How to use Congo in a sentence
The abandonment of the trading monopolies of the old Congo Free State, and the taking over of its loans put a severe strain on the resources of the colony.
Many of the old agents of the Congo State had to be retained.
A considerable part of the trade, export and import, was in transit, chiefly with French Congo, which had no direct communication with the sea except through Belgian Congo.
In 1921 a seaplane service was started along the Congo river from Stanley Pool to Stanley Falls.
Louis Franck, the Belgian Colonial Minister, paid a visit to the Congo in 1920.Advertisement
According to Hagenbeck's estimate, this elephant, which came from the French Congo, was about six years old at the time it came under scientific notice.
These stations were the starting-point of French Congo.
Considerable energy was shown in railway construction and by the end of 1918 there were combined railway and steamer routes from the mouth of the Congo to Dar es Salaam and Cape Town.
In 1911-3 a pipe-line was laid from Matadi, on the Congo estuary, to Stanley Pool to supply the river steamers with petroleum for fuel and reservoirs capable of holding 8,000 tons of oil were built.
Nothing was stated as to the probability of an increase in the stature of the French Congo animal as it grows older; but even if we allow another foot, its height would be considerably less than half that of a large Central African bull of the ordinary elephant.Advertisement
Although some of these elephants are believed not to have been larger than donkeys, the height of others may be estimated at from 4 to 5 ft., or practically the same as that of the dwarf Congo race.
He took the first steps towards the canonization of Queen Margaret of Scotland, and sent missionaries under Portuguese auspices to the Congo.
A small steamer, brought from the Congo by Emile Gentil, was in 1897 launched on the Shari, and reaching the Chad, navigated the southern part of the lake.
Congo for maternity cases and cases of curable Ubangi-Chad illness; (2) the hospice, where the aged Madagascar poor, cases of incurable malady, orphans, Nossi-be Island foundlings and other children without Ste Marie Island means of support, and in some cases Comoro Islands lunatics, are received; (3) the bureau de Somali Coast bien-faisance, charged with the provision 9f Reunion out-door relief (secours a domicile) in money st Paul 1 or in kind, to the aged poor or those who, Amsterdam though capable of working, are prevented Kerguelen.
That the recurrence of the market determined the length of the week seems clear from the Wajagga custom of naming the days after the markets they visit, as well as from the fact that on the Congo the word for week is the same as the word for market.Advertisement
Fernan Gomez followed in 1469, and opened trade with the Gold Coast; and in 1484 Diogo Cao discovered the mouth of the Congo.
His work, however, had established the fact that the Niger was not identical with the Congo.
On the Congo, if a man commits a murder, the community votes whether he shall die or be expelled; if the latter, a victim is killed, of which all must partake; but this is not, as might be imagined, a case of Robertson Smith's piaculum for the re-establishment of the tribal bond; for the criminal is driven out of the community.
Among the Zulu the spirits of the dead are held to be friendly or hostile, just as they were in life; on the Congo a man after death joins the good or bad spirits according as his life has been good or bad.
Though the history of the Congo Free State affords a painful contrast to the philanthropic professions of its founder, in other parts of the continent the establishment of protectorates by Great Britain, France and Germany was followed by strenuous, and largely successful, efforts to put down slave raiding.Advertisement
The town is within the free-trade area of the conventional basin of the Congo river.
In 1874 he founded the Sahara and Sudan mission, and sent missionaries to Tunis, Tripoli, East Africa and the Congo.
On the west this valley is bounded by the Congo mountains, which form the wall of the rift-valley, on the east by the mighty range of Ruwenzori, whose heights tower over 16,000 ft.
Albert Nyanza, on the other hand, is threatened in the distant future with destruction from another cause - the filling of its bed by the alluvium poured into it by the Semliki, the Victoria Nile and, in a lesser degree, by other streams. The Semliki receives directly or indirectly the whole of the drainage of Ruwenzori, and also that of the eastern face of the Congo mountains as well as the drainage basin of Albert Edward Nyanza.
The lake forms part of the (British) Uganda Protectorate, but the north-west shores were leased in 1894 to the Congo Free State during the sovereignty of king Leopold II.Advertisement
The basin of the Ghazal is a large one, extending north-west to Darfur, and south-west to the Congo watershed.
The Takruri possess jagged throwing knives, which are said to have been brought from their original home in the L i pper Congo regions.
This was a notable addition not so much to the area as to the resources and population of the Belgian Congo.
He directed the negotiations which led to the establishment of a French protectorate in Tunis (1881), prepared the treaty of the 17th of December 1885 for the occupation of Madagascar; directed the exploration of the Congo and of the Niger region; and above all he organized the conquest of Indo-China.
A second, a male, supposed to be rather older, was acquired in March 1896, having been brought to Liverpool from the French Congo.
With diazotized benzidine it gives Congo red.
Although drinkable, the water of the lake seems at times at least to be very slightly brackish, and it was supposed by some that no outlet existed until, in 1874, Lieutenant Cameron showed that the surplus water was discharged towards the upper Congo by the Lukuga river, about the middle of the west coast.
He was received at Brussels with extraordinary enthusiasm; he was appointed a minister of state, named in a national order of the day, and was elected a member of the Academie Royale de Belgique and vicepresident of the Conseil Superieur du Congo.
These precedents (in which it will be seen that "good offices" and "mediation" are used interchangeably) were followed in the general act agreed to at the Conference held at Berlin in1884-1885the object of which was to secure religious and commercial liberty and to limit warlike operations in the Congo basin.
Amongst the best known of the furrows of the continental shelf are the Cape Breton Deep, in the Bay of Biscay, the Hudson Furrow, southward of New York, the so-called Congo Canon, the Swatch of No Ground off the Ganges delta, the Bottomless Pit off the Niger delta, and numerous similar furrows on the west coast of North America and outside the fjords of Norway, Iceland and the west of Scotland, as well as in the.
This railway would give the quickest means of access to British Central Africa and the southern part of Belgian Congo.
Stanley's discovery of the course of the Congo initiated the movement for the partition of the continent, was declined.
By the agreement of the 1st of July 1890, between the British and German governments, and by agreements concluded between Germany and Portugal in 1886 and 1894, and Germany and the Congo Free State in 1884 and later dates, the German sphere of influence attained its present area.
Moreover Germany, Great Britain and Belgium (as inheritor of the Congo State) had conflicting claims in the region N.E.
From Mt Sabyino the frontier between Belgian Congo and the Uganda Protectorate goes in a direct line north to Mt Nkabwe, and thence along the Ishasha River, to its mouth on the S.E.
The imports included the transit trade (with the Belgian Congo and German East Africa), which grew from £8460 in1903-1904to £82,615 in 1908-1909.
The transit trade in the last-named year included bullion valued at £33,000, being raw gold from the Kilo mines, Belgian Congo.
Having made the first survey of Victoria Nyanza and confirmed Speke's guesses as to its shape and area, Stanley passed on (half discovering Ruwenzori on the way) to the Congo.
Lugard little thought that in bringing these Sudanese, already (some of them) infected with the sleeping-sickness of the Congo forests, he was to introduce a disease which would kill off some 250,000 natives of Uganda in eight years.
Its transit trade, especially with the Belgian Congo, became of great importance.
Wollaston, From Ruwenzori to the Congo (2908); Seymour Vandeleur, Campaigning on the Upper Nile and Niger (1898).
Among other important conferences in which Lambermont took a leading part were those of Brussels (1874) on the usages of war, Berlin (1884-1885) on Africa and the Congo region, and Brussels (1890) on Central African Affairs and the Slave Trade.
An agreement on the basis of a cession of territory in the French Congo in exchange for a German declaration of complete desinteressement in Morocco was nevertheless ultimately effected.
Not only the number of possible war-making states but also the territorial area over which war can be made has been reduced in recent times by the creation of neutralized states such as Switzerland, Belgium, Luxemburg and Norway, and areas such as the Congo basin, the American lakes and the Suez Canal.
Southern or Lower Guinea comprises the coasts of Gabun and Loango (known also as French Congo) and the Portuguese possessions on the south-west coast, and Northern or Upper Guinea stretches from the river Casamance to and inclusive of the Niger delta, Cameroon occupying a middle position.
The palm-oil tree is indigenous and abundant from the river Gambia to the Congo.
Of the various names by which the divisions of Lower Guinea were known, Loango was applied to the country south of the Gabun and north of the Congo river.
It is now chiefly included in French Congo.
Congo was used to designate the country immediately south of the river of the same name, usually spoken of until the last half of the 19th century as the Zaire.
Congo is now one of the subdivisions of Portuguese West Africa (see Angola).
It must not be confounded with the Belgian Congo.
On the west, Unyoro includes nearly all the eastern shores of Albert Nyanza and a strip of territory - incorporated in Belgian Congo in 1910 - west of that lake.
The South Africa General Mission, the North Africa Mission, and the Congo Balolo Mission come next in importance; but there are several smaller bodies working in different countries.
Its chief mission has been in Basutoland, since extended to the Zambesi; but it has also followed French colonial extension, establishing missions in Senegambia, the French Congo, Madagascar and Tahiti.
The American Baptists in Liberia (1821) and the Basel Mission in the Gold Coast (1827), the Congregationalists of the United States of America and Canada in Angola, and the English and American Baptists on the Congo (since 1875) have also extensive and prospering agencies.
The Portuguese in Angola and the agents of King Leopold in the Congo State have not been conspicuous friends of missionary enterprise, and the light-hearted childishness of the native character, so well portrayed in Miss Kingsley's writings, shows how difficult it is to build up a strong and stable Christian church.
The upper Congo region opened up by Livingstone and Stanley has been a favourite sphere for what are known as " faith societies," e.g.
Formerly the Independent State of the Congo, it was annexed to Belgium in 1908.
The number of Belgians in the Congo State in 1904 was 1505.
The Congo question had meanwhile become an acute one in Belgium.
In April of the same year the Belgian chambers authorized the king to be the chief of the state founded by the Association, which had already taken the name of Etat Independant du Congo.
Albert Nyssens, Catholic The Nys- deputy and professor of penal procedure and colnmercial law at the university of Louvain, and on the Y In 1889 King Leopold announced that he had by his will bequeathed the Congo state to Belgium, and in 1890 the Belgian government, in return for financial help, acquired the right of annexing the country under certain conditions.
It was not until terrible reports as to the misgovernment of the Congo created a strong agitation for reform in Great Britain, America and other countries responsible for having aided in the creation of the state, that public opinion in Belgium seriously concerned itself with the subject.
The result was that in November 1907 a new treaty of cession was presented to the Belgian chambers, while in March 1908 an additional act modified one of the most objectionable features of the treaty - a clause by which the king retained control of the revenue of a vast territory within the Congo which he had declared to be his private property.
A colonial law, also submitted to the chambers, secured for Belgium in case of annexation complete parliamentary control over the Congo state, and the bill for annexation was finally passed in September 1908.
Into this swamp on its east side flows the Chambezi, the most remote head stream of the Congo.
He effected some reforms in the monastic orders; urged the conversion of the sectaries in Bohemia; and sent missionaries to America, India, Abyssinia and the Congo.
In the south-east of the colony the streams - of which the chief are the Dscha and Bumba - are tributaries of the Sanga, itself an affluent of the Congo.
Including the headwaters of the Benue the colony has four distinct river-systems, one connecting with the Niger, another with the Congo, and a third with Lake Chad, the fourth being the rivers which run direct to the sea.
The best-known of these companies, the St d-Kamerun, holds a concession over a large tract of country by the Sanga river, exporting its rubber, ivory and other produce via the Congo.
He left Cameroon in 1876, the year before George Grenfell, afterwards famous for his work on the Congo, came to the country, where he remained three years.
From the edge of the coast belt to near the confluence of the Benue and Niger they are overlain by unfossiliferous sandstones, lying undisturbed and possibly of the age of the sandstones of the Congo basin.
With this object a small force under Major Marchand was sent from the French Congo into the Bahr-elGhazal, with orders to occupy Fashoda on the Nile; whilst a Franco-Abyssinian Expedition was despatched from the eastward, to join hands with Major Marchand.
The small force from the French Congo reached its destination, and a body of Abyssinian troops, accompanied by French officers, appeared for a short time a little higher up the river; but the grand political scheme was frustrated by the victorious advance of an AngloEgyptian force under General Kitchener and the resolute attitude of the British government.
In 1892 the Congo State expedition established posts up to the seventh parallel of north latitude.
In the following year the Congo expedition established further posts, and in consequence the khalifa sent 3000 men, under the amir Khatem Musa, from Shakka to reoccupy the Bahr-el-Ghazal.
Stanley, which went to his rescue by way of the Congo in 1887, and after encountering incredible dangers and experiencing innumerable sufferings, met with Emin and Casati at Nsabh, on the Albert Nyanza, on the 29th of April 1888.
In 1893 FadI-el-Maula Bey and, many of his men took service with Baert of the Congo State expedition.
With the exception of the enclave of Kabinda the province lies wholly south of the river Congo.
Lunda is part of the old Bantu kingdom of Muata Yanvo, divided by international agreement between Portugal and the Congo Free State.
In the east the tableland falls away to the basins of the Congo and Zambezi, to the south it merges into a barren sandy desert.
From the tableland the Kwango and many other streams flow north to join the Kasai (one of the largest affluents of the Congo), which in its upper course forms for fully 300 m.
Another of these tribes, the Bangala, living on the west bank of the upper Kwango, must not be confounded with the Bangala of the middle Congo.
Noki is on the southern bank of the Congo at the head of navigation from the sea, and close to the Congo Free State frontier.
It is available for ships of large tonnage, and through it passes the Portuguese portion of the trade of the lower Congo.
Ambriz - the only seaport of consequence in the Congo district of the province - is at the mouth of the Loje river, about 70 m.
Sao Salvador (pop. 1500) is the name given by the Portuguese to Bonza Congo, the chief town of the "kingdom of Congo."
Bembe and Encoje are smaller towns in the Congo district south of Sao Salvador.
He erected a stone pillar at the mouth of the river, which accordingly took the title of Rio de Padrao, and established friendly relations with the natives, who reported that the country was subject to a great monarch, Mwani Congo or lord of Congo, resident at Bonza Congo.
In 1534 a cathedral was founded at Bonza Congo (renamed Sao Salvador), and in 1560 the Jesuits arrived with Paulo Diaz de Novaes.
In 1888 a Portuguese resident was stationed at Salvador, and the kings of Congo became pensioners of the government.
In 1884 Great Britain, which up to that time had steadily refused to acknowledge that Portugal possessed territorial rights north of Ambriz, concluded a treaty recognizing Portuguese sovereignty over both banks of the lower Congo; but the treaty, meeting with opposition in England and Germany, was not ratified.
Up to the end of the 19th century the hold of Portugal over the interior of the province was slight, though its influence extended to the Congo and Zambezi basins.
Large herds of cattle and flocks of sheep are raised in Futa Jallon; these are sent in considerable numbers to Sierra Leone, Liberia and French Congo.
The society's operations are now carried on, not only in the East, but in the West Indies, China, Africa (chiefly on the Congo river), and Europe.
It became the entrepot for the commerce of the lower Congo and a wellknown mart for slaves.
In 1884 the natives of Boma granted a protectorate of their country to the International Association of the Congo.
In May that year he had crossed into the Congo State by the south shore of Albert Edward Nyanza, and many months were spent on the borders of the great Congo Forest and in the Undusuma country south-west of Albert Nyanza, breaking ground new to Europeans.
Emin remained behind with the sick, and with a very reduced following left the lake district in March 1892 for the Congo river.
These gentry were incensed against Emin for the energetic way in which he had dealt with their comrades while in German territory, and against Europeans generally by the campaign for their suppression begun by the Congo State.
From the seaports of Cape Town, Port Elizabeth, East London, Durban, Lourenco Marques and Beira railway lines run to Kimberley, Bloemfontein, Johannesburg and Pretoria, while a trunk line extends north from Kimberley through Rhodesia (in which gold mining began on an extensive scale in 1898) and across the Zambezi below the Victoria Falls into the Congo basin, where it serves the Katanga mineral area.
Among such dyestuffs are chrysamine or flavophenine, obtained from salicylic acid and diazotized benzidine, and congo red obtained from sodium naphthionate and diazotized benzidine.
History The Congo Free State owed its existence to the ambition and force of character of a single individual.
Stanley from his great journey of exploration down the Congo forcibly directed the attention of King Leopold to the possibilities for exploration and civilization offered by the Congo region.
On the invitation of the king, Mr Stanley visited Brussels, and on the 25th of November 1878 a separate committee of the International Association was organized at Brussels, under the name "Comite d'etudes du Haut Congo."
Shortly afterwards this committee became the "International Association of the Congo," which in its turn was the forerunner of the Congo Free State.
The first station was founded in February 1880 at Vivi, and before returning to Europe in August 1884 Mr Stanley had established twenty-two stations on the Congo and its tributaries.
Numerous expeditions were organized by King Leopold in the Congo basin, and the activity of the International Association and its agents began seriously to engage the attention of the European powers interested in Africa.
On behalf of Portugal, claims were advanced to the Congo, based on the discovery of its mouth by Portuguese navigators centuries before.
The fact that the International Association of the Congo had no admitted status as a sovereign power rendered the tenure of its acquisition somewhat precarious, and induced King Leopold to make determined efforts to secure for his enterprise a recognized position.
The 2nd Earl Granville, then British foreign secretary, in February of that year concluded a convention with Portugal, recognizing both banks of the mouth of the Congo as Portuguese territory.
While negotiations with Germany for the recognition of the status of the Congo Free State were in progress, Prince Bismarck issued invitations to the powers to an international conference at Berlin.
The conference assembled on the 15th of November 1884, and its deliberations ended on the 26th of February of the following year by the signature of a General Act, which dealt with the relations of the European powers to other regions of Africa as well as the Congo basin.
The provisions affecting the Congo may be briefly stated.
A conventional basin of the Congo was defined, which comprised all the regions watered by the Congo and its affluents, including Lake Tanganyika, with its eastern tributaries, and in this conventional basin it was declared that "the trade of all nations shall enjoy complete freedom."
Freedom of navigation of the Congo and all its affluents was also secured, and differential dues on vessels and merchandise were forbidden.
As regards navigation, only such taxes or duties were to be levied as had "the character of an equivalent for services rendered to navigation itself"; and it was further provided that (Article 16) "The roads, railways or lateral canals which may be constructed with the special object of obviating the innavigability or correcting the imperfection of the river route on certain sections of the course of the Congo, its affluents, and other waterways, placed under a similar system as laid down in Article 15, shall be considered, in their quality of means of communication, as dependencies of this river and as equally open to the traffic of all nations.
On the 5th of February, as the result of prolonged negotiations, France conceded the right of the Association to the course of the lower Congo below Manyanga, and accepted the Chiloango river and the water-parting of the waters of the Niadi Kwilu and the Congo, as far as beyond the meridian of Manyanga, as the boundary between her possessions and those of the Association on the lower river.
From Manyanga the frontier was to follow the Congo up to Stanley Pool, the median line of Stanley Pool, and the Congo again "up to a point to be settled above the river Licona-Nkundja," from which point a line was to be drawn to the 17th degree of longitude east of Greenwich, following as closely as possible the water-parting of the Licona-Nkundja basin.
With Portugal the Association concluded an agreement on the 14th of February 1885, by which the northern bank of the Congo was recognized as belonging to the Association, while Portugal retained the southern bank of the river as far as Noki.
North of the Congo Portugal retained the small enclave of Kabinda, while south of the river the frontier left the Congo at Noki and followed the parallel of that place to the Kwango river.
In April 1885 the Belgian chamber authorized King Leopold "to he the chief of the state founded in Africa by the International Association of the Congo," and declared that "the union between Belgium and the new State of the Congo shall be exclusively personal."
In a circular letter addressed to the powers on the 1st of August 1885 His Majesty declared the neutrality of the "Independent State of the Congo," and set out the boundaries which were then claimed for the new state.
The net result of the above agreements was to leave the Congo Free State with France, Portugal and Great Britain as her neighbours on the north, with Great Britain and Germany as her neighbours on the east, and with Great Britain and Portugal on her southern frontier.
In 1891 the imposition of an export duty on ivory excited much ill-will, and when it became known that, in his march towards the Nile, van Kerckhoven had defeated an Arab force, the Arabs on the upper Congo determined to precipitate the conflict.
In harmony with this political change the trade routes have been completely altered, and the traffic which used to follow the well-beaten track from Nyangwe and the Lualaba across Tanganyika to Ujiji, or round the lake to Zanzibar, now goes down the Congo to Stanley Pool and the Atlantic."
By his will dated the 2nd of August 1889 King Leopold bequeathed to Belgium "all our sovereign rights over the Independent State of the Congo, as they are recognized by the declarations, conventions and treaties concluded since 1884 between the foreign powers on the one side, the International Association of the Congo and 2 After 1900 Nyangwe and Kasongo again became towns of some importance, and traffic along the route to Tanganyika revived with the advent of railways, though the main traffic continued down the Congo river.
Moreover, in anticipation of the time when the Congo State would become a Belgian colony, there was issued under date of 7th of August 1901 the terms of a proposed loi organique, regulating the government of any colonial possessions which Belgium might acquire.
The discussions which from time to time took place in the Belgian parliament on the affairs of the Congo State were greatly embittered by the charges brought against the state administration.
The "concession" companies were first formed in 1891 under Belgian law; in 1898 some of them were reconstituted under Congo law.
Only in the lower Congo and a narrow strip of land on either side of the river above Stanley Pool was there any freedom of trade.
The Fondation controlled the most valuable rubber region in the Congo, and in that region the natives appeared to be treated with the utmost severity.
In the first place the native policy of the Congo government was denounced as at variance with the humanitarian spirit which had been regarded by the powers as one of the chief motives inspiring the foundation of the Congo State.
Reports which gave colour to these charges steadily accumulated, and gave rise to a strong agitation against the Congo State system of government.
In accordance with this request the 5th marquess of Lansdowne, then secretary of state for foreign affairs, issued a despatch on the 8th of August 1903 to the British representatives at the courts of the powers which signed the Berlin Act, drawing attention to the alleged cases of ill-treatment of natives and to the existence of trade monopolies in the Congo Free State, and in conclusion stating that His Majesty's government would This concession was asserted by traders who had previously dealt direct with the natives, and by traders who hoped so to do, to contravene the provision of the Act of Berlin prohibiting any commercial monopoly in the Congo basin.
Of these companies the Union miniere du Haut Katanga had for object the development of the mineral wealth of the district named, while the Chemin de fer du Bas Congo undertook to build a railway from Leopoldville to Katanga.
The American Congo Company was granted a rubber concession in the Kasai basin.
The fourth company, the Societe internationale forestiere et miniere du Congo, combined mining operations with the exploitation of forest produce.
This despatch failed to evoke any response from the powers, with the single exception of Turkey, but the public agitation against the Congo State regime continued to grow in force, being greatly strengthened by the publication in February 1904 of a report by Mr Roger Casement, then British consul at Boma, on a journey which he had made through the middle Congo region in 1903 (described as the "Upper" Congo in the report).
The action on the part of the British government resulted in considerable correspondence with the Congo government, which denied the charges of systematic ill-treatment of the natives and controverted the contention that its policy constituted an infringement of the Berlin Act.
Its stay in the Congo State lasted from the 5th of October 1904 to the 21st of February 1905, and during that time the com missioners ascended the Congo as far as Stanleyville.
It approved the concessions system in principle and regarded forced labour as the only possible means of turning to account the natural riches of the country, but recognized that though freedom of trade was formally guaranteed there was virtually no trade, properly so called, among the natives in the greater portion of the Congo State, and particularly emphasized the need for a liberal interpretation of the land laws, effective application of the law limiting the amount of labour exacted from the natives to forty hours per month, the suppression of the" sentry "system, the withdrawal from the concession companies of the right to employ compulsory measures, the regulation of military expeditions, and the freedom of the courts from administrative tutelage.
Naturally the development of the charges against the Congo State system of administration was followed with close interest in Belgium.
Little or nothing was done, however, R to advance the bill brought forward in August 1901, providing for the government of the Congo State in the event of its becoming a Belgian colony.
By the advocates of radical reforms these measures were regarded as utterly inadequate, and even in Belgium, among those friendly to the Congo State system of administration, some uneasiness was excited by a letter which was published along with the decrees, wherein King Leopold intimated that certain conditions would attach to the inheritance he had designed for Belgium.
The fears excited by this letter that King Leopold desired to restrict Belgium's liberty of action in the Congo State when the latter should become a Belgian colony were not diminished by the announcement in November 1906 of four new concessions, conferring very extensive rights on railway, mining and rubber companies in which foreign capital was largely interested.
This was immediately before the opening in the Belgian chamber of a fresh debate in which the history of the Congo question entered on a new stage of critical importance not only from the national but the international point of view.
In reply to an influential deputation which waited upon him on the 10th of November, Sir Edward Grey, speaking as the representative of the British government in his capacity as secretary of state for foreign affairs, expressed the desire" that Belgium should feel that her freedom of action is unfettered and unimpaired and her choice unembarrassed by anything which we have done or are likely to do "; but he added that if Belgium should fail to take action" it will be impossible for us to continue to recognize indefinitely the present state of things without a very close examination of our treaty rights and the treaty obligations of the Congo State."The debate in the Belgian chamber opened on the 28th of November and was not concluded till the 14th of December.
It was largely occupied with the consideration of the relations between Belgium and the Congo State from the constitutional point of view.
Taking as the basis for discussion the draft loi organique of 1901, it elaborated a measure laying down the principles applicable to the Congo State when it should become a Belgian colony.
In the resolution which was adopted on the 2nd of March the chamber," imbued with the ideas which presided over the foundation of the Congo State and inspired the Act of Berlin,"expressed its confidence in the proposals which the commission of reforms was elaborating, and decided" to proceed without delay to the examination of the projected law of the 7th of August 1901, on the government of Belgium's colonial possessions."The report of the reforms commission was not made public, but as the fruit of its deliberations King Leopold signed on the 3rd of June 1906 a number of decrees embodying various While the commission was sitting, further evidence was forthcoming that the system complained of on the Congo remained unaltered, and that the" reforms "of June 1906 were illusory.
Not only in Great Britain and America did the agitation against the administration of the Congo State gain ground, but in Belgium and France reform associations enlightened public opinion.
The government of Great Britain let it be known that its patience was not inexhaustible, while the senate of the United States declared that it would support President Roosevelt in his efforts for the amelioration of the condition of the inhabitants of the Congo.
On the 10th of July 1907 the Belgian premier announced that negotiations with the Congo State would be renewed, and on the 28th of November following a treaty was signed for the cession of the Congo State to Belgium.
This" government within a government "was secured in all its privileges, its profits as heretofore being appropriated to allowances to members of the royal family and the maintenance and development of" works of public utility "in Belgium and the Congo, those works including schemes for the embellishment of the royal palaces and estates in Belgium and others for making Ostend" a bathing city unique in the world."The state was to have the right of redemption on terms which, had the rubber and ivory produce alone been redeemed, would have cost Belgium about £8,50o,000.
Sir Edward Grey affirmed that the Congo State had" morally forfeited every right to international recognition,"and quoted with approval Lord Cromer's statement that the Congo system was the worst he had ever seen.
The foreign secretary declared, in reference to the negotiations for the transfer of the Congo to Belgium, that any semi-transfer which left the controlling power in the hands of" the present authorities "would not be considered by Great Britain as a guarantee of treaty rights.
Thesiger, consul at Boma, who in a memorandum on the application of the labour tax, after detailing various abuses, added," The system which gave rise to these abuses still continues unchanged, and so long as it is unaltered the condition of the natives must remain one of veiled slavery."Eight days later (on the 5th of March) an additional act was signed in Brussels annulling the clauses in the treaty of cession concerning the Fondation, which was to cease to exist on the day Belgium assumed the sovereignty of the Congo and its property to be absorbed in the state domains.
Belgium undertook at her own charges and at an estimated cost of £2,000,000 to complete" the works of embellishment "begun in Belgium with funds derived from the Fondation and to create a debt of £2,000,000 chargeable on the funds of the colony, which sum was to be paid to the king in fifteen annual instalments - the money, however, to be expended on objects" connected with and beneficial to the Congo."The annuities to members of the royal family were to be continued, and other subsidies were promised.
But the most important provision was the agreement of Belgium to respect the concessions granted in the lands of the Fondation in November 1906 to the American Congo Company and the Compagnie forestiere et miniere, companies in which the Congo State had large holdings.
Neither the treaty, the additional act, nor the colonial law expressly modified the land, commercial and concessionary regime established in the Congo, but article II.
On the 15th of April 1908 the chamber began a general debate on the Congo question.
Amendments had been made in the colonial law giving parliament fuller control over Congo affairs and securing greater independence for the judicature.
It extends north from the estuary of the Congo, the northern bank of the estuary belonging to Belgium, the southern to Portugal.
Except for its short coast-line, and for a comparatively small area on its eastern frontier, the colony lies wholly within the geographical basin of the Congo.
The eastern escarpment is precipitous, but on its western face it slopes more gently into the Congo basin.
Luku!u A Longitude E.ust of Capitol Pygmy Forest (from the races inhabiting it), the Aruwimi or Ituri Forest (from the rivers traversing it), the Stanley Forest (from its discoverer), or the Great Congo Forest.
The Congo and its tributary streams are separately noticed.
The wooded savannas are mostly situated on the higher lands of the central zone, where the land dips down from the Mitumba Mountains to the Congo.
The portion of the great basin of the Congo included in the colony is mainly occupied, so far as it has been explored, by sandstones.
The manati is confined to the lower Congo.
Herons, hawks, terns, Egyptian geese, fishing eagles (Gypohierax), the weaver and the whydah bird are found in the lower and middle Congo.
Situated in the equatorial zone, Belgian Congo shows, over the greater part of its area, only a slight variation of temperature all the year round.
There is a marked distinction between the wet and dry seasons in the western districts on the lower Congo, where rains fall regularly from October to May, the dry season being from June to September.
On the lower Congo the prevailing winds are from the west and the southwest, but this prevalence becomes less and less marked towards the interior, until on the upper river they come from the south-east.
They were forcing their way southwards when the Belgians appeared in the upper Congo about 1895 and arrested their further progress.
The lower Congo and coast regions are occupied by the Ba-Kongo (otherwise Ba-Fiot), a division including the Mushi-Kongo, found chiefly in the Congo division of Angola, and the Basundi, who live on both banks of the river in the cataracts districts, the Kabinda and the Mayumbe - the two last named dwelling in the coast districts and foot-hills immediately north of the mouth of the Congo.
Living north of the Luba-Lunda tribes, and occupying the country enclosed by the great bend of the Congo and bounded west by the Kasai, are a large number of tribes, the chief groups being the Bakuba, Basongo Mino, Balolo, Bakete, Bambala, Bayaka, Bahuana, &c. Of these the Basongo Mino are spread over the country between the Kasai and Lomami.
Along the middle Congo from Stanley Pool to Stanley Falls the more important tribes are the Bateke, in the Stanley Pool district, but chiefly on the north side of the river in French territory; the Bayanzi (Babangi), between the mouths of the Kasai and the Ubangi; the Bangala, one of the most gifted of the Congo tribes, whence are recruited many of the soldiery; the Bapoto and the Basoko.
These Bangala are not to be confused with the Bangala of the Kwango, also cannibals, who in marauding bands under leaders styled Jaga were devastating the country in the days of the early Portuguese settlements in the Congo regions.
The Banza and Mogwandi are large tribes living in the region between the Congo and the Ubangi.
The villages of the tribes of the lower Congo are usually surrounded by a palisade; the houses or huts are rectangular and about 7 f t.
The Katanga kingdom, then ruled by an Unyamwezi adventurer named Msiri, was overthrown by the Congo State in 1891.
The religion of the Congo tribes is difficult to define.
The European population, before 1880, consisted of a few traders, Dutch, English, French and Portuguese, having factories in the Congo estuary.
It is situated on the right bank of the lower Congo, about 60 m.
Banana, close to the mouth of the Congo and Banana Point, possesses one of the best natural harbours on the west coast of Africa, and is capable of sheltering vessels of the largest tonnage.
Matadi is situated on the left bank of the Congo, at the highest point of the lower river which can be reached by sea-going vessels.
It is the point of departure of the Congo railway.
Lukungu, situated on the banks of the river of that name, a southern tributary of the Congo, about half-way between Matadi and Stanley Pool, was formerly the capital of the Falls district, and the chief recruiting station for porters on the lower Congo.
Tumba, the present capital of the district, is a station on the Congo railway, the half-way house between Matadi and Stanley Pool.
Stanley began his descent of the Congo.
In 1892 the town was taken from the Arabs by the Congo State troops and destroyed.
There is a regular mail service between Antwerp and the ports of the lower Congo, which are also served by steamers from Liverpool, Hamburg, Rotterdam and Lisbon.
From its mouth to Matadi (85 m.) the Congo is navigable by ocean-going vessels.
An agreement with Great Britain, concluded in May 1906, provided for the continuation of this line from the Congo State frontier through the Lado Enclave to the navigable channel of the Nile near the station of Lado, a steamboat and railway service across Africa from the Congo mouth to the Red Sea being thus arranged.
The total length of steam communication by this route, from Katanga to the mouth of the Congo, is about 2150 m.
The principal stations are connected by telegraph lines, and, by way of Libreville in French Congo, cable communication with Europe was established in 1905.
It has been found in the Manyanga country, the Manyema country on the upper Congo, in the Urua country, in the basins of the Kasai and the Lualaba, and in Katanga.
In this region, watered by the Lualaba, Lufira and other head-streams of the Congo, immense copper ore deposits are found in hills and spurs of rising ground extending over 150 m.
When Europeans first entered the Congo basin the natives were found to have large stores of "dead ivory" in their possession.
The trade of the state was of slow growth until after the completion, in 1898, of the railway between the lower and middle Congo, which greatly reduced the cost of the transport of goods.
Missionaries have displayed great activity on the Congo.
In the first ten years of his work on the Congo King Leopold is reported to have spent £I,200,000 from his private fortune.
The first five years of the existence of the state were greatly hampered by the provision of the Berlin Act prohibiting the imposition of any duties on goods imported into the Congo region, but at the Brussels conference, 1890, a declaration was signed by the powers signatory to the Berlin Act, authorizing the imposition of import duties not exceeding to ad valorem, except in the case of spirits, which were to be subject to a higher duty.
By agreement with France and Portugal, a common tariff (6% on most goods imported, to% on the export of ivory and india-rubber, 5% on other exports) was adopted by these powers and the Congo Free State.
In 1901 Belgium renounced the repayment of its loans and the payment of interest, reserving the right to annex the state, whose financial obligations to Belgium would revive only if that kingdom should renounce its rights to annex the Congo.
These figures do not, however, disclose the total profits which accrued to the Free State from its trading operations in the Congo.
On the lower Congo transactions are in cash, but on the middle and upper Congo the use of coins in place of barter or the native brass wire currency makes but slow progress.
Moreover, save in the lower Congo state payments (down to 1908) were made in trade goods.
Wauters, and devoted chiefly to Congo affairs.
Stanley's book is of historic importance, describing the work he and his helpers accomplished on the Congo between 1879 and 1884; and Chapaux's volume gives the best general account of the Free State in convenient size.
The history section includes a valuable summary of the work of exploration in the Congo basin from the days of David Livingstone up to 1893.
The economic aspect of the colony is dealt with in Congo, climat, constitution du sol et hygiene .
Professor Cattier in a later work, Etude sur la situation de l'etat independant du Congo (Brussels, 1906), severely criticized the Congo administration.
The range of the species extends from the Congo and Angola to Nyasaland.
In 1888 he became consul to the Congo Free State.
Forestry and mining are both undeveloped, but the syndicate which since 1908 has worked the Kasai diamond area of the Belgian Congo has also concessions on the Portuguese side, and in 1920 the output of diamonds from Angola was estimated at 120,000 carats.
The railway, a British enterprise, was designed to serve the copper mines of Katanga, Belgian Congo, and work on the remaining 480 m.
Stanley had conducted an expedition from the Congo, evacuated the country and with Stanley made his way to the east coast.
In February 1894 the union jack was hoisted at Wadelai, while in May of the same year Great Britain granted to Leopold II., as sovereign of the Congo State, a lease of large areas lying west of the upper Nile inclusive of the Bahr-el-Ghazal and Fashoda.
Congo State forces had penetrated to the Nile valley as early as 1891, but it was not until 1897, when on the 17th of .February Commandant Chaltin inflicted a decisive defeat on the Mandists at Rejaf, that their occupation of the Lado Enclave was assured.
The best marked of the basins so formed (the Congo basin) occupies a circular area bisected by the equator, once probably the site of an inland sea.
The most remote head-stream of the Congo is the Chambezi, which flows south-west into the marshy Lake Bangweulu.
From this lake issues the Congo, known in its upper course by various names.
North of the Congo basin and separated from it by a broad undulation of the surface is the basin of Lake Chad - a flat-shored, shallow lake filled principally by the Shari coming from the south-east.
West of this is the basin of the Niger, the third river of Africa, which, though flowing to the Atlantic, has its principal source in the far west, and reverses the direction of flow exhibited by the Nile and Congo.
Divergent opinions have been held as to the mode of origin of the East African lakes, especially Tanganyika, which some geologists have considered to represent an old arm of the sea, dating from a time when the whole central Congo basin was under water; others holding that the lake water has accumulated in a depression caused by subsidence.
The open savannas are the home of large ungulates, especially antelopes, the giraffe (peculiar to Africa), zebra, buffalo, wild ass and four species of rhinoceros; and of carnivores, such as the lion, leopard, hyaena, &c. The okapi (a genus restricted to Africa) is found only in the dense forests of the Congo basin.
This is par excellence the African formation, and covers immense areas in South Africa and the Congo basin, with detached portions in East Africa.
The third zone is a vast region of forest and rivers in the west centre, comprising the greater part of the basin of the Congo and the Guinea coast.
These two zones are It is therefore in the forests of the Congo, and among the lagoons and estuaries of the Guinea coast, that this earlier culture will The char- most probably be found.
It is true that stone implements of palaeolithic and neolithic types are found sporadically in the Nile valley, Somaliland, on the Zambezi, in Cape Colony and the northern portions of the Congo Free State, as well as in Algeria and Tunisia; but the localities are far too few and too widely separated to warrant the inference that they are to be in any way connected.
Thus those qualities, physical and otherwise, in which the Bantu approach the Hamites gradually fade as we proceed westward through the Congo basin, while in the east, among the tribes to the west of Tanganyika and on the upper Zambezi, " transitional " forms of culture are found.
The Arabs had established themselves firmly on the coast, and thence made continual slave-raids into the interior, penetrating later to the Congo.
Turning to the Congo basin in the south, the great Luba and Lunda peoples are found stretching nearly across the continent, the latter, from at any rate the end of the 16th century until the close of the 19th century, more or less united under a single ruler, styled Muata Yanvo.
North of these, in the great bend of the Congo, are the Balolo, &c., the Balolo a nation of iron-workers; and westward, on the Kasai, the Bakuba, and a large number of tribes as yet imperfectly known.
Farther west are the tribes of Angola, many of whom were included within the old " Congo empire," of which the kingdom of Loango was an offshoot.
North of the latter lies the Gabun, with a large number of small tribes dominated by the Fang who are recent arrivals from the Congo.
Besides these isolated posts Spain holds Rio de Oro, a stretch of the Saharan coast, and its hinterland lying between Morocco and French West Africa; the Muni River Settlements or Spanish Guinea, situated between French Congo and the German colony of Cameroon; Fernando P0, Annobon, Corisco and other islands in the Gulf of Guinea.
The Congo sandstones do not appear to extend as far north.
This third group is included in French Congo.
Besides the Egyptian and Red Sea routes there is considerable trade between the eastern mudirias and Abyssinia and Eritrea, and also some trade south and west with Uganda and the Congo countries.
That control would have been lost had a European power other than Great Britain obtained possession of any part of the Nile valley; and at the time the Sudan was reconquered (1896-98) France was endeavouring to establish her authority on the river between Khartum and Gondokoro, as the Marchand expedition from the Congo to Fashoda demonstrated.
The relations of the Sudan government with its Italian, Abyssinian and French neighbours was marked by cordiality, but with the Congo Free State difficulties arose over claims made by that state to the Bahr-el-Ghazal Lado.
Congo State troops were in 1904 stationed in Sudanese territory.
The difficulty was adjusted in 1906 when the Congo State abandoned all claims to the Ghazal province (whence its troops were withdrawn during 1907), and it was agreed to transfer the Lado enclave to the Sudan six months after the death of the king of the Belgians.
But the most notable event in Leopold's career was the foundation of the Congo Free State.
Stanley, who visited Brussels in 1878 after exploring the Congo river, and returned in 1879 to the Congo as agent of the Comite d'Etudes, du Haut Congo, soon afterwards reorganized as the "International Association of the Congo."
This association was, in 1884-1885, recognized by the powers as a sovereign state under the name of the Etat Independant du Congo.
Gordon and obtained his promise, subject to the approval of the British government, to enter the Belgian service on the Congo.
Three years later Leopold claimed fulfilment of the promise, and Gordon was about to proceed to the Congo when the British government required his services for the Sudan.
The wealth he amassed from the Congo he spent, no doubt, royally not only in this way but also on public improvements in Belgium; but he had a hard heart towards the natives of his distant possession.
Studer (Crustacea of the Gazelle, 1882) records Balanus amphitrite (Darwin?) from roots and stems of mangroves in the Congo, where, he says, " it follows the mangroves as far as their vegetation extends along the stream, to six sea-miles from the mouth."
In March 1880 Gordon visited the king of the Belgians at Brussels, and King Leopold suggested that he should at some future date take charge of the Congo Free State.
The king of the Belgians then asked him to take charge of the Congo Free State, and he accepted the mission and returned to London to make the necessary preparations.
The entire area of Albert Edward Nyanza was found, by the work of the Anglo-German Boundary Commission of 1902-1904, to lie within the limits of the sphere of influence of the Congo Free State as defined in the agreement of the 12th of May 1894 between that state and Great Britain.
He led a fact-finding mission by the United Nations into the chaos of the Congo.
All sponsorship monies from this year's races are going to community projects in the Congo.
Group of congo tetra 11/05/05 Yes I'm selling a group of 10 congo tetra.
A stable Congo could be Africa's healthy heart.
In 1960, for example, he was sent on a one-man fact-finding mission by the United Nations into the chaos of the Congo.
The ingedients include Spruce rosin, red and white pine rosin, Gomma Congo, Gomma and Pine Cone Extract.
At the request of the UN, the EU sent 1,500 troops to Congo at the beginning of June 2003.
The third smaller ivory tusk finial from the Congo has figures seated in separate rows, rather than a spiral.
Several local races of African elephant have been described, mainly distinguished from one another by the form and size of the ears, shape of the head, &c. The most interesting of these is the pigmy Congo race, africanus pumilio, named on the evidence of an immature specimen in the possession of C. Hagenbeck, the well-known animal-dealer of Hamburg, in 1905.
If the differences in stature and form are constant, there can be no question as to the right of the dwarf Congo elephant to rank as a well-marked local race; the only point for consideration being whether it should not be called a species.
This view may receive some support from the occurrence of a dwarf form of the African elephant in the Congo; and if we regard the latter as a subspecies of Elephas africanus, it seems highly probable that a similar position will have to be assigned to the pigmy European fossil elephants.
South of the equator, Arab slave-dealers penetrated from Zanzibar to the great lakes and the Congo during the second and third quarters of the 19th century, but their power, though formidable, has disappeared without leaving any permanent traces.
At one time included in the "kingdom of Congo" (see Angola, History), Loango became independent about the close of the 16th century, and was still of considerable importance in the middle of the 18th century.
The Loango coast is now divided between French Congo and the Portuguese district of Kabinda (see those articles).
The total area of Belgian Congo in 1920 was estimated at 928,000 sq.
At the outset of the war Belgium had endeavoured - unsuccessfully - to preserve neutrality in her Congo colony, and the first act of hostility was committed by the Germans (see East African Campaigns).
Bates's potto (P. batesi), of the Congo, is nearly allied; but the awantibo (P. [Arctocebus] calabarensis), of Old Calabar, differs by the complete loss of the tail (see Primates) .
Among notable mammals the chimpanzee is found in Unyoro, Toro and north-west Ankole, and has only recently become extinct in Buganda; the okapi inhabits the Semliki forests on the Congo frontier; the giraffe (the male sometimes developing five horn cores) is common in the Northern, Eastern and Rudolf provinces; there are three types of buffalo - the Cape, the Congo and the Abyssinian; two species of zebra (one of them Grevy's), the African wild ass, the square-lipped (" white ") and pointed-lipped (" black ") rhinoceroses, the elephant, hippopotamus, water tragelaph (" Speke's antelope "), Cape ant-bear, aard-wolf (Proteles), hunting-dog, and nearly every genus and most of the species of African antelopes.
To facilitate commerce with the Congo and with the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan and to open up the Busoga region the British government in 1910 voted money to build a railway from Jinja to Kakindu.
While expressing admiration for the signs which had come under its notice of the advance of civilization in the Congo State, the commission confirmed the reports of the existence of grave abuses in the upper Congo, and recommended a series of measures which would in its opinion suffice to ameliorate the evil.
In the north-east of the colony, in the upper basin of the Welle and the Mbomu, the Niam-Niam or Azandeh, a Negroid race of warriors and hunters with a social, political and military organization superior to that of the Bantu tribes of the Congo basin, have intruded from the north.
Also due to the loss of the Congo, rentier incomes declined in the Kennedy offensive period in Belgium.
Economic problems The war in DR. Congo disrupted trade and farming, adding to economic woes caused by decades of dictatorship.
The country of Uganda is the hardest hit on record followed by the Congo Basin.
Make sure to order both congo blue and primary red.
Different midways sport African names - Timbuktu, Egypt, Nairobi, and Congo - and the corresponding ride names also reflect African associations.
Congo Bong is the only game Sega released for the Intellivision and is a highly-sought after title for Sega and/or Intellivision buffs.
The earliest known case of HIV-1 came from a human blood sample collected in 1959 from a man in Kinshasa, Democratic Republic of Congo.
In Indo-China, West Africa, French Congo and Madagascar, the colonies and protectorates are grouped under governors-general, and to these high officials extensive powers have been granted by presidential decree.
The Portuguese also established a close connexion with the kingdom of Congo on the west side of Africa, and obtained much information respecting the interior of the continent.
This narrative, under the title of Description of the Kingdom of Congo, was published at Rome by Pigafetta in 1591.
One of the chief problems the association wished to solve was that of the exist ence and course of the river Niger, which was believed by some authorities to be identical with the Congo.
The forest-clad basin of the Congo, with the coastal districts of the bay of Guinea, seem to form one domain in opposition to the rest.
In the 16th and 17th centuries the powerful native kingdom of Congo possessed both banks of the lower river, and the name of the country was in time given to the river also.
Stanley's discoveries "Congo" has become the general name for the river from its mouth to Stanley Falls, despite an effort on the part of Stanley to have the stream re-named Livingstone.