The confession consisted of forty articles.
The confession consisted of forty articles.
Startled by the confession, Jessi rested her elbows on the table and leaned forward.
His so-called deathbed confession is not genuine.
Confession of Basel >>
ready to make his standpoint that of the Church and its baptismal confession of faith.
It adopted a confession of faith and a book of order or discipline.
They had evidently both formed the same resolution; the eyes of both shone with satisfaction and a confession that besides sorrow life also has joy.
After they dragged Jen off to confession, the Calvias would stick around and rent the church for the wedding—if Randy was still alive.
BOOK OF CONCORD (Liber Concordiae), the collective documents of the Lutheran confession, consisting of the Confessio Augustana, the Apologia Confessionis Augustanae, the Articula Smalcaldici, the Catechismi Major et Minor and the Formula Concordiae.
Fred nodded his head, scribbled on his pad, and asked, "You figure the note's a confession, of sorts?"
The organization of the Lutheran Church (Eglise de la confession dAugsburg) is broadly similar.
In this Assembly he proposed that " a confession of faith, a catechism, a directory for all the parts of the public worship, and a platform of government, wherein possibly England and we might agree," should be drawn up. This was unanimously approved of, and the laborious undertaking was left in Henderson's hands; but the " notable motion " did not lead to any immediate results.
The consequent chapter of the Westminster Confession (" Of Church Censures ") was, however, not ratified by the English.
The Confession of Faith and the Larger and Shorter Catechisms are recognized and venerated standards in all the lands where British Presbyterianism, with its sturdy characteristics, has taken root.
Frisian Confession (1528).
Frisian Confession (1528).
Geneva Confession (1536).
Even then it appears from his own confession that he long brooded over the chaos of materials he had amassed before light dawned upon it.
In his ninth year (1746), during a " lucid interval of comparative health," he was sent to a school at Kingston-uponThames; but his former infirmities soon returned, and his progress, by his own confession, was slow and unsatisfactory.
He complains especially of his tutors, and in one case with abundant reason; but, by his own confession, they might have recriminated with justice, for he indulged in gay society, and kept late hours.
Westminster Confession (1644-1647).
It was based on a short confession drafted by Calvin in 1557, and may still be regarded, though once or twice revised, as the confession of the French Protestant Church.
Anselm's Apologia contra insipientem Gaunilonem (c. 110o); or the Lutheran Apology for the Augsburg Confession (1531); or J.
In the hour of danger, the claims of religion reasserted themselves on the young soldier, and, following a custom when no priest was at hand, he made his confession to a brother officer, who in turn also confessed to him.
The hero, who is none other than George Sand in man's disguise, makes confession of faith: - " I have never imposed constancy on myself.
He immediately recalled his forced confession, and besought all Christian men " to pray for him, so that his tears might secure the pity of the Almighty."
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
This last was a formula issued on the 25th of June 1580 (the jubilee of the Augsburg Confession) by the Lutheran Church in an attempt to heal the breach which, since the death of Luther, had been widening between the extreme Lutherans and the Crypto-Calvinists.
Netherlands Confession (1566).
Something I said made her think she detected in my words a confession that I did remember Miss Canby's story of "The Frost Fairies," and she laid her conclusions before Mr. Anagnos, although I had told her most emphatically that she was mistaken.
In common with the general Presbyterianism of the British Isles, the Presbyterian Church of England has in recent years been readjusting its relation to the Westminster Confession of Faith.
This element of public confession for sin became more prominent in the days when synagogal worship developed, and prayer took the place of the sacrificial offerings which could only be offered in the Jerusalem temple.
The West minster Assembly, through its Confession, Directory and Catechisms, has become so associated with the Presbyterian Church that it is difficult to realize that it was not a church court at all, much less a creation of Presbyterianism.
Haematococcus palustris, Girod (= Chlamydococcus, Braun, Protococcus, Cohn), one of the (Epistola ad Vincentium), who declared that the flagellants were showing a tendency to slight the sacramental confession and penance, were refusing to perform the cullus of the martyrs venerated by the church, and were even alleging their own superiority to the martyrs.
At the council of Tours (1054) he found a protector in the papal legate, the famous Hildebrand, who, satisfied himself with the fact that Berengar did not deny the real presence of Christ in the sacramental elements, succeeded in persuading the assembly to be content with a general confession from him that the bread and wine, after consecration, were the body and blood of the Lord, without requiring him to define how.
The ideas are also found both in the New Testament and in early Christian literature: "Let us offer up a sacrifice of praise to God continually, that is, the fruit of lips which make confession to His name" (Heb.
Henderson was mainly responsible for the final form of this document, which consisted of (1) the " king's confession " drawn up in 1581 by John Craig, (2) a recital of the acts of parliament against " superstitious and papistical rites," and (3) an elaborate oath to maintain the true reformed religion.
Bohemian Confession (1609).
The procedure underwent great modification in 1686; but public penance was not taken away till 1855, and then confession to and absolution by the priest in the presence of witnesses was still required.
Hungarian Confession (1562).
In 1538 an embassy of German divines visited England with the design, among other things, of forming a common confession for the two countries.
- First Helvetic Confession (1536).
Hildebrand, now pope as Gregory VII., next summoned him to Rome, and, in a synod held there in 1078, tried once more to obtain a declaration of his orthodoxy by means of a confession of faith drawn up in general terms; but even this strong-minded and strong-willed pontiff was at length forced to yield to the demands of the multitude and its leaders; and in another synod at Rome (1079), finding that he was only endangering his own position and reputation, he turned unexpectedly upon Berengar and commanded him to confess that he had erred in not teaching a change as to substantial reality of the sacramental bread and wine into the body and blood of Christ.
On the 18th of February a "confession" was extorted from Alexius which implicated most of his friends, and he then publicly renounced the succession to the throne in favour of the baby grand-duke Peter Petrovich.
hand in the so-called First Helvetic Confession (the work of Swiss divines at Basel in January 1536); also in the conferences which urged the Swiss acceptance of the Wittenberg Concord (1536).
In 1813 they revised the Westminster Confession and excluded, as they claimed, fatalism and infant damnation.
Without setting aside the Confession as the church's standard, twenty-four "Articles of the Faith" have been adopted.
Instead of reviving Moravian orders at once, the settlers attended the Berthelsdorf parish church, regarded themselves as Lutherans, agreed to a code of "statutes" drawn up by the count, accepted the Augsburg Confession as their standard of faith, and, joining with some Lutheran settlers in a special Communion service in Berthelsdorf (Aug.
Longfellow wrote "A Psalm of Life" (1839), which was an intimate confession of the religious aspirations of the author.
But in other parts of his works he suggests that mind and matter are two different aspects of that which is the basis of all things - a monism which is not necessarily materialistic, and which, in the absence of further explanation, constitutes a confession of failure.
As in the other Saxon duchies the population is almost exclusively Protestant; in 1905, 262,243 belonged to the Lutheran confession, 4845 were Roman Catholics and 1256 Jews.
Absolution in foro externo was forbidden to be given secretly to those who made voluntary confession; they had to submit to the ignominy of the public auto-de fe.
Absolution in foro externo was forbidden to be given secretly to those who made voluntary confession; they had to submit to the ignominy of the public auto-de fe.
The Confession, written towards the end of his life, gives a general account of his career.
Chief of the cardinal virtues is humility, a confession of our own helplessness and submission to God.
The seventy decrees of the council begin with a confession of faith directed against the Cathari and Waldenses, which is significant if only for the mention of a transubstantiation of the elements in the Lord's Supper.
She shifted to see his face, surprised by his confession.
He hadn't been able to face his mate since her confession.
The last part of her world shattered with Wynn's confession.
"It's all my fault," Carmen plunged into confession.
The custom of collective flagellation was introduced into the monastic houses, the ceremony taking place every Friday after confession.
To Sir William Kingston she protested her entire innocence, and on the scaffold while expressing her submission she made no confession.
Among his numerous works may be mentioned Introduction a la philosophie d'Hegel (1855; 2nd ed., 1865); Probleme de la certitude (1845); Le Hegelianisme et la philosophie 0860; Mélanges philosophiques (1862); Essais de philosophie Hegelienne (1864); Strauss, l'ancienne et la nouvelle foi (1873), an attack upon Strauss's last "confession," written from the standpoint of an orthodox Hegelian; and a comprehensive work in Italian, Il Problema dell' Assoluto (Naples, 1872-82).
The next year (1540) he published a refutation of the attacks upon his doctrine with a more elaborate exposition of it, under the title Grosse Confession.
He arrived at the abbey just about the feast of St Benedict (the 21st of March 1522), and there made a confession of his life to a priest belonging to the monastery.
This freedom of the will is clearly expressed in Yasna, 31, I I: "Since thou, 0 Mazda, didst at the first create our being and our consciences in accordance with thy mind, and didst create our understanding and our life together with the body, and works and words in which man according to his own will can frame his confession, the liar and the truth-speaker alike lay hold of the word, the knowing and the ignorant each after his own heart and understanding.
By a true confession of faith, by every good deed, word and thought, by continually keeping pure his body and his soul, he impairs the power of Satan and strengthens the might of goodness, and establishes a claim for reward upon Ormazd; by a false confession, by every evil deed, word and thought and defilement, he increases the evil and renders service to Satan.
Fravashi properly means "confession of faith," and when personified comes to be regarded as a protecting spirit.
The one is the Confession, which is contained in an imperfect state in the Book of Armagh (c. 807), but complete copies are found in later MSS.
A violet stole is worn by the priest when giving absolution after confession, and when administering Extreme Unction.
They comprised two parties: (1) the followers of Capito, Carlstadt and Bucer, who at the diet of Augsburg presented the Confessio Tetrapolitana from Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen; (2) the followers of the Swiss reformer Zwingli, who to the same diet presented his private confession of faith.
After holding their own view for some years the four cities accepted the Confession of Augsburg, and were merged in the general body of Lutherans; but Zwingli's position was incorporated in the Helvetic Confession.
In 1896 the central conference of American Rabbis formulated as a proselyte Confession of faith these five principles: (1) God the Only One; (2) Man His Image; (3) Immortality of the Soul; (4) Retribution; and (5) Israel's Mission.
the sale of tithes, the taking of a fee for confession, absolution, marriage or burial, the concealment of one in mortal sin or the reconcilement of an impenitent for the sake of gain, and the doing homage for spiritualities.
1892); Historical Sketch of Sacerdotal Celibacy (Philadelphia, 1867); History of the Inquisition of the Middle Ages (New York, 1888); Chapters from the religious history of Spain connected with the Inquisition (Philadelphia, 1890); History of auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church (3 vols., London, 1896); The Moriscos of Spain (Philadelphia, 1901), and History of the Inquisition of Spain (4 vols., New York and London, 1906-1907).
Five further instalments of his Synoptiques were published after this, bringing the work down to the Confession of Peter inclusively.
As public penance finally decayed, and auricular confession took its place, these were superseded by the Summae de Poenitentia, - law-books in the strictest sense.
Once get a sinner to confession, and the whole work was done.
His defence of The Times newspaper, which had accused Sir John Conroy, equerry to the duchess of Kent, of misappropriation of money (1838), is chiefly remarkable for the confession - "I despair of any definition of libel which shall exclude no publications which ought to be suppressed, and include none which ought to be permitted."
But this is equivalent to a confession that Scholasticism had failed in its task, which was to rationalize the doctrines of the church.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
On the 15th of June, Richard, after confession and receiving the Sacrament, rode to Smithfield for a further conference with the rebels.
The activity of his life left him little time for writing, but he was the author of " an anaphora, sundry letters, a creed or confession of faith, preserved in Arabic and a secondary Ethiopic translation, and a homily for the Feast of the Annunciation, also extant only in an Arabic translation" (Wright).
Allowed to return, he again fell under suspicion of having been concerned in the composition of two violent libels - one in Latin and one in French - called from their first words the Puero Regnante and the J'ai vu, was inveigled by a spy named Beauregard into a real or burlesque confession, and on the 16th of May 1717 was sent to the Bastille.
Nor did an extremely offensive performance of Voltaire's - the solemn partaking of the Eucharist at Colmar after due confession - at all mollify his enemies.
Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.
As the evidence was collected by Peter's creatures, it is very doubtful whether Eudoxia was guilty, though she was compelled to make a public confession.
He tolerated every Christian confession.
Sacramental confession is enjoined, but has recently become obsolete; prayers for the departed and invocation of saints form part of the services.
The most important fact in his history is his confession, recorded by Orosius, that he saw the inability of his countrymen to rear a civilized or abiding kingdom, and that consequently his aim should be to build on Roman foundations and blend the two nations into one.
Lord John Russell (afterwards Earl Russell), his friendly biographer, has to confess that Fox might have joined in the confession of Mirabeau: "The public cause suffers for the immoralities of my youth."
The position is well expressed in the Scotch Confession (1559).
CONFESSION OF BASEL, one of the many statements of faith produced by the Reformation.
It was put out in 1534 and must be distinguished from the First and Second Helvetic Confessions, its author being Oswald Myconius, who based it on a shorter confession promulgated by Oecolampadius, his predecessor in the church at Basel.
Up to the year 1826 the Confession (sometimes also known as the Confession of Miihlhausen from its adoption by that town) was publicly read from the pulpits of Basel on the Wednesday of Passion week in each year.
The majority of critics agree that the only trace of a formal creed in the New Testament is the simple confession of Jesus as the Lord, or the Son of God (Rom.
Whether the first creed of the primitive Church was of the simple Christological character which confession of Jesus as the Lord expresses, or of an enlarged type based on the baptismal formula (Matt.
" With the heart man believeth unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation " (Rom.
r3) of his confession before many witnesses he does not seem to imply more than confession of Christ as king.
He calls it " the beautiful confession " to which Christ Jesus had borne witness before Pontius Pilate, and charges Timothy before God, who quickeneth all things, to keep this commandment.
57, " I believe that Jesus is the Son of God," since the reading was known to Irenaeus, probably represents the form of baptismal confession used in some church of Asia Minor, and supplies us with the type of a primitive creed.
He uses a word used by Ignatius of the oath taken on confession of the Christian faith.
If, as is probable, it was from the election of Nektarius the baptismal creed of Constantinople, we may even ask whether the pope did not refer to it when he wrote emphatically of the " common and indistinguishable confession " of all the faithful.
- The second great creed-making epoch of Church history opens in the 16th century with the Confession of Augsburg.
The famous theses which Luther nailed to the door of the church at Wittenberg in 1517 cannot be called a confession, but they expressed a protest which could not rest there.
The Confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon, revised by Luther, and presented to the emperor Charles V.
An elaborate Apology for the confession of Augsburg was drawn up by Melanchthon in reply to Roman Catholic criticisms. This, together with the confession, the articles of Lutheran.
Of less influence in the subsequent history of Lutheranism, but of interest as used by Archbishop Parker in the preparation of the Elizabethan articles of 1563, is the confession of Wurttemberg.
The confession of the Four Cities, Strassburg, Constance, Memmingen and London, was drawn up by M.
These cities were inclined to follow Zwingli in his sacramental teaching which was more fully expressed in the Confession of Basel (1534) and the First Helvetic Confession (1536).
Calvin's views were expressed in the Gallican Confession, containing forty articles, which was drawn up in 1559, and was presented both to Francis II.
On the same lines the Belgian Confession of 1561, written by Guido de Bres in French, and translated into Dutch was widely accepted in the Netherlands and confirmed by the synod of Dort (1619).
The second Helvetic Confession was the work of Bullinger, published at the request of the Elector Palatine Frederick III.
The first Scottish confession dates from 1560.
Between this and the Westminster Confession must be noted the first Baptist confession, published in Amsterdam in 1611.
The Westminster Confession (1648), with its two catechisms, is perhaps the ablest of the reformed confessions from the stand point of Calvinism.
It is the only confession which has been imposed by authority of parliament on the whole of the United Kingdom.
When Cromwell before his death in 1658 allowed a conference to prepare a new confession of faith for the whole commonwealth, the Westminster Confession was accepted as a whole with an added statement on church order and discipline.
We must note, however, that the Baptist divines who were excluded from the Westminster Assembly issued a declaration of their principles under the title, " A Confession of Faith of seven Congregations or Churches in London which are commonly but unjustly called Anabaptists, for the Vindication of the Truth and Information of the Ignorant."
In 1833 the Congregational Union published a Declaration or Confession of Faith, Church Order and Discipline.
It was prepared by Dr George Redford or Worcester, and was presented, not as a scholastic or critical confession of faith, but merely such a statement as any intelligent member of the body might offer as containing its leading principles.
The Eastern Church has no general doctrinal tests beyond the Nicene Creed, but from time to time synods have approved exposi (without the words And the Son "), and the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.
It was affirmed by the council of Jerusalem in 1672, which also affirmed the Confession of Dositheus, patriarch of Jerusalem.
In 1629 he tions of the faith such as the Athanasian Creed published a confession in which he attempted to incorporate ideas of the reformers while preserving the leading ideas of Eastern traditional theology.
If we could come back to the Bible and use biblical terms only, as Cyril of Jerusalem wished in his early days, we know from experience that the old errors would reappear in the form of new questions, and that we should have to pass through the dreary wilderness of controversy from implicit to explicit dogma, from " I believe that Jesus is the Lord " to the confession that the Only Begotten Son is " of one substance with the Father."
1357 sqq.) is that of 1672; and its confession is the most vital statement of faith made in the Greek Church during the past thousand years.
It refutes article by article the confession of Cyril Lucaris, which appeared in Latin at Geneva in 1629, and in Greek, with the addition of four "questions," in 1633.
The great opposition which arose during his lifetime continued after his death, and found classic expression in the highly venerated confession of Petrus Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev (1643).(1643).
Curiously enough, the synod refused to believe that the heretical confession it refuted was actually by a former patriarch of Constantinople; yet the proofs of its genuineness seem to most scholars overwhelming.
In negotiations between Anglican and Russian churchmen the confession of Dositheus l usually comes to the front.
- The confession of Dositheus, or the eighteen decrees of the Synod of Jerusalem, appeared in 1676 at Paris as Synodus 1 Patriarch of Jerusalem (1669-1707), who presided over the synod.
After travelling in various countries of northern Europe, he settled down at Wittenberg, where he made the acquaintance of Luther and Melanchthon, and signed the Augsburg confession.
The Articles of Marburg, which thus came into being, contain the doctrine of the Trinity, of the personality of Christ, of faith and justification, of the Scriptures, of baptism, of good works, of confession, of government, of tradition, and of infant baptism.
The personal contact between Luther and Zwingli led to no mental rapprochement between the two; but in the following year the Articles of Marburg did good service as one of the preliminaries to the Augsburg Confession, and remain a valuable document for the fundamental principles common to the Lutheran and Reformed Churches.
Yet the very eagerness with which the champions of the Hebrew records searched for archaeological proofs of their validity was a tacit confession that even the most unwavering faith was not beyond the reach of external evidence.
He also perjured himself when putting before Elizabeth's commission of inquiry at Westminster (December 1568) a copy of the confession of Hepburn of Bowton (Cotton MSS.
Compare the MS. copy of the confession in the British Museum, Cotton MSS.
vii.), and leads up to the reading of the Law by Ezra, a great national confession of guilt, and a solemn undertaking to observe the new covenant, the provisions of which are detailed (x.
With Ezra's confession (ix.
His attendance was accordingly requested, and the invitation was willingly accepted as giving him a long-wished-for opportunity both of publicly vindicating himself from charges which he felt to be grievous, and of loyally making confession for Christ.
The confession of faith issued by the London-Amsterdam church (the original of the Pilgrim Fathers' churches) in 1596 declares that the Christian congregation having power to elect its minister has also power to excommunicate him if the case so require (Walker, Creeds and Platforms of Congregationalism, p. 66).
This enumeration was also adopted in 1575 as against the Augustan confession of the year 1540 by Jeremiah Patriarch of Constantinople, and again in a council held in the same city in 1639 to anathematize Cyril Lucar, who with the Anglicans recognized two only, baptism and the Eucharist.
The sacrament of confession and penance He equally instituted when He assigned the power of the keys to the Apostles.
The Protestants were requested to submit a statement of their opinions, and on June 25th the " Augsburg Confession " was read to the diet.
The confession was drafted by Melanchthon,.
In the first part of the confession the Protestants seek to prove that there is nothing in their doctrines at variance with those of the universal Church " or even of the Roman Church so far as that appears in the writings of the Fathers."
as previously understood, auricular confession, and monastic vows, the objections to which are stated with much vigour.
The confession was turned over to a committee of conservative theologians, including Eck, Faber and Cochlaeus.
Finally Christian III., an ardent Lutheran, ascended the throne in 1536; with the sanction of the diet he severed, in 1537, all connexion with the pope, introducing the Lutheran system of Church government and accepting the Augsburg Confession.
There was no other way but to legalize the new faith in Germany, but only those were to be tolerated who accepted the Augsburg Confession.
During the three or four years which followed the signing of the Augsburg Confession in 1530 and the formation of the Schmalkaldic League, England, while bitterly dep ouncing and burning Lutheran heretics in the name of the Holy Catholic Church, was herself engaged in severing the bonds which had for well-nigh a thousand of years bound her to the Apostolic See.
These parliament enacted into the terrible statute of " The Six Articles," in which a felon's death was prescribed for those who obstinately denied transubstantiation, demanded the communion under both kinds, questioned the binding character of vows of chastity, or the lawfulness of private Masses or the expediency of auricular confession.
In 1560 a confession of faith was prepared by John Knox and five companions.
While the Roman Catholic religion was declared to be that accepted by the majority of Frenchmen, the state subsidized the Reformed Church, those adhering to the Augsburg Confession and the Jewish community.
- For three years Calvin sojourned in Germany; he signed the Augsburg Confession, gained the friendship of Melanchthon and other leading reformers, and took part in the religious conferences of the period.
In spite of continued persecution a national synod was assembled in Paris in 1559, representing at least twelve Protestant churches in Normandy and central France, which drew up a confession of faith and a book of church discipline.
g vinism finally triumphed in the Confession of Dordrecht, 1572, since Calvin's system of church government did not, like Luther's, imply the sympathy of the civil authorities.
Faustus Sozzini, a native of Sienna (1539-1603), much influenced by his uncle Lelio Sozzini, after a wandering, questioning life, found his way to Poland, where he succeeded in uniting the various Anabaptist sects into a species of church, the doctrines of which are set forth in the Confession of Rakow (near Minsk), published in Polish in 1605 and speedily in German and Latin.
That modern Unitarianism is all to be traced back to Sozzini and the Rakow Confession need not be assumed.
2); and among minor changes he has introduced, in dealing with confession, reference to "the church" (iv.
The eucharist is to be celebrated every Lord's Day, and preceded by confession of sins, "that your sacrifice may be pure.
Thus it has been used broadly of all theological doctrines, and also in a narrower sense of fundamental beliefs only, confession of which is insisted upon as a term of church communion.
The Augsburg Confession (1530) is divided into numerous " articles," while Luther's Lesser Catechism gathers Christianity under three " articles "- Creation, Redemption, Sanctification.
On the other hand, the Augsburg Confession protests its loyalty to the decretum of Nice.
it frequently of heretics; thus the Augsburg Confession protests that the Protestants have carefully avoided nova dogmata.
the First Helvetic Confession (1536), and more notably in the Second (1566).
The (second) Helvetic Confession (1566) adopted in Switzerland, Hungary, Bohemia and elsewhere, was his work.
All these set forth in their symbolical books the supreme place of Scripture, accepting the position which Zwingli laid down in 1536 in The First Helvetic Confession, namely, that "Canonic Scripture, the Word of God, given by the Holy Spirit and set forth to the world by the Prophets and Apostles, the most perfect and ancient of all philosophies, alone contains perfectly all piety and the whole rule of life."
Zwingli's theological views are expressed succinctly in the sixtyseven theses published at Zurich in 1523, and at greater length in the First Helvetic Confession, compiled in 1536 by a number of his disciples.'
In point of doctrine they acknowledged the seven sacraments, but gave them a symbolical meaning; they prayed to the Virgin and saints, and admitted auricular confession, but they denied purgatory and the sacrifice of the mass, and did not observe fasts or festivals.
A synod was held in 1532 at Chanforans in the valley of the Angrogne, where a new confession of faith was adopted, which recognized the doctrine of election, assimilated the practices of the Vaudois to those of the Swiss congregations, renounced for the future all recognition of the Roman communion, and established their own worship no longer as secret meetings of a faithful few but as public assemblies for the glory of God.
We hear 3 of " Brownists " in London about 1585, while the London petitioners of 1592 refer to their fellows in " other gaols throughout the land "; and the True Confession of 1596 specifies Norwich, Gloucester, Bury St Edmunds, as well as " many other places of the land."
Later (1883) a large committee, previously appointed, framed a more full confession of faith (the " Commission Creed,"), with the same end in view.
This chapter's first two stages contain an important early historical document of Synoptic type: Jesus' apparition to seven disciples by the Lake of Galilee and the miraculous draught of fishes; and Peter's threefold confession and Jesus' threefold commission to him.
II), the confession of Peter (viii.
In 1868 civil rights were declared to be independent of religious confession.
The baptistery proper was commonly a circular building, although sometimes it had eight and sometimes twelve sides, and consisted of an ante-room (rpoatAcos °Tacos) where the catechumens were instructed, and where before baptism they made their confession of faith, and an inner apartment where the sacrament was administered.
By degrees, he obtains a full confession - not from the serpent, whose speech might not have been edifying, but from Adam and Eve.
He had previously published a catechism in Latin verse dedicated to the king, a work highly approved even by his opponents, and also a Latin translation of the Scottish Confession of Faith.
16, &c. In primitive times, when confession of sins was made before the congregation, the absolution was deferred till the penance was completed; and there is no record of the use of any special formula.
In course of time changes grew up. (I) From the 3rd century onwards, secret (auricular) confession before a bishop or priest was practised.
For various reasons it became more and more common, until the fourth Lateran council (1215) ordered all Christians of the Roman obedience to make a confession once a year at least.
In the Greek church also private confession has become obligatory.
(3) It became the custom to give the absolution to penitents immediately after their confession and before the penance was performed.
(4) Until the Middle Ages the form of absolution after private confession was of the nature of a prayer, such as "May the Lord absolve thee"; and this is still the practice of the Greek church.
In the Lutheran church also the practice of private confession survived the Reformation, together with both the exhibitive (I forgive, &c.) and declaratory (I declare and pronounce) forms of absolution.
In granting absolution, even after general confession, it is in some places still the custom for the minister, where the numbers permit of it, to lay his hands on the head of each penitent.
The Confession of Augsburg uses words equivalent to the Articles quoted above which were based upon it.
The Westminster Confession declares: " The Lord Jesus Christ, by His perfect obedience and sacrifice of Himself, which He through the Eternal Spirit once offered up to God, bath 12 Mark 45; Matt.
Thus McLeod Campbell (q.v.) held that Christ atoned by offering up to God a perfect confession of the sins of mankind and an adequate repentance for them, with which divine justice is satisfied, and a full expiation is made for human guilt.
SHROVE TUESDAY, the day before Ash Wednesday, the first day of Lent, so called as the day on which "shrift" or confession was made in preparation for the great fast.
Froude therefore declared that in giving them to the world he was carrying out his friend's wish by enabling him to make a posthumous confession of his faults.
Herac.), " upon that exposition and read it, I gave thanks to God that the Church of Rome was rightly and blamelessly making confession, even though they happened'to be against me personally."
the doctrine of the real Presence, auricular confession, the use of ceremonial lights and vestments.
As a youth he had joined the league of Schmalkalden, but this adhesion, as well as his subsequent declaration to stand by the confession of Augsburg, cannot be regarded as the decision of his maturer years.
Difference in religious belief, confession or language, constitute no obstacle to any citizen in regard to entry into the public services or offices, to the attainment to any promotion or dignity, or to the exercise of any trade or calling.
with the filioque), and the so-called Athanasian Creed; six come from the 16th century - the Augsburg Confession, the Apology for the Augsburg Confession, the Schmalkald Articles, Luther's two Catechisms, and the Form of Concord.
But only the three early creeds and the Augsburg Confession are recognized by all Lutherans.
The Augsburg Confession and Luther's Short Catechism may therefore be said to contain the distinctive principles which all Lutherans are bound to maintain, but, as the principal controversies of the Lutheran church all arose after the publication of the Augsburg Confession and among those who had accepted it, it does not contain all that is distinctively Lutheran.
The General Synod of the Evangelical Church of the United States, organized in 1820, has no other creed than the Augsburg Confession, so liberally interpreted as not to exclude Calvinists.
The General Council, a secession from the General Synod, was organized in 1867, and accepts the "unaltered" (invariata) Augsburg Confession in its original sense, and the other Lutheran symbols as explanatory of the Augsburg Confession.
They permitted each congregation to use at pleasure the Augsburg Confession or the Heidelberg Catechism.
to combine two different confessions under one common government, and, resulting from it, the possibility of changing from one confession to another, have all combined to free the state churches from any rigid interpretation of their theological formulas.
The Union of Horodlo also established absolute parity between the nobility of Poland and Lithuania, but the privileges of the latter were made conditional upon their profession of the Roman Catholic faith, experience having shown that difference of religion in Lithuania meant difference of politics, and a tendency Moscow-wards, the majority of the Lithuanian boyars being of the Greek Orthodox Confession.
Ketteler, who had adopted Lutheranism during a visit to Germany in 1553, now professed the Augsburg Confession, and became the first duke of a new Protestant duchy, which he was to hold as a fief of the Polish crown, with local autonomy and absolute freedom of worship. The southern provinces of the ancient territory of the Order, Courland and Semgallen, had first been ceded on the 24th of June 1559 to Lithuania on similar conditions, the matter being finally adjusted by the compact of March 1562.
In 1823, the Confession of Faith was published; it is based on the Westminster Confession as Calvinistically construed," and contains 44 articles.
did indeed take the occasion of repeating (in the words of his Bull) that confession and contrition were necessary preliminaries;.
of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church (Philadelphia, 1896); his standpoint in frankly non-Catholic, but he gives ample materials for judgment.
Confession and absolution, strictly enforced, give great power to the priesthood.
A Spanish ambassador early in the reign thought that Elizabeth's own religion was equally negative, though she told him she agreed with nearly everything in the Augsburg Confession.
The revelations of this book explain much of the bitterness of his work, and it was followed in 1893 by a fourth part in German, Die Beichte eines Thoren (" A Fool's Confession "),.
Its aim is to instruct, and it differs from a creed or confession in not being in the first instance an act of worship or a public profession of belief.
The Smaller Catechism, with the Augsburg Confession, was made the Rule of Faith in Denmark in 1537.
It was called Instruction and Confession of Faith for the Use of the Church of Geneva (a reprint edited by A.
Peter Mogilas, metropolitan of Kiev, drew up in 1643 the Orthodox Confession of the Catholic and Apostolic Eastern Church.
An organized hierarchy, a definitive canon of the Holy Scriptures, a confession of faith and rule of faith, and unbending doctrinal discipline, these were the means employed.
It consists of the general confession, four fixed psalms, a hymn, the Nunc dimittis (Luke ii.
The first delegated general conference met at Mount Pleasant, Pennsylvania, in 1815, and adopted a confession of faith, rules of order and a book of discipline, which were revised in 1885-1889, when women were first admitted to ordination, and when the Conservatives, protesting against the new constitution, withdrew and formed the body now commonly known as the United Brethren in Christ "of the Old Constitution."
The Baptized alone are admitted to this Supper, and they only after confession of their sins.
The Helvetic Confession' of A.D.
" The Augustan Confession presented by the German electors to Charles V.
The Saxon Confession of Wittenberg, June 1551, while protesting against the same errors, equally abstains from trying to define narrowly how Christ is present in the sacrament.
As the father connected himself at a later period with the confession of the Moghtasilah, or "Baptists," in southern Babylonia, the son also was brought up in the religious doctrines and exercises of this sect.
He lays stress on the relation of the supposed confession of faith of Constantine, embodied in the forgery, to that issued by the emperor Constantine V., pointing out the efforts made by the Byzantines between 756 and the synod of Gentilly in 767 to detach Pippin from the cause of Rome and the holy images.
The royal house belongs to the Roman Catholic confession, but the bulk of the inhabitants are Lutheran Protestants.
Glas dissented from the Westminster Confession only in his views as to the spiritual nature of the church and the functions of the civil magistrate.
In 1581 episcopacy was abolished as a result of the report of a commission on which Craig had sat; he also assisted at the composition of the Second Book of Discipline and the National Covenant of 1580, and in 1581 compiled "Ane Shorte and Generale Confession" called the "King's Confession," which was imposed on all parish ministers and graduates and became the basis of the Covenant of 1638.
Difficulties arose in the way of his installation, owing to the action of the Presbytery on his refusing to sign unreservedly the Confession of Faith; but these were eventually overcome, and he took up his duties as professor in November 1841.
27), which are by some critics taken to refer to a primitive Christological baptismal formula, seem to refer to the confession made by the baptized, or to the new relationship into which they are brought as " members of Christ."
CONFESSION OF AUGSBURG, the most important Protestant statement of belief drawn up at the Reformation.
On the 23rd of June the Confession, originally intended as the statement of Electoral Saxony alone, was discussed and signed by a number of other Protestant princes and cities, and read before the diet on the 25th of June.
In spite of significant omissions (the sole authority of scripture; rejection of transubstantiation), the Confession contains nothing contradictory to Luther's position, and in its emphasis on justification by faith alone enunciates a cardinal concept of the Evangelical churches.
In answer, Melanchthon was ordered to prepare an Apology of the Confession, which the emperor refused to receive; so Melanchthon enlarged it and published the editio princeps of both Confession and Apology in 1531.
Acceptance of the Confession and Apology was made a condition of membership in the Schmalkalden League.
The Confession was the ultimate source of much of the Thirty-nine Articles.
The Religious Peace of Augsburg (1555) recognized no Protestants save adherents of the Confession; this was modified in 1648.
For translations of these, as well as of Zwingli's Reckoning of his Faith, and of the Tetrapolitan Confession, see H.
For the genesis of the Confession, see Th.
The outward expression of such a spirit is "bold confession," a glorying in that Hope, and mutual encouragement therein (iii.
With that event it is again natural to connect Timothy's imprisonment, his release from which our author records in closing; while the news of Jewish success in Paul's case would enhance any tendency among Asian Jewish Christians to shirk "boldness" of confession (x.
This declaration, in view of the development of affairs, must appear as strange as the chancellor's confession (Memoirs, ii.
It was this sermon that determined his friend Thomas Bilney to go to Latimer's study, and ask him " for God's sake to hear his confession," the result being that " from that time forward he began to smell the word of God, and forsook the school doctors and such fooleries."
If in this confession he to some extent tampered with his conscience, there is every reason to believe that his culpable timidity was occasioned, not by personal fear, but by anxiety lest by his death he should hinder instead of promoting the cause of truth.
It involved like the first rite open confession and repentance, and absolution by the church.
In a later and less rigorous age this rite was abridged and adjusted to constant repetition, in such wise that a sinner could be restored to grace not once only, but as often as the clergy chose to accept his repentance and confession.
The confession of a dying man might be taken by any layman present, and written down in order to be shown to the priest when he arrived.
After the retaking of Jerusalem and recovery of the Cross from the Persians in the eighteenth year of his reign, Heraclius called a mixed council at Karin (Theodosiopolis) of Greeks and Armenians under Ezr (Esdras), catholicus, at which the preceding council of Dvin was cursed, its reforms repudiated and the confession of Chalcedon adopted.
In February 1685 she took measures to see that the king, who was secretly a Roman Catholic, did not die without confession and absolution.
He entered the ministry at Antwerp, had a hand in the Walloon Confession and gathered a Walloon congregation in Brussels.
It contains a magnificent painting by Lucas Cranach the elder, representing the Lord's Supper, Baptism and Confession, also a font by Hermann Vischer (1457).
Strict personal poverty was enforced, and all were encouraged to approach confession and communion frequently.
A culprit is easily discovered either by an appeal to a local diviner or in torturing some one into confession.
Other Protestant bodies are the Walloons, who, though possessing an independent church government, are attached to the Low-Dutch Reformed Church; the Lutherans, divided into the main body of Evangelical Lutherans and a smaller division calling themselves the Re-established or Old Lutherans (Herstelde Lutherschen) who separated in 1791 in order to keep more strictly to the Augsburg confession; the Mennonites founded by Menno Simons of Friesland, about the beginning of the 16th century; the Baptists, whose only central authority is the General Baptist Society founded at Amsterdam in 1811; the Evangelical Brotherhood of Hernhutters or Moravians, who have churches and schools at Zeist and Haarlem; and a Catholic Apostolic Church (1867) at the Hague.
One hundred members, many of them foreign divines, composed this great assembly, who after 154 sittings gave their seal to the doctrines of the Netherlands Confession and the Heidelberg Catechism.
The final perplexity, concealed by various forms of expression, comes forward at the close of the Treatise as absolutely unsolved, and leads Hume, as will be pointed out, to a truly remarkable confession of the weakness of his own system.
The only combination which, even in appearance, could be explained satisfactorily by its means was the formation of a complex idea out of simpler parts, but the idea of a relation among facts is not accurately described as a complex idea; and, as such relations have na basis in impressions, Hume is finally driven to a confession of the absolute impossibility of explaining them.
Such confession, however, is only reached after a vigorous effort had been made to render some account of knowledge by the experimental method.
The first "godly band" is dated December 1557; but more important is the covenant of 1581, drawn up by John Craig in consequence of the strenuous efforts which the Roman Catholics were making to regain their hold upon Scotland, and called the King's Confession or National Covenant.
Based upon the Confession of Faith of 1560, this document denounced the pope and the doctrines of the Roman Catholic Church in no measured terms. It was adopted by the General Assembly, signed by King James VI.
The palace of the bishops, where the memorable Confession of Faith was presented to Charles V., is now used for government offices.
Of its conventions the most memorable are those which gave birth to the Augsburg confession (1530) and to the Augsburg alliance (1686).
Confession of Augsburg >>
As an ecclesiastic he was not so successful; he helped to compile his church's Confession of Faith in 1823, and laid great stress on a clause which limited the scope of the atonement to the elect.
He was the author of a Catechism (Kiev, 1645) and other minor works, but is principally celebrated for the Orthodox Confession, drawn up at his instance by the Abbot Kosslowski of Kiev, approved at a provincial synod in 1640, and accepted by the patriarchs of Constantinople, Jerusalem, Alexandria and Antioch in 1642-1643, and by the synod of Jerusalem in 1672.
The Confession of Peter at Caesarea Philippi.
In June he opene4 the diet at Augsburg, and here the Lutherans submitted a summary of their doctrines, afterwards called the Augsburg Confession.
Four Zwinglian cities, Strassburg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen, replied with a confession of their own and the Romanists also drew up an answer.
All the states and cities which subscribed to the confession of Augsburg were admitted to it, and thus a large number of Protestants, including the duchies of Wurttemberg and Pomerania and the cities of Augsburg and Frankfort, secured a needful protection against the decrees of the Reichskammergeric/it, which the league again repudiated.
In consultation with both Romanist and Lutheran divines a confession of faith called the Interim was drawn up; this was in the nature of a compromise and was issued as an edict in May 1548, but owing to the opposition of the Romanist princes it was not made binding upon them, only upon the Lutherans.
This required an ecclesiastical prince, if he accepted the teaching of the confession.
Its theme is the duty of Christian repentance, with a view to obedience to Christ's precepts as the true confession and homage which He requires.
The functions of the confessor are dealt with in the article Confession.
"By the banner of our Lutheran confession let us stand," he said in 1888; "folding ourselves in it, let us die" (T.
they form a long negative confession, in which the dead man declares that he has sinned neither against man nor against the gods.
The maintenance of the indivisibility of the realm and of the Christian faith according to the Augsburg Confession, and the observance of the Kongelov itself, are now the sole obligations binding upon the king.
The Sunnites, who accept the orthodox tradition (Sunna) as well as the Koran as a source of theologico-juristic doctrines, predominate in Arabia, the Turkish Empire, the north of Africa, Turkestan, Afghanistan and the Mahommedan parts of India and the east of Asia; the Shi`ites have their main seat in Persia, where their confession is the state religion, but are also scattered over the whole sphere of Islam, especially in India and the regions bordering on Persia, except among the nomad Tatars, who are all nominally Sunnite.
At the Diet of Augsburg (1530) Melanchthon was the leading representative of the reformation, and it was he who prepared for that diet the seventeen articles of the Evangelical faith, which are known as the "Augsburg Confession."
He held conferences with Roman divines appointed to adjust differences, and afterwards wrote an Apology for the Augsburg Confession.
In the Augsburg Confession (1530), which was largely due to him, freedom is claimed for the will in non-religious matters, and in the Loci of 1533 he calls the denial of freedom Stoicism, and holds that in justification there is a certain causality, though not worthiness, in the recipient, subordinate to the Divine causality.
Carlyle's confession of the radical difference of religious opinion had not alienated his friend, who was settling in London, and used his opportunities for promoting Carlyle's interest.
He was, as Froude says, impressed by the story of Johnson's " penance " at Uttoxeter, and desired to make a posthumous confession of his shortcomings in his relations to his wife.
The Convention began business in August, crowded by persons not used to be present, and accepted a Knoxian " Confession of Faith."
The author's confession that, being " thretty 3eris nurist in Fraunce, and in the noble study of Paris in Latin toung," he " knew nocht the gret eloquens of Chauceir," and again that he had written another work in Latin, " the tounge that I knaw better," is valuable testimony to the difficulties in the way of a struggling Scots prose.
The rules for the restraint of the senses, for confession and penance, are subordinated to the central idea of the supreme importance of purity of heart and the love of Christ.
In the summer he was preparing a paper on the Westminster Confession, and preaching in the abbey a course of Saturday Lectures on the Beatitudes.
During their travels the beard was allowed to grow, and they prepared for departure by confession and communion.
If on one or two points, as, for instance, the invocation of saints, some germs of subsequent Roman teaching may be discovered, there is a want of anything like the doctrine of indulgences or of compulsory private confession.
PETER PAZMANY (1570-1637), Hungarian cardinal and statesman, was born at Nagyvarad on the 4th of October 1570, and educated at Nagyvárad and Kolozsvar, at which latter place he quitted the Calvinist confession for the Roman communion (1583).
In 1830 he was rector of the university; and in his speech at the tricentenary of the Augsburg Confession in that year he charged the Catholic Church with regarding the virtues of the pagan world as brilliant vices, and giving the crown of perfection to poverty, continence and obedience.
The poem had accompanied him from early manhood to the end and was the repository for the fullest "confession" of his life; it is the poetic epitome of his experience.
In the earliest church life, when Christians fell into sin, they were required to make public confession before the congregation, to declare their sorrow, and to vow to perform certain acts which were regarded as evidence of the sincerity of their repentance.
When the custom of public confession before the congregation had changed to private confession to the clergy, it became the confessor's duty to impose these satisfactions.
Under the older conception the order had been Sorrow (Contritio), Confession, Satisfaction (or due manifestation of sorrow in ways prescribed) and Absolution.
Under the newer theory the order was Sorrow, Confession, Absolution, Satisfaction, and both satisfaction and sorrow took new meanings.
Hence for the indifferent Christian, Attrition, Confession and Indulgence became the three heads in the scheme of the church of the later middle ages for his salvation.
Three separate confessions were presented to the emperor - one from Zwingli, one by the theologians of the four cities of Strassbourg, Constance, Lindau and Memmingen (Confessio Tetrapolitana), and the Augsburg Confession, the future symbol of the Lutheran church.
(Frankfurt a M., 1846); The Augsburg Confession: Schaff, The Creeds of the Evangelical Protestant Churches (London, 1877), History of the Creeds of Christendom (London, 1877).
The first, known also as the Second Confession of Basel, was drawn up at that city in 1536 by Bullinger and Leo Jud of Zurich, Megander of Bern,Oswald Myconius and Grynaeus of Basel, Bucer and Capito of Strassburg, with other representatives from Schaffhausen, St Gall, Muhlhausen and Biel.
The Second Helvetic Confession was written by Bullinger in 1562 and revised in 1564 as a private exercise.
It gained a favourable hold on the Swiss churches, who had found the First Confession too short and too Lutheran.
It was adopted by the Reformed Church not only throughout Switzerland but in Scotland (1566), Hungary (1567), France (1571), Poland (1578), and next to the Heidelberg Catechism is the most generally recognized Confession of the Reformed Church.
Thomas, La Confession helvetique (Geneva, 1853); P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, i.
He had to deal with the St George's-in-the-East riots in 1859, and the troubles at St Alban's, Holborn, in their earlier stages (1867); he took part as assessor in the Privy Council judgment in the Ridsdale case (1877); he was more closely concerned than any other bishop with the agitation against confession in 1858, and again in 1877.
But Gregory, according to his own confession, had no practical skill; he could find no optician capable of realizing his ideas, and after some fruitless attempts was obliged to abandon all hope of bringing his telescope into practical use.
In 1526 John, elector of Saxony, Philip, landgrave of Hesse, and other Protestant princes formed a league against the Roman Catholics, and the Torgau articles, drawn up here by Luther and his friends in 1530, were the basis of the confession of Augsburg.
The Austrian chronicler Thomas Ebendorffer of Haselbach, who lived two generations later, first states that it was reported that King Wenceslaus had ordered that the confessor of his queen - an office that John of Pomuk never held - should be thrown into the Vltava because he would not reveal the secret of confession.
No jury was empanelled and no witnesses were called; she was condemned, simply on her confession, to be burnt.
Having signed the confession of Augsburg, he was alone among the electors in objecting to the election of Ferdinand, afterwards the emperor Ferdinand I., as king of the Romans.
Of the Latin variants, Iberio is the form found in the most ancient Irish MSS., such as the Confession of St Patrick, and the same saint's Epistle to Coroticus.
The same scruple against flesh-eating is conveyed in the beautiful confession, in the Cretans of Euripides, of one who had been initiated in the mysteries of Orpheus and became a "Bacchos."
When parliament, on the 2 th of August 1 60 passed the P 4 g 5 P acts abolishing the papal jurisdiction and the mass in Scotland, it was able, as Knox had been preparing for this crisis, to sanction a new confession of faith for the Reformed church.
The Confession of Faith contains no approval of any system of church government, and when she adopted it in 1647 the kirk gave up her old confession in which the principles at least of true church order are laid down.
The engagement made with Charles, then a prisoner in the Isle of Wight in 1647, which promised him support on condition of his sanctioning the Solemn League and Covenant and pledging himself to set up after three years a church according to the Confession of Faith, was protested against by the assembly; and from this came the famous " Act of Classes " by which the Covenanters disqualified for public office and even for military service all who had been parties to the engagement.
Effect was given to this; and in April 1690 the act was passed on which the establishment of the Church of Scotland rests, the Westminster Confession being recognized, the laws in favour of Episcopacy repealed, though the Rescissory Act remained on the statute book, and the assembly appointed to meet.
The king and his representatives at the assembly pressed hard for their reception, and in 1693 the " Act for settling the quiet and peace of the Church " was passed, which provided for their admission on taking the oaths of allegiance and assurance, subscribing the Confession of Faith and acknowledging Presbyterian government.
The difficulties which threatened to arise about the union were skilfully avoided; the Act of Security provided that the Confession of Faith and the Presbyterian government should " continue without any alteration to the people of this land in all succeeding ages," and the first oath taken by Queen Anne at her accession was to preserve it.
A committee appointed in 1899 to inquire into the powers of the church in the matter reported that the power of the church was merely administrative - it was in her power as cases arose to prosecute or to refrain from prosecuting, but that she had no power to modify the confession in any way.
The next day he sent in a general confession to the Lords, 8 trusting that this would be considered satisfactory.
The Lords, however, decided that it was not sufficient as a ground for their censure, and demanded a detailed and particular confession.
On the 30th of April his " confession and humble submission " 9 was handed in.
So far, then, as the mere taking of bribes is concerned, he would permit no defence, and his own confession and judgment on his action contain as severe a condemnation as has ever been passed upon him.
Of the former, the principal specimens are the Meditationes Sacrae and the Confession of Faith.
In many cases the metrical structure 2 is true that in the Confession attributed to him and printed among his Greek works in the first volume of the Roman edition he speaks (p. 129) of his parents as having become martyrs for the Christian faith.
On the contrary, the cardinal of Lorraine, by his question whether the Calvinists were prepared to sign the Confession of Augsburg, attempted to sow dissension between them and the Lutheran Protestants of Germany, on whose continued support they calculated.
No opportunity for the adoption of any common confession was given.
Reference has already been made to the reason why a common Anabaptist confession was never made public. Probably, however, the earliest confession of faith of any Baptist community is that given by Zwingli in the second part of his Elenchus contra Catabaptistas, published in 1527.
The article relating to baptism is as follows:- "That every church is to receive in all their members by baptism upon the confession of their faith and sins, wrought by the preaching of the gospel according to the primitive institution and practice.
This is the first known expression of absolute liberty of conscience in any confession of faith.
Eventually agreement was reached, and in 1644 a Confession of Faith was published in the names of the Particular Baptist churches of London, now grown to seven, "commonly (though falsely) called Anabaptist."
They end their confession thus: "If any take this that we have said to be heresy, then do we with the apostle freely confess, that after the way which they call heresy worship we the God of our fathers, believing all things which are written in the Law and in the Prophets and Apostles, desiring from our souls to disclaim all heresies and opinions which are not after Christ, and to be stedfast, unmovable, always abounding in the work of the Lord, as knowing our labour shall not be in vain in the Lord."
As a means of preserving harmony the Philadelphia Confession of Faith, a Calvinistic document, with provision against too rigid a construction, was adopted and a step was thus taken toward harmonizing with the "Regular" Baptists of the Philadelphia type.
In 1529 the la,ndgrave signed the "protest" which was presented to the diet at Spires, being thus one of the original "Protestants;" in 1530 he was among the subscribers to the confession of Augsburg; and the formation of the league of Schmalkalden in the same year was largely due to his energy.
At the first meeting of the Estates, in August 1560, the Protestants were invited to present a confession of their faith.
The Scots confession, though of course drawn up independently, is in substantial accord with the others then springing up in the countries of the Reformation, but is Calvinist rather than Lutheran.
Already "in our towns and places reformed," as the Confession puts it, there were local or "particular kirks," and these grew and spread and were provincially united, till, in the last month of this memorable year, the first General Assembly of their representatives met, and became the "universal kirk," or "the whole church convened."
It had before it the plan for church government and maintenance, drafted in August at the same time with the Confession, under the name of The Book of Discipline, and by the same framers.
The point was made keener by the fact that Knox's own Confession of Faith (like all those of that age, in which an unbalanced monarchical power culminated) had held kings to be appointed "for maintenance of the true religion," and suppression of the false; and the reformer now fell back on 1 John Hill Burton (Hist.
- The History of the Reformation in Scotland, incorporating the Confession and the Book of Discipline.
He was one of the commission of six who drew up the "Confession of Faith" and the "First Book of Discipline," and during the struggle with Queen Mary was often employed on important engagements.
The councillors must be of Swedish birth and adherents of the Lutheran confession.
Finally, at the Riksdag of Vesteras, in 1544, though no definite confession of faith was formulated, a final breach was made with the traditions of the old religion.
Nevertheless, immediately after King John's death, a synod summoned to Upsala by Duke Charles rejected the new liturgy and drew up an anti-Catholic confession of faith (March 5, 1593).
Holy Scripture and the three primitive creeds were declared to be the true foundations of Christian faith, and the Augsburg Confession was adopted.
This led him to a culte du moi, of which the strangest result was an autobiography of crude invective, A Fool's Confession (1893), the printing of which in Swedish was forbidden.
to draw up, in concert with twenty other theologians, the refutation of the Protestant Confession, but was obliged to rewrite it five times before it suited the emperor.
The policy of non-interference proclaimed in 1854 had proved impracticable, and the annexation of Basutoland was an open confession of the fact.
While holding the episcopal office Gennadius drew up, apparently for the use of Mahommed, a lucid confession or exposition of the Christian faith, which was translated into Turkish by Ahmed, judge of Beroea, and first printed by A.
which may be explained when we reflect that to the faithful divination was something as essential as confession and spiritual direction to a devout Catholic now, or the study and interpretation of Scripture texts to a Protestant.
With the Cambridge Platform of 1646, drafted by his father, the Confession of 1680, for which Increase Mather was largely responsible, was printed as a book of doctrine and government for the churches of Massachusetts.
He has made frank confession of his nescience, and in certain passages his critical judgment and sober sense and circumspection are quite striking.
Then it was that he began to direct his attention to a study of the Bible, which led him to a conviction, never afterwards shaken, not only of the divine character of evangelical religion, but also of the unapproachable adequacy of its expression in the Augsburg Confession.
They are as follows: (i.) The Calendar; (ii.) The names of the Faires of Scotland; (iii.) The Confession of Faith used at Geneva and received by the Church of Scotland; (iv.-vii.) Concerning the election and duties of Ministers, Elders and Deacons, and Superintendent; (viii.) An order of Ecclesiastical Discipline; (ix.) The Order of Excommunication and of Public Repentance; (x.) The Visitation of the Sick; (xi.) The Manner of Burial; (xii.) The Order of Public Worship - Forms of Confession and Prayer after Sermon; (xiii.) Other Public Prayers; (xiv.) The Administration of the Lord's Supper; (xv.) The Form of Marriage; (xvi.) The Order of Baptism; (xvii.) A Treatise on Fasting with the order thereof; (xviii.) The Psalms of David; (xix.) Conclusions or Doxologies; (xx.) Hymns - metrical versions of the Decalogue, Magnificat, Apostles' Creed, &c.; (xxi.) Calvin's Catechism; (xxii.
This effort culminated in the Westminster Assembly of divines which met in 1643, at which six commissioners from the Church of Scotland were present, and joined in the task of drawing up a Common Confession, Catechism and Directory for the three kingdoms. The commissioners reported to the General Assembly of 1644 that this Common Directory "is so begun.
They further g Y renewed the demand, which they had already expressed at the diet of 1567, that the estates should have the right of appointing the members of the consistory - the ecclesiastical body which ruled the Utraquist church; for since the death of John of Rokycan that church had had no archbishop. After long deliberations and the king's final refusal to recognize the confession of Augsburg, the majority of the diet, consisting of members of the Bohemian brotherhood and advanced Utra quists, drew up a profession of faith that became known as the Confessio Bohemica.
It was in most points identical with the Augsburg confession, but differed from it with regard to the doctrine of the sacrament of the Lord's Supper.
Besides his Histoire de Saint Louis and his Credo or "Confession of Faith" written much earlier, a considerable number, relatively speaking, of letters and business documents concerning the fief of Joinville and so forth are extant.
It has preserved the older idea that a creed is an adoring confession of the church engaged in worship; and, when occasion called for more, the belief of the church was expressed more by way of public testimony than in symbolical books.
Melanchthon himself sent a Greek translation of the Augsburg Confession to Joasaph, patriarch of Constantinople, and some years afterwards Jacob Andreae and Martin Crusius began a correspondence with Jeremiah, patriarch of Constantinople, in which they asked an official expression of his opinions about.
The church anathematized his doctrines, and in its later testimonies repudiated his confession on the one hand and Jesuit ideas on the other.
The most important of these testimonies are (i) the Orthodox confession or catechism of Peter Mogilas, confirmed by the Eastern patriarchs and by the synod of Jerusalem (1643), and (2) the decree of the synod of Jerusalem or the confession of Dositheus (1672).
The new birth when lost may be restored through repentance, which is not merely (I) sincere sorrow, but also (2) confession of each individual sin to the priest, and (3) the discharge of penances imposed by the priest for the removal of the temporal punishment which may have been imposed by God and the Church.
Many of them were Austrian and Hungarian Uniats, who, after emigrating, have shown a tendency to separate from Rome and return to the Eastern Confession.
Despite the effect of a false rumour of retraction and a forged confession, his adversaries in despair summoned him to four public conferences (1st, 18th, 23rd and 27th of September), and although still suffering, and allowed neither time nor books for preparation, he bore himself so easily and readily that he won the admiration of most of the audience.
(1897); Thomas Winter's Confession and the Gunpowder Plot, by John Gerard, S.J.
A considerable portion of the controversy centres round the question of the authenticity of Thomas Winter's confession, the MS. of which is at Hatfield, supported by Professor Gardiner, but denied by Father Gerard principally on account of the document having been signed "Winter" instead of "Wintour," the latter apparently being the conspirator's usual style of signature.
1875; enlarged, 1879); The Atonement (1867); Exposition of the Confession of Faith (1869); and Popular Lectures on Theological Themes (1887).
the Haoma (Horn) Yasht (9, i i) and the ancient confession of faith (12), which is of value as a document for the history of civilization.
Sir Robert Welles, the leader of this rebellion, made a confession implicating Warwick, who fled with Clarence to France.
He here breaks with Augustine and the Westminster Confession by arguing, consistently with his theory of the Will, that Adam had no more freedom of will than we have, but had a special endowment, a supernatural gift of grace, which by rebellion against God was lost, and that this gift was withdrawn from his descendants, not because of any fictitious imputation of guilt, but because of their real participation in his guilt by actual identity with him in his transgression.
A few days later, according to Garnet, the Jesuit, Oswald Tesemond, known as Greenway, informed him of the whole plot " by way of confession," when, as he declares, he expressed horror at the design and urged Green way to do his utmost to prevent its execution.
Subsequently, after his trial, Garnet said he " could not certainly affirm " that Greenway intended to relate the matter to him in confession.
Father Martin del Rio, a Jesuit, writing in 1600, discusses the exact case of the revelation of a plot in confession.
Almost all the learned doctors, he says, declare that the confessor may reveal it, but he adds, " the contrary opinion is the safer and better doctrine, and more consistent with religion and with the reverence due to the holy rite of confession."
According to Bellarmine, Garnet's zealous friend and defender, "If the person confessing be concealed, it is lawful for a priest to break the seal of confession in order to avert a great calamity "; but he justifies Garnet's silence by insisting that it was not lawful to disclose a treasonable secret to a heretical king.
In this connexion it is worth pointing out that Garnet had not thought it his duty to disclose the treasonable intrigue with the king of Spain in 1602, though there was no pretence in this case that he was restricted by the seal of confession, and his inactivity now tells greatly in his disfavour; for, allowing even that he was bound by confessional secrecy from taking action on Greenway's information, he had still Catesby's earlier revelations to act upon.
It was not till the 4th of December, however, that Garnet and Greenway were, by the confession of Bates, implicated in the plot; and on the same day Garnet removed from Coughton to Hindlip Hall, near Worcester, a house furnished with cleverlycontrived hiding-places for the use of the proscribed priests.
The archbishop of Corinth girded him with a sword which had lain upon the Holy Sepulchre, and the metropolitan of Kiev absolved him from all his sins, without the usual preliminary of confession, before he rode forth to battle.
Stone had been a Presbyterian minister prominent in the Kentucky revival of 1801, but had been turned against sectarianism and ecclesiastical authority because the synod had condemned Richard McNemar, one of his colleagues in the revival, for preaching (as Stone himself had done) counter to the Westminster Confession, on faith and the work of the Holy Spirit in conversion.
The credal position of the Disciples is simple: great stress is put upon the phrase "the Christ, the Son of the living God," and upon the recognition by Jesus of this confession as the foundation of His church; as to baptism, agreement with Baptists is only as to the mode, immersion; this is considered "the primitive confession of Christ and a gracious token of salvation," and as being "for the remission of sins"; the Disciples generally deny the authority over Christians of the Old Covenant, and Alexander Campbell in particular held this view so forcibly that he was accused by Baptists of "throwing away the Old Testament."
But if any one of the confessors who is not ordained snatches to himself any such dignity upon account of his confession, let the same person be deprived and rejected; for he is not in such an office, since he has denied the constitution of Christ, and is worse than an infidel."
in twenty books of Burchard, bishop of Worms (1112-1122), the Decretum or Collectarium, 4 very widely spread and known under the name of Brocardum, of which the 1 9th book, dealing with the process of confession, is specially noteworthy.
According to his own confession he was far from industrious, and stood very low in his class.
His confession made at the end of his life was an account of his early years which is to some extent supported by other testimony.
- Among the Jews it was ordered that on the Day of Atonement the high priest should make confession of sins in the name of the whole people, and the day is still kept by the Jews with fasting and confession of sins.
In the Gospels confession is scarcely mentioned.
On the other, the confession of sins was ordered in James v.
But while he insists on repentance and mortification, he says nothing about public confession or discipline.
Baptism was the first plank thrown out to save the drowning man, "confession" the second, and there was no third chance.
Public but general confession of sins and intercession for penitent sinners have from early times formed a normal part of public worship in the Christian church.
The process of public confession or penance (exomologesis, Greek for public confession) was as follows (see Tertullian, De paenitentia IX., and other writers).
In this account nothing is said of confession; but it would appear that in early days the sins were made known to the congregation, and in notorious cases they would take the initiative and expel the offender.
It was also common for a penitent to take advice as to the necessity in his case of undergoing exomologesis, and this, of course, involved confession.
In fact far more importance was attached to the discipline than to confession.
xviii., sanctions a dying man's making confession (exomologesis) of his sin before a deacon in case of necessity, and being reconciled by laying on of hands.
In the same century at Rome and at Constantinople we hear of "penitentiaries," that is priests appointed to act for the bishop in hearing the confession of sins, and deciding whether public discipline was necessary and, if it was, on its duration; in other words they prepared the penitents for solemn reconciliation by the bishop. A scandal at Constantinople in 391 led to the suppression in that city not only of the office of penitentiary, but practically of public exomologesis also, and that seemingly in Eastern Christendom generally, so that the individual was left to assess his own penance, and to present himself for communion at his own discretion.
This inevitably led on to the reiteration of confession after repeated lapses, and Chrysostom (bishop of Constantinople, 398-407) was attacked for allowing such a departure from ancient rule.
Thus in the chapterhouse of a monastery there constantly took place acts of discipline that depended on the theory that the sin of the individual is the concern of the society; open confession was made, open penance exacted.
Meanwhile the constant repetition of confession and reconciliation, together with the fact that the most tender consciences would be the most anxious for the assurance of forgiveness, led to the practice being considered a normal part of the Christian life.
Absolution was reckoned one of the sacraments, one of the seven when that mystic number was generally adopted; but there was no agreement as to what constituted the essential parts of the sacrament, whether the confession, the laying on of hands, the penance, or the words of dismissal.
At last in 1215 the council of the Lateran decreed that every one of either sex must make confession at least once a year before his parish priest, or some other priest with the consent of the parish priest.
The Council of Trent in 1551 repudiated the worst corruptions and repelled as slanders certain charges which were made against the medieval system; but it retained the obligation of annual confession, and laid it down that the form of the sacrament consisted in the priest's words of absolution.
No one is allowed to receive holy communion, if guilty of "mortal" sin, without resorting to confession; only if a priest has to celebrate mass, and there is no other priest to hear his confession, may he receive "unabsolved" after mortal sin.
It is common to go to confession, even though there are only venial sins to be confessed; and in order to excite contrition people are sometimes advised to confess over again some mortal sin from which they have been previously absolved.
Children begin to go to confession at about the age of seven.
In the Greek Church confession has become obligatory and habitual.
Among the Lutherans auricular confession survived the Reformation, but the general confession and absolution before communion were soon allowed by authority to serve as a substitute; in Wurttemberg as early as the 16th century, in Saxony after 1657, and in Brandenburg by decree of the elector in 1698.
Private confession and absolution were, however, still permitted; though as may be seen from Goethe's experience, related in his Dichtung and Wahrheit, it tended to become a mere form, a process encouraged by the fact that the fees payable for absolution formed part of the pastor's regular stipend.
Among the Calvinistic bodies in the British Isles and abroad kirk-discipline has been a stern reality; but in none of them is there private confession or priestly absolution.
The method of confession adopted in the public services of the Church of England, with which the Book of Common Prayer is primarily concerned, may be described as one of general confession to God in the face of the church, to be in secret used by each member of the congregation for the confession of his own particular sins, and to be followed by public absolution.
But three other methods of confession for private use are mentioned in the exhortations in the communion service, which constitute the principal directory for private devotions among the authoritative documents of the English Church.
First, all men are urged to practise secret confession to God alone, and in it the sins are to be acknowledged in detail.
Similarly, the sick man is to be moved to make a special confession of his sins if he feels his conscience troubled with any weighty matter.
It is probable that auricular confession never altogether died out in the Church of England, but it is obvious that evidence on the subject must always be hard to find.
The bishops declined so to act, but drew up a report on the subject of confession.
On the other hand, there are those who speak as if auricular confession were a necessary element in every Christian life, and hold that post-baptismal sin of a grave sort can receive forgiveness in no other way.
Pusey, Advice, F&c., being the Abbe Gaume's Manual for Confessors, &c. (Oxford, 1878); Carter, The Doctrine of Confession in the Church of England (London, 1885); H.
C. Lea, A History of Auricular Confession and Indulgences in the Latin Church (Philadelphia, 1896); Boudinhon in Revue d'histoire et de litterature religieuses (1897 and 1898); H.
Wace, Confession and Absolution.
- In criminal procedure confession has always, of course, played an important part, and the attempt to obtain such a confession from the incriminated person, whether by physical torture or by less violent means, was formerly, and in certain countries still remains, a recognized expedient for securing the conviction of the guilty.
In English law, on the other hand, the confession of an incriminated person can be received in evidence against him only if it has been free and voluntary.
Any threat or inducement held out to a person to make a confession renders the confession inadmissible, even if afterwards made to another person, it having been held that the second confession is likely to be induced by the promise held out by the person to whom the first confession was made.
Any inducement to a person to make a confession must refer to some temporal benefit to be gained from it.
In divorce law, the confession of a wife charged with adultery may be treated with circumspection and caution, for fear of collusion between the parties to a suit.
Where, however, such a confession is clear and distinct, the court will usually receive it as evidence against the wife, but not against a co-respondent.
In a case where a wife's confession was obtained by falsely stating to her that the suspected co-respondent had confessed, such confession was held admissible.
Bahrdt's confession of faith, a step which was interpreted by the extreme rationalists as a revocation of his own rationalistic position.
19.2 There are traces in the New Testament of a baptismal confession simply of the name of Christ (I Cor.
and this second figure in the baptismal o f Tri n i ty confession?
For others, the Trinity is the accepted way of making that confession.
To find the distinctive technicalities of Lutheranism we have to leave Melanchthon's system (and his great Reformation creed, the Augsburg Confession) for the Formula of Concord and the lesser men of that later period.
This is not fully formulated even in the Lutheran Formula of Concord, nor yet in the Calvinistic canons of Dort and Confession of Westminster, though these and other Protestant creeds have various instalments of the finished doctrine.
Challenged by Arminianism in Holland, the Calvinistic theology replied in the Confession of Dort; at which Synod English delegates were present.
Unity may be safeguarded in the confession of Christ, and theology indeed prove " Christocentric."
The effort is made here (I) to mention writers of great originality and distinction, (2) writers of special importance to some one Christian confession, (3) without needless repetition of what has already been said, (4) dogmatic treatises being preferred but not to the exclusion of everything else.
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
Thomas Bagley was accused of declaring that if in the sacrament a priest made bread into God, he made a God that can be eaten by rats and mice; that the pharisees of the day, the monks, and the nuns, and the friars and all other privileged persons recognized by the church were limbs of Satan; and that auricular confession to the priest was the will not of God but of the devil.
His confession that he had known only twenty happy days in his long reign is perhaps a moral tale, to be classed with the "omnia fui, et nil expedit" of Septimius Severus.
This opportunity of making a political confession of faith appears not only to have fortified him in his own convictions, but to have inspired him with the idea of imposing them on the public through the medium of his art.
The best known Summae casuum conscientiae, compiled for the conduct of auricular confession, belong to the 14th and i 5th centuries.
This the citizens were summoned, in parties of ten each, to profess and swear to as the confession of their faith - a process which, though not in accordance with modern notions of the best way of establishing men in the faith, was gone through, Calvin tells us, "with much satisfaction."
Caroli brought a counter-charge against the Geneva divines of Sabellianism and Arianism, because they would not enforce the Athanasian creed, and had not used the words "Trinity" and "Person" in the confession they had drawn up. It was a struggle between the thoroughgoing humanistic reformer who drew his creed solely from the "word of God" and the merely semi-Protestant reformer who looked on the old creed as a priceless heritage.
Baptism is the sign of initiation whereby men are admitted into the society of the church and, being grafted into Christ, are reckoned among the sons of God; it serves both for the confirmation of faith and as a confession before men.
In 1615 he took part in an attempt of the Irish clergy to impose a Calvinistic confession, embodying the Lambeth Articles of 1 595, upon the Irish Church, and was delated to King James in consequence.
FRIEDRICH DANIEL ERNST SCHLEIERMACHER (1768-1834), theologian and philosopher, was the son of a Prussian army chaplain of the Reformed confession, and was born on the 21st of November 1768 at Breslau.
Iverio, Hiverio (Antonine Itinerary), Hiberio (Confession of St Patrick), Old Irish Eriu, Heriu, gen.
St Patrick himself in his Confession makes mention of monks in Ireland in connexion with his mission, but the few glimpses we get of the monastic life of the decades immediately following his death prove that the earliest type of coenobium differed considerably from that known at a later period.
In this reign too was passed the statute of Kilkenny (q.v.), a confession by the crown that obedient subjects were the minority.
Soon afterwards he left the convent, assumed the habit of a secular priest, and began to preach against confession and the worship of images.
At the same time the pastors of the reformed religion, met in synod at Paris, were setting down their confession of faith founded upon the Scriptures, and their ecclesiastical discipline founded upon the independence of the churches.
The practice of confession in the Church of England practically dates from his two sermons on The Entire Absolution of the Penitent, in 1846, in which the revival of high sacramental doctrine is complemented by the advocacy of a revival of the penitential system which medieval theologians had appended to it.
His essay on Cromwell (in Lebensskizzen, 1890), which may be considered his political confession of faith, also deserves mention.
II, 1860), shrewdly guessing that the Patent was directed as much against the Hungarian constitution as against the Calvinist confession.
In 1570 he presented a confession of faith to Charles IX.
Alexander in his book on demonic possession maintains that "the confession of Jesus as the Messiah or Son of God is the classical criterion of genuine demonic possession" (p. 150), and argues that as "the Incarnation indicated the establishment of the kingdom of heaven upon earth," there took place "a counter movement among the powers of darkness," of which "genuine demonic possession was one of the manifestations" (p. 249).
Colet, though never dreaming of a formal breach with the Roman Church, was a keen reformer, who disapproved of auricular confession, and of the celibacy of the clergy.
xxvi.) 2 The main points are Saul's confession and his recognition that David would prevail (xxvi.
There was also a desire to lay the Confession before the council summoned at Mantua by Pope Paul III.
(a) The duty of confession was impressed on the candidates.
After hiding for several weeks Nat was captured on the 30th of October and was tried and hanged, having made, meanwhile, a full confession.
A confession of sin used by the Palestinian Remnant.
This confession was according to i.
The confession is restricted to the use of the remnant at home (see next paragraph).
In this confession there is a national acknowledgment of sin and a recognition of the Exile as a righteous judgment.
A confession of the captives in Babylon and a prayer for restoration.
This confession opens as the former (in i.
The confession is of the Exiles and not of the remnant in Palestine, as Marshall has pointed out.
On the other hand the speakers in the confession in i.
Your confession is a tad different variation; is it your wife or mommy?
She shifted to see his face, surprised by his confession.
"You haven't said anything about Martha's little confession," he said.
After they dragged Jen off to confession, the Calvias would stick around and rent the church for the weddingâ€”if Randy was still alive.
He hadn't been able to face his mate since her confession.
The last part of her world shattered with Wynn's confession.
Fred nodded his head, scribbled on his pad, and asked, "You figure the note's a confession, of sorts?"
"It's all my fault," Carmen plunged into confession.
Startled by the confession, Jessi rested her elbows on the table and leaned forward.
auricular confession, proving it by this place.
The most fundamental of these are the Augsburg Confession and Luther's small catechism.
It amounted to a confession of his faith that the established clerisy was incompetent, dangerous and innumerate.
confession of sin is just not good enough.
confession of guilt.
The Helvetic confession tells us that the right choosing of ministers is by the consent of the church.
We find it in avoiding every occasion of sin; in fleeing from temptation; and in quickly returning to God through sacramental confession.
Yet Luke is usually held to be later than Mark, but it is not concerned to emphasize the Christological confession.
See our startling confession | Find all Gothenburg articles 18 June Solidarity with Gothenburg prisoners.
But, meanwhile, God extorted a confession from him, in which he describes his nature to us.
Failing to extract a confession of theft, he resorted to occult methods.
What else... oh, how when you randomly pull out a notion in conversation, sometimes it sticks and elicits a confession.
Zoom On 9 November Fawkes signed a more detailed confession with the names of others involved in the plot.
The result was then used to obtain a confession from a person who was later charged with a criminal offense.
More than thirty years later, in May 1988, a mystery man claimed his father had made a deathbed confession to the crime.
For with the heart one believes unto righteousness, and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation.
confession of faith at my baptism I still remember saying I would follow Christ wherever he would lead me.
deathbed confession to the crime.
extort a false confession from her.
frank confession, and thrown himself on the mercy of the court.
The confession of perspicuity in Protestant hermeneutics is a denial of being language-bound.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.