Congregations sentence example
It disturbed the peace and order of the congregations, and threatened their safety.
The United Presbyterian Church has a board of foreign missions (reorganized in 1859) with missions in Egypt (1853), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1909, 71 congregations, 70 ministers and 10,341 members), in the Punjab (1854), now a synod with four presbyteries (in 1 909, 35 congregations, 51 ministers and 17,321 members), and in the Sudan (1901); and boards of home missions (reorganized, 1859), church extension (1859), publication (1859), education (1859), ministerial relief (1862), and missions to the freedmen (1863).
The colloque or presbytery was composed of representative ministers and elders (anciens) from a group of congregations.
The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
There were then in Ireland about a hundred congregations, seventy-five with settled ministers, under five presbyteries.Advertisement
In December 1797 he joined his brother and some others in the formation of the "Society for the Propagation of the Gospel at Home," in building chapels or "tabernacles" for congregations, in supporting missionaries, and in maintaining institutions for the education of young men to carry on the work of evangelization.
This was the "Little" or "Barebones Parliament," consisting of one hundred and forty persons selected by the council of officers from among those nominated by the congregations in each county, which met on the 4th of July 1653.
Paul encouraged missions, confirmed many new congregations and brotherhoods, authorized a new version of the Ritual, and canonized Carlo Borromeo.
The government of the church is chiefly according to the congregational principle, and the women have an equal voice with the men; but annual meetings, attended by the bishops, teachers and other delegates from the several congregations are held, and at these sessions the larger questions involving church polity are considered and decided by a committee of five bishops.
Among the public buildings and places of interest are the three churches on the Green, built in 5854; Center Church (Congregational), in the rear of which is the grave of John Dixwell (1608-1689), one of the regicides; United (formerly known as North) Church (Congregational), and Trinity Church, which belongs to one of the oldest Protestant Episcopal congregations in Connecticut.Advertisement
As early as1652-1654there is evidence of some slight organization for dealing with marriages, poor relief, " disorderly walkers," matters of arbitration, &c. The Quarterly or " General " meetings of the different counties seem to have been the first unions of separate congregations.
He had no sympathy with the Old Lutherans and their strict orthodoxy - on the contrary he was friendly with the Reformed congregations, and with George Whitefield and the Tennents.
Female proselytes are admitted after the total immersion in a ritual bath, though in some Reformed congregations this rite is omitted.
And on the 21st of November 1907 a papal motu proprio declared all the decisions of the Biblical Commission, past and future, to be as binding upon the conscience as decrees of the Roman Congregations.
The Protestant contingent consists of a number of small congregations scattered throughout the country, a few Portuguese Protestants from the Azores, a part of the German colonists settled in the central and southern states, and a large percentage of the North Europeans and Americans temporarily resident in Brazil.Advertisement
The Positivists are few in number, but their congregations are made up of educated and influential people.
Moreover, an act of the Natal parliament passed in 1909 placed the temporalities into commission in the persons of the bishop and other trustees of the Natal diocese of the Provincial Church; reservations being made in favour of four congregations at that time unwilling to unite with the main body of churchmen.'
We need not suppose that congregations gathered together to worship away from Jerusalem, especially in times of distress, would necessarily sing the religious poems which they had collected, though it is by no means improbable that they would do so.
As Cibossa, so their other congregations were renamed, Mananali as Achaea, Argaeum and Cynoschora as Colossae, Mopsuestia as Ephesus, and so on.
He joined one of the teaching congregations, and for fourteen years taught in their schools.Advertisement
With their approval a bishop was again consecrated, after six years' interval (1881-1887), for the Anglican congregations in Jerusalem and the East; and the features which had made the plan objectionable to many English churchmen were now abolished.
He was presently addressing enthusiastic congregations at Prato and Bologna.
His theology was that of the Scottish Calvinistic school, but his sympathetic character combined with strong conviction gathered round him one of the largest and most intelligent congregations in the city.
The parties of the Left in the chamber, united upon this question in the Bloc republicain, supported Combes in his application of the law of 1901 on the religious associations, and voted the new bill on the congregations (1904), and under his guidance France took the first definite steps toward the separation of church and state.
It was proposed to utilize the money set free by this operation to indemnify by a milliard francs the emigres for the loss of their lands at the Revolution; it was also proposed to restore their former privileges to the religious congregations.Advertisement
The Christian faith had hitherto been maintained in a few small congregations scattered over the Roman Empire.
Many of the small congregations had gone completely over to Montanism, although in large towns, like Ephesus, the opposite party maintained the ascendancy.
The latter wished for more fasting, the prohibition of second marriages, a frank, courageous profession of Christianity in daily life, and entire separation from the world; the bishops, on the other hand, sought to make it as easy as possible to be a Christian, lest they should lose the greater part of their congregations.
Even before this latent antagonism was made plain there were many minor matters which were sufficient to precipitate a rupture in particular congregations.
We must note, however, that the Baptist divines who were excluded from the Westminster Assembly issued a declaration of their principles under the title, " A Confession of Faith of seven Congregations or Churches in London which are commonly but unjustly called Anabaptists, for the Vindication of the Truth and Information of the Ignorant."
For two years Espartero ruled Spain in accordance with his Radical and conciliatory dispositions, giving special attention to the reorganization of the administration, taxation and finances, declaring all the estates of the church, congregations and religious orders to be national property, and suppressing the diezma, or tenths.
During this century the Benedictine houses in many parts of Catholic Europe united themselves into congregations, usually characterized by an austerity that was due to the Tridentine reform movement.
He is only Primus inter pares, and exercises no kind of superiority over the other abbots or congregations.
A synod was held in 1532 at Chanforans in the valley of the Angrogne, where a new confession of faith was adopted, which recognized the doctrine of election, assimilated the practices of the Vaudois to those of the Swiss congregations, renounced for the future all recognition of the Roman communion, and established their own worship no longer as secret meetings of a faithful few but as public assemblies for the glory of God.
Already in 1550 Strype refers to certain " sectaries " in Essex and Kent, as " the first that made separation from the Reformed Church of England, having gathered congregations of their own."
Then, during Mary's reign, secret congregations met under the leadership of Protestant clergy, and, when these were lacking, even of laymen.
About 1716 Daniel Neal knew of 1107 dissenting congregations, 860 Presbyterian or Independent (of which perhaps 350 were Independent), and 247 Baptist.
Their houses, at first without bonds between them, soon tended to draw together and coalesce into congregations with corporate organization and codes of constitutions supplementary to the Rule.
Some thirty congregations of canons regular of St Augustine are numbered.
During the later middle ages the houses of these various congregations of canons regular spread all over Europe and became extraordinarily numerous.
Most of the congregations of Augustinian canons had convents of nuns, called canonesses; many such exist to this day.
Further, ministers of the various denominations might give, on the special request of the parents, instruction to the children of their own congregations for one hour on one day in each week.
Before long a commencement was made of the missions to the delta of the Niger, and between 1866 and 1884 congregations of Christians were formed at Bonny, Brass and New Calabar, but the progress made was slow and subject to many impediments.
Though made up of widely scattered congregations, it was thought of as one body of Christ, one people of God.
These unions for the most part aimed, not at incorporating the two churches in doctrine and in worship, but at bringing churches or congregations professing different confessions under one government and discipline.
The state appoints to 56%, private and municipal patrons to 34%, and congregations to io% of the whole.
The old Calvinist nobility of Lithuania were speedily reconverted; a Uniate Church in connexion with Rome was established; Greek Orthodox congregations, if not generally persecuted, were at least depressed and straitened; and the Cossacks began to hate the Pans, or Polish lords, not merely as tyrants, but as heretics.
A notable man was Joseph Andrew Zaluski, bishop of Kiev, a Pole who had become thoroughly frenchified - so much so, that he preached in French to the fashionable congregations of Warsaw.
Many of the Jesuit schools were transferred to the congregations of the Oratoire and the Benedictines, and to the secular clergy.
On the eve of the Revolution, out of a grand total of 562 classical schools, 384 were in the hands of the clergy and 178 in those of the congregations.
He raised up for Himself particular individuals, into whose mouths He put the word of God, and these were at first regarded as the true leaders of the congregations.
Their existence was believed in, and they did actually exist, not only in the catholic congregations - if the expression may be used - but also in the Marcionite Church and the Gnostic societies.
Some separatist churches were formed as a result of the Awakening; these either died out or became Baptist congregations.
Some years later the bishop of Puebla, Juan de Palafox y Mendoza, transferred many native congregations from the friars to secular priests, and subsequently, in 1647, came into conflict with the Jesuits, whom he excommunicated, but who eventually triumphed with the aid of the Dominicans and the archbishop. The power of the church may be judged from the petition of the Ayuntamiento of Mexico to Philip IV.
Bishops have acquiesced and congregations approved.
His defence of the principle of freedom of association led him, incongruously enough, to support the religious Congregations against Emile Combes.
Among other denominations the Jewish congregations and the Latter Day Saints were the largest.
As an order of regular clergy, holding a middle position between monks and secular canons, almost resembling a community of parish priests living under rule, they adopted naves of great length to accommodate large congregations.
He preached to crowded congregations, and, when Lord Shelburne acceded to power, not only was he offered the post of private secretary to the premier, but it is said that one of the paragraphs in the king's speech was suggested by him and even inserted in his words.
Great congregations have been gathered, and the work done for uplifting the fallen and outcast has earned the gratitude of all gocd men.
In 1588 followed the new regulations with respect to the Roman Congregations, which henceforth were to be fifteen in number.
Religion was thought to be part of a fashionable education, and the training of girls came almost exclusively into the hands of the religious orders and congregations.
With Napoleon fell the temporal power; but the French hierarchy still kept his gifts in the shape of the congregations, the pro-Catholic colonial policy, and a certain control of education.
To have the force of law the acts of the congregations must be signed by the cardinal prefect and secretary, and sealed with his seal.
We may pass over those temporary congregations of cardinals known also as "special," the authority and existence of which extend only to the consideration of one particular question; and also those which had as their object various aspects of the temporal administration of the papal states, which have ceased to exist since 1870.
We deal here only with the permanent ecclesiastical congregations, the real machinery of the papal administration.
In this constitution he declared that the competency of these various organs was not always clear, and that their functions were badly arranged; that certain of them had only a small amount of business to deal with, while others were overworked; that strictly judicial affairs, with which the Congregations had not to deal originally, had developed to an excessive extent, while the tribunals, the Rota and the Signatura, had nothing to do.
It has also the duty of deciding disputes as to the competency of the other Congregations.
With the reservation of those questions, especially of a dogmatic character, which belong to the Holy Office, and of purely ritual questions, which come under the Congregation of Rites, this Congregation brings under one authority all disciplinary questions concerning the sacraments, which were formerly distributed among several Congregations and offices.
This congregation was very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and controversies between the secular and regular clergy.
It had charge of the administration of the Catholic churches in all non-Catholic countries, for which it discharged the functions of all the Congregations, except in doctrinal and strictly legislative matters.
Further, even for those countries which it continues to administer, the Propaganda has to submit to the various Congregations all questions affecting the Faith, marriage and rites.
To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
This tribunal goes back at least as far as the 14th century, but its activity had been reduced as a result of the more expeditious and summary, and less costly, procedure of the Congregations.
Under the jurisdiction of the Rota, in addition to cases of first instance submitted to it by the pope, are such judgments of episcopal courts as are strictly speaking subject to appeal; for petitions against non-judicial decisions are referred to the Congregations.
It is this department which sends out, at the command of the secretary of state or the various Congregations those papal letters which are written in less solemn form, brevi manu, hence the word "brief."
Stern Premonstratensian canons wanted no congregations, and cared for no possessions; therefore they built their church like a long room.
Outside the Orthodox Church are some small congregations of Uniat Basilians.
Here Phillips Brooks preached Sunday after Sunday to great congregations, until he was consecrated bishop of Massachusetts in 1891.
The other missions are entrusted to the care of various religious orders and congregations, which take up foreign missionary work in addition to their labours in Christian countries.
Again, there are some 20 congregations of " Brothers " (not priests) engaged in teaching, and numbering some 4500 members.
This great missionary was well received by the daimios (feudal lords), and though he remained only 22 years, with the help of a Japanese whom he had converted at Malacca he organized many congregations.
Congregations were formed in Geneva, at Lausanne, where most of the Methodist and other dissenters joined the Brethren, at Vevey and elsewhere in Vaud.
Religious conviction is one of the most characteristic traits of the Dutch people, and finds expression in a large number of independent religious congregations.
The bond between church and state which had been established by the synod of Dort (1618) and the organization of the Low-Dutch Reformed Church (Nederlandsche Hervormde Kerk) as the national Protestant church, practically came to an end in the revolution of 1795, and in the revision of the Constitution in 1848 the complete religious liberty and equality of all persons and congregations was guaranteed.
The provinces are subdivided into " classes," and the classes again into " circles " (ringen), each circle comprising from 5 to 25 congregations, and each congregation being governed by a " church council " or session.
Some congregations have withdrawn from provincial supervision, and have thus free control of their own financial affairs.
There are congregations of English Episcopalians at the Hague, Amsterdam and Rotterdam, and German Evangelicals at the Hague (1857) and Rotterdam (1861).
In 1824 the Classis of Northampton, Pennsylvania (13 ministers and 80 congregations), became the Synod of Ohio, the parent Synod having refused to allow the Classis to ordain.
A schism over the establishment of a theological seminary resulted in the organization of a new synod of the "Free German Reformed Congregations of Pennsylvania," which returned to the parent synod in 1837.
The Benedictine houses never coalesced in this manner; even when, later on, a system of national congregations was introduced, they were but loose federations of autonomous abbeys; so that to this day, though the convenient expression " Benedictine order " is frequently used, the Benedictines do not form an order in the proper sense of the word.
Alongside of the local federations or congregations of houses of Augustinian canons were formed the Premonstratensian order (I r 20) (q.v.), and the English " double order " of St Gilbert of Sempringham (1148) (q.v.), both orders, in the full sense of the word, composed of Augustinian canons.
The chief of these congregations are the Passionists (founded by St John of the Cross, 1725) and the Redemptorists (founded by St Alfonsus Liguori, 1749), both dedicated to giving missions and retreats.
In the new countries, especially in the United States and Australia, but also in South Africa, orders and congregations of all kinds are most thriving.
But on the other there are a vast number of purely female orders and congregations.
The nuns belonging to the older orders tend to the contemplative idea, and they still find recruits in sufficient numbers, in spite of the modern rush to the active congregations.
In time a tendency set in for members of the Third Order to live together in community, and in this way congregations were formed who took the usual religious vows and lived a fully organized religious life based on the Rule of the Third Order with supplementary regulations.
These congregations are the "Regular Tertiaries" as distinguished from the "Secular Tertiaries," who lived in the world, according to the original idea.
The Regular Tertiaries are in the full technical sense "religious," and there have been, and are, many congregations of them, both of men and of women.
He limited the College of Cardinals to seventy; and doubled the number of the congregations, and enlarged their functions, assigning to them the principal role in the transaction of business (1588).
During the following twelve years he resided in Holland, and preached before Calvinistic congregations at Amsterdam, Leiden and Utrecht.
In 1863 the Cameronians, or Reformed Presbyterians, decided to inflict no penalties upon those members who had taken the oaths, or had exercised civil functions, and consequently a few congregations seceded.
In 1876 the general body of the Reformed Presbyterians united with the Free Church of Scotland, leaving the few seceding congregations as the representatives of the principles of the Cameronians.
A dissentient remnant (eight congregations) of the General Associate Synod united with the Constitutional Associate Presbytery in 1827, the resultant body being called the Associate Synod of Original Seceders.
In the first half of the 13th century there were in central Italy various small congregations of hermits living according to different rules.
The need of co-ordinating and organizing these hermits induced the popes towards 1250 to unite into one body a number of these congregations, so as to form a single religious order, living according to the Rule of St Augustine, and called the Order of Augustinian Hermits, or simply the Augustinian Order.
The reaction against the inevitable tendencies towards mitigation and relaxation led to a number of reforms that produced upwards of twenty different congregations within the order, each governed by a vicar-general, who was subject to the general of the order.
Some of these congregations went in the matter of austerity beyond the original idea of the institute; and so in the 16th century there arose in Spain, Italy and France, Discalced or Barefooted Hermits of St Augustine, who provided in each province one house wherein a strictly eremitical life might be led by such as desired it.
There have been many convents of Augustinian Hermitesses, chiefly in the Barefooted congregations; such convents exist still in Europe and North America, devoted to education and hospital work.
Roman civic institutions perished; but probably parts of the population survived, and small Christian congregations with their bishops in most cases seem to have weathered all storms. Much of the city walls presumably remained standing, and within them German communities soon settled.
In time mitigations and relaxations crept in, and these gave rise to reforms and semi-independent congregations within the order.
By those of them who are members of the various Congregations and other offices of the Curia the greater part of the government of the Church is directed.
The regular clergy are those attached to religious orders and to certain congregations (see Monasticism).
Of these the former are outside the normal organization of the Church, being exempt from the ordinary jurisdiction of the diocesan bishops, while the more recently formed congregations are either wholly or largely subject to episcopal authority.
Other such communities and " congregations " - semi-monastic bodies standing in closer touch with the world than did the medieval orders - undertook the diffusion of knowledge.
Those ministers who resigned their parishes to accept calls to Relief congregations, in places where forced settlements had taken place, and who might have been and claimed to be recognized as still ministers of the church, were deposed and forbidden to look for any ministerial communion with the clergy of the Establishment.
As the population of Scotland had doubled since the Reformation, and its distribution had been completely altered in many counties, while the number of parish churches remained unchanged, and meeting-houses had only been erected where seceding congregations required them, the need for new churches was very great.
By introducing into his church a printed book of prayers and also an organ, Dr Lee stirred up vehement controversies in the church courts, which resulted in the recognition of the liberty of congregations to improve their worship. The Church Service Society, having for its object the study of ancient and modern liturgies, with a view to the preparation of forms of prayer for public worship, was founded in 1865; it has published eight editions of its " Book of Common Order," which, though at first regarded with suspicion, has been largely used by the clergy.
This committee publishes a magazine of " Life and Work," which has a circulation of over 10o,000, and has organized young men's gilds in connexion with congregations and revived the ancient order of deaconesses.
The Free Church in 1909 had 150 congregations and 77 ministers; its members and adherents are stated to number 60,000, and its income, apart from investments, is k22,542.
The original Secession Church has 5 presbyteries and 26 congregations; and the remnant of the Reformed Presbyterian Church which did not join the Free Church in 1876, 2 presbyteries and 11 congregations.
The Baptist Union has 128 congregations and the Wesleyan Methodists 40 churches.
It may not be out of place here to correct the mistake, which is by no means uncommon, that the terms Particular and General as applied to Baptist congregations were intended to express this difference in their practice, whereas these terms related, as has been already said, to the difference in their doctrinal views.
The Baptists early felt the necessity of providing an educated ministry for their congregations.
The General (Six Principles) Baptists of Rhode Island and Connecticut had increased their congregations and membership, and before the beginning of the 18th century had inaugurated annual associational meetings.
But he left behind him a "Wholesome Counsel" to Scottish heads of families, reminding them that within their own houses they were "bishop and kings," and recommending the institution of something like the early apostolic worship in private congregations.
Starting with "truth" contained in Scripture as the church's foundation, and the Word and Sacraments as means of building it up, it provides ministers and elders to be elected by the congregations, with a subordinate class of "readers," and by their means sermons and prayers each "Sunday" in every parish.
Seven years afterwards, however, when the contest with the Crown was ended, the kirk was expressly acknowledged as the only Church in Scotland, and jurisdiction given it over all who should attempt to be outsiders; while the preaching of the Evangel and the planting of congregations went on in all the accessible parts of Scotland.
Most of the literature of the sub-apostolic age is epistolary, and we have a particularly interesting form of epistle in the communications between churches (as distinct from individuals) known as the First Epistle of Clement (Rome to Corinth), the Martyrdom of Polycarp (Smyrna to Philomelium), and the Letters of the Churches of Vienne andLyons (to the congregations of Asia Minor and Phrygia) describing the Gallican martyrdoms of A.D.
Accordingly, he opposed the original apostles with their Judaistic doctrines, and founded small congregations of true Christians.
The bishops were almost universally banished, and the congregations were forbidden to elect their successors, so that the greater part of the churches of Africa remained "widowed" for a whole generation.
There are separate synods with independent authority for the congregations of the Dutch Reformed Churches in the Cape, Orange Free State and Transvaal provinces.
Besides these churches there are a number of Lutheran congregations among the Dutch speaking population.
Among its most important acts were the expulsion of the religious congregations which had returned after 1834, the nationalization of their property, and the abolition, by decree, of the council of state, the upper house and all hereditary titles or privileges.
In 1831 he was appointed vicar at Kirchenlarnitz, where his fervent evangelical preaching attracted large congregations and puzzled the ecclesiastical authorities.
By way of compromise John Knox and other ministers drew up a new liturgy based upon earlier Continental Reformed Services, which was not deemed satisfactory, but which on his removal to Geneva he published in 1556 for the use of the English congregations in that city.
The Geneva book made its way to Scotland, and was used here and there by Reformed congregations.
To the lay reader may be recommended Ernest Renan's article, "Les congregations de auxiliis" in his Nouvelles etudes d'histoire religieuse.
Through his influence Lancashire became the stronghold of the Swedenborgians, and to-day includes a third of the congregations and more than half the members of the New Church in the United Kingdom.
A notable feature in this has been the great development of monastic institutions, due in large measure to the settlement in England of the congregations expelled from France.
Being confined to fundamental principles without entering into details, it has proved itself admirably suited to form the foundation of the religious life of the most varied orders and congregations, and since the 12th century it has proved more prolific than the Benedictine Rule.
All are of the order of St Anthony, but divided into three congregations, the Ishaya, the Halebiyeh (Aleppine) and the Beladiyeh or Libnaniyeh (local).
Solomon Stoddard died on the 11th of February 1729, leaving to his grandson the difficult task of the sole ministerial charge of one of the largest and wealthiest congregations in the colony, and one proud of its morality, its culture and its reputation.
It is governed by an elected council representing the constituent congregations.
Besides providing the worship of some twenty congregations, the United Synagogue directs and supports educational and charitable work.
On the other hand, those Antinomians for whom his Calvinism is not strong enough, may study the Pilgrimage of Hephzibah, in which 1 He had resumed his pastorate in Bedford after his imprisonment of 1675, and, although he frequently preached in London to crowded congregations, and is said in the last year of his life to have been, of course unofficially, chaplain to Sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, he remained faithful to his own congregation.
The right of the secular tribunals to take cognizance of the offences of ecclesiastics had been asserted in two remarkable cases; and the scope of two ancient laws of the city of Venice, forbidding the foundation of churches or ecclesiastical congregations without the consent of the state, and the acquisition of property by priests or religious bodies, had been extended over the entire territory of the republic. In January 1606 the papal nuncio delivered a brief demanding the unconditional submission of the Venetians.
In the third place come the decrees of the Roman Congregations, which have the force of law.
The font was viewed as the womb of the virgin mother church, who was in some congregations, for example, in the early churches of Gaul, no abstraction, but a divine aeon watching over and sympathizing with the children of her womb, the recipient even of hymns of praise and humble supplications.
As early as August 1862, Cardinal Wiseman publicly censured the Review; and when in 1864, after D0111nger's appeal at the Munich Congress for a less hostile attitude towards historical criticism, the pope issued a declaration that the opinions of Catholic writers were subject to the authority of the Roman congregations, Acton felt that there was only one way of reconciling his literary conscience with his ecclesiastical loyalty, and he stopped the publication of his monthly periodical.
Peirce (1673-1726) of Exeter, was to leave dissenting congregations to determine their own orthodoxy; the General Baptists had already (1700) condoned defections from the common doctrine.
By degrees his type of theology superseded Arianism in a considerable number of dissenting congregations.
There are now seven congregations.
They have 38 congregations and some mission stations.
Unitarian congregations were organized at Portland and Saco in 1792 by Thomas Oxnard; in 1800 the First Church in Plymouth accepted the more liberal faith.
There were 356 congregations, with a total membership of 124,335, and 324 working clergy in 1 9 00.
But at length the hopelessness of the Stewart cause and the growth of congregations outside the establishment forced the bishops to dissociate canonical jurisdiction from royal prerogative and to reconstitute for themselves a territorial episcopate.
Moreover, the Jacobitism of the non-jurors provoked a state policy of repression in 1715 and 1745, and fostered the growth of new Hanoverian congregations, served by clergy episcopally ordained but amenable to no bishop, who qualified themselves under the act of 1712.
The "qualified" congregations were gradually absorbed, though traces of this ecclesiastical solecism still linger.
His impassioned yet reasoned eloquence gave him an influence which was increased by his articles in the Parlement in which he opposed violent measures against the unauthorized congregations.
In 1906 there were 569 congregations, arranged under 36 presbyteries, with 647 ministers.
The first was that presented by the growth of the religious orders and congregations, the second that arising out of the spread of Socialism and industrial unrest.
Spain was so far relaxed as to permit the re-establishment of the orders of St Vincent de Paul, St Philip Neri and one other among those approved by the Holy See, so that throughout the country the bishops might have at their disposal a sufficient number of ministers and preachers for the purpose of missions in the villages of their dioceses, &c. In practice the phrase one other was interpreted by the bishops, not as one for the whole of Spain, but as one in each diocese, and at the request of the bishops congregations of all kinds established themselves in Spain, the number greatly increasing after the loss of the colonies and as a result of the measures of secularization in France.i The result was what is usual in such cases.
This law the congregations, hotbeds of reactionary tendencies, had ignored; and on the i9th of July 1901, the queen-regent issued a decree, countersigned by Sagasta, for enforcing its provisions.
It was pointed out that, in conformity with the decree of the 9th of April 1902, it had become necessary to coerce those congregations and associations which had not fulfilled the formalities prescribed by the law of 1887, and also those engaged in commerce and industry which had not taken cut patents with a view to their taxation.
It further ordered that all foreign members of congregations were to register themselves at their respective consulates, in accordance with the decrees of 1901 and 1902.
A violent clerical agitaticn, encouraged by the Vatican, was started, 72 Spanish archbishops and bishops presenting a joint protest to the government; Fuel was added to the fire by the introduction of a billknown as the Cadenas billforbidding the settlement of further congregations in Spain until the negotiations with the Vatican should have been completed.
For Spain its immediate effect was to threaten a great increase of the difficulties of the government, by the immigration of the whole mass of religious congregations expelled from Portugal by one of the first acts of the new rgime.
A few small Jansenist congregations still survive in France; and others have been started in connexion with the Old Catholic Church in Holland.
After the Council of Trent the old arrangements were replaced by the Congregations, permanent committees of cardinals which deal with definite branches of business.
He was, however, entirely free from personal ambition, and had no desire to be general over a number of dependent houses, so that he desired that _all congregations formed on his model outside Rome should be autonomous, governing themselves, and without endeavouring to retain control over any new colonies they might themselves send out - a regulation afterwards formally confirmed by a brief.
Scattered congregations or churches within the parochia were served by itinerant presbyters.
Both in Italy and France he was engaged in collecting materials for his great work, which occupied him about twenty-five years, L'Histoire des ordres monastiques, religieux, et militaires, et des congregations seculieres, de l'un et de l'autre sexe, qui ont ete etablies jusqu'd present, published in 8 volumes in 1714-1721.
The humanist movement itself has its roots in the Ethical Societies of the 19th century which grew out of Unitarian congregations.
Dr. Jonathan Sacks is Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew congregations of the Commonwealth.
These tensions are often reflected in local church congregations where increasing numbers of churches are adopting a niche approach to " doing church " .
It is, he says, the only mainstream denomination which is taking the problems of ethnic Asian congregations seriously.
Several ministers entered protests, and claimed the right of retaining the designation They continue separate in seven congregations.
Their spiritual destitution stirred the spirit of Baron Van Imhoff, by whose exertions two additional congregations were formed in 1743.
The strategy of working with multiple congregations has a long history.
On Sundays he liked to listen to the evangelical preachers, who used to have open air congregations along the seafront.
In its general congregations and sessions bitter reproaches were often uttered on the same themes.
This was resisted and resented by congregations and caused the original secession in 1733.
Moreover parliament was so far from pressing disendowment that on the petition of the Commons it passed a savage act against the heresies " commonly called Lollardry " which " aimed at the destruction of the king and all temporal estates," making Lollards felons and ordering every justice of the peace to hunt down their schools, conventicles, congregations and confederacies.
These followed their ordinary avocations on week-days, but on Sundays preached to congregations in their own immediate neighbourhood, and hence were called local preachers as distinguished from travelling preachers.
Any person fulfilling certain legal requirements with regard to capacity, age and character may set up privately an educational establishment of any grade, but by the law of 1904 all religious congregations are prohibited from keeping schools of any kind whatever.
Several congregations took his part; but ultimately Dionysius, bishop of Alexandria, succeeded in healing the schism and asserting the allegorical interpretation of the prophets as the only legitimate exegesis.
In some reformed congregations in America proselytes are admitted without circumcision, and a similar policy is proposed (not yet adopted) by the Jewish Religious Union in London, though the male children of proselytes are to be required to undergo the rite.
In the following year a general church assembly endeavoured to unite all the congregations in a common government, but Postma's consistory rejected these overtures, and from that date the Separatist (or Dopper) Church has had an independent existence (see ante, § Religion).
There are, however, a good many instances recorded of what has been called a fumigatory use of frankincense in churches, by which it was sought to purify the air, in times of public sickness, or to dispel the foulness caused by large congregations, or poisonous gases arising from ill-constructed vaults under the church floor.
These congregations were provided with only the most indispensable constitutional forms ("Corpus sumus de conscientia religionis, de unitate disciplinae, de spei foedere").
And thus, within the large congregations where there was so much that was open to censure in doctrine and constitution and morals, conventicles were formed in order that Christians might prepare themselves by strict discipline for the day of the Lord.
Side by side with the Roman Catholic hierarchy are the congregations of the Old Catholics or Old Episcopalian Church (Oud Bisschoppelijke Clerezie), and the Jansenists (see Jansenism).
Strictly speaking the " religious congregations " should be distinguished from the orders of regular clerks, the difference being that in the former the vows, though taken for life, are only " simple vows " and more easily dispensable by authority; but the character and work of the two institutes is very similar.
The Rules of the various Third Orders have proved very adaptable to the needs of modern congregations devoted to active works of charity; and so a great number of teaching and nursing congregations of women belong to one or other of the Third Orders.
There have also been numerous congregations of Augustinian Tertiaries, both men and women, connected with the order and engaged on charitable works of every kind (see Tertiaries) .
The number of " denominations " by whom buildings were certified for worship up to 1895 was 293 (see list in Whitaker's Almanack, 1886, p. 252), but in many instances such denominations " consisted of two or three congregations only, in some cases of a single congregation.
If we now consider the laws in themselves, we shall find that the dispersed condition of the legislative documents has not been modified since the closure of the Corpus juris; on the contrary, the enormous number of pontifical constitutions, and of decrees emanating from the Roman Congregations, has greatly aggravated the situation; moreover, the attempts which have been made to resume the interrupted process of codification have entirely failed.
This was resisted and resented by congregations and caused the original Secession in 1733.
Most of the Original Secession congregations went in to the Free church in 1852.
Many congregations over the years have become fearful that leaving doors open presents a security threat.
In addition, all of their kosher products are certified by the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America.
Church Groups - Today, most churches recognize the need to cater to the social aspect of their members, and many congregations have active senior citizens' groups.
Jewish congregations have individuals, who are part of the the Chevra Kaddisha, a sacred burial society whose jobs are to prepare bodies for burial and protect them until that time.
Fundraising for churches can be a difficult task since many members of church congregations donate weekly to their church and are not planning on giving more of their income for other activities.
In some churches, the ceremony may be a simple party at the conclusion of a purity program, while other congregations may opt for more elaborate events including youth prayers, a recitation of purity vows, hymns, or a special communion.
Different families or synagogue congregations may use different spellings, and individuals celebrating the holiday can choose any form of the word that they prefer.
Certain concordats deal with the orders and congregations of monks and nuns with a view to subjecting them to a certain control while securing to them the legal exercise of their activities.
Antoine, taken to the secret meetings of the persecuted Calvinists, began, when only seventeen, to speak and exhort in these congregations of "the desert."
The extent to which the employment of the local preacher is characteristic of Methodism may be seen from the fact that in the United Kingdom while there are only about 5000 Methodist ministers, there are more than 18,000 congregations; some 13,000 congregations, chiefly in the villages, are dependent on local preachers.
The university pulpit, indeed, was closed to him, but several congregations in London delighted in his sermons, and from 1866 until the year of his death he preached annually in Westminster Abbey, where Stanley had become dean in 1863.
The presbytery consists of all the ministers and a selection of the ruling elders from the congregations within a prescribed area.
It has oversight of all the congregations within its bounds; hears references from kirk-sessions or appeals from individual members; sanctions the formation of new congregations; superintends the education of students for the ministry; stimulates and guides pastoral and evangelistic work; and exercises discipline over all within its bounds, including the ministers.
The synod is a provincial council which consists of the ministers and representative elders from all the congregations within a specified number of presbyteries, in the same way as the presbytery is representative of a specified number of congregations.
Within certain broad outlines much, perhaps too much, is left to the choice of individual congregations.
The statistics of these and of sixteen others not formally in the alliance were 29,476 congregations, 26,251 ministers, 126,607 elders and 4,852,096 communicants.
Thus, although the congregations were Presbyterian, the civil government retained overwhelming influence.
From the beginning of the 18th century the greater number of the Presbyterian congregations became practically independent in polity and Unitarian in doctrine.
In 1876 the union of the Presbyterian Church in England with the English congregations of the United Presbyterian Church of Scotland gathered all English Presbyterians (with some exceptions) into one church, "The Presbyterian 1876.
There are in England fourteen congregations in connexion with the Church of Scotland, six of them in London and the remainder in Berwick, Northumberland, Carlisle and Lancashire.
This presbytery supplied ministers to as many congregations as possible; and for the remainder ministers were sent from Scotland.
At the Restoration, in which they heartily co-operated, there were in Ulster seventy ministers in fixed charges, with nearly eighty parishes or congregations containing one hundred thousand persons.
There were five presbyteries holding monthly meetings and annual visitations of all the congregations within their bounds, and coming together in general synod four times a year.
Taxation was somewhat reduced, the censorship was made less severe, political amnesties were granted, humaner officials were appointed and the Congregations (a sort of shadowy consultative assembly) were revived.
Asbury infused new life into the movement, and within a year the membership of the several congregations was more than doubled.
The elders are the first or oldest teachers of congregations, for which there is no regular bishop. They have charge of the meetings of such congregations, and participate in excommunication proceedings, besides which they preach, exhort, baptize, and may, when needed, take the offices of the deacons.
In 1848 he conceived the idea of a union, and after a campaign lasting a quarter of a century the Union of American Hebrew Congregations was founded (1873) in Cincinnati.
Two vigorous congregations have arisen in the United States.
From Bedford he rode every year to London, and preached there to large and attentive congregations.
Since the state endowment ceased the average income of ministers from their congregations has considerably increased.
There were also a great many schools in the control of various religious congregations, but a law of 1904 required that they should all be suppressed within ten years from the date of its enactment.
In 1782 he was reappointed to supervise the affairs of the Methodist congregations in America.