857, joined them in 1836.
After 1876, however, he returned to the Democratic party, and from January to March 1877 served out in Congress the unexpired term of Smith Ely, elected mayor of New York City.
still in the face of the Act of Congress of 1807 prohibiting such settlements, the frontiersmen rushed in to mine and to farm, and government was established through voluntary associations.
On the 6th of June, in reply to a deputation of the second congress of zemstvos headed by Prince Trubetzkoi, the emperor promised the speedy convocation of a National Assembly.
He removed to Texas in 1839, was deputy surveyor of public lands in 1839-1843, was admitted to the bar in 1846, was a member of the state House of Representatives in 1847-1848, served as district judge in 1852-1857, and in1857-1861was a representative in Congress.
In 1861 he was a member of the Texas secession convention, served in the Confederate provisional Congress, and on the 6th of March was appointed postmaster-general in President Davis's cabinet.
From 1875 to 1887, when he entered the U.S. Senate, he was again a representative in Congress, and from 1877 almost continuously to the close of his service he was chairman of the Committee on Commerce, in which capacity he had a prominent part in securing the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
He was subsequently a delegate to the Peace Congress in 1861, and was a loyal supporter of President Lincoln's war policy.
He was subsequently a representative in Congress from Ohio in 1877-1881; and from 1882 to 1896 practised law in New York City, where he was long one of the recognized leaders of the bar.
He was one of the British representatives at the congress of Chatillon in February 1814, and in the same capacity was present during the negotiations which led to the treaty of Paris in the following May.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
He was a Free Soil candidate for Congress (1850), but was defeated; was indicted with Wendell Phillips and Theodore Parker for participation in the attempt to release the fugitive slave, Anthony Burns, in Boston (18J3); was engaged in the effort to make Kansas a free state after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854; and during the Civil War was captain in the 51st Massachusetts Volunteers, and from November 1862 to October 1864, when he was retired because of a wound received in the preceding August, was colonel of the First South Carolina Volunteers, the first regiment recruited from former slaves for the Federal service.
An even more forcible speech, delivered later in the same session, in support of a bill for repeal - ing the embargo and non-importation acts, marked him as one of the foremost men in Congress.
This cost him his seat in Congress after the 4th of March 1817, and for the next six Years he was engaged chiefly in the practice of law in the courts of Massachusetts and before the U.S. Supreme Court.
Webster argued that the Federal Constitution gave to Congress control over interstate commerce, and that any interference .by the legislature of a state with this commerce was unconstitu - tional and void.
President Jackson responded with a proclamation denying the right of nullification, and asked Congress for authority to collect the revenue in South Carolina by force if necessary.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
Lopukhin, Sketch of the Congress of Jassy, 1791 (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1893); The Papers of Prince Potemkin, 1744-1793 (Rus.; St Petersburg, 1893-1895).
Aaron Burr was tried for treason and then for misdemeanour in this building in 1807, the Virginia secession convention met here in 1861, and during the Civil War the sessions of the Confederate Congress were held here.
In 1832 he was elected to the state House of Representatives, where, as chairman of a sub-committee, he submitted a report denying the right of Congress to exercise any control over the states.
He was one of the plenipotentiaries who concluded peace with Lubeck at the congress of Hamburg, and subsequently took an active part in the great work of national reconstruction necessitated by the Reformation, acting as mediator between the Danish and the German parties who were contesting for 2 Hence another of the names - " hurricane-bird " - by which this species is occasionally known.
consented to discuss the terms of a general pacification; but the discussions at the congress of Chatillon (5th of February19th of March) had no result except to bring to light a proof of Napoleon's insincerity.
The demands of the tsar Alexander were for a time so exorbitant as to bring the powers at the congress of Vienna to the verge of war.
Their recollection of his conduct during the congress of Chatillon was the determining fact at this crisis; his professions at Lyons or Paris had not the slightest effect; his efforts to detach Austria from the coalition, as also the feelers put forth tentatively by Fouche at Vienna, were fruitless.
On the 7th of June 1776 he seconded the famous resolution introduced by Richard Henry Lee that " these colonies are, and of a right ought to be, free and independent states," and no man championed these resolutions (adopted on the 2nd of July) so eloquently and effectively before the congress.
Congress, 1898); E.
Congress in 1785 set apart 1 sq.
The school revenues are derived from the sale and rental of public lands granted by Congress, and of the salt and swamp lands devoted by the state to such purposes, from a uniform levy of one mill on each dollar of taxable property in the state, from local levies (averaging 7.2 mills in township districts and 10.07 mills in separate districts in 1908), from certain fines and licences, and from tuition fees paid by non-resident pupils.
Three institutions for higher education are supported in large measure by the state: Ohio University at Athens, founded in 1804 on the proceeds derived from two townships granted by Congress to the Ohio Company; Miami University (chartered in 1809) at Oxford, which received the proceeds from a township granted by Congress in the Symmes purchase; and Ohio State University (1873) at Columbus, which received the proceeds from the lands granted by Congress under the act of 1862 for the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges, and reorganized as a university in 1878.
This district, known as the Western Reserve, was ceded in 1800 on condition that Congress would guarantee the titles to land already granted by the state.
When the war was over and these cessions had been made a great number of war veterans wished an opportunity to repair their broken fortunes in the West, and Congress, hopeful of receiving a large revenue from the sale of lands here, passed an ordinance on the 20th of May 1785 by which the present national system of land-surveys into townships 6 In.
An association of New Jerseymen, organized by John Cleves Symmes, secured a grant from Congress in1788-1792to a strip of 248,540 acres on the Ohio between the Great Miami and the Little Miami, which came to be known as the Symmes Purchase.
Since Congress did not pass any formal act of admission there has been some controversy as to when Ohio became a state.
The Enabling Act was passed on the 30th of April 1802, the first state legislature met on the 1st of March 1803, the Territorial judges gave up their offices on the 15th of April 1803, and the Federal senators and representatives took their seats in Congress on the 17th of October 1803.
Congress decided in 1806 in connexion with the payment of salaries to Territorial officials that the 1st of March 1803 was the date when state government began.
Medals were authorized by Congress, and in the following year Dr Kane received the founder's medal of the Royal Geographical Society, and, two years later, a gold medal from the Paris Geographical Society.
In October 1774, when General Gage refused recognition to the Massachusetts general court at Salem, the members adjourned to Concord as the first provincial congress.
The city was warmly in favour of the adoption of the federal constitution of 1787; even Samuel Adams was rejected for Congress because he was backward in its support.
In 1815 the congress of Vienna made another change in the area and boundaries of Hesse-Darmstadt.
The general movement for the extension of cotton cultivation wa.s welcomed by the International Congress of representatives of master cotton spinners and manufacturers' associations at the meeting at Zurich in May 1904.
Mr. Harding's inaugural address, and his first message to Congress, delivered in person on April 12, voiced his desire to return to " normalcy," as he expressed it.
He advocated the adoption of a national budget system, and, Congress having passed a budget bill similar to that vetoed by Mr. Wilson in 1920, he approved it on June 10 1921; it provided for a Budget Bureau in the Treasury Department and the appointment of a director of the budget, the first being Charles G.
He disclaimed any desire to enlarge the powers and responsibilities of the executive, which, he declared, were already too large; and he aimed at close cooperation with Congress.
This policy was adopted by Congress, which agreed upon a joint peace resolution, signed by him on July 2.
Two years later the American Congress annexed the portion of West Florida between the Pearl and the Mississippi rivers to Louisiana (hence the so-called Florida parishes of Louisiana), and that between the Pearl and the Perdido to the Mississippi Territory.
By a similar process the board's decision in favour of the election of Republican presidential electors was nullified, and the Democratic electors were declared the successful candidates; but the electoral commission, appointed by Congress, reversed this decision.
6, 59th Congress, 1st session (Washington, 1906).
He was at once elected to the national house of representatives, and took his seat in December 1 795 There, by sheer force of ability and industry, he wrested from all competitors the leadership of the Republicans, and became the most dangerous opponent whom the Federalists had ever encountered in congress.
The greatest period of Gallatin's career in congress was in 1798, after the publication of the famous X.Y.Z.
At last, however, in June 1812, congress on Madison's recommendation declared war against England.
At the Congress of Vienna the Powers awarded to her and her son the duchies of Parma, Piacenza and Guastalla, in conformity with the terms of the treaty of Fontainebleau (March, 1814); in spite of the determined opposition of Louis XVIII.
Identifying himself with the Democratic party, he served in the state House of Representatives in 1848, and was a prominent member of the convention for the revision of the state constitution in 1850-1851, a representative in Congress (1851-18s5), commissioner of the United States General Land Office (1855-1859), a United States senator (1863-1869), and governor of Indiana (1873-1877).
The constitution of Porto Rico is contained in an act of the Congress of the United States (the Foraker Act) which came into operation in May 1900.
All laws enacted by the insular legislature must also be submitted to the Congress of the United States, which reserves the right to annul them.
The governor and Executive Council have the exclusive right to grant all other franchises of a public or quasi-public nature and Congress reserves the right to annul or modify any such grant.
He was a member of Congress from 1893 to 1895, and from 1919 to 1921, being Speaker from 1911 to 1919 and minority leader thereafter; he was defeated in the election of 1920.
He represented the United States Bureau of Education at the International Congress of Educators at Brussels in 1880.
In 1660 he was sent as plenipotentiary to a second congress, to convert the truce of 1658 into a permanent peace.
Congress met on the 3rd of December 1849.
In July 1774 he wrote for a convention in Fairfax county a series of resolutions known as the Fairfax Resolves, in which he advocated a congress of the colonies and suggested non-intercourse with Great Britain, a policy subsequently adopted by Virginia and later by the Continental Congress.
He objected to the large and indefinite powers given by the completed Constitution to Congress, so he joined with Patrick Henry in opposing its ratification in the Virginia Convention (1788).
Wood Mowing and Reaping Machine Co., which dates from 1866, the business having been started in 1852 by Walter Abbott Wood (1815-1892), who was a Republican representative in Congress in 1879-1883.
At the opening of the Thirty-Fourth Congress the anti-Nebraska men gradually united in supporting Banks for speaker, and after one of the bitterest and most protracted speakership contests in the history of congress, lasting from the 3rd of December 1855 to the 2nd of February 1856, he was chosen on the 133rd ballot.
In August 1865 he was mustered out of the service, and from 1865 to 1873 he was again a representative in congress, serving as chairman of the committee on foreign affairs.
Having rejoined the Republican party in 1876, he was United States marshal for Massachusetts from 187 9 until 1888, when for the ninth time he was elected to Congress.
He was a friend of Franklin, a member of Congress for the state of Pennsylvania in 1776, and one of those who signed the Declaration of Independence the same year.
In 1879, addressing a congress of Catholic journalists in Rome, he exhorted them to uphold the necessity of the temporal power, and to proclaim to the world that the affairs of Italy would never prosper until it was restored; in 1887 he found it necessary to deprecate the violence with which this doctrine was advocated in certain journals.
At the congress of Vienna (November 1814) the principle was acknowledged that the slave trade should be abolished as soon as possible; but the determination of the limit of time was reserved for separate negotiation between the powers.
The words " slave" and " slavery " were, however, excluded from the constitution, " because," as Madison says," they did not choose to admit the right of property in man " in direct terms; and it was at the same time provided that Congress might interdict the foreign slave trade after the expiration of twenty years.
Morse's petition for a patent was soon followed by a petition to Congress for an appropriation to defray the expense of subjecting the telegraph to actual experiment over a length sufficient to establish its feasibility and demonstrate its value.
Congress, however, adjourned without making the appropriation, and meanwhile Morse sailed for Europe to take out patents there.
In 1843 Congress passed the long-delayed appropriation, steps were at once taken to construct a telegraph from Baltimore to Washington, and on the 24th of May 1844 it was used for the first time.
In Congress he was one of the ablest opponents of slavery, contending particularly against the Compromise Measures of 1850,1850, but he was never technically an Abolitionist and he disapproved of the Radicalism of Garrison and his followers.
He took an active part in the movements in Connecticut preceding the War of Independence, and from 1774 to 1776 was a delegate from Connecticut to the Continental Congress.
Early in 1776 he was sent to France by Congress, in a semi-official capacity, as a secret agent to induce the French government to lend its financial aid to the colonies.
Subsequently he became, w ith Benjamin Franklin and Arthur Lee, one of the regularly accredited commissioners to France from Congress.
In America he was defended by John Jay and John Adams, and after stating his case to Congress was allowed to return to Paris (1781) to settle his affairs.
(See Louisiana Purchase.) By an Act of Congress of the 25th of March 1804,' that portion of the Louisiana Purchase S.
As early as December 1862 the Union military government, at President Lincoln's direction, had ordered elections for Congress, and the men chosen were admitted in February 1863.
But in 1864 the opposition of Congress to presidential reconstruction had clearly developed, so that the electoral votes of Louisiana (like those of Tennessee) for president were not counted.
He sanctions, promulgates and executes the laws, and supplements them (partly co-ordinately with congress) by administrative regulations in harmony with their ends; holds a veto power and pardoning power; controls with the senate political appointments and removals; and conducts foreign relations, submitting treaties to the senate for ratification.
Congress consists of two houses.
Congress meets twice annually, in April and November.
The subjects of legislative power are very similar to those of the United States congress; but control of railroads, canals and public roads is explicitly given to the federal government.
The first Cuban congress met on the 5th of May 1902, prepared to take over the government from the American military authorities, which it did on the 10th of May.
Congress neglected to pass certain laws which were required by the constitution, and which, as regards municipal autonomy, independence of the judiciary, and congressional representation of minority parties, were intended to make impossible the abuses of centralized government that had characterized Spanish administration.
The president resigned (on the 28th of September), Congress dispersed without choosing a successor, and as an alternative to anarchy the United States was compelled to proclaim on the 29th of September 1906 a provisional government, - to last " long enough to restore order and peace and public confidence," and hold new elections.
Among its buildings are the cathedral, dating from 1553 and once noted for its wealth; the president's palace and halls of congress, which are no longer occupied as such by the national government; the cabildo, or town-hall; a mint dating from 1572; the courts of justice, and the university of San Xavier, founded in 1624, with faculties of law, medicine and theology.
This split, first apparent in the Congress of 1903, gradually widened.
At the third Congress in 1905 it led to the formation of two parties, the Bolsheviks meeting in London, and the Mensheviks in Geneva.
Such was the situation when the question of a European guarantee of Turkey was raised at the Congress of Vienna.
But, though the sultan remained stubborn, the emperor Alexander, who since the Congress of Laibach had been wholly under Metternich's influence, resisted the clamour of his people for war, and dismissed his Greek minister Capo d'Istria.
The Congress of Verona (1822) passed without any serious developments in the Eastern Question.
of Before the meeting of this congress, which assembled on the 13th of June 1878, the powers principally 1878.
Nor is it possible to mention here all the intrigues and quarrels that arose during three and a half years among the crowd of prelates, monks, doctors, simple clerks, princes and ambassadors composing this tumultuous assembly - perhaps the greatest congress of people the world has ever seen.
Thus in 1822, at the congress of Verona, in order to overcome the objection of Great Britain to any interference of the European concert in Spain, identical notes were presented to the Spanish government instead of a collective note.
At the same time he was prominent in the movement for the formation of labour unions, and at the congress of working men at Nantes in 1894 he secured the adoption of the labour union idea against the adherents of Jules Guesde.
In 1908 he presided at the Pan-Anglican congress held in London, and at the Lambeth conference which followed.
Great Britain surrendered its title to the eastern portion by the Treaty of Paris (1783), and after the surrender of Virginia's colourable title had been accepted by Congress in 1784, this eastern part was made a part of the Northwest Territory by the ordinance of 1787, although the British held possession and did some trading there until 1796.
On the 26th of August a convention met at Stillwater, where measures were taken for the formation of a separate territorial government, and Henry Hastings Sibley (1811-1891) was sent to Congress as a delegate of " Wisconsin Territory."
This brilliant exploit earned him his captain's commission and a sword of honour from Congress.
which Dutch and Belgian troops fought side by side under his command, the congress of Vienna further aggrandized him by making him sovereign of the territory of Luxemburg with the title of grand duke.
Francis Dana graduated at Harvard in 1762, was admitted to the bar in 1767, and, being an opponent of the British colonial policy, became a leader of the Sons of Liberty, and in 1774 was a member of the first provincial congress of Massachusetts.
He was a member of the Massachusetts executive council from 1776 to 1780, and a delegate to the continental congress from 1776 to 1778.
This committee spent about three months in camp, and assisted Washington in preparing the plan of reorganization which Congress in the main adopted.
In February 1784 he was again chosen a delegate to Congress, and in January 1785 he became a justice of the Massachusetts supreme court.
It was finally arranged by the allies that their envoys at Paris should fix the date for the assembling of a peace congress, and that, in the meantime, the war against Prussia should be vigorously prosecuted.
In 17 9 6 Pinckney was the Federalist candidate for vice-president, and in1797-1801he was a Federalist representative in Congress.
In 1679 Gyllenstjerna was appointed the Swedish plenipotentiary at the peace congress of Lund.
The Van Buren manuscripts are in the Library of Congress.
He took an active part in the resistance to the Stamp Act, and from 1 774 to 1778 and 1784 to 1785 was a member of the Continental Congress.
As editor of the Omaha World-Herald he then championed the cause of bimetallism in the press as vigorously as he had in Congress and on the platform, his articles being widely quoted and discussed.
27 1917) this action was continued as opposed to the policy of the leading Baits (Sievers, Oettingen, Baron Pilar, Stryck), who were alarmed by the Bolshevik upheaval, the congress of the landless workers at Wolmar (Dec. 16-19 1917), the outrages of the Russian soldiery, the impotence of the more moderate Letts, the universal anti-German feeling, the danger to life and property, and obtained the occupation of the whole region up to Narva by German troops, thus aiding and abetting the Germans in their plans of domination.
The supreme powers of the nation are vested in three partially independent branches of government - executive, legislative, and judicial - represented by the president and his cabinet, a national congress of two chambers, and a supreme tribunal.
The ministers are appointed and removed by the president, take no part in the sessions of congress, and are responsible to the president alone for their advisory acts.
The president sanctions and promulgates, or vetoes, or ignores the laws and resolutions voted by congress, and issues decrees and regulations for their execution.
His veto may be over-ridden by a two-thirds vote in each chamber, and permitting ten days to pass without signing an act is considered as acquiescence and it is promulgated by congress.
The legislative power is vested in a national congress of two chambers, elected by direct suffrage, and convened on the 3rd of May each year.
In 1906 Congress resolved to undertake a national geological survey under the direction of Mr Orville A.
Under the leadership of General Deodoro da Fonseca a praetorian system of government, in which the military element was all-powerful, came into existence, and continued till February 1891, when a national congress assembled and formulated the constitution for the United States of Brazil.
That they instituted a rival congress of their own in Philippopolis is improbable.
In 1844 he was chosen as a presidential elector on the Polk and Dallas ticket; in February 1845 he married Miss Varina Howell (1826-1906) of Mississippi (a granddaughter of Governor Richard Howell of New Jersey), and in the same year became a Democratic representative in Congress.
In his famous speech in the Senate on the 12th of July 1848, on the question of establishing a government for Oregon Territory, he held that a slave should be treated by the Federal government on the same basis as any other property, and therefore that it was the duty of Congress to protect the owner's right to his slave in whatever state or territory of the Union that slave might be.
On the 9th of February he received the unanimous vote of the provisional congress of the seceded states as president of the "Confederate States of America."
Moreover, he was not, like Lincoln, a great manager of men; he often acted without tact; he was charged with being domineering and autocratic, and at various times he was seriously hampered by the meddling of the Confederate Congress and the opposition of such men as the vice-president, A.
The last days of the Confederate Congress were spent in recriminations between that body and President Davis, and the popularity with which he commenced his administration had almost entirely vanished.
In January 1865 the Congress proposed to supersede the president and make General Lee dictator, - a suggestion, however, to which the Confederate commander refused to listen.
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
On retiring from Congress he began the practice of law at Fredericksburg, Virginia, was chosen a member of the Virginia House of Delegates in 1787, and in 1788 was a member of the state convention which ratified for Virginia the Federal constitution.
Congress finally (in 1826) authorized the payment of $30,000 to him, and after his death appropriated a small amount for the purchase of his papers from his heirs.
Suhl, which obtained civic rights in 1527, belonged to the principality of Henneberg, and formed part of the possessions of the kingdom of Saxony assigned to Prussia by the Congress of Vienna in 1815.
He was deputed to the Reichstag which sat at Kromefice (Kremsier) in the autumn of that year, and was a member of the Slav congress at Prague.
He attended the Panslavist congress at Moscow in 1867.
Less reprehensible, though equally self-seeking, were his dealings with the emperor, which aimed at a family alliance between the Jagiellos and the Habsburgs on the basis of a double marriage between the son and daughter of Wladislaus, Louis and Anne, and an Austrian archduke and archduchess; this was concluded by the family congress at Vienna, July 22, 1515, to which Sigismund I.
He was the son of Alfred Conkling (1789-1874), who was a representative in Congress from New York in 1821-1823, a Federal district judge in 1825-1852, and U.S. minister to Mexico in 1852-1853.
At first a Whig, he joined the Republican party at its formation, and was a Republican representative in Congress from 1859 to 1863.
In this opposition he was joined by his brother, Frederick Augustus Conkling (1816-1891), at that time also a Republican member of Congress.
He was again a representative in Congress from December 1865 until 1867, when he entered the Senate.
This agreement is known as the Pact of Rome, because it was publicly proclaimed at a " Congress of the Oppressed Nationalities of Austria-Hungary," held on April 8 in the Roman Capitol.
The effect of the congress and of this propaganda was to hasten the disintegration in the Austro-Hungarian army, and the High Command (in a communiqué of July 27) admitted that wholesale defections of the Czechoslovaks and the Yugosla y s had.
Meanwhile the Roman congress was deliberately imitated by an imposing congress at Prague (May 16), at which Czech, Polish, Italian, Rumanian, Slovak and Yugoslav delegates attended.
Lansing in the name of America (May 31) was a fresh encouragement: and Korosec, after constituting a Yugoslav National Council for the furtherance of unity, convoked a new Slav congress at Lyublyana (Ljubljana) on Aug.
The settlement, though far from ideal, involved concessions on both sides: and Italy, though still forgetful of the principles enunciated at the Roman congress, could at least claim to be the only victorious Power which had relinquished its hold upon conquered territory.
In1853-1857he was a Whig representative in Congress.
in adventures in Asia Minor, He was reported in x920-21 to have been employed at Moscow as director of the Asiatic department in the Soviet Government, and to have posed at the Baku Congress of Oriental Peoples as the leader of a great Socialist movement in the middle east and north Africa.
In 1814 he was a member of the provisional government by whom the Bourbons were recalled, and he attended the congress of Vienna, with Talleyrand, as minister plenipotentiary.
In the late usage at Harran the worshipper, after purifying his garments and his heart, was advised to put on the clothing of the particular god he addressed (de Goeje, Oriental Congress, Leiden, 1 Herod.
The president and vice-presidents, who must be Venezuelans by birth and more than thirty years old, are elected by an electoral body or council composed of members of the national Congress, one member from each state and the Federal District.
The ministers are required to countersign all acts relating to their respective departments, and are held responsible both before Congress and the courts for their acts.
The federal court consists of 7 members, representing as many judicial districts of the republic, who are elected by Congress for periods of six years (Const.
This national force is divided into actives and reserves, the strength of the first being fixed by Congress, and all the rest, of unknown number, belong to the latter.
A movement was set on foot for the reform of the constitution, the principal objects of this agitation being to prolong the presidential term to four years, to give Congress the right to choose the president of the republic, and to amend certain sections concerning the rights of persons taking part in armed insurrection arising out of political issues.
The reform of the constitution was agreed to, and in 1894 General Crespo was duly declared elected to the presidency by Congress for a period of four years.
On the 18th of December 1895 a message was sent to the United States Congress by President Cleveland practically stating that any attempt on the part of the British Government to enforce its claims upon Venezuela as regards the boundary between that country and Guiana without resort to arbitration would be considered as a casus belli by his government.
The inhabitants of Venezuela have a right to vote for the members of Congress, but in reality this privilege is not exercised by them.
Gainesville was settled about 1851, was incorporated in 1873, and was chartered as a city in 1879; it was named in honour of General Edmund Pendleton Gaines (1777-1849), who served with distinction in the War of 1812, becoming a brigadier-general in March 1814 and receiving the brevet of major-general and the thanks of Congress for his defence of Fort Erie in August 1814.
He conducted the business of the department with great skill, and ably seconded Cavour in bringing about the admission of Piedmont to the congress of Paris on an equal footing with the great powers.
The first proposal for a free Rhine was mooted by the French at the congress of Rastatt (1797-1799), but Holland, commanding the mouth of the river, placed every obstacle in the way of the suggestion.
The congress of Vienna (1815) restored the lower part of the Rhenish valley to Germany, but it was not till the war of 1870-71 that the recovery of Alsace and Lorraine made the Rhine once more "Germany's river, not Germany's frontier."
He acted as president of the International Congress held at Geneva in 1892 for revising the nomenclature of the fatty acid series.
Recognizing that slavery was a state institution, with which the Federal government had no authority to interfere, he contended that slavery could only exist by a specific state enactment, that therefore slavery in the District of Columbia and in the Territories was unlawful and should be abolished, that the coastwise slave-trade in vessels flying the national flag, like the international slave-trade, should be rigidly suppressed, and that Congress had no power to pass any act which in any way could be construed as a recognition of slavery as a national institution.
In 1859 he was not renominated, and retired from Congress after a continuous service of more than twenty years.
Giddings published a series of political essays signed "Pacificus" (1843); Speeches in Congress (1853); The Exiles of Florida (1858); and a History of the Rebellion: Its Authors and Causes (1864).
Giddings (Chicago, 1892), by his son-inlaw, George Washington Julian (1817-1899), a Free-soil leader and a representative in Congress in 1849-1851, a Republican representative in Congress in 1861-1871, a Liberal Republican in the campaign of 1872, and afterwards a Democrat.
He was secretary to the congress of Vienna (1814-1815) and to all the congresses and conferences that followed, up to that of Verona (1822), and in all his vast knowledge of men and affairs made him a power.
He was under no illusion as to their achievements; his memoir on the work of the congress of Vienna is at once an incisive piece of criticism and a monument of his own disillusionment.
He notes that at the congress of Vienna he received 22,000 florins through Talleyrand from Louis XVIII., while Castlereagh gave him £600, accompanied by les plus folks and his diary is full of such entries.
parliament, congress, colleges, schools, workhouses, cemeteries), or to the army and the navy.
By act of Congress, approved in April 1904, the establishment of chaplains was fixed at 57 (15 with the rank of major), 12 for the artillery corps and r each for the cavalry and infantry regiments.
Peter the Great, in 1 712, attached him to Prince Kurakin at the Utrecht Congress that he might learn diplomacy, and for the same reason permitted him in 1713 to enter the service of the elector of Hanover.
At the peace congress of Abo (January - August 1743) he insisted that the whole of Finland should be ceded to Russia, by way of completing the testament of Peter the Great.
The hour of Bestuzhev's triumph coincided with the peace congress of Aixla-Chapelle, which altered the whole situation of European politics and introduced fresh combinations, the breaking away of Prussia from France and a rapprochement between England and Prussia, with the inevitable corollary of an alliance between France and the enemies of Prussia.
In 1797 Fersen was sent to the congress of Rastatt as the Swedish delegate, but in consequence of a protest from the French government, was not permitted to take part in it.
In 1815 Elberfeld was assigned by the congress of Vienna, with the grand-duchy of Berg, to Prussia, and its prosperity rapidly developed under the Prussian Zollverein.
FREEDMEN'S BUREAU (officially the Bureau Of Freedmen, Refugees And Abandoned Lands), a bureau created in the United States war department by an act of Congress, 3rd of March 1865, to last one year, but continued until 1872 by later acts passed over the president's veto.
In 1814-15 it was the meeting-place of the congress which settled the political affairs of Europe after the overthrow of Napoleon.
Congress of Vienna >>
From 1858 to 1863 he was in the lower house of Congress, where he was noted for his strong opposition to the principles and policies of the growing Republican party, his belief that the South had been grievously wronged by the North, his leadership of the Peace Democrats or Copperheads, who were opposed to the prosecution of the war, and his bitter attacks upon the Lincoln administration, which, he said, was destroying the Constitution and would end by destroying civil liberty in the North.
In the First Parish Church, the site of which is marked by a monument, the Provincial Congress, after adjournment from Concord, met from April to July 1775; the Massachusetts General Court held its sessions here from 1775 to 1778, and the Boston town meetings were held here during the siege of Boston, when many of the well-known Boston families made their homes in the neighbourhood.
In 1830 he was placed in charge of the division of instruments and charts, and in 1838 was appointed to command an exploring and surveying expedition in the Southern Seas, authorized by Congress in 1836.
Though he was officially thanked by Congress, his action was later disavowed by President Lincoln.
He made the tariff his special study, and was long recognized as the leading authority in Congress.
Welles supported President Johnson in his quarrel with Congress, took part in the Liberal Republican movement of 1872, and returning to the Democratic party, warmly advocated the election of Samuel J.
But in 1878, at the Congress of Berlin, Lord Salisbury agreed to allow France a "free hand" in Tunisia in return for French acquiescence in the British lease of Cyprus.
This and other actions excited the French to act on the secret understanding effected with the British foreign minister at the Berlin Congress.
Upon the repeal of the Missouri Compromise by the Kansas-Nebraska Bill in 1854, he joined the great popular movement in Ohio against the policy represented by this bill, and was elected to Congress in the autumn of that year as an "Anti-Nebraska" man.
In the summer of the next year he took an active part in the formal organization of the Republican party in the state, and at the opening of Congress in December began a long career of public service.
His administration of the department, in circumstances of great difficulty arising out of the "greenback" agitation and the adverse political complexion of Congress, won him high distinction as a financier.
The legislative power is exercised by a national Congress - senate and chamber of deputies - meeting annually on the 28th of July in ordinary session for a period of 90 days.
Senators and deputies are inviolable in the exercise of their duties, and cannot be arrested or imprisoned during a session of Congress, including the month preceding and following the session, except in flagrante delicto.
Members of Congress are forbidden to accept any employment or benefit from the executive.
The president has no veto power, but has the right to return a law to Congress with comments within a period of ten days.
Congress may also sit as a court of impeachment - the senate hearing and deciding the case, and the chamber acting as prosecutor.
The judges are selected by Congress from lists of nominees submitted by the executive.
congress of Peru became the sovereign power of the state.
After a short period of government by a committee of three, the congress elected Don Jose de la Riva Aguero to be first president of Peru on the 28th of February 1823.
To this committee was entrusted the task of the examination of all election returns, and of the proclamation of the names of successful candidates for seats in congress.
On the 8th of March about 1 p.m., the "Merrimac," commanded by Commodore Franklin Buchanan (1795-1871), steamed down the Elizabeth accompanied by two one-gun gun-boats, to engage the wooden fleet of the Federals, consisting of the frigate "Congress," 50 guns, and the sloop "Cumberland," 30 guns, both sailing vessels, anchored off Newport News, and 1 For the idea of the low free-board and the revolving turret Ericsson was indebted to Theodore R.
Actual firing began about 2 o'clock, when the "Merrimac" was nearly a mile from the "Congress" and the "Cumberland."
Passing the first of these vessels with terrific broadsides, the "Merrimac" rammed the "Cumberland" and then turned her fire again on the "Congress," which in an attempt to escape ran aground and was there under fire from three other Confederate gun-boats which had meanwhile joined the "Merrimac."
Between 4 and 4.30 the "Congress," having been raked fore and aft for nearly an hour by the "Merrimac," was forced to surrender.
While directing a fire of hot shot to burn the "Congress," Commodore Buchanan of the "Merrimac" was severely wounded and was succeeded in the command by Lieutenant Catesby ap Roger Jones.
From 1777 to 1783 he was a member of the Continental Congress, and in this body he served on three important committees, the marine committee, the board of treasury, and the committee of appeals, the predecessors respectively of the navy and treasury departments and the Supreme Court under the Federal Constitution.
In the following year he became involved in the deadly quarrel between President Johnson and Congress.
To tie the president's hands Congress had passed the Tenure of Office Act, forbidding the president to remove any cabinet officer without the consent of the Senate; but in August 1867 President Johnson suspended Secretary Stanton and appointed Grant secretary of war ad interim until the pleasure of the Senate should be ascertained.
In May 1872 something was done towards alleviating the odious Reconstruction laws for dragooning the South, which had been passed by Congress in spite of the vetoes of President Johnson.
A commission was created, but owing to the hostility of the politicians in Congress it accomplished little.
In the spring of 1885 Congress passed a bill creating him a general on the retired list; and in the summer he was removed to a cottage at Mount M'Gregor, near Saratoga, where he passed the last five weeks of his life, and where he died on the 23rd of July 1885.
The general peace congress was not opened till April 1645.
He was a member of the South Carolina legislature almost continuously from 1760 to 1780, and represented his province in the Stamp Act Congress of 1765 and in the Continental Congress in 1774-1776.
He was an ardent leader of the opposition to the Stamp Act, advocating even then a separation of the colonies from the mother country; and in the Continental Congress of 1774 he discussed the situation on the basis of inalienable rights and liberties, and urged an immediate attack on General Thomas Gage, that he might be defeated before receiving reinforcements.
Dr Cutler was selected to negotiate with Congress, and seems to have helped to secure the incorporation in the Ordinance for the government of the North-West Territory of the paragraphs which prohibited slavery and provided for public education and for the support of the ministry.
Cutler's original intention was to buy for the Ohio Company only about 1,500,000 acres, but on the 27th of July Congress authorized a grant of about 5,000,000 acres of land for $3,500,000; a reduction of one-third was allowed for bad tracts, and it was also provided that the lands could be paid for in United States securities.
Congress of Verona >>
In 1848 a Mexican congress met here to ratify the treaty of peace with the United States, and in 1867 Queretaro was the scene of Maximilian's last stand against the republicans (under Escobedo), which resulted in his capture and subsequent execution on the Cerro de las Campanas just N.
Besides the civil list the duke of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha enjoys a very large private fortune, amassed chiefly by Ernest I., who sold the principality of Lichtenberg, which the congress of Vienna had bestowed upon him in recognition of his services in 1813, to Prussia for a large sum of money.
In 1877 he was elected to represent the Richmond district of Virginia in Congress.
In 1815 Baden became a member of the Germanic confederation established by the Act of the 8th of June, annexed to the Final Act of the congress of Vienna of the 9th of June.
In the hurry of the winding-up of the congress, however, the vexed question of the succession to the grand-duchy had not been settled.
See also Transactions of the International Swedenborg Congress (London, 1910), summarized in The New Church Magazine (August, 1910).
He was a delegate from New York to the Continental Congress in 1779-1781, and state senator in 1781-1784,1786-1790and 1792-1797.
Against much opposition, partly political (1879-1886) and a veto on a legal point from President Arthur, a relief bill finally passed Congress, and Porter was on the 5th of August 1886 restored to the United States army as colonel and placed on the retired list, no provision, however, being made for compensation.
The county and the city were named in honour of Edward Dickinson Baker (1811-1861), a political leader, orator and soldier, who was born in London, England, was taken to the United States in 1815, was a representative in Congress from Illinois in 1845-1846and 1849-1851, served in the Mexican War as a colonel (1846-1847), became a prominent lawyer in California and later in Oregon, was a Republican member of the United States Senate in 1860-1861 and was killed at Ball's Bluff, Virginia, on the 21st of October in r 861, while serving as a colonel in the Federal army.
His grandfather, Frederick Frelinghuysen (1753-1804), was an eminent lawyer, one of the framers of the first New Jersey constitution, a soldier in the War of Independence, and a member (1778-1779 and 1782-1783) of the Continental Congress from New Jersey, and in 1793-1796 of the United States senate; and his uncle, Theodore (1787-1862), was attorney-general of New Jersey from 1817 to 1829, was a United States senator from New Jersey in 1829-1835, was the Whig candidate for vice-president on the Clay ticket in 1844, and was chancellor of the university of New York in 1839-1850 and president of Rutgers College in 1850-1862.
In 1861 he was a delegate to the peace congress at Washington, and in 1866 was appointed by the governor of New Jersey, as a Republican, to fill a vacancy in the United States senate.
With the support of Persia an agreement was made by a congress at Sparta on the basis of the autonomy of the cities, Amphipolis and the Chersonese being granted to Athens.
The third regiment of the New York line under Colonel Peter Gansevoort occupied the fort in April 1777 and completed the repairs begun in 1776; on the 3rd of August in the same year (one month before the official announcement by Congress of the design of the flag) the first flag of the United States, made according to the enactment of the 14th of June and used in battle, was raised here: it was made from various pieces of cloth.
In America the internal revenue tax on denaturized alcohol (formerly duty-free only to scientific institutions) was removed by Congress in 1906 (act of June 7th).
In 1862 he was elected to Congress, serving in the House thirteen years (December 1863 to December 1876), followed by a little over four years in the Senate.
The measures for the rehabilitation of the states that had seceded from the Union occupied the chief attention of Congress for several years, and Blaine bore a leading part in framing and discussing them.
He was the first in Congress to oppose the claim, which gained momentary and widespread favour in 1867, that the public debt, pledged in coin, should be paid in greenbacks.
His chance for securing the nomination, however, was materially lessened by persistent charges which were brought against him by the Democrats that as a member of Congress he had been guilty of corruption in his relations with the Little Rock & Fort Smith and the Northern Pacific railways.'
He served from 1852 to 1856 in the Missouri legislature as a Free Soil Democrat, in 1856 joined the Republican party, and in1857-1859and1861-1862was a member of Congress, where he proved an able debater.
In Congress as chairman of the important military affairs committee his services were of the greatest value.
From 1909 to 1913 he was a member of Congress from the Dayton district and served on the Appropriations Committee.
Manson, The Salvation Army and the Public (1906; 3rd ed., 1908); Salvation Army Headquarters, A Calumny Refuted: A Reply to the Unfounded Charges of Sweating, &c. (1908); United Workers' AntiSweating Committee, Salvation Army Sweating: A Reply to the Mis-statements of General Booth and his Officials (1908; 2nd ed., 1910); Reports of the Trades Union Congress (1907 to 1910).
(1802-1820) remained in Sardinia until by the Final Act of the Congress of Vienna (June 9, 1815) his dominions were restored to him, with the addition of Genoa.
In 1850 he was a member of the state constitutional convention, and in 1854 took an active part in organizing the "Anti-Nebraska men" (later called Republicans) of his state, and was by them sent to Congress.
of Macedon summoned a Greek congress at Corinth and left a garrison on the citadel.
At this congress the differences between Casimir and John of Bohemia were finally adjusted; peace was made between the king of Poland and the Teutonic Order on the basis of the cession of Pomerania, Kulm, and Michalow to the knights, who retroceded Kujavia and Dobrzyn; and the kings of Hungary and Poland further agreed to assist each other in the acquisition of the south-eastern border province of Halicz, or Red Russia (very nearly corresponding to the modern Galicia), in case the necessity for intervention should arise.
The Holy See, jealous of the growing power of the house of Luxemburg, attempted to set aside the decrees of the congress of Visegred, by urging Casimir to take up arms against the knights once more; but Casimir prudently refrained from hostilities, and ultimately compensated himself in the southeast for his losses in the north.
See Jan Leniek, The Congress of Visegrdd (Pol.), (Lemberg, 1884); J.
He was sent to Congress to report Gates's success against Burgoyne, but his tardiness secured for him a sarcastic reception.
Its site was originally included in the so-called "Bingham Patent," a tract on both sides of the Susquehanna river owned by William Bingham (1751-1804), a Philadelphia merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1787-1788 and of the United States Senate in 1795 - 1801, being president pro tempore of the Senate from the 16th of February to the 3rd of March 1797.
A fort was re-established here by act of Congress in 1900 and named Fort Des Moines.
To promote the ends he had in view he suggested non-importation, instituted the Boston committees of correspondence, urged that a Continental Congress be called, sought out and introduced into public service such allies as John Hancock, Joseph Warren and Josiah Quincy, and wrote a vast number of articles for the newspapers, especially the Boston Gazette, over a multitude of signatures.
As a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1774 to 1781, Samuel Adams continued vigorously to oppose any concession to the British government; strove for harmony among the several colonies in the common cause; served on numerous committees, among them that to prepare a plan of confederation; and signed the Declaration of Independence.
From Cumana Bolivar repaired to Cartagena, and thence to Tunja, where the revolutionary congress of New Granada was sitting.
The congress appointed him to conduct an expedition against Santa Fe de Bogota, where Don Cundinamarca had refused to acknowledge the new coalition of the provinces.
In December 1814 he appeared before Bogota with a force of 2000 men, and obliged the recalcitrant leaders to capitulate, - a service for which he received the thanks of congress.
At the opening of the congress which assembled in that city on the r 5th February 1819 he submitted an elaborate exposition of his views on government, and concluded by surrendering his authority into the hands of congress.
The first congress of the new republic assembled in August 1825, when Bolivar was declared perpetual protector, and requested to prepare for it a constitution of government.
In December 1824 Bolivar convoked a constituent congress for the February following; but this body, taking into consideration the unsettled state of the country, thought it proper to invest him with dictatorial power for another year.
His project of a constitution for Bolivia was presented to the congress of that state on the 25th of May 1826, accompanied with an address, in which he embodied his opinions respecting the form of government which he conceived most expedient for the newly established republics.
This view being confirmed by a resolution of congress, although it was not a unanimous one, Bolivar decided to resume his functions, and he repaired to Bogota to take the oaths.
The conclusion of the treaties of Westphalia prevented him from winning the military laurels he so ardently desired, but as the Swedish plenipotentiary at the executive congress of Nuremberg, he had unrivalled opportunities of learning diplomacy, in which science he speedily became a past-master.
In 1900 he presided over the World Temperance Congress in London, and on one occasion preached in the interests of women's education.
After the extinction of the main line of the counts of Mansfeld, Eisleben fell to Saxony, and, in the partition of Saxony by the congress of Vienna in 1815, was assigned to Prussia.
Although punishment by whipping and by standing in the pillory was prohibited by an act of Congress in 1839, in so far as the Federal government had jurisdiction, both these forms of punishment were retained in Delaware, and standing in the pillory was prescribed by statute as a punishment for a number of offences, including various kinds of larceny and forgery, highway robbery, and even pretending " to exercise the art of witchcraft, fortune-telling or dealing with spirits," at least until 1893.
He still enjoyed Beaufort's favour, and retaining his place in the council was employed on important missions, especially at the congress of Arras in 1 435, and the conference at Calais in 1438.
The town is of great strategical importance, for which reason the Russian plenipotentiaries at the Berlin congress (1878) stubbornly tried to include it within the Bulgarian frontier, while Austria and some other Powers insisted that it should be given to Servia.
A definite terminology for the larger forms of sub-oceanic relief was put forward by the International Geographical Congress at Berlin in 1899 and adopted by that at Washington in 1004.
According to the resolutions of the International Geographical Congress the larger individual forms which have been described by generic terms shall have specific names of a purely geographical character; but in the case of the minor forms the names of ships and persons are considered applicable.
For the sake of uniformity it is to be hoped that the system of nomenclature recommended by the International Geographical Congress will ultimately be adopted.
As the Federal Constitution contained no provision for settling a dispute of this kind the two houses of Congress agreed to the appointment of an extra-constitutional body, the "Electoral Commission" (q.v.) which decided all the contests in favour of the Republican candidates.
She agreed with their plan of an armed congress, and on this idea both she and Fersen insisted with all their might, Fersen leaving Brussels and going on a mission to the emperor to try and gain support and checkmate the émigrés, whose desertion the queen bitterly resented, and whose rashness threatened to frustrate her plans and endanger the lives of her family.
Mercy was also in correspondence with the Constitutionals, and in letter after letter to him and the emperor, the queen, strongly supported by Fersen, insisted that the congress should be formed as soon as possible, her appeals increasing in urgency as she saw that Barnave's party would soon be powerless against the extremists.
But owing to the lengthy negotiations of the powers the congress was continually postponed.
The congress of Vienna (1814-1815) erected Luxemburg into a grand-duchy, added part of the duchy of Bouillon to it, and assigned it to William king of the Netherlands, in return for the German territories of the house of Orange-Nassau, which Napoleon had confistated in 1806, and which were given by the congress to the king of Prussia.
It was as chairman of the Independent Labour party - the section led by Mr. Keir Hardie - that he entered the House of Commons; and he explained at the congress of the party in April 1907 that its object was to mould society into the socialist State.
In 1839 the Congress of the Republic set apart fifty square leagues (221,420 acres) of land for the establishment of two universities.
After a long conflict over the slavery question, the state was admitted into the Union under a joint resolution of Congress adopted on the 1st of March 1845, 1 on condition that the United States should settle all questions of boundary with foreign governments, that Texas should retain all of its vacant and unappropriated public lands, and that new states, not exceeding four in number, might be formed within its limits.
After serving, as a Democratic-Republican, in the state house of representatives in 1825, in the state senate in 1826, and in the house again in 1828, he spent two years, from 1829 to 1831, in Europe, again served in the state house of representatives in 1833 and 1834, and in the latter year was elected by the Whigs a representative in Congress.
Under the Territorial government when first organized the governor was given an extensive appointing power, as well as the right of an absolute veto on all legislation, but this speedily resulted in such friction between him and the legislature that Congress was petitioned for his removal, with the outcome that the office has since been much restricted in its appointing power, and the veto has been subjected to the ordinary United States limit, i.e.
In the Congress he served on as many as ten committees, and upon the organization of a continental postal system, he was made postmastergeneral, a position he held for one year, when (in 1776) he was succeeded by his son-in-law, Richard Bache, who had been his deputy.
With John Adams and Edward Rutledge he was selected by Congress to discuss with Admiral Howe (September 1776, at Staten Island) the terms of peace proposed by Howe, who had arrived in New York harbour in July 1776, and who had been an intimate friend of Franklin; but the discussion was fruitless, as the American commissioners refused to treat " back of this step of independency."
He collected all the money he could command, between £3000 and £4000, lent it to Congress before he set sail, and arrived at Paris on the 22nd of December.
Lee, from the beginning of the mission to Paris, seems to have been possessed of a mania of jealousy toward Franklin, or of misunderstanding of his acts, and he tried to undermine his influence with the Continental Congress.
Drafts were being drawn on him by all the American agents in Europe, and by the Continental Congress at home..
Franklin, besides, was constantly called upon to meet the indebtedness of Lee and of Ralph Izard (1742-1804), and of John Jay, who in Madrid was being drawn on by the American Congress.
As president of the Pennsylvania Society for Promoting the Abolition of Slavery, Franklin signed a petition to Congress (12th February 1790) for immediate abolition of slavery, and six weeks later in his most brilliant manner parodied the attack on the petition made by James Jackson (1757-1806) of Georgia, taking off Jackson's quotations of Scripture with pretended texts from the Koran cited by a member of the Divan of Algiers in opposition to a petition asking for the prohibition of holding Christians in slavery.
The valuable Frankliniana collected by Henry Stevens were purchased by Congress in 1885.
At the Congress of Verona (1822) the Austrian chancellor, Prince Metternich, tried to induce Charles Felix to set aside Charles Albert's rights of succession.
He was a Republican representative in Congress in 1879-1881, United States minister to France in 1881-1885, vice-president of the United States during the presidency of Benjamin Harrison in 1889-1893, and in1895-1896was governor of New York, signing as such the "Greater New York" bill and the liquor-tax measure kliown as the "Raines law."
xvi., xvii.; " Geographische Untersuchungen in der Westhalfte von New Guinea," in Report of Sixth International Geographical Congress (London, 1895); J.
He had no share in the negotiations of the congress of Chatillon in February-March 1814.
At the congress of Vienna (1814-15) for the settlement of European affairs, Talleyrand, as the representative of the restored house of Bourbon in France, managed adroitly to break up the league of the Powers (framed at Chaumont in February 1814) and assisted in forming a secret alliance between England, Austria and France in order to prevent the complete absorption of Poland by Russia and of Saxony by Prussia.
In 1835 it was made a city by the Mexican Congress, and declared the capital, but the last provision was not enforced and was soon recalled.
The Boston public library, exceeded in size in the United States by the library of Congress at Washington - and probably first, because of the large number of duplicates in the library of Congress - and the largest free municipal library in the world; the library of Harvard, extremely well chosen and valuable for research; the collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society (1791); the Boston Athenaeum (1807); the State Library (1826); the New England Historic Genealogical Society (1845); the Congregational Library; the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1780); and the Boston Society of Natural History (1830), all in Boston, leave it easily unrivalled, unless by Washington, as the best research centre of the country.
Washington, chosen by the Continental Congress to command the army, arrived in Cambridge in July 1775, and stretching his lines around Boston, forced its evacuation in March 1776.
Charles Sumner, the most eminent exponent of the new party, was the state's senator in Congress (1851-1874).
Hall (1810-1874), later a member of Congress and postmaster-general in his cabinet.
In Congress he opposed the annexation of Texas as slave territory, was an advocate of internal improvements and a protective tariff, supported J.
Adams in maintaining the right of offering anti-slavery petitions, advocated the prohibition by Congress of the slave trade between the states, and favoured the exclusion of slavery from the District of Columbia.
The Whigs having the ascendancy in the TwentySeventh Congress, he was made chairman of the House Committee of Ways and Means.
He was a member of the Rhode Island committee of safety in 1775-1776, and was a delegate in Congress in1776-1781and again in 1783-1785.
Just after his first election to Congress, he was placed on the important marine committee, and he was made a member of the board of admiralty when it was established in 1779.
As early as the congress of Aix-la-Chapelle (1818), however, the question of the relations of Spain and her colonies had been brought up and the suggestion made of concerted intervention, to put an end to a state of things scandalous in itself and dangerous, if only by force of example, to the monarchical principle.
and his ministers made any such solution impossible, and, before the meeting of the congress of Verona, in 1822, Castlereagh had realized the eventual necessity of recognizing the independence of the South American states.
President Monroe, in his message to Congress on the 2nd of December 1823, laid down the rule that no part of America was any longer res nullius, or open to colonial settlement.
In the former act he embodied a provision regulating and giving authority to the peculiar customs, usages, and regulations voluntarily adopted by the miners in various districts of the state for the adjudication of disputed mining claims. This, as Judge Field truly says, "was the foundation of the jurisprudence respecting mines in the country," having greatly influenced legislation upon this subject in other states and in the Congress of the United States.
He became a member of the parliamentary committee of the Trades Union Congress in 1894.
He was chairman of the Congress in 1912.
Congress in 1883 had passed the " Pendleton Bill " (introduced by Senator George H.
President Cleveland made large use of the veto power upon bills passed by Congress, vetoing or " pocketing " during his first term 413 bills, more than two-thirds of which were private pension bills.
Congress had passed a law in 1878 requiring the treasury department to purchase a certain amount of silver bullion each month and coin it into silver dollars to be full legal tender.
Cleveland had written a letter for publication before he became president, saying that a financial crisis of great severity must result if this coinage were continued, and expressing the hope that Congress would speedily put an end to it.
In 1890 Congress, now controlled by the Republican party, passed the McKinley Bill, by which the revenues of the government were reduced by more than $60,000,000 annually, chiefly through a repeal of the sugar duties.
President Cleveland called an extra session of Congress to repeal the Silver Law.
On the 17th of December 1895 President Cleveland sent to Congress a special message calling attention to Great Britain's action in regard to the disputed boundary line between British Guiana and Venezuela, and declaring the necessity of action by the United States to prevent an infringement of the Monroe Doctrine.
Congress at once appropriated funds for an American commission to investigate the matter.
Cleveland's independence was nowhere more strikingly shown during his second term than in his action in regard to the tariff legislation of his party in Congress.
Gouverneur served in the New York Provincial Congress in 1776-1777, was perhaps the leading advocate in that body of a declaration of independence, and after the Congress had become (July 1776) the "Convention of the Representatives of the state of New York," he served on the committee of that body which prepared the first draft of the state constitution.
His half-brother, Lewis Morris (1726-1798), a signer of the Declaration of Independence, was educated at Yale, served in the Continental Congress from 1775 until early in 1777, and went on a mission to the western frontier in 1775 to win over the Indians from the British to the American side.
He summoned the first Intercolonial Congress in America, which met in New York on the 1st of May 1690 to plan concerted action against the French and Indians.
The actual enumeration shall be made within three years after the first meeting of the Congress of the United States, and within every subsequent term of ten years, in such manner as they shall by law direct."
That large party which advocates a strict and jealous construction of the constitution would certainly oppose any independent legislation by the national Congress for providing a registration of births, marriages and deaths, or for obtaining social and industrial statistics, whether for the satisfaction of the publicist or for the guidance of the legislature.
The convention which drafted the Constitution of the United States attempted to secure a balance of interests by apportioning both representatives in Congress and direct taxes according to population.
On the other hand, the desire for many representatives in Congress has been reinforced by the more influential feelings of local pride and of rivalry with other cities of somewhat similar size.
Congress has recently entrusted it with still further duties, and it has developed into the main statistical office of the Federal government, finding its nearest analogue probably in the Imperial Statistical Office in Berlin.
Later it was found that an assembly so constituted combined the incompatible functions of a council for the transaction of business and a congress for shaping or expressing common opinion: and its constitution was modified so as to secure the latter object only.