The congregation chooses all the officers, and these form a church council.
As the congregation sang a hymn, a deep voice could be heard above the others, strong and confident.
Congregation of the Oratory of St Philip Neri >>
Gregory founded the Congregation of the Propaganda, encouraged missions, fixed the order to be observed in conclaves, and canonized Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri and Theresa de Jesus.
south-east, on the verge of Haddingtonshire, is Carberry Hill, where Mary surrendered to the lords of the Congregation in 1567, the spot being still known as Queen Mary's Mount.
Every congregation was visited by ministers appointed by the provincial synod.
Next year he was made a domestic prelate and shortly afterwards a member of the Congregation del boon governo.
Jews were settled in Canada from the time of Wolfe, and a congregation was founded at Montreal in 1768, and since 1832 Jews have been entitled to sit in the Canadian parliament.
Mass was then sung; but instead of the ordinary responses to the Introit, Kyrie, Gloria, &c., the congregation chanted "Hinham" (Hee-haw) three times.
In 1758 he obtained a more congenial congregation at Nantwich, where he opened a school at which the elementary lessons were varied with experiments in natural philosophy.
The lords of the Congregation soon assembled in considerable force on Cupar Muir.
In his later years he ministered to a Unitarian congregation at Lympston, Devonshire.
And so great was the influence of the Jesuits, that the congregation of St Maur, the canons of Ste Genevieve, and the Oratory laid their official ban on the obnoxious doctrines.
He entered the Congregation of the Christian Doctrine, and became tutor to the son of a Paris banker.
When a church was first formed the office bearers were elected by the people, but there the power of the congregation ceased.
an episcopal inquiry the pontifical commission in view of his beatification was instituted by decree of the 21st of July 1626, a celerity unique in the annals of the Congregation of Rites.
He had expressed an opinion that the true art of memory was not to be gained by technical devices, but by a philosophical apprehension of things; and the cardinal de Berulle, the founder of the Congregation of the Oratory, was so struck by the tone of the remarks as to impress upon the speaker the duty of spending his life in the examination of truth.
As the congregation filed out the door, Dean was surprised to see attorney Arthur Atherton, Ethel Rosewater's partner and Vinnie Baratto's lawyer, rise from two rows in front of him.
REMY CEILLIER (1688-1761), Benedictine monk of the Lorraine congregation of St Vannes.
For this purpose they instituted a severe system of discipline, divided their members into three classes - the Perfect, the Proficient, and the Beginners, and appointed over each congregation a body of lay elders.
It is from the particular application of the word to sheep that "flock" is used of the Christian Church in its relation to the "Good Shepherd," and also of a congregation of worshippers in its relation to its spiritual head.
In Spain there has been of late a more liberal attitude towards the Jews, and there is a small congregation (without a public synagogue) in Madrid.
The points on which special stress is laid are: - (i) the share of responsibility resting on each individual, whether called to vocal service or not, for the right spiritual atmosphere of the Meeting, and for the welfare of the congregation; (2) the privilege which may be enjoyed by each worshipper of waiting upon the Lord without relying on spoken words, however helpful, or on other outward matters; (3) freedom for each individual (whether a Friend or not) to speak, for the help of others, such message as he or she may feel called to utter; (4) a fresh sense of a divine call to deliver the message on that particular occasion, whether previous thought has been given to it or not.
His system, while preserving the democratic theory by recognizing the congregation as holding the church power, was in practice strictly aristocratic inasmuch as the congregation is never allowed any direct use of power, which is invested in the whole body of elders.
The remarkable feature of French church polity was its aristocratic nature, which it owed to the system of co-optation; and the exclusion of the congregation from direct and frequent interference in spiritual matters prevented many evils which result from too much intermeddling on the part of the laity.
In 1572 a formal manifesto was published, entitled an Admonition to Parliament, the leading ideas in which were: parity of ministers, appointment of elders and deacons; election of ministers by the congregation; objection to prescribed prayer and antiphonal chanting; preaching, the chief duty of a minister; and the power of the magistrates to root out superstition and idolatry.
At Charleston a mixed congregation of Scotch Presbyterians and English Puritans was organized in 1690.
The teachers must not belong to any congregation, and must have a diploma of aptitude for teaching and the degree of licenci.
In other cases the inclusion of documents relating to the temple business, payments of tithes and other dues, salaries to temple officials, and such ceremonies as marriages, &c., which may have demanded the presence of the congregation and were at least partly religious in nature, have been allowed to complicate the matter.
If the whole congregation be talking with tongues all at once, and an unbeliever or one with no experience of pneumatic gifts come in, what will he think, asks Paul.
Every member of the congregation of Israel must labour, as God has appointed, at some handicraft or profession to provide for his home.
When she knew that she was dying Mary sent for the lords of the Congregation, with whom she pleaded for the maintenance of the French alliance.
In 1487 he went with Ferdinand to Malaga and thence to Valladolid, where in the October of 1488 he held another general congregation of the Inquisition and promulgated new laws based on the experience already gained.
He was chosen as one of the lords of the congregation in 1557, and commanded the contingents sent by Forfar and Fife against the queen regent in 1559.
In Australia the Jews from the first were welcomed on perfectly equal terms. The oldest congregation is that of Sydney (1817); the Melbourne community dates from 1844.
In 1841 an independent reform congregation was founded, and the Spanish and Portuguese Jews have always maintained their separate existence with a IIaham as the ecclesiastical head.
The deacons have general oversight of the material affairs of the congregation, and are especially charged with the care of poor widows and their children.
In the discharge of these duties they are expected to visit each family in the congregation at least once a year.
Of late years, in certain of their meetings on Sunday evening, it has become customary for part of the time to be occupied with set addresses for the purpose of instructing the members of the congregation, or of conveying the Quaker message to others who may be present, all their meetings for worship being freely open to the public. In a few meetings hymns are occasionally sung, very rarely as part of any arrangement, but almost always upon the request of some individual for a particular hymn appropriate to the need of the congregation.
The decree of the Congregation of Rites (May 18,1819) says nothing about apparels, but only lays down that the alb must be of white linen or hemp cloth.
He was brought up at Tarascon by his uncle, Hercule Audiffret, superior of the Congregation des Doctrinaires, and afterwards entered the order.
In episcopacy the supreme authority is a diocesan bishop; in congregationalism it is the members of the congregation assembled in church meeting; in Presbyterianism it is a church council composed of representative presbyters.
The kirk-session has oversight of the congregation in regard to such matters as the hours of public worship, the arrangements for administration of the sacraments, the admission of new Members and the exercise of church discipline.
The general assembly is representative of the whole Church, either, as in the Irish General Assembly, by a minister and elder sent direct to it from every congregation, or, as in the Scottish General Assemblies, by a proportion of dele- Assembly.
The first congregation in America was organized on Christmas Day 1723 by Peter Becker who preceeded Alexander Mack to Germantown, Pennsylvania.
In 1755 he was appointed to a small congregation at Needham Market, in Suffolk, where he was not very successful.
It is intended to represent him as a member of an assembly (Kahal) - not the Jewish congregation, but a body of students or inquirers, such as is referred to in xii.
Still examination must be had whether persons have been expelled from the congregation by any episcopal small-mindedness (µucpokxia), or contentious spirit, or such-like harshness (evibia).
The larger mosques have two imams: one is called (in Arabia and Egypt) the khatib, and he preaches the sermon on Fridays (the Moslem Sabbath); the other, the ratib, reads the Koran, and recites the five daily prayers, standing close to the mihrab, and leading the congregation, who repeat the prayers with him, and closely follow his postures.
The law of 1890 makes it " compulsory for every Jew to be a member of the congregation of the district in which he resides, and so gives to every congregation the right to tax the individual members " (op. cit.).
The lords of the Congregation sought help from Elizabeth, while the regent had recourse to France, where an expedition under her brother, Rene of Lorraine, marquis of Elbeuf, was already in preparation.
In 1864, his health being seriously impaired, he resigned public work as pastor of Free St John's (May 17), although his nominal connexion with the congregation ceased only with his death.
For two years he acted as manager of his father's bank, and in 1830 was inducted to his first charge, Arbirlot, in Forfarshire, where he adopted a vivid dramatic style of preaching adapted to his congregation of peasants, farmers and weavers.
It is at present attended by a respectable congregation.
He subsequently settled in London, where he joined the Puritan congregation of the Rev. John Davenport, whom he had known since boyhood.
Simon delivered to the small congregation of six surviving disciples.
Setting forth these views, candidly and calmly, in a sermon, he found his congregation, not unnaturally, reluctant to agree with him, and therefore retired, not without some disappointment, from the pastoral office.
In 1748 there hadcome a crisis in his relations with his congregation.
The congregation is divided into two branches, the head houses being at St Lazzaro and Vienna.
tabernacle of the congregation.
God, was she preaching to the wrong congregation!
The colloque consisted of one minister and one elder from each congregation.
From this custom his congregation was known as the "kail kirk."
in the administering of the Sacraments (Decree of the Congregation of Rites of Jan.
(5) Congregation of Ste Genevieve in Paris, a reform c. 1630.
But, in contrast with Congregationalism, when they elect and "call" a minister their action has to be sustained by the presbytery, which judges of his fitness for that particular sphere, of the measure of the congregation's unanimity, and of the adequacy of financial support.
The consistoire or session consisted of the minister, elders and deacons (the latter without a vote), and was over the congregation.
In the Reformed Church (far the more numerous of the two bodies) each parish has a council of presbyters, consisting of the pastor and lay-members elected by the congregation.
The same year he seized boon secretly sent by Elizabeth to the lords of the congregation.
The true seed of Israel separated themselves from all foreigners (not, however, without some opposition) and formed an exclusively religious body or " congregation."
The strength of her opponents was increased by the defection of Chatelherault and his son Arran; and an even more serious danger was the treachery of her secretary Maitland, who betrayed her plans to the lords of the Congregation.
In many places Friends have felt the need of bringing spiritual help to those who are unable to profit by the somewhat severe discipline of their ordinary manner of worship. To meet this need they hold (chiefly on Sunday evenings) meetings which are not professedly " Friends' meetings for worship," but which are services conducted on lines similar to those of other religious bodies, with, in some cases, a portion of time set apart for silent worship, and freedom for any one of the congregation to utter words of exhortation or prayer.
the appointment of one man or woman in each congregation to " conduct " the meeting for worship and to carry on pastoral work.
The " Preparative Meeting " usually consists of a single congregation; next in order comes the " Monthly Meeting," the executive body, usually embracing several Preparative Meetings called together, as its name indicates, monthly (in some cases less often); then the " Quarterly Meeting," embracing several Monthly Meetings; and lastly the " Yearly Meeting," embracing the whole of Great Britain (but not Ireland).
Every decision made by three of these "deputations" - and in each of them the lower clergy formed the majority - was ratified for the sake of form in general congregation, and if necessary led to decrees promulgated in session.
In April 1736 Wesley formed a little society of thirty or forty of the serious members of his congregation.
Wesley was in his friend's congregation on April 1, but says," I could scarcely reconcile myself to this strange way of preaching in the fields ...
The Gathas alone claim to be authentic utterances of Zoroaster, his actual expressions in presence of the assembled congregation.
In 1746 he was licensed to preach, and in 1748 was chosen minister of a Presbyterian congregation at Carlisle, where he remained until 1760, when he removed to a similar charge at Berwick-on-Tweed.
Muhlenberg occupied himself more particularly with the congregation at New Providence (now Trappe), though he was practically overseer of all the Lutheran churches from New York to Maryland.
all questions were deliberated and settled in four distinct assemblies - the Italian, the French, the German and the English,' - the decisions of the nations being merely ratified afterwards pro forma by the council in general congregation, and also, if occasion arose, in public session.
In the two winters of 1814-1816 he ministered to the English congregation at Geneva, and from 1816 to 1821 was curate of Highclere, Hampshire.
The appendix de Benedictionibus to the Rituale Romanum contains formulae, often of much simple beauty, for blessing all manner of persons and things, from the congregation as a whole and sick men and women, to railways, ships, blast-furnaces, lime-kilns, articles of food, medicine and medical bandages and all manner of domestic animals.
At the conclusion the priest, his shoulders wrapped in the humeral veil, takes the monstrance and with it makes the sign of the cross over the kneeling congregation, whence the name Benediction.
In the reformed Churches the word "benediction" is technically confined to the blessing with which the priest or minister dismisses the congregation at the close of the service.
The preacher had recourse to the Surrey Gardens music hall, where his congregation numbered from seven to ten thousand.
On the 23rd of December the pope ordered the publication of a decree of the Congregation of the Index, incorporating a decree of the Inquisition, condemning Loisy's Religion d'Israel, L'Evangile et l'Eglise,Etudes evangeliques, Autour d'un petit livre and Le Quatrieme Evangile.
The united diet which was opened on the 3rd of February 1847 was no more than a congregation of the diets instituted by Frederick William III.
He founded the Congregation of the French Oratory in 1611 and introduced the Carmelite nuns into France, notwithstanding the opposition of the friars of that order, who were jealous of his ascendancy.
to adopt Bishop Lightfoot's interpretation, " they led the prayers and thanksgivings of the congregation, presented the alms and contributions to God and asked His blessing on them in the name of the whole body."
she defines the church, without any express reference to the episcopate, as a " congregation of faithful men in which the pure word of God is preached and the sacraments be duly administered according to Christ's ordinance," and simply adds that the ordinal of Edward VI.
The Sacred Congregation, with the pope's approval, declared his orders to be null.
If they speak of sacrifice at all, it is a sacrifice of the gifts brought by the faithful and distributed in the congregation and among the poor, or again they refer to those spiritual sacrifices which a bishop is to offer " day and night."
He based his teaching on the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, repudiating other scriptures; and taking the Pauline name of Silvanus, organized churches in Castrum Colonias and Cibossa, which he called Macedonia, after Paul's congregation of that 1 In the Armenian Letterbook of the Patriarchs (Tiflis, 1901), p. 73.
The Christ is an elect one, who, as the Cathars (q.v.) put it, having been consoled or become a Paraclete in the flesh, stands in prayer with his hands outspread in the form of a cross, while the congregation of hearers or audientes adore the Christ in him.
In 1559 it was the headquarters of the Lords of the Congregation, and in 1607 the scene of the meetings of the synod of Fife known as the Three Synods of Dysart.
In 1704 he became assistant minister, and in 1706 sole minister, of an independent congregation worshipping in Aldersgate Street, and afterwards in Jewin Street, London, where he remained almost until his death on the 4th of April 1743.
He was educated for a business career, but in his eighteenth year entered the Church, joining the Society of the Sacred Heart of Jesus and Mary (also known as the Picpus Congregation), and taking Damien as his name in religion.
(Odo or Otho or Eudes de Lagary), pope from the 12th of March 1088 to the 29th of July 1099, was born of knightly rank at Lagary (or Lagery or Lagny), near Reims. He studied for the church, became archdeacon of Auxerre, and later joined the congregation of Cluny.
He was licensed as a preacher by the presbytery of Dunkeld, and soon afterwards ordained by that of Dundee as minister of the parish of Tealing (1719), where his effective preaching soon secured a large congregation.
The seat of this congregation was shortly afterwards transferred to Dundee (whence Glas subsequently removed to Edinburgh), where he officiated for some time as an "elder."
After partially fulfilling the duties of the office for one session, he wa.s led to resume the charge of St George's, the clergyman who had been chosen by the congregation as his successor having died before entering on his work.
But this ruin does not present itself to him as involving the captivity or ruin of the nation as a whole; the congregation of Yahweh remains in Judaea when the oppressors are cast out (ii.
Martineau's " Letter to the Dissenting Congregation of Eustace Street " (Dublin).
In these days he lived at Tooting, and was instrumental in forming a dissenting congregation there.
Although converted to Roman Catholicism in 1625, Holstenius showed his liberal-mindedness by strenuously opposing the strict censorship exercised by the Congregation of the Index.
And lastly, the bishops were compelled more and more to take the control of discipline into their own hands, while the spiritualists insisted that God Himself was the sole judge in the congregation.
It is true that there was no rivalry between the new organization and the old, as in Asia and Phrygia, for the Western Montanists recognized in its main features the Catholic organization as it had been developed in the contest with Gnosticism; but the demand that the "organs of the Spirit" should direct the whole discipline of the congregation contained implicitly a protest against the actual constitution of the Church.
But at length they quitted it, and formed a congregation of their own.
It maintained itself there in a number of close communities, probably in places where no Catholic congregation had been formed; and to these the Novatians at a later period attached themselves.
8vo, a colossal monument of the learning and labours of various members of the Benedictine Congregation of Saint-Maur.
The accession of Mary in 1553 drove him from England, and he became pastor of the Italian congregation at Zurich.
There is also a lighter form of excommunication which "devotes" the goods of an offender, but only separates him from the congregation.
"(r) The cause exactly recorded is fully and nakedly to be presented to the consideration of the congregation.
(2) The elders are to go before the congregation in laying open the rule so far as reacheth any particular now to be considered, and to express their judgment and determination thereof, so far as appertains to themselves.
In this passage it is clear that the effective power of discipline is regarded as being wholly in the power of the individual church or congregation.
The confession of faith issued by the London-Amsterdam church (the original of the Pilgrim Fathers' churches) in 1596 declares that the Christian congregation having power to elect its minister has also power to excommunicate him if the case so require (Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 66).
These " Lords of the Congregation " were able to force some concessions from the queen regent.
He opened negotiations with Cecil, who induced the reluctant Elizabeth to form an alliance with the Lords of the Congregation, and the English sent a fleet to drive away the French, who were endeavouring to keep their hold on Scotland.
In the German lands, where the most typical congregation was the Bursfeld Union (1446), which finally embraced over loo monasteries throughout Germany, the system was kept on the lines of the Lateran decree and the bull Benedictina, and received only some further developments in the direction of greater organization; but in Italy the congregation of S.
Of the monks professed there during this momentary revival, one, Sigebert Buckley, lived on into the reign of James I.; and being the only survivor of the Benedictines of England, he in 1607 invested with the English habit and affiliated to Westminster Abbey and to the English congregation two English priests, already Benedictines in the Italian congregation.
By this act the old English Benedictine line was perpetuated; and in 1619 a number of English monks professed in Spain were aggregated by pontifical act to these representatives of the old English Benedictines, and thus was constituted the present English Benedictine congregation.
The French congregation (which does not enjoy continuity with the Maurists) was inaugurated by Dom Gueranger in 1833, and the German congregation of Beuron in 1863.
The English congregation is composed of three large abbeys (Downside, Ampleforth and Woolhampton), a cathedral priory (Hereford) and a nunnery (Stanbrook Abbey, Worcester): there are besides in England three or four abbeys belonging to foreign congregations, and several nunneries subject to the bishops.
Each congregation has its president, who is merely a president, with limited powers, and not a general superior like the Provincials of other orders; so that the primitive Benedictine principle of each monastery being self-contained and autonomous is preserved.
Similarly each congregation is independent and self-governing, there being no superior-general or central authority, as in other orders.
The individual monks, too, belong not to the order or the congregation, but each to the monastery in which he became a monk.
In 1606 he was vicar-general of the congregation of France, and received from Marie de' Medici the revenues of the sees of Lombez and Saintes.
It enlisted the immediate support of the regular clergy, particularly the vigorous congregation of Cluny, and of William V.
He had enunciated in his theses the far-reaching new principle that the congregation, and not the hierarchy, was the representative of the Church; and he sought henceforward to reorganize the Swiss constitution on the principles of representative democracy so as to reduce the wholly disproportionate voting power which, till then, the Forest Cantons had exercised.
The Congregation de Propaganda Fide established, in 1650, a local council in Turin, which exercised a powerful influence on Duke Charles Emmanuel II., who ordered that the Vaudois should be reduced within the limits of their ancient territory.
" The whole congregation of the faithful was responsible for the whole life of the church - for its faith, its worship, and its discipline " (Dale).
But " congregational " (due to the rendering of ecclesia by " congregation " in early English Bibles) appears about 1642, to judge from the New English Dictionary.
In later times the measure of authority conceded to a pastor as the shepherd of a flock has been much diminished in consequence of the gradual development of democratic feeling in both minister and congregation.
He was pastor of a Reformed Dutch church in Frankfort from 1587 till 1593, when the congregation was dispersed by persecution.
150) describes the congregation as responding "amen" to the benediction after the celebration of the Eucharist.
In 1622 the Benedictine monks of Mont St Michel were replaced by monks of the Congregation of St Maur.
It is the seat of North-western University (1865; Lutheran), which includes collegiate, pre - paratory and academic departments, and had in1908-1909instructors and 283 students, and of the Sacred Heart College (Roman Catholic, opened in 1872 and chartered in 1874), under the Congregation of the Holy Cross.
may be easily traced from decisions of the Congregation of the Index and the Holy Office in Rome.
In the past this principle led to the erection of the Inquisition and, even at the present day, there exists in the Curia a special congregation charged with its application '(see' Curia Romana).
The recovery of its concluding sections in the same MS. which brought the Didache to light, proves beyond question that we have here the earliest extant sermon preached before a Christian congregation, about A.D.
16, &c. In primitive times, when confession of sins was made before the congregation, the absolution was deferred till the penance was completed; and there is no record of the use of any special formula.
Maximian, one of the Constantinopolitan clergy, a native of Rome, was promoted to the vacant see, and Nestorius was henceforward represented in the city of his former patriarchate only by one small congregation, which also a short time afterwards became extinct.
He entered the academy of Dr Philip Doddridge at Northampton, became minister of a congregation formed by a fusion of Presbyterians and Independents at High Street Chapel, Shrewsbury (1741), received Presbyterian ordination there (1745), resigned in 1766 owing to ill-health, and lived in retirement at Kidderminster until his death.
It is clear that a man who is to be treated in this way by the congregation is not an official ruler over it.
5; 1 Clement 44), sometimes formally chosen by the congregation itself (cf.
Whether in the earliest days there was a single officer at the head of a congregation, or a plurality of officers of equal authority, it is impossible to say with assurance.
So long as each church had its own bishop the presbyters constituted simply his council, but with the growth of diocesan episcopacy it became the custom to put each congregation under the care of a particular presbyter, who performed within it most of the pastoral duties formerly discharged by the bishop himself.
The city has a Carnegie library, De Veaux College (Protestant Episcopal, chartered in 1853), and Niagara University, a Roman Catholic institution, founded in 1856 by the priests of the Congregation of the Mission and incorporated in 1863 as the Seminary of Our Lady of Angels, a name still used for the theological department, but displaced, since the charter of the university in 1883, by the present name.
They permitted each congregation to use at pleasure the Augsburg Confession or the Heidelberg Catechism.
The first English settlement was made in 1635 by sixty immigrants, mostly from New Town (now Cambridge), Massachusetts; but the main immigration was in 1636, when practically all the New Town congregation led by Thomas Hooker and Samuel Stone joined those who had preceded them.
Of the many theories as to the address, the most plausible are perhaps those which would apply to a single congregation of Hebrew Christians in Rome, or to a local church or group of local churches in Palestine, perhaps like that of which the centre would be at Caesarea.
It was one of the characteristics of the early Christian teachers that they rarely stayed for any length of time in a place; they moved on, and the little congregation was left to wait for another visitor, who might be some time in coming.
These were not office-bearers chosen by the congregation, but preachers raised up by the Spirit and conferred as gifts on the Church.
(2) Till the middle of the 2nd century the prophets were the regular preachers of the churches, without being attached to any particular congregation.
Whenever, on the contrary, they settled in a place they had a claim to a liberal maintenance at the hands of the congregation.
In reality, they might justly be compared to the priests in so far as they were the mouthpieces of the congregation in public thanksgiving.
(6) Since prophets were regarded as a gift of God and as moved by the Holy Spirit, the individual congregation had no right of control over them.
From three quarters primitive Christian prophecy was exposed to danger - first, from the permanent officials of the congregation, who, in the interests of order, peace and security could not but look with suspicion on the activity of excited prophets; second, from the prophets themselves, in so far as an increasing number of dishonest characters was found amongst them, whose object was to levy contributions on the churches; I.
A consultative council is imposed upon him by the general congregation, consisting of the assistants of the various nations, a socius, or adviser, to warn him of mistakes, and a confessor.
Having carefully prepared the way, he summoned the general congregation from which he emerged as second general in 1556.
of Spain complained bitterly of the Society to Sixtus V., and encouraged him in those plans of reform (even to changing the name) which were only cut short by the pope's death in 1590, and also that the long protracted discussions on grace, wherein the Dominicans contended against the Jesuits, were carried on at Rome with little practical result, by the Congregation de auxiliis, which sat from 1598 till 1607.
The general's supremacy received a shock when the eleventh general congregation appointed Oliva as vicar, with the right of succession and powers that practically superseded those of the general Goswin Nickel, whose infirmities, it is said, did not permit him to govern with the necessary application and vigour; and an attempt was made to depose Tirso Gonzalez, the thirteenth general, whose views on probabilism diverged from those favoured by the rest of the Jesuits.
Its founder, with a wise instinct, had forbidden the accumulation of wealth; its own constitutions, as revised in the 84th decree of the sixth general congregation, had forbidden all pursuits of a commercial nature, as also had various popes; but nevertheless the trade went on unceasingly, necessarily with the full knowledge of the general, unless it be pleaded that the system of obligatory espionage had completely broken down.
This edition was mainly due to the combined efforts of William Whittingham, Anthony Gilby and Thomas Sampson, and the expenses towards printing and publication were borne by members of the congregation at Geneva.
In 1833 he was transferred to the office of secretary of the congregation of the Propaganda; on the 12th of February 1838 he was raised to the dignity of cardinal.
He belonged to the London congregation of Spanish and Portuguese Jews, of which his son also remained a nominal member until after Benjamin D'Israeli died at the end of 1816.
According to the decisions of the Congregation of Rites chasubles must not be of linen, cotton or woollen stuffs, but of silk; though a mixture of wool (or linen and cotton) and silk is allowed if the silk completely cover the other material on the outer side; spun glass thread, as a substitute for gold or silver thread, is also forbidden, owing to the possible danger to the priest's health through broken fragments falling into the chalice.
Their chief congregation is in Rotterdam.
By Lord Lyndhurst's act, the Nonconformist Chapels Act 1844, where no particular religious doctrine or mode of worship has been prescribed by the deed or instrument of trust the usage of the congregation for twenty-five years is to be taken as conclusive evidence of the doctrine and worship which may be properly observed in such meeting-houses.
& Mar., c. 18, a'minister, preacher or teacher of a nonconformist congregation is exempt from certain parochial offices, as that of churchwarden.
for the congregation met together or collected.
At the age of eighteen he joined the Congregation of the Oratory and taught for a time in the colleges of his order at Pezenas, and Montbrison and at the Seminary of Vienne.
The gesture described was probably the same as that with which a Christian priest averts demonic influences from the heads of his congregation in the act of blessing them.
Of these one, consisting of sisters of the third order of St Francis, called the Congregation of Our Lady of Lourdes (founded 1877), has its headquarters in Rochester, Minnesota.
The rigid self-abnegation, which was the ruling principle of this reformed congregation of the Benedictine order, extended itself to the churches and other buildings erected by them.
In 1726 he entered the Congregation of Missions as a novice, and became a priest in 1726.
In 1732 he founded the "Congregation of the Most Holy Redeemer" at Scala, near Salerno; the headquarters of the Order were afterwards transferred to Nocera dei Pagani.
The duties of churchwardens comprise the provision of necessaries for divine service, so far as the church funds or voluntary subscriptions permit, the collecting the offertory of the congregation, the keeping of order during the divine service, and the giving of offenders into custody; the assignment of seats to parishioners; the guardianship of the movable goods of the church; the preservation and repair of the church and churchyard, the fabric and the fixtures; and the presentment of offences against ecclesiastical law.
The French houses, twenty-one in number, formed a separate congregation, the head-house being in Paris.
He was the author of Sermons to a Country Congregation, published in 1837.
Each congregation had a plurality of elders, pastors or bishops, who were chosen according to what were believed to be the instructions of Paul, without regard to previous education or present occupation, and who enjoy a perfect equality in office.
Except in the case of a select few, Irving's preaching awakened little interest among the congregation of Chalmers, Chalmers himself, with no partiality for its bravuras and flourishes, comparing it to "Italian music, appreciated only by connoisseurs"; but as a missionary among the poorer classes he wielded an influence that was altogether unique.
This half-success in a subordinate sphere was, however, so far from coinciding with his aspirations that he had again, in the winter of 1821, begun to turn his attention towards missionary labour in the East, when the possibility of fulfilling the dream of his life was suddenly revealed to him by an invitation from the Caledonian church, Hatton Garden, London, to "make trial and proof" of his gifts before the "remnant of the congregation which held together."
north of Deventer, and here was established the monastery that became the cradle of the Windesheim congregation of canons regular, embracing in course of time nearly one hundred houses, and leading the way in the series of reforms undertaken during the 15th century by all the religious orders in Germany.
In May 1692 during the witchcraft delusion, on the accusation of some personal enemies in his former congregation who had sued him for debt, Burroughs was arrested and charged, among other offences, with "extraordinary Lifting and such feats of strength as could not be done without Diabolicall Assistance."
The clergy, now Roman officials, vested in the robes of the civil dignitaries, took their seats in the apse of the basilica where the magistrates were wont to sit, in front of them the holy table, facing the congregation.
Its distinctive features are pulpit and auditorium, and it is symbolical of the complete equality of ministers and congregation.
To the Jew the word ecclesia as used in the Septuagint suggested the assembly of the congregation of Israel.
Without ceasing to be the congregation of Jehovah, it would claim for itself all the hopes of an ideal state over which Greek philosophers had sighed in vain.
Remember thy congregation, which thou hast purchased of old," claiming for the Christian ecclesia the title of God's ancient ecclesia.
In September 1853 Alford removed to Quebec Chapel, London, where he had a large and cultured congregation.
Even at the present day, in spite of a decree of the Congregation of Rites (27th of May 1697) ordering it to be placed over all altars, it is - even at Rome itself - usually only found over the high altar and the altar of the Blessed Sacrament.
In his twenty-fourth year he entered the congregation of the Lazarists at Paris, and shortly after receiving holy orders in 1839 went out to China.
At what date this use was extended to the whole congregation is not known.
Ordination was conferred by the congregation and not by any specially appointed minister.
The congregation were the "elect," and each member could obtain the perfection of Christ and become a Christ or "Chlist."
founded the Congregation of the Inquisition (1542).
He created a special Congregation to deal with episcopal affairs, and organized the Congregation of the Index, instituted by Pius V.
In taking England, the United States and other non-Catholic states from under the care of the Congregation of the Propaganda, the pope raised the status of the Roman Catholic Church in those countries.
One of the cardinals acts as president, or prefect, as he is called; the congregation is assisted by a secretary and a certain number of inferior officials, for secretarial and office work.
Practically the only exception is in the cases of the Holy Office, and of the Consistorial Congregation of which the pope himself is prefect; the acts of the first are signed by the "notary," and the acts of the second by the assessor.
He consequently withdrew all judicial affairs from the Congregations, and handed them over to the two tribunals, now revived, of the Rota and the papal Signatura; all affairs concerning the discipline of the sacraments were entrusted to a new Congregation of that name; the competency of the remaining Congregations was modified, according to the nature of the affairs with which they deal, and certain of them were amalgamated with others; general rules were laid down for the expedition of business and regarding personnel; in short, the work of Sixtus V.
This Congregation, established in 1542 by Paul III., constitutes the tribunal of the Inquisition, of which the origins are much older, since it was instituted in the 13th century against the Albigenses.
attached to it all matters concerning indulgences; on the other hand, he transferred to the Congregation of the Council matters concerning the precepts of the Church such as fasting, abstinence and festivals.
The choosing of bishops, which had in recent times been entrusted to the Holy Office, was given to the Consistorial Congregation, and dispensations from religious vows to the Congregation of the Religious Orders.
restored this Congregation to a position of great importance; in the first place he gave it the effective control of all matters concerning the erection of dioceses and chapters and the appointment of bishops, except in the case of countries subject to the Propaganda, and save that for countries outside Italy it has to act upon information furnished by the papal secretary of state.
He further entrusted to this Congregation everything relating to the supervision of bishops and of the condition of the dioceses, and business connected with the seminaries.
to the Congregation of the Propaganda.
(4) The Congregation of the Apostolic Visitation (Sacra Congregatio Visitationis apostolicae).
Through this Congregation the pope, as bishop of Rome, made the inspection of his diocese; it is for this reason that he was president of this commission, the most important member of which was the cardinal vicar.
The Congregation oa the Visitation was suppressed by Pius X.
as a separate Congregation, and was reduced to a mere commission which is attached, as before, to the Vicariate.
(5) The Congregation on the discipline of the sacraments (Sacra Congregatio de Disciplina Sacramentorum), established by Pius X., thus comes to occupy the third rank.
With the reservation of those questions, especially of a dogmatic character, which belong to the Holy Office, and of purely ritual questions, which come under the Congregation of Rites, this Congregation brings under one authority all disciplinary questions concerning the sacraments, which were formerly distributed among several Congregations and offices.
(6) The Congregation of the Bishops and Regulars, of which the full official title was, Congregation for the Affairs and Consultations of the Bishops and Regulars (Sacra Congregatio super negotiis Episcoporum et Regularium; now Sacra Congregatio negotiis religiosorum sodalium praeposita).
This congregation was very much occupied, being empowered to deal with all disciplinary matters concerning both the secular and regular clergy, whether in the form of consultations or of contentious suits; it had further the exclusive right to regulate the discipline of the religious orders and congregations bound by the simple vows, the statutes of which it examined, corrected and approved; finally it judged disputes and controversies between the secular and regular clergy.
incorporated in this Congregation two others having a similar object: that on the discipline of the regular clergy (Congregatio super Disciplina Regularium), founded by Innocent XII.
withdrew from this Congregation all disciplinary matters affecting the secular clergy, and limited its competency to matters concerning the religious orders, both as regards their internal affairs and their relations with the bishops.
(7) The Congregation of the Council (Sacra Congregatio Cardinalium Concilii Tridentini interpretum), i.e.
in 1908 entrusted to this Congregation the supervision of the general discipline of the secular clergy and the faithful laity, empowering it to deal with matters concerning the precepts of the Church, festivals, foundations, church property, benefices, provincial councils and episcopal assemblies.
Proceedings for annulling marriages, which used to be reserved to it, were transferred to the tribunal of the Rota; reports on the condition of the dioceses were henceforth to be addressed to the Consistorial Congregation, which involved the suppression of the commission which had hitherto dealt with them.
The other commission, formerly charged with the revision of the decrees of provincial councils, was merged in the Congregation itself.
The Congregation of Immunity (Sacra Congregatio Jurisdictionis et Immunitatis ecclesiasticae) was created by Urban VIII.
This, having no longer any object, was also attached to the Congregation of the Council, and is now amalgamated with it.
(8) The Congregation of the Propaganda (Sacra Congregatio de Propaganda Fide) was established by Gregory XV.
To the former were attached two commissions, one for the approbation of those religious congregations which devote themselves to missions, which is now transferred to the Congregation of the Religious Orders; the other for the examination of the reports sent in by the bishops and vicars apostolic on their dioceses or missions.
(9) The Congregation of the Index (Congregatio indicis librorum prohibitorum), founded by St Pius V.
(10) The Congregation of Rites (Congregatio sacrorum Rituum), founded by Sixtus V., has exclusive charge of the liturgy and liturgical books; it also deals with the proceedings in the beatification and canonization of saints.
(I I) The Ceremonial Congregation (Sacra Congregatio caeremonialis), the prefect of which is the cardinal dean, was instituted by Sixtus V.; its mission is to settle mania/.
attached this Congregation to that of Rites, making the personnel of both the same, without suppressing it.
In 1908, however, it was suppressed, as stated above, and its functions as to indulgences were transferred to the Holy Office, and those as to relics to the Congregation of Rites.
(13) The Congregation of the Fabric of St Peter's (Sacra Congregatio reverendae Fabricae S.
In 1908 these powers were taken away from it by Pius X., and transferred to the Congregation of the Council, which already exercised some of them.
(14) The Congregation of Loretto (Congregatio Lauretana) discharged the same functions for the sanctuary of that name; its temporal administration was latterly very much reduced, and in 1908 it was united by Pius X.
with the Congregation of the Council.
(r5) The Congregation for extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs (Sacra Congregatio super negotiis ecclesiasticas extraordinariis), established by Pius VI.
(16) The Congregation of Studies (Congregatio pro Universitate studii Romani, Congregazione degli Studi), founded by Sixtus V.
Further, Pope Pius confined the functions of the chancery to the sending out of bulls under the leaden seal (sub plumbo), for the erection of dioceses, the provision of bishoprics and consistorial benefices, and other affairs of importance, these bulls being sent out by order of the Consistorial Congregation.
The first is the department of extraordinary ecclesiastical affairs, having at its head the secretary of the Congregation of the same name; the second, that of ordinary affairs, directed by a substitute, is the department dealing, among other things, with the concession of honorary distinctions, both for ecclesiastics and laymen; the third is that of the briefs, which hitherto.
The nave very usually consisted of two equal bodies, one containing the stalls of the brotherhood, the other left entirely free for the congregation.
He entered the ministry at Antwerp, had a hand in the Walloon Confession and gathered a Walloon congregation in Brussels.
He had resolved to take holy orders, but his studious disposition led him to decline a stall in Notre Dame, and in 1660 he joined the congregation of the Oratory.
Subsequently the order had a number of independent establishments in Italy which were united into one congregation by Eugenius IV., their headquarters being at Milan.
the order was amalgamated with the congregation of St Barnabas, but Innocent X.
At Salem he was a member of the congregation of Roger Williams, whom he resolutely defended in his trouble with the New England clerical hierarchy, and excited by Williams's teachings, cut the cross of St George from the English flag in token of his hatred of all symbols of Romanism.
Before this is granted the candidate is submitted to a double examination as to his fitness, first by a papal delegate at his place of residence (processus informativus in partibus electi), and afterwards by the Roman Congregation of Cardinals assigned for this purpose (processus electionis definitivus in curia).
After consecration the new bishop is solemnly enthroned and blesses the assembled congregation.
In his twenty-first year he took orders in the Scottish Episcopal Church, and was ordained to the pastoral charge of a congregation at Pittenweem, Fife, whence he removed in 1790 to Stirling.
In 1741 he was ordained minister of the large Secession congregation of Bristo Street, Edinburgh.
Gib's action in forming the Antiburgher Synod led, after prolonged litigation, to his exclusion from the building in Bristo Street where his congregation had met.
He removed the episcopal residence to Dundee, where he resided till his death, combining the pastoral charge of the congregation with the duties of the see.
According to modern Roman use, laid down by the decree of the Congregation of Rites in 1819, the amice must be of linen or of a hempen material, not wool; and, as directed by the new Roman Missal (1570), a small cross must be sewn or embroidered in the middle of it.
In 1662 he was ejected from his church of St Magnus near London Bridge, but continued to minister to an Independent congregation in London till his death in March 1673, when John Owen succeeded him.
Gregory's successor, Urban VIII., supplemented the establishment of the congregation by founding a great missionary college, where Europeans might be trained for foreign labours, and natives might be educated to undertake mission work.
This important congregation has been described as corresponding pretty much in the Catholic Church to the colonial office in the British empire, and its head, the " Prefect of Propaganda," to the secretary of state for the colonies.
Congregation of the Holy Ghost (1703 and 1848).
Congregation of the Sacred Heart (Issoudun, France, 18 55).
There are in South Africa several vicariates and prefectures of the Roman Church, the principal missions being French, those of the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Oblates of Mary.
The Roman Catholic missions are chiefly French, and organized by the Congregation of the Holy Ghost and the Lyons African Mission.
The White Fathers also work in the Great Lakes region, and on the Zanzibar coast are the French Congregation of the Holy Ghost and German Benedictines.
Civil strife broke out in Scotland between John Knox and the queen-dowager - between the selfstyled "congregation of the Lord" and the adherents of the regent, whose French troops repelled the combined forces of the Scotch and their English allies from the beleaguered walls of Leith, little more than a month before the death of their mistress in the castle of Edinburgh, on the 10th of June 1560.
Unable to detach the congregation from the teacher, Darby began a rival assembly.
The Bethesda congregation at Bristol, where George Muller was the most influential member, received into communion several of Newton's followers and justified their action.
The custom dates from 1263, and was formerly confined to the Franciscans; it was prescribed for the universal church by the Congregation of Rites on the 19th of May 1697.
In 1863 he removed with a portion of his congregation to a new church at Lansdowne Crescent.
The provinces are subdivided into " classes," and the classes again into " circles " (ringen), each circle comprising from 5 to 25 congregations, and each congregation being governed by a " church council " or session.
The financial management in each congregation is entrusted to a special court (kerk-voogdij) composed of " notables " and church wardens.
Towards 1840 a new congregation calling itself the Christian Reformed Church (Christelijke Gereformeerde Kerk) arose as a protest against the government and the modern tendencies of the Reformed Church; and for the same reason those who had founded the Free University of Amsterdam (1880) formed themselves in 1886 into an independent body called the Nederlandsche Gereformeerde Kerk.
In the same year he received an invitation from the independent congregation at Northampton, which he accepted.
Living as a hermit on Monte Morrone near Sulmone in the Abruzzi, he attracted other ascetics about him and organized them into a congregation of the Benedictines which was later called the Celestines.
See Wetzer and Welte and Herzog-Hauck (with excellent bibliography) as above; Jean Aurelien, Superieur de la Congregation des Celestins, La Vie admirable de ...
In 1846 he was chosen Rabbi of the new Berlin congregation and there exercised considerable influence on the course of Jewish reform.
During the last quarter of the 1st century, a three-fold organization is found in' the Church: (a) a spiritual organization composed of "apostles, prophets and teachers who had been awakened by the spirit and by the spirit endowed"; (b) an administrative organization, "For the care of the poor, for worship, for correspondence, the congregation needed controlling officials.
Even from passages where he is speaking of the jurisdiction of the congregation, as for example in i Cor.
(c) Even Clement of Rome does not say that the apostles had appointed presbyters in the congregation, he speaks only of bishops and deacons.
The first move in this direction was made in the Netherlands and north Germany under the influence of Gerhard Groot, and issued in the formation of the Windesheim congregation of Augustinian canons and the secular congregation of Brothers of Common Life (q.v.) founded c. 1384, both of which became centres of religious revival.
As a preacher he was vivid, eager and earnest, equally plainspoken and uncompromising when preaching to a fashionable congregation or to his own village poor.
After studying theology in Geneva, Leiden and France, he became pastor of the Italian congregation in Geneva in 1647; after a brief pastorate at Lyons he again returned to Geneva as professor of theology in 1653, having modestly declined a professorship of philosophy in 1650.
Here he became pastor of the Italian congregation, and in 1697 professor of church history, and later (1705) of theology.
The same year he was appointed secretary to the Congregation super negotiis ecclesiae extraordinariis, in 1889 became papal nuncio at Munich and in 1892 at Vienna.
Before he was three he had insisted on being taken to hear Sacheverel preach at Lichfield Cathedral, and had listened to the sermon with as much respect and probably with as much intelligence, as any Staffordshire squire in the congregation.
It is, in reality, a suit at law, pleaded before the tribunal of the Congregation of Rites, which is a permanent commission of cardinals, assisted by a certain number of subordinate officers and presided over by a cardinal.
There was no great following among the people; it was only in isolated places that priests and congregation together asserted their rights to refuse to accept the decrees of the Church.
in the hands of the "Congregation of the Index," which consists of several cardinals, one of whom is the prefect, and more or less numerous "consultors" and "examiners of books."
Articles 23-26 deal with permissions to read prohibited books; these are given by the bishop in particular cases, and in the ordinary course by the Congregation of the Index.
In the nonepiscopal Protestant churches the name "pastoral letter" is given to any open letter addressed by a pastor to his congregation, but more especially to that customarily issued at certain seasons, e.g.
In the former he was from the first the leader of a powerful party, and gradually became the autocratic ruler of Arabia; in the latter he was only the despised preacher of a small congregation.
Mahommedanism has no priest hood standing between God and the congregation, but Koran and Sunna are full of minute rules for the details of private and civil life, the knowledge of which is necessarily in the hands of a class of professed theologians.
The duty of working both with and for men he teaches in the sentence: "Separate not thyself from the congregation" (ib.
After presiding for five years over the French Protestant church at Hamburg, he was, in 1823, called to become pastor of a congregation in Brussels and preacher to the court.
In February 1560 a league was made at Berwick between Elizabeth and " the Congregation."
P in the actions of the Congregation.
Here he became very popular, and it was found necessary to build a much larger chapel on Fish Street Hill, to which the congregation removed in 1834.
Lorenzo (1380-1465), the Laurentius Justinianus of the Roman calendar, at an early age entered the congregation of the canons of St George in Alga, and in 1433 became general of that order.
In the earliest church life, when Christians fell into sin, they were required to make public confession before the congregation, to declare their sorrow, and to vow to perform certain acts which were regarded as evidence of the sincerity of their repentance.
When the custom of public confession before the congregation had changed to private confession to the clergy, it became the confessor's duty to impose these satisfactions.
death he had the satisfaction of learning that the works in question were dismissed, that is, proclaimed free from censure by the Congregation of the Index.
In the Anglican Book of Common Prayer the Kyrie is introduced into the orders for Morning and Evening Prayer, and also, with an additional petition, as a response made by the congregation after the reading of each of the Ten Commandments at the opening of the Communion Service.
In his seventeenth year he became a member of the Baptist church at Soham, and his gifts as an exhorter met with so much approval that, in the spring of 1775, he was called and ordained as pastor of that congregation.
The Roman Congregation of the Index condemned his Catechisme historique (1679) and the Institution du droit ecclesiastique (1687).
James Wood, who became Nonconformist minister in the chapel at Atherton in 1691, earned fame and the familiar title of "General" by raising a force from his congregation, uncouthly armed, to fight against the troops of the Pretender (1715).
He entered the congregation of Sainte-Genevieve, where he took holy orders and became professor of theology and literature.
At the conclusion of the ceremony they each throw upon the other some grains of rice, and the most expeditious in performing this feat is considered to have got the start of the other in the future control of the household, and receives the applause of the male or female part of the congregation as the case may be.
About 1500 a great attempt at a reform of this kind was set on foot among the Augustinian Hermits of northern Germany, and they were formed into a separate congregation independent of the general.
It was from this congregation that Luther went forth, and great numbers of the German Augustinian Hermits, among them Wenceslaus Link the provincial, followed him and embraced the Reformation, so that the congregation was dissolved in 1526.
He was condemned at Rome, and in a letter to The Times (loth of September 1884) declares that it was on account of his disobedience to the decrees of the Roman Congregation: "I am a dutiful son of the Church who hesitates to obey an order of his mother because he does not see clear enough the maternal authority in it."
Prayer and praise also are effective only as the congregation intelligently join in them; hence they are not to be solely by a priest nor in a strange tongue, as the clergyman is simply the leader of the devotions of the people.
After six years' theological study, Jamieson was licensed to preach in 1789 and became pastor of an Anti-burgher congregation in Forfar; and in 1797 he was called to the Anti-burgher church in Nicolson Street, Edinburgh.
The general canonical legislation of the Church, the legislation by papal rescript and the Congregation of the Propaganda, the decisions of the Apostolic Delegation at Washington, and a certain amount of immemorial custom and practice, form the code that governs its domestic relations.
from the university of Yale, U.S.A. In 1874 the congregation at Islington decided to erect new buildings.
But ill-health and the death of his parents brought him back to his studious life, and in 1675 he entered the cloister of the Congregation of St Maur at La Daurade, Toulouse, taking the vows there on the 13th of May 1676.
A list of his works will be found in Bibliotheque des ecrivains de la congregation de Saint-Maur, by C. de Lame (1882), and in the article in the Nouvelle biographie generale, which gives an account of their scope and character; see also Emmanuel de Broglie, La Societe de l'abboye de St-Germain-des-Pres au 18 e siecle: Bernard de Montfaucon et les bernardins (2 vols., Paris, 1891).
The type of religion found in these documents is that of Geneva, the unit being the self-governing congregation, and the great aim of the system the pure preaching of the Word.
The congregation elect the minister; in no other way can he enter on his functions; but once elected and admitted he is recognized as a free organ of the divine spirit, not subject in spiritual things to any earthly authority but that of his fellowministers; the word of God is the supreme authority, and the spoken word of God the vital element of every religious act.
Pastor, bishop and minister are all titles of the same office, that of those who preach the word and administer the sacraments, each to a particular congregation.
The request was granted, and the right of electing parish ministers was conferred by the Patronage Act 1874 on the congregation; thus a grievance of old standing, from which all the ecclesiastical troubles of a century and a half had sprung, was removed and the church placed on a thoroughly democratic basis.
Its charges are numerous in proportion to its membership, having an average of 134 members, while the Church of Scotland averages 497 and the United Free Church 313 members for each congregation.
In 1663 John Myles (1621-1683), a Welsh Baptist who had been one of Cromwell's Tryers, with his congregation, took refuge in Massachusetts from the intolerance of the government of Charles II.
In 1682 William Screven (1629-1713) and Humphrey Churchwood, members of the Boston church, gathered and organized, with the co-operation of the mother church, a small congregation at Kittery, Me.
Being invited by the Congregation of the Propaganda to take part in the preparation of an Arabic version of the Bible, Ecchellensis went again in 1652 or 1653 to Rome.
In 1688, when his father went to England as agent for the colony, he was left at twenty-five in charge of the largest congregation in New England, and he ministered to it for the rest of his life.
Like his father he was deeply grieved by the liberal theology and Church polity of the new Brattle Street Congregation, and conscientiously opposed its pastor Benjamin Colman, who had been irregularly ordained in England and by a Presbyterian body; but with his father he took part in 1700 in services in Colman's church.
His later years were clouded with many sorrows and disappointments; his relations with Governor Joseph Dudley were unfriendly; he lost much of his former prestige in the Church - his own congregation dwindled - and in the college; his uncle John Cotton was expelled from his 8 8 4 _ Mather, Increase charge in the Plymouth Church; his son Increase turned out a ne'er-do-well; four of his children and his second wife died in November 1713; his wife's brothers and the husbands of his sisters were ungodly and violent men; his favourite daughter Katherine, who "understood Latin and read Hebrew fluently," died in 1716; his third wife went mad in 1719; his personal enemies circulated incredible scandals about him; and in 1724-1725 he saw a Liberal once more preferred to him as a new president of Harvard.
Cotton Mather's son, Samuel Mather (1706-1785), also a clergyman, graduated at Harvard in 1723, was pastor of the North Church, Boston, from 1732 to 1742, when, owing to a dispute among his congregation over revivals, he resigned to take charge of a church established for him in North Bennett Street.
As early as 1559 the Scottish congregation had formally proposed 1 See also Britain; British Empire; England; Ireland; Scotland; Wales; &C.
The word has thus come to mean in general usage an official caretaker of any place of worship whose duty it is to show the building to those who wish to view it, and to find seats for the congregation at a service.
He first drifted to Frankfort, where the English congregation divided as English Protestants have always done, and the party opposed to Knox got rid of him at last by a complaint to the authorities of treason against the emperor Charles V.
Of the Protestant barons Knox, though in exile, seems to have been henceforward the chief adviser; and before the end of 1 557 they, under the name of the "Lords of the Congregation," had entered into the first of the religious "bands" or "covenants" afterwards famous in Scotland.
About this time, indeed, there was in Scotland a remarkable approximation to that solution of the toleration difficulty which later ages have approved; for the regent was understood to favour the demand of the "congregation" that at least the penal statutes against heretics "be suspended and abrogated," and "that it be lawful to us to use ourselves in matters of religion and conscience as we must answer to God."
The league was promised by England; but the army of France was first in the field, and towards the end of the year drove the forces of the "congregation" from Leith into Edinburgh, and then out of it in a midnight rout to Stirling - "that dark and dolorous night," as Knox long afterwards said, "wherein all ye, my lords, with shame and fear left this town," and from which only a memorable sermon by their great preacher roused the despairing multitude into new hope.
In such cases the priest often makes protracted journeys from farm to farm through his parish, and on certain occasions the congregation at his church will include many, both Swedes and Lapps, who have travelled perhaps for several days in order to be present.
But though the Jesuit Antonio Possevino was sent to Stockholm to complete John's " conversion," John would only consent to embrace Catholicism under certain conditions which were never kept, and the only result of all these subterraneous negotiations was to incense the Protestants still more against the new liturgy, the use of which by every congregation in the realm without exception was, nevertheless, decreed by the Riksdag of 1582.
The singular offshoot of the Church of Utrecht thus created established its headquarters in a former Congregational chapel (dedicated significantly to the Englishman St Willibrord, the first bishop of Utrecht) in River Street, London, N., the minister of which had joined the movement with his congregation.
But he now encountered such determined opposition from the majority of the congregation that he found it necessary to withdraw from the great church and establish in Rome a community of his own.
(pope 1740-1758), a special congregation collected many materials for an official revision, but nothing was published.
The responsories are similar in form to the antiphons, but come at the end of the psalm, being originally the reply of the choir or congregation to the precentor who recited the psalm.
The collects come at the close of the office and are short prayers summing up the supplications of the congregation.
He next followed Cartwright to Antwerp, and, having received ordination according to rite of the Reformed church, assisted Cartwright for several years in preaching to the English congregation there.
Several features confirm this view: (I) the blood of the sin-offering of the " anointed priest " and of the whole congregation is brought within the veil and sprinkled on the altar of incense, (2) the sin-offering of the congregation is a bullock, and not, as elsewhere, a goat (ix.
accordingly describes the first solemn act of worship. The ceremony consists of (a) the offerings for Aaron, and (b) those for the congregation; then follows the priestly blessing (v.
'11') the priests had burnt the flesh of the sin-offering which had been offered on behalf of the congregation, although its blood had not been taken into the inner sanctuary (cf.
As a disagreement soon arose between the people of Newark and those of " the mountain" on questions of church administration, the latter in 1718 severed their connexion with the church at Newark and formed an independent congregation, the" Mountain Society."
In 1865, when he had practically given up "transcendentalism," his church building was sold and his congregation began to worship in Lyric Hall under the name of the Independent Liberal Church; in 1875 they removed to the Masonic Temple, but four years later illhealth compelled Frothingham's resignation, and the church dissolved.
The word was early applied by the Protestants to the Romanists, with an allusion to the "congregation of evil doers" (Vulgate Ecclesiam malignantium) of Psalm xxvi.
The order of Passionist Fathers, the full title of which is the "Congregation of the Discalced Clerks of the Most Holy Cross and Passion of our Lord Jesus Christ," was founded by St Paul of the Cross (Paolo della Croce, 16941 7 75; canonized 1867) in 1720, but full sanction was not obtained for the order till 1737, when the first monastery was established at Monte Argentario, Orbetello.
On the 7th of September 1902, however, the congregation, assembled at the Ark of the Covenant for service, found the communion table replaced by a chair.
After holding very numerous sessions, the "congregation" was able to decide nothing, and in 1607 its meetings were suspended by Paul V., who in 1611 prohibited all further discussion of the question "de auxiliis," and studious efforts were made to control the publication even of commentaries on Aquinas.
In 1559, however, he deserted her and threw in his lot with the lords of the congregation, to whom his knowledge of foreign, and especially of English, politics and his general ability were assets of the highest value.
Jean Bodin wrote the first treatise on scientific history (Methodus ad facilem historiarum cognitionem, 1566), but he did not apply his own principles of criticism; and it was left for the Benedictine monks of the Congregation of St Maur to establish definitely the new science.
A borough councillor must be qualified in the same manner as a county councillor, and he is disqualified in the same way, with this addition, that a peer or ownership voter is not qualified as such, and that a person is disqualified for being a borough councillor if he is in holy orders or is the regular minister of a Dissenting congregation.
In 1618 he joined the congregation of the Oratory, and in due course took priest's orders.
in 1814, and continued to be held by Mezzofanti until his removal from Bologna to Rome in 1831, as a member of the congregation de propaganda fide.
In 1833 he succeeded Angelo Mai as chief keeper of the Vatican library, and in 1838 was made cardinal and director of studies in the Congregation.
He was a son of Maturin Ballou, a Baptist minister, was self-educated, early devoted himself to the ministry, became a convert to Universalism in 1789, and in 1794 became a pastor of a congregation at Dana, Massachusetts.
But witnesses and accused were not distinguished on this list, and the congregation was in an uproar.
It was preached to a congregation who were careless and loose in their lives at a time when " the neighbouring towns were in great distress for their souls."
In 1754 he removed to GÃ¶ttingen, where in 1757 he was appointed professor of philosophy; but in 1761 he accepted an invitation to the German congregation at St Petersburg.
His congregation consisted of about fifteen persons, "most of them gentle and all of them simple."
The observance or variation of the discipline belongs to the Congregation of Rites; in pontifical processions, which are regulated by the masters of the ceremonies (magistri ceremoniarum pontificalium), these points are decided by the chief cardinal deacon.
As to processions within the churches, some difference of opinion having arisen as to the regulating authority, the Congregation of Rites has decided that the bishop must ask, though not necessarily follow, the advice of the chapter in their regulation.
After he had been some time a member of the congregation he began to preach; and his sermons produced a powerful effect.
This congregation was not Baptist, properly so called, as the question of baptism, with other doctrinal points, was left open.
The tradition is that, during those evil days, Bunyan was forced to disguise himself as a wagoner, and that he preached to his congregation at Bedford in a smock-frock, with a cart-whip in his hand.
On the other hand, those Antinomians for whom his Calvinism is not strong enough, may study the Pilgrimage of Hephzibah, in which 1 He had resumed his pastorate in Bedford after his imprisonment of 1675, and, although he frequently preached in London to crowded congregations, and is said in the last year of his life to have been, of course unofficially, chaplain to Sir John Shorter, lord mayor of London, he remained faithful to his own congregation.
Notwithstanding the opposition of his relatives, he entered the order of the Servi di Maria, a minor Augustinian congregation of Florentine origin, at the age of thirteen.
(ii.) Then follows book vii., the first thirty-one chapters of which are an adaptation of the Didache, whilst the rest contain various liturgical forms of which the origin is still uncertain, though it has been acutely suggested by Achelis, and with great probability, that they originated in the schismatical congregation of Lucian at Antioch.
1649) and Prospero Fagnani (1598-1687), who, although blind, was secretary to the Congregation of the Council.
official interpretation has been reserved by the popes to the " Congregation of the cardinal interpreters of the Council of Trent," whose decisions form a vast collection of jurisprudence.
high; the Grace Episcopal church - Baltimore being the seat of a Protestant Episcopal bishopric; the First Methodist Episcopal church; and the synagogues of the Baltimore Hebrew Congregation and the Oheb Shalom Congregation.
Her Majesty went in state to the Regent House, where a congregation of the senate was held, and a number of honorary degrees conferred.
Cant's frequent and bitter attacks on various members of his congregation led in 1660 to complaints laid before the magistrates, in consequence of which he resigned his charge.
On returning to London he found his congregation at the Tabernacle dispersed; and his circumstances were so depressed that he was obliged to sell his household furniture to pay his orphan-house debts.
The Davidsons belonged to the congregation of James Robertson (1803-1860) of Ellon, one of the ministers of Strathbogie Presbytery, which in the controversy which led to the disruption, resisted the "dangerous claims of the established church to self-government."
Pastors were to be elected by the congregation, and the whole system of canon-law was repudiated.
In this account nothing is said of confession; but it would appear that in early days the sins were made known to the congregation, and in notorious cases they would take the initiative and expel the offender.
The method of confession adopted in the public services of the Church of England, with which the Book of Common Prayer is primarily concerned, may be described as one of general confession to God in the face of the church, to be in secret used by each member of the congregation for the confession of his own particular sins, and to be followed by public absolution.
It is, however, maintained by some that, except in the case of the sick, the only legitimate method of receiving absolution in the Church of England is in the public services of the congregation; and the Church of Ireland has recently made important alterations even in the passages that concern the sick, while the Protestant Episcopal Church of the United States has omitted that part of the visitation service altogether.
offertoire, a place to which offerings were brought), the alms of a congregation collected in church, or at any religious service.
Meanwhile the chief objection, that of "novelty," was gradually removed by the multiplication of local manifestations, the genuineness of which was proved to the satisfaction of the Roman Congregation of Rights, and in 1765 it was allowed for houses of the Visitation and certain countries.
Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Congregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; and the grant of a city charter in 1846.
Firmin had later a project of Unitarian societies "within the Church"; the first preacher to describe himself as Unitarian was Thomas Emlyn (1663-1741) who gathered a London congregation in 1705.
The only congregation of old foundation is at Edinburgh, founded in 1776 by a secession from one of the "fellowship societies" formed by James Fraser, of Brea (1639-1699).
The first official acceptance of the Unitarian faith on the part of a congregation was by King's Chapel in Boston, which settled James Freeman (1759-1853) in 1782, and revised the Prayer Book into a mild Unitarian liturgy, in 1785.
Cupar Cross has been restored and rebuilt on the top of Owl or Tarvit Hill, on the western slope of which, at Garliebank, the truce was signed between Mary of Guise and the lords of the Congregation.
MECHITHARISTS, a congregation of Armenian monks in communion with the Church of Rome.
This has since been the headquarters of the congregation, and here Mechithar died in 1749, leaving his institute firmly established.
When a living falls vacant, the governor-general of the island, after consultation with the bishop, selects three candidates, and from these the congregation chooses one, the election being subsequently confirmed by the governor-general.
Besides preaching every day in each alternate week, he taught theology three days in the week, attended weekly meetings of his consistory, read the Scriptures once a week in the congregation, carried on an extensive correspondence on a multiplicity of subjects, prepared commentaries on the books of Scripture, and was engaged repeatedly in controversy with the opponents of his opinions.
Skinner's church was burnt; his house was plundered; for some years he had to minister to his congregation by stealth; and in 1753 he suffered six months' imprisonment for having officiated to more than four persons besides his own family.
In 1746 Kippis became minister of a church at Boston; in 1750 he removed to Dorking in Surrey; and in 1753 he became pastor of a Presbyterian congregation at Westminster, where he remained till his death on the 8th of October 1795.
The heroic but foolhardy attempt of the brothers Bandiera, Venetians who had served in the Austrian navy against the Neapolitan Bourbons in 1844, was the first event to cause an awakening of Venetian patriotism, and in 1847 Manin presented a petition to the Venetian congregation, a shadowy consultative assembly tolerated by Austria but without any power, informing the emperor of the wants of the nation.
6 sqq.), does not allow the Gibeonites to minister to the temple or altar, but merely to the "congregation," a characteristic post-exilic term (contrast vv.
15) 1 Even if with Freudenthal we regard the work as a homily actually delivered to a Jewish congregation - and there are difficulties in the way of this theory, particularly the absence of a Biblical text - it was clearly intended for publication.
On the 5th of March the Congregation of the Index issued a decree reiterating, with the omission of the word "heretical," the censure of the theologians, suspending, usque corrigatur, the great work of Copernicus, De revolutionibus orbium coelestium, and absolutely prohibiting a treatise by a Carmelite monk named Foscarini, which treated the same subject from a theological point of view.
This edict, it is essential to observe, the responsibility for which rests with a disciplinary congregation in no sense representing the church, was never confirmed by the pope, and was virtually repealed in 1757 under Benedict XIV.
On the 21st of June he was finally examined under menace of torture; but he continued to maintain his assertion that after its condemnation by the Congregation of the Index, he had never held the Copernican theory.
It was immediately after taking possession of their new quarters that Neri formally organized, under permission of a bull dated July 1 5, 1 575, a community of secular priests, entitled the Congregation of the Oratory.
The new church was consecrated early in 1577, and the clergy of the pew society at once resigned the charge of San Giovanni dei Fiorentini, but Neri himself did not migrate from S'an Girolamo till 1583, and then only in virtue of an injunction of the pope that he, as the superior, should reside at the chief house of his congregation.
Accordingly, the congregation he founded is of the least conventional nature, rather resembling a residential clerical club than a monastery of the older type, and its rules (never written by Neri, but approved by Paul V.
Four deputies assist the superior in the government, and all public acts are decided by a majority of votes of the whole congregation, in which the superior has no casting voice.
In 1849 a second congregation was founded in King William Street, Strand, London, with F.
Soon he founded an Apostolic congregation at whose head he placed himself.
He moved to the new West End Synagogue in 1878, and remained the minister of that congregation until his death.
abolitionist views clashed with those of his congregation.
alleluia of the feast, in Tone IV - Stichos: Remember Thy congregation which Thou hast purchased from the beginning.
canticle of praise or a hymn may also be sung by the entire congregation.
If desired, a psalm or other canticle of praise or a hymn may also be sung by the entire congregation.
The prayer desks for the officiating clergy are inside this screen, so that they are separated entirely from the congregation.
command the general assent and respect of the congregation.
The congregation was in such poor spiritual health that he did not feel it right to celebrate communion for three years.
With the help of Saint Louise de Marillac he founded also founded the congregation of the Sisters of Charity.
I instructed the congregation to pray for the health and welfare of Reverend Oshimolowo, and for you as well, my dear lady.
Running from May-August 2004 as a three-months experiment, it gathered an online congregation from around the world.