Congenital Sentence Examples
About 3,500 to 4,000 children are born in the United States each year with congenital toxoplasmosis.
The area of biological knowledge which Darwin was the first to subject to scientific method and to render, as it were, contributory to the great stream formed by the union of the various branches, is that which relates to the breeding of animals and plants, their congenital variations, and the transmission and perpetuation of those variations.
In the condition known as albinism there is a congenital deficiency or entire absence of pigment.
In 1999 there were no cases of congenital rubella in the UK.
Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).Advertisement
In a congenital condition known as haemophylia (q.v.) it is difficult to stop the flow of blood.
They do well to warn us against our, possibly congenital, tendency to believe that policy development is rational.
Heart surgery for dogs will only be appropriate for the relatively small number of dogs that have very specific, usually congenital heart problems.
The Richard Attenborough Center has long known that even congenital blindness is no bar to drawing or working in color.
This blockage right at the top of the ureter is probably often congenital.Advertisement
Is there any evidence for the use of ganciclovir in the treatment of babies with affected hearing and/or retinitis associated with congenital cytomegalovirus?
Anyone can develop endocarditis, but you are most at risk if you have underlying heart valve disease or have certain congenital heart diseases.
Ankyloglossia is a congenital oral anomaly characterized by an unusually short lingum frenulum on the underside of the tongue.
She also suffered from severe spina bifida and congenital hydrocephalus.
Exposure to teratogens can cause congenital amputation.Advertisement
There are also congenital deformities, for example cleft palate where there is an absence of bone in the mouths of children.
However, there is no congenital heart defect present and there are multiple contractures with overriding fingers observed with this syndrome.
If these primary conditions occur in utero secondary congenital glaucoma will result.
If, however, your child has congenital hemiplegia your risk is slightly increased although it is still extremely unlikely to occur again.
We are interested in the mechanisms by which this occurs in cardiac arrhythmia and congenital hyperinsulinism.Advertisement
The loss of control of treatment of congenital adrenal hyperplasia during adolescence is well known.
In the UK, around one in every 3500 to 4000 newborn babies have congenital hypothyroidism.
What is the outlook for children with congenital hypothyroidism?
Congenital multiple ligamentous laxity should also be specifically sought as it has a significant effect on the treatment of anterior knee pain.
Prior to advent of surgery less than 20% of children born with congenital heart malformations survived to adult life.Advertisement
It is reported to be due to congenital muscular dystrophy.
Anticholinesterase antibodies (AChR antibodies) will be present in cats with acquired myasthenia gravis, but not in cats with congenital myasthenia.
Nystagmus that appears in the first months of life is called " early onset nystagmus that appears in the first months of life is called " early onset nystagmus " or " congenital nystagmus " .
Myelitis and ascending flaccid paralysis due to congenital toxoplasmosis.
Ptosis that is present since birth is called congenital ptosis that is present since birth is called congenital ptosis.
If a pregnant woman catches rubella in the early stages of pregnancy, her child can be born with congenital rubella syndrome.
In contrast to congenital portosystemic shunts, a number of vessels are usually affected.
Deaths due to congenital abnormalities and antepartum stillbirths were excluded from the mortality rates.
We report the case of a mother and son incidentally discovered with heritable congenital tibiofemoral subluxation.
Cases of congenital syphilis declined from around 1,000 in 1997 to around 500 last year.
However, only a small proportion of these cases were congenital toxoplasmosis.
Like pulmonic stenosis, aortic stenosis is a congenital heart defect in which a malformation impedes the flow of blood through the heart.
This also puts susceptible pregnant women at higher risk and could increase the number of congenital rubella affected pregnancies.
Of 12 recent cases of congenital rubella syndrome, 9 have been in women from ethnic minorities.
Congenital scoliosis is a result of a bone abnormality present at birth.
This being the case, it is most unlikely that such a woman 's baby would be born with congenital strep B infection.
The referrals at Derek 's clinics are primarily a result of congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV), more commonly known as club foot.
Congenital thyrotoxicosis is due to the passage from the mother to the fetus of maternal immunoglobulins that stimulate the fetal thyroid.
Transposition of the great arteries (or vessels) A congenital heart defect in which the two arteries emerging from the heart are switched.
Increased risk of congenital abnormalities requiring earlier ultrasounds and tests.
You can find a quick list of breeds and their associated hereditary and congenital diseases at SiriusDog.com.You can also talk to a local veterinarian about the dog breeds on your list.
My cat's sister had to be put to sleep today, because she was diagnosed with congenital heart disease.
While congenital deformities can take place in any type of mammal, cats born with two faces are extremely rare.
The breed is known to be long-lived and relatively free of many of the congenital issues associated with some breeds.
Because they are bred indiscriminately for mass production and profit, the puppies from puppy mills often have severe congenital defects and serious health problems.
Do backyard breeder pups have higher rates of congenital defects and illnesses?
Physical therapy can also help manage a number of chronic congenital and age-related orthopedic conditions that affect many dogs.
The most common causes of stroke are congenital (present at birth) and acquired heart diseases, and sickle cell anemia.
Patent ductus arteriosus-A congenital defect in which the temporary blood vessel connecting the left pulmonary artery to the aorta in the fetus doesn't close after birth.
Patent foramen ovale (PFO)-A congenital heart defect characterized by an open flap that remains between the two upper chambers of the heart (the left and right atria).
These conditions may have been present since birth (congenital) or developed as the result of another medical illness.
Congenital cardiovascular defects that may cause pathologic heart murmurs affect 36,000 infants (about nine of every 1,000 infants or 1 percent of live births) annually in the United States.
These include defective heart valves, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (enlarged heart muscle), holes or abnormal openings in the walls of the heart (septal defects), aortic aneurysm, or other congenital heart disease.
Murmurs caused by congenital cardiovascular disease are often heard at birth or during infancy.
Although not commonly used to diagnose heart murmurs, it may be used to help physicians evaluate certain congenital cardiovascular defects.
Children with an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect tend to gain weight slowly.
The most common reason for poor growth among children with congenital cardiovascular defects is they are not taking in enough calories or nutrients.
For infants with congenital cardiovascular defects, nutrition supplements may need to be added to regular formula or breast milk.
Babies with congenital cardiovascular defects tire quickly during feedings, so frequent feedings are necessary.
Along with routine medical care and standard immunizations, periodic heart check-ups are necessary in children who have congenital cardiovascular defects.
If an underlying congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed, there are many treatment options that allow children to be fully active and grow up to be healthy adults.
Support groups are available to help parents and caregivers cope with the challenges of providing care for a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
So that the proper treatment can be provided in the event of an emergency, children with congenital cardiovascular defects should wear a medical identification bracelet or necklace to alert healthcare providers of their condition.
Biliary atresia is the congenital failure of a fetus to develop an adequate pathway for bile to drain from the liver to the intestine.
Biliary atresia is the congenital absence or closure of the ducts that drain bile from the liver.
About 10 percent of children with biliary atresia also have other associated congenital defects in blood vessels, heart, spleen, or intestines.
Jaundice can result from a congenital (present at birth) malformation of the liver, bile ducts, or gall bladder.
Jaundice resulting from a congenital defect usually does not appear until the baby is at least ten days old.
Such infections may be congenital, having been passed from the mother to the fetus, or may occur after birth.
Moles that are present at birth are called congenital nevi.
Congenital nevi are more apt to become cancerous than moles that develop after birth, especially if they are more than eight inches in diameter.
The leading causes of infant death include congenital abnormalities, pre-term/low birth weight, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), problems related to complications of pregnancy, and respiratory distress syndrome.
When a fetus acquires the infection through its mother, this is called congenital toxoplasmosis.
Outside the United States, fetal infection rates tend to be higher, although the number of babies born with congenital toxoplasmosis was as of 2004 declining worldwide.
However, symptoms and complications when the disease is acquired after birth tend to be much milder than with congenital toxoplasmosis.
The prognosis is poor when congenital toxoplasmosis is acquired during the first three months of pregnancy.
They have transplanted bone marrow cells into living embryos in the uteri of animals to approach congenital diseases, birth defects, and mental retardation.
No specific treatment is required to treat mild congenital hypotonia, but children with this problem may periodically need treatment for common conditions associated with hypotonia, such as recurrent joint dislocations.
Coarctation of the aorta (COA) is a congenital heart defect that develops in the fetus.
Approximately 10 percent of newborns with congenital heart disease have symptomatic coarctation of the aorta.
Frequently, other congenital cardiac complications are also present.
Coarctation of the aorta is present in about 8 to 10 percent of infants born with other congenital heart defects, occurring approximately twice as many males as females.
Because congenital coarctation of the aorta is unpredicted, parents may be unprepared for the diagnosis and need careful, sensitive medical explanation by the pediatrician or surgeon.
Congenital amputation is the absence of a limb or part of a limb at birth.
There are different types of congenital amputation birth defects.
An infant with congenital amputation may be missing an entire limb or just a portion of a limb.
Congenital amputation is the least common form of amputation.
There have been occasional periods in history where the frequency of congenital amputations has increased.
Most of the time, the cause of congenital amputations is unknown.
Congenital amputation can also be caused by genetic factors.
Many congenital amputations are not discovered until the birth of the baby.
A congenital limb deficiency has a profound effect on the life of the child and his or her parents.
There is no known way to prevent congenital amputations, but the prevention of birth defects in general begins with the well being of the mother before and during pregnancy.
Studies have suggested that a multivitamin including folic acid may reduce birth defects, including congenital abnormalities.
Smoking, drinking alcohol, using recreational drugs or drugs not prescribed by a physician and having a poor diet while pregnant may increase the risk of congenital abnormalities.
Raising a child with one or more congenital amputations can be challenging.
Children with congenital amputations are remarkably good at compensating for their disability.
Intersex states may also be caused by a condition called congenital adrenal hyperplasia, which occurs in about one out of every 5,000 newborns.
Babies born with congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be treated with cortisone-type drugs and sometimes surgery.
Congenital ureter anomalies affect as many as one in every 160 individuals.
Such is the case with congenital ureteral anomalies.
The cause of congenital ureter anomalies is not known.
Atrial septal defects can occur alone or in combination with other congenital heart disorders, such as ventricular septal defect.
Atrial and ventricular septal defects are the most common congenital heart defects.
Treatment should be provided by a pediatric cardiologist, a specialist trained to diagnose and treat congenital heart disease.
Achondroplasia-A congenital disturbance of growth plate development in long bones that results in a person having shortened limbs and a normal trunk.
If prenatal testing indicates the baby has a serious congenital anomaly as a heart defect or spinal cord defect, the mother may need additional testing to determine the extent of the problem.
Late apnea can also affect full-term babies and may be a sign of an underlying problem such as congenital heart disease, infection, anemia, meningitis, or seizures.
Congenital stridor is caused by abnormalities in the airways that cause them to partially collapse when the child breathes.
Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of congenital stridor, accounting for 75 percent of stridor in newborns.
Congenital stridor is usually left untreated and resolves on its own.
Congenital stridor in a newborn can sound frightening to parents, but it is rarely a cause for concern or medical intervention.
Congenital heart disease, or congenital heart defect, includes a variety of structural problems of the heart or its major blood vessels, which are present at birth.
Congenital heart defects occur when the heart or blood vessels near the heart do not develop properly before birth.
Some infants are born with mild types of congenital heart defects, but most need surgery in order to survive.
Research is ongoing, and at least 35 congenital heart or cardiovascular defects have been identified.
Most congenital cardiovascular defects obstruct the flow of blood in the heart or nearby blood vessels, or cause an abnormal flow of blood through the heart.
Although rare, hypoplastic left heart syndrome, a condition in which the left side of the heart is underdeveloped, is the most serious congenital cardiovascular defect.
Atrial septal defects account for 4-10 percent of all cases of congenital cardiovascular defects in the United States; ventricular septal defects account for about 14-16 percent.
Nine to fourteen percent of cases of congenital cardiovascular defects in the United States are tetralogy of Fallot, which includes four defects.
Transposition of the great arteries comprises 10-14 percent of congenital cardiovascular defect cases in the United States.
Ebstein's anomaly is a rare congenital syndrome that causes malformed tricuspid valve leaflets, which allow blood to leak between the right ventricle and the right atrium.
Brugada syndrome is another rare congenital cardiovascular defect that appears in adulthood and may cause sudden death if untreated.
About 44,000 infants (about eight of every 1,000 infants or 1 percent of live births) are born every year with congenital cardiovascular defects, the most common birth defect.
Nearly twice as many children die from congenital cardiovascular defects in the United States than from all forms of childhood cancers combined.
Overall, the mortality rate from congenital cardiovascular defects has significantly declined in the past few decades.
In most cases, the causes of congenital cardiovascular defects are unknown.
The likelihood of having a child with a congenital cardiovascular defect increases if the mother or father, another child, or another relative had congenital cardiovascular defects, or there is a family history of sudden death.
Women with diabetes and phenylketonuria (an inherited liver condition also called PKU) are at higher risk of having children with congenital heart defects.
Many cases of congenital cardiovascular defects result from the mother's excessive use of alcohol or history of taking illegal drugs, such as cocaine, while pregnant.
The mother's exposure to certain prescription drugs such as anticonvulsant and dermatologic medications during pregnancy also can cause congenital cardiovascular defects.
Her exposure to industrial chemicals, solvents, and ionizing radiation (x ray) also increases the risk of having children with congenital heart defects.
The occurrence of some infections during pregnancy, including viral infections such as rubella (German measles), can cause congenital cardiovascular defects.
In addition, there are many genetic conditions, such as Down syndrome or Turner's syndrome, which affect multiple organs and can cause congenital cardiovascular defects.
Children with oral clefts are 16 times more likely to have a congenital cardiovascular defect than the normal population, although the reason for this association is unknown.
Some infants and children have no signs or symptoms of congenital cardiovascular defects.
Severe congenital cardiovascular defect is diagnosed in infancy and usually becomes evident shortly after birth.
Some heart murmurs (abnormal heart sounds) can indicate a congenital heart defect.
Blood and urine tests are performed to detect the presence of any abnormal substances that may indicate congenital cardiovascular defects.
Echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used to confirm congenital cardiovascular defects when suggested by the child's symptoms and physical exam results.
Fetal echocardiography is used to diagnose congenital cardiovascular defects in utero, usually after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
Cardiac MRI, a scanning method that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create three-dimensional images of the heart, can help physicians evaluate congenital cardiovascular defects, but is not always necessary.
In some cases, these tests are not conclusive enough to confirm the diagnosis of congenital cardiovascular defects.
Treatment should be provided by a pediatric cardiologist, a specialist trained to diagnose and treat congenital cardiovascular defects.
Surgery for most congenital cardiovascular defects has low risk of death (less than 2 percent), compared to 80-100 percent in the 1940s.
Infants and children with congenital cardiovascular defects tend to gain weight more slowly.
The most common reason for poor growth among children with congenital cardiovascular defects is that they do not consume enough calories or nutrients.
Babies with congenital cardiovascular defects tire quickly during feedings, making frequent feedings necessary.
Children with congenital cardiovascular defects require lifelong monitoring, even after successful surgery.
The outlook for children with congenital cardiovascular defects has improved markedly since the 1980s.
Many types of congenital cardiovascular defects that were once fatal can be treated successfully.
Most children with congenital cardiovascular defects grow up to be healthy adults.
Promising new prevention methods and treatments include genetic screening and the cultivation of cardiac tissue in the laboratory that could be used to repair congenital cardiovascular defects.
As scientists continue to advance the study of genetics, they also will better understand the genetic causes of many congenital cardiovascular defects.
Congenital cardiovascular defects cannot be prevented.
Most children with congenital cardiovascular defects can be fully active and are encouraged to exercise.
With some congenital cardiovascular defects, certain athletic activities such as competitive sports may be limited, depending on the child's diagnosis and medical condition.
Since a child with congenital cardiovascular defects may tire easily, frequent breaks and rest periods should be encouraged, as needed, during activities.
Even though most children with congenital cardiovascular defects do not have any mental limitations, some children with congenital cardiovascular defects have developmental delays or other learning difficulties.
A child with a congenital cardiovascular defect has a greater adulthood risk of having a child with a cardiovascular defect.
Genetic counseling and further testing, such as chromosome analysis before pregnancy or amniocentesis during pregnancy, may be recommended in adults with congenital cardiovascular defects.
Treatment and care for a child with congenital cardiovascular defects can be costly, and some health insurance plans may not cover all the expenses associated with a child's hospitalization or surgery.
Caring for a child with congenital cardiovascular defects is demanding.
Coarctation of the aorta-A congenital defect in which severe narrowing or constriction of the aorta obstructs the flow of blood.
It is one of the types of congenital heart disease.
When the ductus does not close at birth, it causes a type of congenital heart disease called patent ductus arteriosus.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome is the most serious type of congenital heart disease.
When this pocket of fluid is thickened, it may indicate that the infant will be born with a congenital cardiovascular defect.
Indications that are more controversial include breech presentation, previous c-section, major congenital anomalies, cervical cerclage, and severe Rh isoimmunization.
Often congenital and hereditary hair loss and hair shaft abnormalities, however, have no effective treatment.
Children with renal disease often experience growth retardation, especially if the condition is congenital.
Congenital heart disease can cause slow growth, either directly or through secondary problems.
Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) is the most serious primary or congenital human immunodeficiency disorder.
It is a group of congenital (present from birth) disorders in which the immune system does not work properly.
Other spine abnormalities such as congenital scoliosis and kyphosis, or soft tissue tumors overlying the spine, are not likely to have these accompanying findings.
In 2000, there were only 152 reported cases of rubella infection and seven reported cases of congenital rubella.
The most common birth defects resulting from congenital rubella infection are eye defects such as cataracts, glaucoma, and blindness; deafness; congenital heart defects; and mental retardation.
Taken together, these conditions are called congenital rubella syndrome (CRS).
Congenital heart defects are treated with surgery.
Congenital rubella is a serious, life-changing condition, and adherence to immunization recommendations is crucial to the public health.
In children, if the lymphadenitis is severe or persistent, the doctor may need to rule out mumps, HIV, tumors in the neck region, and congenital cysts that resemble swollen lymph nodes.
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (step 4).
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria (CEP) is also called Gunther's disease, erythropoietic porphyria, congenital porphyria, congenital hematoporphyria, and erythropoietic uroporphyria.
The key points of congenital erythropoietic porphyria treatment are avoiding exposure to sunlight and prevention of skin trauma or skin infection.
Prenatal diagnosis of congenital erythropoietic porphyria has been successfully accomplished.
The leading cause of infant mortality is congenital malformations, deformations and chromosomal abnormalities with a rate of 20.2 percent.
The mother's socioeconomic status is a possible contributing factor because the leading cause of death was related to congenital malformations, which in some cases can be eliminated with appropriate nutritional intake and prenatal vitamins.
Hypospadias-A congenital abnormality of the penis in which the urethral opening is located on the underside of the penis rather than at its tip.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH) occurs when the diaphragm does not form completely at about eight weeks of gestation, leaving a hole in this muscle that separates the chest and the abdomen.
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM) occurs when one or more lobes of the lungs develop into fluid-filled sacs called cysts rather than into normal lung tissue.
Hypoplastic left heart syndrome, in which the blood flow through the left side of the heart is obstructed, is the most common congenital heart defect that is a candidate for prenatal surgery.
Since additional congenital defects preclude prenatal surgery, amniocentesis or chorionic villi sampling (CVS) are used to check for chromosomal abnormalities in the fetus.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT) is a surgery performed for a congenital defect that blocks the fetus's airway.
Congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation (CCAM)-A condition in which one or more lobes of the fetal lungs develop into fluid-filled sacs called cysts.
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH)-A condition in which the fetal diaphragm (the muscle dividing the chest and abdominal cavity) does not close completely.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (EXIT)-A cesarean section in which the infant is removed from the uterus but the umbilical cord is not cut until after surgery for a congenital defect that blocks the air passage.
Spina bifida-A birth defect (a congenital malformation) in which part of the vertebrae fail to develop completely so that a portion of the spinal cord, which is normally protected within the vertebral column, is exposed.
Cleft palate-A congenital malformation in which there is an abnormal opening in the roof of the mouth that allows the nasal passages and the mouth to be improperly connected.
Congenital scoliosis is due to abnormal formation of the bones of the spine and is often associated with other organ defects.
Gross motor skills can become impaired in a variety of ways, including injury, illness, stroke, and congenital deformities.
Illness or trauma during infancy or early childhood, including infections, high fever, malnutrition, or disorders such as congenital syphilis or Down syndrome, can cause misshapen or discolored teeth.
In infants and children, congenital defects (anomalies) usually cause duodenal obstruction, and symptoms are present at birth or shortly after when the infant attempts to feed.
In newborns, congenital duodenal obstruction can occur when the duodenal channel (duodenal lumen) is not correctly formed (recanalized) during fetal development.
Obstruction of the duodenum occurs in infants as a result of congenital causes.
As of 2004 the specific cause of these congenital defects was not known.
Treatment may be delayed to evaluate or treat other life-threatening congenital anomalies.
Prognosis will depend on the type and extent of the obstruction, the infant's age at diagnosis, the infant's overall condition, and the presence and severity of any other congenital anomalies.
No specific measures are recommended to prevent congenital anomalies that result in duodenal obstruction.
Diagnosed early, intestinal obstruction can be corrected with few complications, and a child who does not have other congenital problems usually is able to resume normal development.
Fine motor skills can become impaired in a variety of ways, including injury, illness, stroke, and congenital deformities.
Peroxisomal disorders are a group of congenital diseases characterized by the absence of normal peroxisomes in the cells of the body.
Hemolytic anemia can be present at birth (congenital hemolytic anemia or spherocytosis) or acquired later in life.
J., et al. "Leg length discrepancy in unilateral congenital clubfoot following surgical treatment."
Abdominal wall defects are birth (congenital) defects that allow the stomach or intestines to protrude.
Newer CT scanners, called multislice or multidetector CT, are used to rapidly image newborns to assess congenital heart defects.
Patau syndrome, also called trisomy 13, is a congenital (present at birth) disorder associated with the presence of an extra copy of chromosome 13.
Hypoprothrombinemia is a congenital deficiency of clotting factors that can lead to hemorrhage.
Thrombocytopenia may be acquired or congenital (existing at birth).
The two most common congenital bladder abnormalities are exstrophy and congenital diverticula.
A congenital bladder diverticulum represents an area of weakness in the bladder wall through which extrudes some of the lining of the bladder.
A major consideration with congenital abnormalities is that they tend to be multiple.
The rate of infection is greater for those with congenital bladder anomalies, since any abnormality in the urinary system predisposes it to invasion by bacteria.
Exstrophy-A congenital condition in which a hollow organ, such as the bladder, is turned inside out, establishing contact between the organ and the outside of the body.
As a congenital birth defect, OI cannot be prevented.
It can also be measured in adults, though is more typically needed for diagnoses of congenital illnesses in children.
Also known as cryptorchidism, undescended testes is a congenital condition characterized by testicles that do not follow the normal developmental pattern of moving into the scrotum before birth.
Intestinal obstructions can occur in children as a result of congenital defects, with symptoms appearing any time between birth and adulthood.
The disease is sometimes associated with other congenital conditions, such as Down syndrome.
Congenital adhesions or post-surgical adhesions can also cause intestinal obstruction in children.
It is not known precisely what causes the abnormal growth of fibrous tissue in congenital adhesions.
The congenital form of DM is much rarer, occurring in only about one out of every 100,000 births.
Having repeat numbers greater than 1,000 causes congenital myotonic dystrophy.
The most severe form of DM, congenital myotonic dystrophy, may appear in newborns of mothers who have DM1.
Congenital myotonic dystrophy is marked by severe weakness, poor sucking and swallowing responses, respiratory difficulty, delayed motor development, and mental retardation.
Death in infancy is common in babies with congenital DM.
It is not unusual for a woman to be diagnosed with DM after she has an infant with congenital myotonic dystrophy.
Children with congenital DM often die in infancy.
Orthopedic surgery may be necessary for congenital clubfoot deformity.
Glaucoma can be caused by another eye disorder, such as a tumor or congenital malformation, or can appear without obvious cause, but if untreated it generally leads to blindness.
If the infection occurs during early pregnancy, there is a small (less than 5%) risk of congenital abnormalities.
Although congenital (present at birth) deafness is the rarest form of deafness, it is the most common congenital abnormality in newborns.
For example, more than 70 known inherited disorders account for about one-half of all severe sensorineural hearing impairments; however, 90 percent of children with congenital hearing impairment are born to parents with normal hearing.
Newborn hearing tests often are administered only if an infant is considered at risk for congenital deafness.
Sensorineural hearing impairment and congenital deafness are incurable.
Couples with family histories of congenital deafness may seek genetic counseling to assess the risks for their children.
About 50 percent of all children with congenital deafness attend regular schools; the other 50 percent receive some type of specialized schooling.
A number of other conditions also make newborns susceptible, including respiratory distress syndrome, congenital heart problems, and episodes of apnea (cessation of breathing).
Congenital muscular dystrophy (CMD), which is present from birth, results in generalized weakness, and usually progresses slowly.
Primary immunoglobulin deficiencies are primarily the result of congenital defects that affect the development and function of B lymphocytes (B cells), the white cells that fight infection and disease.
In children, cystic fibrosis, aspiration problems, immunodeficiencies, and congenital or acquired lung malformation may increase the risk of pneumonia from S. pneumoniae.
Congenital hip dysplasia is a condition of abnormal development of the hip, resulting in hip joint instability and potential dislocation of the thigh bone from the socket in the pelvis.
Congenital hip dysplasia is a disorder in children that is either present at birth or shortly thereafter.
In the event of congenital hip dysplasia, the development of the acetabulum in an infant allows the femoral head to ride upward out of the joint socket, especially when the infant begins to walk.
In the United States, approximately 1.5 percent of all infants have congenital hip dysplasia.
Though the worldwide incidence of congenital hip dysplasia varies, researchers estimate the global incidence to be approximately 1 percent.
Infants with siblings who have been diagnosed with congenital hip dysplasia or who have parents with the defect are at an increased risk.
Females are affected four to eight times more than males, and in children with congenital hip dysplasia, the left leg in more often affected.
The incidence of congenital hip dysplasia is also higher in infants born by cesarean and in breech position births.
Because the abnormalities of this hip problem often vary, a thorough physical examination is necessary for an accurate diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia.
Ultrasound has been noted as a safe and effective tool for the diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia.
Unless corrected soon after birth, congenital hip dysplasia can cause a characteristic limp or waddling gait in children.
If diagnosed early, congenital hip dysplasia treatment is highly effective.
Early diagnosis remains an important part of prevention of congenital hip dysplasia.
It is important for infants suspected of having congenital hip dysplasia to receive regular physical examinations.
There are several congenital disorders called polyglandular deficiency syndromes that include failure of hormone output.
Carbohydrate intolerance can be congenital, primary, or secondary.
Congenital deficiency is caused by an enzyme defect present at birth.
Alactasia is a very rare congenital condition and the result of a genetic defect that causes the complete absence of lactase, the enzyme needed to digest milk sugar.
Various types of congenital heart disease, including ventricular septal defect (VSD), atrial septic defect (ASD), or PDA (patent ductus arteriosus), may be present.
In addition, an infant can be born with congenital hypothyroidism, i.e., without a functioning thyroid.
Congenital hypothyroidism is less common.
Congenital hypothyroidism is twice as common in girls as in boys and about five times more common in whites than in blacks.
Congenital hypothyroidism is a disorder that affects infants from birth, resulting from the loss of thyroid function due to the failure of the thyroid gland to develop correctly.
This congenital defect means that the infant does not produce sufficient thyroid hormones, resulting in abnormal growth and development as well as slower mental function.
Often babies with congenital hypothyroidism will appear normal at birth, which is why screening is vital.
In the United States, newborn infants between 24 and 72 hours old are tested for congenital thyroid deficiency (cretinism) using a test that measures the levels of thyroxine in the infant's blood.
In children, cystitis often is caused by congenital abnormalities (present at birth) of the urinary tract.
It is the most common reason for cyanotic heart disease in newborns accounting for 5 to 7 percent of all infants with congenital heart disease.
Transposition of the great arteries is most often an isolated defect and is not associated with other congenital syndromes.
Transposition of the great arteries is a complex congenital malformation; however, open heart surgery is highly effective in correcting it.
Autism has also been shown to occur more frequently among individuals who have certain medical conditions, including fragile X syndrome, tuberous sclerosis, congenital rubella syndrome, and untreated phenylketonuria.
Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)-Viral illness caused by a togavirus of the genus Rubivirus.
When rubella infection occurs during pregnancy, fetal infection is likely and often causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), resulting in miscarriages, stillbirths, and severe birth defects.
The most common congenital defects are cataracts, heart disease, deafness, and mental retardation.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a common syndrome of congenital heart defects.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a condition that is characterized by several congenital heart defects occurring at once.
In the United States, almost 10 percent of congenital heart disease is tetralogy of Fallot.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a congenital defect with unknown causes.
Tetralogy of Fallot is a complex congenital malformation; however, open heart surgery is highly effective in correcting it.
Worldwide, about 0.2 to 2.2 percent of all babies are born with congenital CMV infection.
Of those babies born with congenital CMV infection, about 10 percent to 20 percent ultimately suffer form hearing impairment, eye damage, or problems with intellectual or motor function.
Babies can be born infected with CMV, either becoming infected in the uterus (congenital infection) or during birth (from infected cervical secretions).
As of 1998, research was still being done to try to find useful drugs to treat newborn babies suffering from congenital infection with CMV.
Approximately 10 to 15 percent of pregnancies end before the twentieth week, a process called miscarriage or spontaneous abortion; congenital abnormalities account for a significant proportion of miscarriages.
One reason is that the risk of certain congenital abnormalities such as Down syndrome increases with mother's age (particularly mothers over forty).
In other cases, a mother's illness may cause congenital malformations; an example is rubella, which can cause heart defects, deafness, developmental delays, and other problems in a fetus if the mother contracts it during pregnancy.
Congenital esotropia is a very rare form of strabismus that occurs with certain birth defects.
Congenital esotropia is rare but does not occur at a higher rate in premature babies.
Sometimes this happens before birth (congenital), or sometimes it occurs as the baby develops after birth.
Meckel's diverticulum-A congenital abnormality of the digestive tract consisting of a small pouch off the wall of the small bowel that was not reabsorbed before birth.
Infants with cri du chat may also have congenital heart defects, language difficulties, delayed motor skill development, scoliosis, and varying degrees of mental retardation.
Approximately 30 percent of infants with cri du chat have a congenital heart defect.
Individuals with cri du chat have a 10 percent mortality during infancy due to complications associated with congenital heart defects, hypotonia, and feeding difficulties.
The defects can be inherited (congenital) or acquired.
Congenital immunodeficiency is present at the time of birth and is the result of genetic defects.
Even though more than 70 different types of congenital immunodeficiency disorders have been identified, they rarely occur.
Congenital immunodeficiencies may occur as a result of defects in B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, or both.
The congenital immunodeficiency disorder, Bruton's agammaglobulinemia, also known as X-linked agammaglobulinemia, results in a decrease or absence of B lymphocytes and, therefore, a decreased ability to make antibodies.
Acquired immunodeficiency is more common than congenital immunodeficiency.
About 50,000 new cases of congenital immunodeficiencies are diagnosed in the United States each year.
Congenital immunodeficiency is caused by genetic defects that generally occur while the fetus is developing in the uterus.
There is no cure for congenital immunodeficiency disorders.
Primary or congenital immunodeficiencies are genetic and are not preventable by avoidance of exposures or by dietary measures.
However, someone with a congenital immunodeficiency disorder might want to consider getting genetic counseling before having children in order to find out if there is a chance they will pass the defect on to their children.
Hypospadias is a congenital defect of the penis in which the urinary tract opening, or urethral meatus, is abnormally located away from the tip of the penis.
Hypospadias is a congenital anomaly resulting from incomplete closure of the tissue of the penis that forms the urethra (the tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body).
Many males with multiple congenital anomalies, however, may also have hypospadias.
Slow weight gain is common in children with congenital heart defects and may be alarming for parents.
Bruton's agammaglobulinemia is a disorder that is present at birth (congenital) and is characterized by low or completely absent levels of immunoglobulins in the bloodstream.
These include SMA type I, also called Werdnig-Hoffmann; SMA type II; SMA type III, also called Kugelberg-Welander disease; Kennedy syndrome, or progressive spinobulbar muscular atrophy; and congenital SMA with arthrogryposis.
Sturge-Weber syndrome (SWS) is a rare, congenital (present at birth), noninherited disorder characterized by the vascular malformation (birthmark) called a port wine stain, usually seen on an infant's face.
Congenital brain defects are a group of disorders of brain development that are present at birth.
Congenital brain defects may be caused by inherited genetic defects, spontaneous mutations within the genes of the embryo, or effects on the embryo due to the mother's infection, trauma, or drug use.
One such congenital brain anomaly, anencephaly (literally "without brain") results when the topmost portion of the tube fails to close and the brain does not develop.
Another congenital brain defect, encephalocele, is a protrusion of part of the brain through a defect in the skull.
Researchers estimate that central nervous system anomalies, congenital brain defects included, occur in approximately 15 of every 10,000 live births.
Some congenital brain defects, such as those associated with spina bifida have a higher prevalence, affecting as many as two to three per 1,000 live births.
Congenital brain defects may have genetic, infectious, toxic, or traumatic causes.
Individual gene defects, either inherited or spontaneous, are responsible for other cases of congenital brain malformations.
Congenital brain defects are diagnosed either from direct physical examination or imaging studies including computed tomography scans (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Most congenital brain defects carry a very poor prognosis.
Some cases of congenital brain defects can be prevented with good maternal nutrition, including folic acid supplements.
Some congenital brain anomalies, such as anencephaly, are not compatible with life, and fetuses affected by them will die.
Most congenital brain anomalies, however, will impact mental functioning, development, and, in some cases, physical mobility.