He was prominent in the affairs of the New England Confederation, of which he was one of the founders (1643).
Napp's Argentine Republic; and de Moussy's Confederation argentine.
Was the will of the Confederation of the Rhine transferred to Napoleon in 1806?
In March 1848 he made a speech before the Confederation which led to his arrest for sedition, but at his trial the jury failed to agree and he was discharged.
A fugitive slave clause was inserted in the Articles of Confederation of the New England Confederation of 1643, providing for the return of the fugitive upon the certificate of one magistrate in the jurisdiction out of which the said servant fled - no trial by jury being provided for.
The king thereupon reverted to the Russian faction and the Confederation lost the confidence of Europe.
Grant threw the whole weight of his great influence in favour of confederation, and his oratory played an important part in securing the success of the movement.
Owing to the proximity of the capital this group is comparatively subject to the Turkish power, and pays a small annual tribute; the chiefs, who assess and collect the tribute, form a kind of administrative council; the confederation has also an official representative council at Scutari, called the Jibal, under the presidency of a Serkarde or Moslem official.
Lauenburg entered the North German confederation in 1866 and the new German empire in 1870.
1826), who immediately made peace with Prussia and joined the North German Confederation, his land becoming a member of the new German empire in 1871.
A constituent congress, in which each province had equal representation, was duly gress had (May 1, 1853) appointed Urquiza president of the confederation, and he established the seat of government at Parana.
In the following July the Confederation created a "war directory" of five, of which Meagher was a member, and he and William Smith O'Brien travelled through Ireland for the purpose of starting a revolution.
Saxe-Meiningen had entered the confederation of the Rhine in 1807, but had joined the allies in 1813 and became a member of the German confederation in 1815.
(2) The Mi-shkodrak (Upper Scutari) group or confederation, also known as the Malsia-Madhe (Great Highlands), is composed of the Klement, Grud-a, Hot, Kastrat and Shkrel tribes, which occupy the mountainous district north-east of Scutari.
The rapid and amazing success of the Mahratta confederation rendered it the largest Hindu power that ever existed in India.
This schism lasted fully ten years, although the antipope found hardly any adherents outside of his own hereditary states, those of Alphonso of Aragon, of the Swiss confederation and certain universities.
Matthias consolidated his position by alliances with the dukes of Saxony and Bavaria, with the Swiss Confederation, and the archbishop of Salzburg, and was henceforth the greatest potentate in central Europe.
CONFEDERATION OF BAR, a famous confederation of the Polish nobles and gentry formed at the little fortress of Bar in Podolia in 1768 to defend the internal and external independence of Poland against the aggressions of the Russian government as represented by her representative at Warsaw, Prince Nicholas Repnin.
The continual encroachments of the Portuguese at length led the Spanish government to take the important step of making Buenos Aires the seat of a viceroyalty with jurisdiction over the territories of the present republics of Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay and the Argentine Confederation (1776).
In the time of Caesar the Arverni were a powerful confederation, the Arvernian Vercingetorix being the most famous of the Gallic chieftains who fought against the Romans.
All that we certainly know about his life is contained in three sentences of his history of the Goths (cap. 50), from which, among other particulars as to the history of his family, we learn that his grandfather Paria was notary to Candac, the chief of a confederation of Alans and other tribes settled during the latter half of the 5th century on the south of the Danube in the provinces which are now Bulgaria and the Dobrudscha.
The historic tradition which identifies with the Cretans the principal element of the Philistine confederation, and places the tomb of Minos himself in western Sicily, thus receives remarkable confirmation.
Austria now proposed the terms named above with the addition that the Confederation of the Rhine must be dissolved, and that Prussia should be placed in a position as good as that which she held in 1805, that is, before the campaign of Jena.
During that war also, those states which had no claims in the West contended that title to these western lands should pass to the Union and when the Articles of Confederation were submitted for ratification in 1777, Maryland refused to ratify them except on that condition.
By reason of this rejection the relations of North Carolina with the other states were severed upon the dissolution of the Confederation, and it took no part in the first election or in the organization of the new government.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
In 1848, when Prussia made war on Denmark, Lauenburg was occupied at her own request by some Hanoverian troops, and was then administered for three years under the authority of the German confederation, being restored to Denmark in 1851.
The conception of a permanent confederation, bound together in offensive and defensive alliance for common objects, has not occurred to these hard fighters and stubborn asserters of their civic privileges.
Thus the confederation of Bar, and the Turkish War thereupon ensuing, took him completely by surprise and considerably weakened his position.
He is accordingly friendly to the Goths, even apart from the influence of Cassiodorus; but he is also prepossessed in favour of the eastern emperors in whose territories this confederation lived and whose subject he himself was.
After long swaying between the neighbouring Rhine cities and the Swiss Confederation, it was admitted into the latter in 1501.
The army of the portent's, commanded by Colonel Bartolome Mitre, was defeated at Cepeda by the confederate forces under Urquiza, and Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the confederation (November 11, 1859).
In 1859 he again took part in politics, resuming his place in the lower chamber, opposing in 1863 the project of Austria for the reform of the Confederation brought forward in the assembly of princes at Frankfort, in his book Die Reform des deutschen Bundestages, and becoming one of the leaders of the "little German" (kleindeutsche) party, which advocated the exclusion of Austria from Germany.
The sovereigns of Sardinia, Naples, Portugal and Spain were dethroned, the pope was driven from Rome, the Rhine Confederation was extended till France obtained a footing on the Baltic, the grand-duchy of Warsaw was reorganized and strengthened, the promised evacuation of Prussia was indefinitely postponed, an armistice between Russia and Turkey was negotiated by French diplomacy in such a way that the Russian troops should evacuate the Danubian principalities, which Alexander intended to annex to his empire, and the scheme for breaking up the Ottoman empire and ruining England by the conquest of India, which had been one of the most attractive baits in the Tilsit negotiations, but which had not been formulated in the treaty, was no longer spoken of.
The Ottoman Empire thus remained outside the European concert; Russia maintained her claim to a special right of isolated intervention in its affairs; and the renewal of war between Russia and Turkey was only postponed by the preoccupation of Alexander with his dream of the " Confederation of Europe."
Levies were also made with rigorous severity in the states of the Rhine Confederation, and even Italy was called on for fresh sacrifices.
He now grouped together the princes of south and central Germany in the Confederation of the Rhine, of which he was the protector and practically the ruler in all important affairs.
In 1803, having formally surrendered the part of Hesse on the left bank of the Rhine which had been taken from him in the early days of the Revolution, Louis received in return a much larger district which had formerly belonged to the duchy of Westphalia, the electorate of Mainz and the bishopric of Worms. In 1806, being a member of the confederation of the Rhine, he took the title of Louis I., grandduke of Hesse; he supported Napoleon with troops from 1805 to 1813, but after the battle of Leipzig he joined the allies.
In 1866 Hamburg joined the North German Confederation, and in 1871, while remaining outside the Zollverein, became a constituent state of the German empire.
Nevertheless, a simultaneous outbreak of a jacquerie in Little-Russia contributed to the extension of the confederation throughout the eastern province of Poland and even in Lithuania.
After the peace of Tilsit the Grand Army was gradually withdrawn behind the Rhine, leaving only three commands, totalling 63,000 men, under Davout in Prussia, Oudinot in west central Germany, and Lefebvre in Bavaria, to assist the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine in the maintenance of order and the enforcement of the French law of conscription, which was rigorously insisted on in all the States comprised in this new federation.
Thus a confederation was formed of which the Brahman peshwa or head was at Poona, governing the adjacent territories, while the members, belonging to the lower castes, were scattered throughout the continent of India.
But he could not recover Kamieniec, and when the tuszenia pospolite met at Golenba and ordered an inquiry into the conduct of Sobieski and his accomplices he frustrated all their efforts by summoning a counter confederation to meet at Szczebrzeszyn.
The originators of this confederation were Adam Krasinski, bishop of Kamenets, Osip Pulawski and Michael Krasinski.
When the German confederation was re-established in 1850 in place of the parliament of Frankfort, Gorchakov was appointed Russian minister to the diet.
For instance, the peshwas, or heads of the Mahratta confederation which at one time dominated nearly all India, were Konkanast Brahmans.
The moment news of their activity reached him, whilst still in pursuit of Sir John Moore, he despatched letters to all the members of the Confederation warning them that their contingents might soon be required, and at the same time issued a series of decrees to General Clarke, his war minister, authorizing him to call up the contingent of 1810 in advance, and directing him in detail to proceed with the formation of 4th and 5th battalions for all the regiments across the Rhine.
In 1770 the Council of the Confederation was transferred from its original seat in Silesia to Hungary, from whence it conducted diplomatic negotiations with France, Austria and Turkey with the view of forming a league against Russia.
His son Mihiragula (c. 510-540) made Sakala in the Punjab his Indian capital, but the cruelty of his rule provoked the Indian princes to form a confederation and revolt against him about 528.
Added to all this was the news of the continual Russian military aggressions in Poland, against which the Catholic confederation of Bar continued to appeal for aid.
On the triumph of the reactionaries and the fall of the national party, he secretly placed in the king's hands his adhesion to the triumphant Confederation of Targowica, a false step, much blamed at the time, but due not to personal ambition but to a desire to save something from the wrqck of the constitution.
He made desperate efforts to conciliate the population, and succeeded with a few of the nobles, who were led to believe in the possibility of an Italian confederation, including Lombardy and Venetia which would be united to Austria by a personal union alone; but the immense majority of all classes rejected these advances, and came to regard union with Piedmont with increasing favor.
Maurice, his son, joined the confederation against the two Despensers, and lay in prison at Wallingford until his death in 1326, the queen's party gaining the upper hand too late to release him.
In May of this year he had an important interview with Bismarck, who wished to secure his support for the reform of the confederation, and after the war was over at once accepted the position of a Prussian subject, and took his seat in the diet of the North German Confederation and in the Prussian parliament.
He was not himself a Goth, belonging to a confederation of Germanic tribes, embracing Alans and Scyrians, which had come under the influence of the Ostrogoths settled on the lower Danube; and his own sympathies are those of a member of this confederation.
In 1867 Louis entered the North German Confederation, but only for his lands north of the Main, and in 1871 Hesse-Darmstadt became one of the states of the new German empire.
It remains to mention briefly the fortunes of each remaining member of the once imperial confederation.
of Assyria fought a great confederation of princes from Cilicia, N.
Shortly after the battle of Carabobo (June 24, 1821), by which the power of Spain in this part of the world was broken, Venezuela was united with the federal state of Colombia, which embraced the present Colombia and Ecuador; but the Venezuelans were averse to the Confederation, and an agitation was set on foot in the autumn of 1829 which resulted in the issue of a decree (December 8) by General Paez dissolving the union, and declaring Venezuela a sovereign and independent state.
of the Act of Confederation.
On the 8th of June 1815 King Frederick joined the new German Confederation.
The duchies of Schleswig and Holstein had.been for centuries united to the kingdom of Denmark by the golden link of the Scliles- crown; in other respects they had been organica]1y wig- kept distinct, while one of themIjolsteinwa., a Holstein member of the German confederation.
Weary of the condition of anarchy which existed in the republic, niany inhabitants of the Transvaal were ready to welcome its annexation to Great Britaina proposal favored by the colonial secretary, Lord Carnarvon, who wished to federate the South African states, after the manner in which the North American colonies had become by confederation the Dominion of Canada.
It was a member of the Campanian confederation, and shared the fortunes of Capua, but remained faithful to Hannibal for a longer time; the great part of the inhabitants, when they could no longer resist the Romans, were transferred by him to Thurii, and the town was reoccupied in 211 by the Romans, who settled the exiled inhabitants of Nuceria there.
In the " Alabama " arbitration five arbitrators were nominated by the president of the United States, the queen of England, the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation, and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
In 1272 it was the first of the towns of Guyenne to join the confederation headed by Bordeaux.
When this was dissolved in 146 B.C., they remained independent under the title of the "Confederation of the Lacedaemonians" or "of the Free-Laconians" (rcocvov rcov AarceSacµoviwv or 'EXeuBepoXarcwvwv), the supreme officer of which was a QTparriyos (general) assisted by a Taylas (treasurer).
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
The only works translated into English are two pamphlets on the war of 1870, What we demand from France (London, 1870), and The Firetest of the North German Confederation (1870).
Karl Theodor Anton Maria Von Dalberg (1744-1817), archbishop-elector of Mainz, arch-chancellor of the Holy Roman Empire, and afterwards primate of the Confederation of the Rhine and grand-duke of Frankfort.
On the dissolution of the Empire in 1806 he formally resigned the office of arch-chancellor in a letter to the emperor Francis, and was appointed by Napoleon prince primate of the Confederation of the Rhine.
Dalberg's subservience, as a prince of the Confederation, to Napoleon was specially resented since, as a priest, he had no excuse of necessity on the ground of saving family or dynastic interests; his fortunes therefore fell with those of Napoleon, and, when he died on the 10th of February 1817, of all his dignities he was in possession only of the archbishopric of Regensburg.
This party instituted an elementary form of government, and in 1840 entered into a loose confederation with the Natal Boers, and also with the Boers south of the Vaal, whose headquarters were at Winburg.
- This condition of affairs coincided with the second movement in South Africa for a confederation of its various colonies and states, a movement of which the then colonial secretary, the 4th earl of Carnarvon, was a warm advocate.
On being directly appealed to by Kruger and Joubert, Gladstone however replied that the liberty which they sought might be " most easily and promptly conceded to the Transvaal as a member of a South African Confederation."
On the left bank of the Reuss, immediately opposite Altdorf, is Attinghausen, where the ruined castle (which belonged to one of the real founders of the Swiss Confederation) now houses the cantonal museum of antiquities.
In 1867 he became the first president of the chancery of the North German Confederation, and represented Bismarck on the federal tariff council (Zollbundesrath), a position of political as well as fiscal importance owing to the presence in the council of representatives of the southern states.
In 1806 the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine involved an extension of this mediatizing process, though the abolition of the empire itself deprived the word "mediatization" of its essential meaning.
Salm, Isenburg, Leyen) should only be represented mediately in the diet of the new Confederation.
The proposed confederation of the Windward Islands in 1876, however, provoked riots, which occasioned considerable loss of life and property, but secured for the people their existence as a separate colony.
The defeat of the Germans at Helsingborg only called into being the stronger town and territorial alliance of 1367, known as the Cologne Confederation, and its final victory, with the peace of Stralsund in 1370, which gave for a limited period the four chief castles on the Sound into the hands of the Hanseatic towns, greatly enhanced the prestige of the League.
The identification (Schrader, McCurdy, &c.) of Azariah with Azriyau of Ja'udi, the head of a North Syrian confederation at Hamath (Hamah) overcome by Tiglath-Pileser IV.
Unsuccessful as a general in the field, he nevertheless possessed remarkable administrative ability and for nearly three years (1836-1839) realized his lifelong dream of a Peru-Bolivian confederation?
But the strong-handed intervention of Chile on the ground of assistance rendered to rebels, but really through jealousy of the confederation, ended in the defeat and overthrow of Santa Cruz, and the separation of Bolivia from Peru.
In 1814 it was restored to Germany and in 1816 it was handed over to the grand duke of Hesse; it remained, however, a fortress of the German confederation and was garrisoned by Prussian and Austrian troops.
Under the Articles of Confederation it was principally Rhode Island that defeated the proposal to authorize Congress to levy an impost duty of 5% mainly as a means of meeting the debts of the Central government.
From 1806 to 1810 it was the residence of Karl von Dalberg, princeprimate of the Confederation of the Rhine, with whose dominions Frankfort had been incorporated by Napoleon.
On the failure of this confederation it opened its gates to the imperial general Buren on the 29th of December 1546, although he had passed by the city, which he considered too strong for the forces under his command.
On the reconstitution of Germany in 1815 it again became a free city, and in the following year it was declared the seat of the German Confederation.
1806 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine, declared himself a sovereign prince, became a grand-duke, and received other additions of territory.
In 1815 Baden became a member of the Germanic confederation established by the Act of the 8th of June, annexed to the Final Act of the congress of Vienna of the 9th of June.
of the Act of Confederation, a liberal constitution, under which two chambers were constituted and their assent declared necessary for legislation and taxation.
The ministry, now at one, resigned; Baden announced her withdrawal from the German confederation; and on the 17th of August a treaty of peace and alliance was signed with Prussia.
The adhesion of Baden to the North German confederation was, prevented by Bismarck himself, who had no wish to give Napoleon III.
so good an excuse for intervention; but it was the opposition of Baden to the formation of a South German confederation that made the ultimate union inevitable.
Cyprian was the first to proclaim the identity of heretics and schismatics by making a man's Christianity depend on his belonging to the great episcopal church confederation.
DELIAN LEAGUE, or Confederacy Of Delos, the name given to a confederation of Greek states under the leadership of Athens, with its headquarters at Delos, founded in 478 B.C. shortly after the final repulse of the expedition of the Persians under Xerxes I.
The league was, therefore, specifically a free confederation of autonomous Ionian cities founded as a protection against the common danger which threatened the Aegean basin, and led by Athens in virtue of her predominant naval power as exhibited in the war against Xerxes.
Charles Emmanuel (1796-1802), believing in Bonaparte's promises, was induced to enter into a confederation with France and give up the citadel of Turin to the French, which meant the end of his country's independence.
Six of the seven states forming the confederation of the United Netherlands took as their stadtholder William of Orange-Nassau, called "the Silent," and his descendants during three generations.
They exercised large administrative powers, and commanded the land and sea forces, but it was with delegated authority given them by each state in domestic affairs, and by the states-general of the confederation in all common and foreign affairs.
As a delegate to the Continental Congress, from 1774 to 1781, Samuel Adams continued vigorously to oppose any concession to the British government; strove for harmony among the several colonies in the common cause; served on numerous committees, among them that to prepare a plan of confederation; and signed the Declaration of Independence.
Constance is the natural capital of the Thurgau, so that when in 1460 the Swiss wrested that region from the Austrians, the town and the Swiss Confederation should have been naturally drawn together.
In the previous year the German Confederation, to which the grand-duchy of Luxemburg had belonged since 1815, had been dissolved; but the Prussians maintained their garrison in Luxemburg, which was not included in the new North German Confederation, while King William III.
In terms of a treaty concluded in 1867 for ten years, renewed in 1877 for a similar period, and continued in 1887 with the proviso that it should be terminable on two years' notice, the finances and the entire government of Waldeck-Pyrmont are managed by Prussia, the little country having found itself unable to support unassisted the military and other burdens involved by its share in the North German Confederation of 1867-187 r and subsequently as a constituent state of the German empire.
In 1807 Waldeck joined the confederation of the Rhine, and in 1815 entered the German confederation.
- The name is derived from the Purasati, one of a great confederation from north Syria, Asia Minor and the Levant, which threatened Egypt in the XXth Dynasty.
They are represented as a confederation of five cities (Ashdod, Ascalon [Ashkelon], Ekron, Gath and Gaza) which remained unconquered (Joshua xiii.
Assyria under Sargon defeated the southern confederation at Rapihi (Raphia on the border of Egypt) and captured Hanun; the significance of the victory is evident from the submission of the queen of Aribi (Arabia), the Sabaean Itamara, and Musri.
It was true that the most active French colonial element, the trappers, were barbarized by the natives, and that the pursuit of the fur trade and other causes had brought the French into sharp collision with the most formidable of the native races, the confederation known as the Five (or Six) Nations.
The result of the discussion was that Bern was won over to the side of the reformer, who apprehended the whole struggle of Protestantism as turning directly on the political decisions of the various units of the Confederation.
In 1803, the two halves (plus the Frick glen, ceded in 1802 by Austria to the Helvetic Republic) were united under the name of Kanton Aargau, which was then admitted a full member of the reconstituted Confederation.
New York ratified the Articles of Confederation in 1778, and when Maryland refused to ratify unless those states asserting claims to territory west to the Mississippi agreed to surrender them, New York was the first to do so.
The Confederation Congress appealed to it in vain for the right to collect duties at its port; and there was determined opposition to the new Federal constitution.
The assent of Lord Elgin to the bill provoked in Montreal a riot which ended in the burning of the houses of parliament, and so great was the indignation of the hitherto ultra-loyal Conservative party that many of its most prominent members signed a document favouring annexation to the United States; Macdonald on the other hand took steps, in conjunction with others, to form a British-American league, having for its object the confederation of all the provinces, the strengthening of the connexion with the mother country, and the adoption of a national commercial policy.
At this critical period a proposal was made for a coalition of parties in order to carry out a broad scheme of British-American confederation.
Macdonald, at the head of a representative delegation from Ontario and Quebec, met the public men of the maritime provinces in conference at Charlottetown in 1864, and the outline of confederation then agreed upon was filled out in detail at a conference held at Quebec soon afterwards.
The pledge made at confederation with regard to the building of the Intercolonial railway to connect the maritime provinces with those of the St Lawrence was fulfilled.
In this year British Columbia entered the confederation, one of the provisions of union being that a transcontinental railroad should be built within ten years.
Few political leaders have ever had such a number of antagonistic elements to reconcile as presented themselves in the first Canadian parliament after confederation.
Marthinus Pretorius, who had succeeded to his father's position as commandant general of Potchefstroom, wished to bring about a confederation between the two Boer states.
The difficulties of the state were at that time (1858) so great that the volksraad in December of that year passed a resolution in favour of confederation with the Cape Colony.
At the peace of Posen (11th December 1806) Frederick assumed the title of king of Saxony, and entered the Confederation 'of the Rhine as an independent sovereign, promising a contingent of 20,000 men to Napoleon.
On the conclusion of peace Saxony lost no territory, but had to pay a war indemnity of ten million thalers, and was compelled to enter the North German Confederation.
During the peace negotiations Beust had resigned and entered the Austrian service, and on the 15th of November the king in his speech from the throne announced his intention of being faithful to the new Confederation as he had been to the old.
army corps of the North German Confederation under the command of Crown-Prince Albert.
The postal and telegraph systems were also placed under the control of Prussia, and the representation of the Saxon crown at foreign courts was merged in that of the Confederation.
(b) Organized associations, including - (1) international commissions (internationale Verwaltungsvereine, such as international postal and telegraph unions, &c.); (2) the Staatenbund or confederation of states; (3) real unions of states as distinguished from personal; (4) the Bundesstaat or federal state.'
For many years one of the burning questions in the politics of ' The distinction between the Staatenbund and the Bundesstaat is discussed in the articles Confederation and Federal Government.
Hancock was a member of the Continental Congress from 1775 to 1780, was president of it from May 1775 to October 1 777, being the first to sign the Declaration of Independence, and was a member of the Confederation Congress in 1785-1786.
The name of the Territory was derived from the Dakota Indians; the word " Dah-ko-ta " (signifying " allied " or " confederated "), being originally applied to the Sioux Confederation.
joined the German confederation as a sovereign prince in 1817, and after his death his five sons in succession filled the throne.
In 1874 Lord Carnarvon, then colonial secretary, sent Froude to South Africa to report on the best means of promoting a confederation of its colonies and states, and in 1875 he was again sent to the Cape as a member of a proposed conference to further confederation.
On the 23rd of August he joined Girolano Ramorino's army-corps as a volunteer, and subsequently formed a confederation of the three southern provinces of Kalisch, Sandomir and Cracow.
The canton is, save Zug, the smallest in the Swiss Confederation, while the city, long the most populous in the land, is now surpassed by Zurich and by Basel.
The canton was admitted into the Swiss Confederation in 1815 only, and ranks as the junior of the 22 cantons.
Most probably Geneva would soon have become an integral part of the realms of the house of Savoy had it not been for the appearance of a new protector on the scene - the Swiss confederation.
Thus 1530 marks the date at which Geneva became its own mistress within, while allied externally with the Swiss confederation.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, while the Romanist majority of the Swiss cantons steadily refused to accept Geneva as even a subordinate member of the Confederation, the city itself was distracted on several occasions by attempts of the citizens, as a whole, to gain some share in the aristocratic government of the town, though these attempts were only partially successful.
On the fall of Napoleon (1813) the city recovered its independence, and finally, in 1815, was received as the junior member of the Swiss confederation, several bits of French and Savoyard territory (as pointed out above) being added to the narrow bounds of the old Genevese Republic in order to give the town some protection against its non-Swiss neighbours.
In respect of Austria Czechoslovakia was animated by the desire to assist in relieving the economic situation of the country, while opposed both to the incorporation of Austria with Germany and to the foundation of a Danubian confederation.
It was one of the twelve cities of the Etruscan confederation, and was taken in 294 B.C. by the Romans.
Thus at this period Poland was a confederation of half a dozen semiindependent states.
At a subsequent confederation, held at Lublin in June, Zebrzydowski was reinforced by another great nobleman, Stanislaus Stadnicki, called the Devil, who "had more crimes on his conscience than hairs on his head," and was in the habit of cropping the ears and noses of small squires and chaining his serfs to the walls of his underground dungeons for months at a time.
Thus, at the election diet of 1669, one of the deputies, Pieniaszek, moved that a new and hitherto unheard-of clause should be inserted in the agenda of the general confederation, to the effect that every senator .and deputy should solemnly swear not to take bribes, while another szlacic proposed that the ambassadors of foreign Powers should be excluded permanently from the Polish elective assemblies.
Disappointed in their hopes of Russia, the Czartoryscy next attempted to form a confederation for the deposition of Augustus III., but while the strife of factions was still at its height the absentee monarch put an end to the struggle by expiring, conveniently, on the 5th of October 1763.
political refugees, formed a confederation at Radom, of Russia whose first act was to send a deputation to St and Poland.
This shameful surrender led to a Catholic patriotic uprising, known as the Confederation of Bar, which was formed on the 29th of February 1768, at Bar in the Ukraine, by a handful of small squires.
In 1806 he was admitted as grand duke of Wiirzburg to the confederation of the Rhine.
From 1867 to 1871 he was a councillor in the chancery of the North German Confederation.
In national affairs Maryland early took a stand of perhaps farreaching consequences in refusing to sign the Articles of Confederation (which required the assent of all the states before coming into effect), after all the other states had done so (in 1779), until those states claiming territory between the Alleghany Mountains and the Mississippi and north of the Ohio - Virginia, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut - should have surrendered such claims. As those states finally yielded, the Union was strengthened by reason of a greater equality and consequently less jealousy among the original states, and the United States came into possession of the first territory in which all the states had a common interest and out of which new states were to be created.
In Alava the ruling power was the confederation of Arriaga (so called after its meeting place), which united the province to the crown of Castile in 1332.
In 1807 Schwarzburg-Sondershausen entered the Confederation of the Rhine and became a sovereign state.
Since confederation a series of attempts has been made with varying degrees of success to settle the questions in dispute between the Dominion and the United States, naturally arising from the fact that they divide between them with the the control of nearly the whole of a large continent and United its adjoining waters.
Under the British North American Act the control of education was reserved for the provincial governments, with a stipulation that all rights enjoyed by denominational schools at the time of confederation should be respected.
While the older universities have increased greatly in influence and efficiency, the following new foundations have been made since confederation: - University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, 1877; Presbyterian College, Winnipeg, 1870; Methodist College, Winnipeg, 1888; Wesleyan College, Montreal, 1873; Presbyterian College, Montreal, 1868; School of Practical Science, Toronto, 1877; Royal Military College, Kingston, 1875; M`Master University, Toronto, 1888.
Born In 1784, And Brought Up Among Reminiscent Eye Witnesses Of The Old Regime, He Was An Eager Listener, With A Wonderful4 Memory And Whole Hearted Pride In The Glories Of His Race And Family, A Kindly Seigneur, Who Loved And 'Was Loved By All His Censitaires, A Keen Observer Of Many Changing Systems, Down, To The Final Confederation Of 1867, And A Man Who Had Felt' Both Extremes Of Fortune (Memoires, 1866).
At Confederation Many Eager Followers Began To Take Up The' Work Which The Founders Were Laying Down.
Le Defricheur was an organ of extreme French sentiment, opposed to confederation, and also under ecclesiastical censure.
One of its few surviving copies contains an article by Laurier opposing confederation as a scheme designed in the interest of the English colonies in North America, and certain to prove the tomb of the French race and the ruin of Lower Canada.
The Liberals of Quebec under the leadership of Sir Antoine Dorion were hostile to confederation, or at least to the terms of union agreed upon at the Quebec conference, and Laurier in editorials and speeches maintained the position of Dorion and his allies.
He was the first French Canadian to lead a federal party in Canada since confederation.
1175); and Toghrul, son of Arslan, killed in 1194 by Inanej, son of his atabeg, Mahommed, who was in confederation with the Khwarizm shah of the epoch, Takash.
He now entered the service of the grand-duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz, and remained at the head of the grand-ducal government until 1867, when he became plenipotentiary for the two Mecklenburg duchies in the council of the German Confederation (Bundesrat), where he distinguished himself by his successful defence of the medieval constitution of the duchies against Liberal attacks.
To save the constitution an appeal was made to the German Confederation, which Hanover had joined in 1815; but the federal diet declined to interfere, and in 1840 Ernest altered the constitution to suit his own illiberal views.
This project, however, was resisted by the second chamber of the Landtag, or parliament; and after several changes of government a new ministry advised the king in 1855 to appeal to the diet of the German Confederation.
He was on the committee which drafted the Declaration of Independence, and also on that which drafted the Articles of Confederation.
It was stipulated that the dismantling should be controlled by a technical commission of three officers of foreign nationality, to be chosen, one by each of the contracting powers and the third by the two officers thus appointed, or, in default of an agreement on their part, by the president of the Swiss Confederation.
When, during the period of unrest that followed the deaths of the peshwa, Madhu Rao II., in 1795 and of Tukoji Holkar in 1797, the Mahratta leaders fought over the question of supremacy, the peshwa, Baji Rao II., the titular head of the Mahratta confederation, fled from his capital and placed himself under British protection by the treaty of Bassein (December 31, 1802).
In 1719 these new acquisitions were raised by the emperor into a principality under the name of Liechtenstein, which formed part successively of the Holy Roman Empire (till 1806) and of the German Confederation (1815-1866), having been sovereign1806-1815as well as since 1866.
As minister-plenipotentiary at Cassel, between the years 1804 and 1806, he took a prominent share in the formation of the confederation of the Rhine; and after the battle of Jena he returned to Prussia as administrator of the public domains and finances.
About that time parts of a confederation of tribes which had taken the name of Shammar from a moun tain in their neighbourhood, moved northwards from Central Arabia in search of better pasture, &c. Successfully displacing their forerunners, they made themselves at home in the Syrian steppe - until their possession was in turn disputed by a later emigrant from Arabia, for whom they finally made room by moving on into Mesopotamia, over which they spread, driving before them their predecessors the Tai (whose name the Mesopotamian Aramaeans had adopted as a designation for Arab in general), partly north of the Sinjar, partly over the Tigris.
Kelisman), an ancient town of Ionia and a member of the Ionian Dodecapolis (Confederation of Twelve Cities), on the Gulf of Smyrna, about 20 m.
In the Central Alps the chief event, on the northern side of the chain, is the gradual formation from 1291 to 1815 of the Swiss Confederation, at least so far as regards the mountain Cantons, and with especial reference to the independent confederations of the Grisons and the Valais, which only became full members of the Confederation in 1803 and 1815 respectively.
Further, in 1512, the Swiss Confederation as a whole won the valleys of Locarno with Lugano, which, combined with the 15th century conquests by the Forest Cantons, were formed in 1803 into the new Canton of Ticino or Tessin.
In the new German confederation Bavaria had assumed the role of defender 1 On o ' '/8/8.
From 1803 to 1814 the canton was one of the six "Directorial" cantons of the Confederation.
The tribes involved were the Kumasi, Adansi and Kokofu; the other tribes of the Ashanti confederation remained loyal.
Restored to independence by the congress of Vienna in 1815, it subsequently became a member of the German Confederation, and in 1867 joined the new North German Confederation, with which it was merged in the new German empire.
In 1712 the town succeeded Baden in Aargau as the meeting-place of the Federal Diet, and continued to be the capital of the Confederation till its transformation in 1798.
At the peace of Basel in 1795 the whole of the left bank of the Rhine was resigned to France, and in 1806 the Rhenish princes all joined the Confederation of the Rhine.
Belgium therefore kept possession of Limburg and Luxemburg, except the fortress of Luxemburg, which as a fortress of the German confederation was, under the terms of the treaty of Vienna, garrisoned by Prussian troops.
When, in 1201, the city joined the Hanseatic League its power and repute were so great that it was made the chief place of a third of the confederation.
But Germany, or the German empire, as it is now understood, was formed in 1871 by virtue of treaties between the North German Confederation and the South German states, and by the acquisition, in the peace of Frankfort (May 10, 1871), of Alsace-Lorraine, and embraces all the countries of the former German Confederation, with the exception of Austria, Luxemburg, Limburg and Liechtenstein.
The formation of the German Confederation in 1815 effected but little change in this respect, and it was left to the different states to arrange in what manner the census should be taken.
Constitution.The constitution of the German empire is, in all essentials, that of the North German Confederation, which came into force on the 7th of June 1867.
Under this the presidency (Praesidium) of the confederation was vested in the king of Prussia and his heirs.
As a result of the Franco-German war of 1870 the South German states joined the confederation:
on the 9th of December 1870 the diet of the confederatior - accepted the treaties and gave to the new confederation thc name of German Empire (Deutsche Reich), and on the 18th oi January 1871 the king of Prussia was proclaimed Germar emperor (Deutscher Kaiser) a-e Versailles.
The title is German emperor, not emperor of Germany, being intended to show that the Kaiser is but primus inter pares in a confederation o.f territorial sovereigns; his authority as territorial sovereign (Landesherr) extends over Prussia, not over GermaAy.
Poor Law.A law passed by the North German Confederation of the 6th of June 1870, and subsequently amended by an imperial law of the 12th of March 1894, laid down rules for the relief of the destitute in all the states composing the empire, with the exception of Bavaria and Alsace-Lorraine.
From the time of the formation of the North German Confederation the navy has belonged to the common federal interest.
They were still heathens, cherishing bitter hatred towards the Franks, whom they regarded as the enemies both of their liberties and of their religion; and their hatred found expression, not only in expeditions into Frankish territory, but in help willingly rendered to every German confederation which wished to throw off the Frankish yoke.
Of these leagues the chief at this time was the Rhenish Confederation, which has been already mentioned.
Perhaps the most famous of these was one between a confederation of Franconian and Swabian cities under the leadership of Nuremberg on the one side, and Albert Achilles, afterwards elector of Brandenburg, and a number of princes on the other.
Partly at the instance of the emperor a great Swabian confederation was formed in 1488.
The period marked by the attempted reform of Bertold of Mainz was that of the last struggle between the supporters of a united Germany and those who preferred a loose confederation of states.
to the imperial authority was unlawful and, meeting in December 1530, laid the foundation of the important league of Schmalkalden, among the first members of the confederation being the rulers of Saxony and Hesse and the cities of Bremen and Magdeburg.
Among the new membersof the confederation was Christian III., king of Denmark.
To save himself from the consequences of his double marriage, which had provided him with powerful enemies, Philip in June 1541 came to terms with the emperor, who thus managed to spike the guns of the league of Schmalkalden, although the strength of this confederation did not fail until after the campaign against Henry of Brunswick.
Rendered suspicious by this arbitrary act, the,Protestant princes in 1608 formed a confederation known as the Evangelical Union, and in response the Roman Catholics, under the guidance of Maximilian, united in a similar confederation afterwards called the Catholic League.
Thus before the Thirty Years War the Empire had virtually ceased to exist, Germany having become a loose confederation of principalities and free cities.
The degradation of Germany was completed by the formation, in 1806, of the Confederation of the Rhine, which was composed of the chief central and southern states.
The Confederation of the Rhine, however, was a menace to Prussia too serious to be neglected; and Frederick Williams hesitations were suddenly ended by Napoleons contemptuous violation of Prussian territory in marching three French brigades through Ansbach without leave asked.
Metternich had been allowed to take the initiative in negotiating with the princes of the Confederation of the Rhine, and the price of their adhesion to the cause of the allies had been the guarantee by Austria of their independent sovereignty.
The guarantee had been willingly given; for Metternich had no desire to see the creation of a powerful unified German empire, but aimed at the establishment of a loose confederation of weak states over which Austria, by reason of her ancient imperial prestige and her vast non-German power, would exercise a dominant influence.
This, then, was the view that prevailed, and by the treaty of Chaumont (March 1, 1814) it was decided that Germany should consist of a confederation of sovereign states.
As the central organ of this confederation (Bund) was established the federal diet (Bundestag), consisting of delegates of the several states.
It was empowered to arrange the fundamental laws of the confederation; to fix the organic institutions relating to its external, internal and military arrangements; to regulate the trade relations between the various federated states.
It was not to Russias interest to see Austrian influence supreme in the confederation.
This excited vehement opposition among the Germans, on the ground that Holstein, although subject to the king of Denmark, was a member of the German confederation, and that in virtue of ancient treaties it could not be severed from Schleswig.
Frederick VII., who had just succeeded Christian VIII., put down the rebellion, but Prussia, acting in the name of the confederation, despatched an army against the Daoes, and drove them from Schleswig.
Then was a universal wish that the Austrian Germans should hi included in the German state; on the other hand, it was fel that if all the various nationalities of Austria formed a unite monarchy, and if this monarchy as a whole were included ir the confederation, it would necessarily overshadow Germany and expose her to unnecessary external dangers.
Two of the ministel i resigned, and one of those who took their place, Heinrich vo Gagern (q.v), proposed that, since Austria was to be a unite i state, she should not enter the confederation, but that h - relations to Germany should be regulated by a special act union.
Afterwards all four states, with several others, accepted the invitation of Austria to consider the propriety of re-establishing the Confederation.
stitution of the Confederation and drawing the German states closer together on a Liberal basis; the moment seemed singularly inopportune for Prussia, which had not shown herself particularly zealous for the common interests, to menace the other German governments by increasing her separate armaments.
Of the German sovereign states but four were unrepresentedAnhalt-Bernburg, Holstein, Lippe and Prussia; but the absence of Prussia was felt to be fatal; the minor princes existed by reason of the balance between the two great powers, and objected as strongly to the exclusion of the one as of the other from the Confederation; an invitation to King William was therefore signed by all present and carried by the king of Saxony in person to Berlin.
On the 24th of December Saxon and Hanoverian troops occupied Holstein in the name of the German Confederation, and supported by their presence and the favor of the population the prince of Augustenburg, as Duke Frederick VIII., assumed the government.
On the 24th Bismarck in his turn issued a circular note stating that, in view of the Austrian war preparations, Prussia must take measures for her defence; at the same time he laid before the princes the outline of the Prussian scheme for the reform of the Confederation, a scheme which included a national parliament to be elected by universal suffrage, as offering surer guarantees for conservative action than lilnitations that seek to determine the majority befprehand.
The Prussian plan of reform laid before the diet included the exclusion of Austria from the Confederation; the creation of a federal navy; the division of the supreme command of the army between Prussia and Bavaria; a parliament elected by manhood suffrage; the regulation of the relations between the Confederation and Austria by a special treaty.
In the event of the rejection of Prussias motion, Bismarck had made it clear that Prussia would withdraw from the Confederation, and Prussia that in the event of her being victorious in the ensuing withdraws war those states of northern Germany that voted from the against her would cease to exist.
Austria consented to a new organization of Germany without the participation of the empire of Austria,~ consented to the closer union to be founded by the king of Prussia to the north of the Main, and to the German states south of the Main entering into a union, the national relations of which with the North German Confederation were to be the subject of an ulterior agreement between the two parties; by Article III.
On the 24th of February 1867 the constituent diet of the confederation, elected by universal suffrage and the ballot, met in Berlin, and soon accepted in its essential features the constitution submitted to it.
It was arranged that the headship of the confederation should be hereditary, that it should belong to the king of Prussia, and that legislative functions should be exercised by a federal council (Bundesrat), representative of the various governments, and by a diet (Bundestag) elected by the whole people.
The states south of the Main had issued from the war as sovereign and independent powers, and they seemed in no great haste to exchange this somewhat precarious dignity either for a closer alliance among each other or with the North German Confederation.
the kingdoms of Bavaria and Wurttemberg, and the grand-duchy of Baden, as well as the southern provinces of the grand-duchy of Hesse, were added to the North German Confederation.
The states retained their autonomy except in those matters which were expressly transferred to the imperial authorities; the princes retained their sovereignty; .the king of Prussia, though he now took the title of German emperor, was only primus inter pares; he was president of the confederation, but had no suzerainty over the other princes..
Buffing, one of the Mecklenburg representatives in the Reichstag, therefore proposed to add to the imperial constitution a clause that in every state of the confederation there should be a parliamentary assembly.
A beginning had been made before the foundation of the empire; as early as 1861 a common code for trade, commerce and banking had been agreed upon by the states included in the Germ~nic Confederation.
It was adopted by the new confederation of 1869.
1869 the criminal law had been codified for the North German Confederation, and in 1870 there was passed the Gewerbeordnung, an elaborate code for the regulation of manufactures and the relations of masters to workmen.
At the foundation of the North German Confederation it had been arranged that the imperial exchequer should receive the produce of all customs duties and also of excise.
On the establishment of the confederation of the Rhine, his son Prosper Louis (to whom, becoming blind, he had ceded his domains in 180 3) became a member (5806), and showed great devotion to the interests of France; but in 5850 he lost his sovereignty, Napoleon incorporating Meppen with France and Recklinghausen with the grand - duchy of Berg, and indemnifying him by a rent of 240,702 francs.
The elector was not unwilling, but the scheme was wrecked by the opposition of the heir to the Bavarian throne, the duke of Zweibriicken, in response to whose appeal Frederick the Great formed, on the 23rd of July 1785, a confederation of German princes (Fiirstenbund) for the purpose of opposing the threatened preponderance of Austria.
(J anuary 1, 1806), by which Austria lost Venice and Tirol, and Napoleon's Confederation of the Rhine had broken the unity of Germany, Francis formally abdicated the title and functions of Holy Roman emperor (August 6, 1806).
The Holy Empire, in spite of the protests of the Holy See, was not restored, Austria preferring the loose confederation of sovereign states (Staatenbund) actually constituted under her presidency.
It was in the power of Austria to crush Prussia and to put an end to the dual influence in the Confederation which experience had proved to be unworkable; she preferred to re-establish a discredited system, and to leave to Prussia time and opportunity to gather strength for the inevitable conflict.
The meeting of the princes summoned to Frankfort by the emperor Francis Joseph, in 1863, revealed the ascendancy of Austria among the smaller states of the Confederation; but it revealed also the impossibility of any consolidation of the Confederation without the co-operation of Prussia, which stood outside.
In 1870 there were discussions preparatory to a formal alliance with France against the North German Confederation, but nothing was signed.'
On the establishment of the German Confederation in 1815, Frederick VI.
A general treaty was to become the basis of the relations of the states forming " the European Confederation "; and this, though " it was no question of realizing the dream of universal peace, would attain some of its results if, at the conclusion of the general war, it were possible to establish on clear principles the prescriptions of the rights of nations."
Yet to Alexander himself it seemed the only means of placing the "confederation of Europe " on a firm basis of principle and, so far from its being directed against liberty he declared roundly to all the signatory powers that " free constitutions were the logical outcome of its doctrines."
In January Alexander had still upheld the ideal of a free confederation of the European states, symbolized by the Holy Alliance, against the policy of a dictatorship of the great powers, symbolized by the Quadruple Treaty; he had still protested against the claims of collective Europe to interfere in the internal concerns of the sovereign states.
From this time until his death his mind was torn between his anxiety to realize his dream of a confederation of Europe and his traditional mission as leader of the Orthodox crusade against the Turks.
During the reaction against Russia which followed the war of 1877 informal discussions were conducted with this object, and it was even suggested that a reformed or constitutional Turkey might find a place in the confederation.
Bourchier, "A Balkan Confederation," in the Fortnightly Review (London, September 1891); the Austrian and Russian staff maps, and the ethnographical maps of Kiepert and Peucker.
Germany also accepted it by the treaty of 1868 between the United States and the North German Confederation, now in force for the German empire, subject to provisions that the emigrant's fixing his domicile in the old country shall be deemed a renunciation of his naturalization in the new, and that his living in the.
TELL The story of William Tell's skill in shooting at and striking the apple which had been placed on the head of his little son by order of Gessler, the tyrannical Austrian bailiff of Uri, is so closely bound up with the legendary history of the origin of the Swiss Confederation that they must be considered together.
Both appear first in the 15th century, probably as results of the war for the Toggenburg inheritance (1436-50); for the intense hatred of Austria, greatly increased by her support of the claims of Zurich, favoured the circulation of stories which assumed that Swiss freedom was of immemorial antiquity, while, as the war was largely a struggle between the civic and rural elements in the Confederation, the notion that the (rural) Schwyzers were of Scandinavian descent at once separated them from and raised them above the German inhabitants of the towns.
Tell is called "the first Confederate," and his feat is treated as the real and only reason why the Confederation was formed and the tyrants driven out of the land.
In these two accounts, which form the basis of the Uri version of the origin of the Confederation, it is Tell and Tell only who is the actor and the leader.
(It is worthy of notice that the same meaning is attributed to the name of Tokko, the hero of a similar legend in Gheysmer's abridgment of the Historia Danica of Saxo Grammaticus, which may, somehow, have influenced the Swiss version.) The only other known instances of the Uri version of the legend relating to the origin of the Confederation are the Latin hexameters of Glareanus (1515), in which Tell is compared to Brutus as "assertor patriae, vindex ultorque tyrannum," and the Urnerspiel (composed in 1511-12), a play acted in Uri, in which Russ's version is followed, though the bailiff, who is unnamed, but announces that he has been sent by Albert of Austria, is slain in the "hollow way."
Mutius (1540) is the latest writer who, in his description of the origin of the Confederation, does not mention Tell and his act.
The task of filling up gaps, smoothing away inconsistencies, rounding off the tale, was accomplished by Giles Tschudi, whose recension was adopted, with a few alterations, by Johannes von Muller in his History of the Confederation (1780).
There was to be, under this plan, an executive chosen by the national legislature, to be ineligible for a second term, to have general authority to execute the national laws and to have the executive rights vested in Congress by the Confederation; and the executive with a convenient number of the national judiciary was to compose a Council of Revision, with a veto power on acts of the national legislature and on the national legislature's vetoes of acts of state legislatures - but the national legislature might pass bills (or vetoes of state legislation) over the action of the Council of Revision.
It was too radically different from the Articles of Confederation.
A political union was at once effected with New Granada and Venezuela on the basis of the republican constitution instituted at Cucuta in July 1821 - the triple confederation taking the name of Colombia.
In fact, while eager for the deliverance of Italy from Austria, his aim was to bring about a confederation of the states of the country, which was to be under the control of the pope.
Meanwhile Assyria was gradually establishing itself westwards, and a remarkable confederation of the heirs of the old Hittite kingdom, Approach " kings of the land of Hatti " (the Assyrian term o f Assyria.
His motion that Baden should be included in the North German Confederation in January 1870 caused much embarrassment to Bismarck, but was not without effect in hastening the crisis of 1870.
In 1411 Appenzell was placed under the "protection" of the Swiss Confederation, of which, in 1452, it became an "allied member," and in 1513 a full member.
A number of these tribes form a Thakebilt or confederation, which is an extremely loose organization.
In the latter years he was appointed by the imperial government fishery commissioner to the United States, and thus took no part in the negotiations for confederation.
Though his eloquence had done more than anything else to make practicable a union of the British North American provinces, he opposed confederation, largely owing to wounded vanity; but on finding it impossible to obtain from the imperial authorities the repeal of the British North America Act, he refused to join his associates in the extreme measures which were advocated, and on the promise from the Canadian government of better financial terms to his native province, entered (on the 30th of January 1869) the cabinet of Sir John Macdonald as president of the council.
But it rose against the French in March 1813, was re-occupied by them till the 5th of December, and was ultimately declared a free and Hanse town of the German Confederation by the act of Vienna of the 9th of June 1815.
In 1853 they sold their common property, the London Steelyard; until 1866 they enlisted by special contract their military contingents for the German Confederation, and down to 1879 they had their own court of appeal at Lubeck.
Lubeck joined the North German Confederation in 1866, profiting by the retirement from Holstein and Lauenburg of the Danes, whose interference had prevented as long as possible a direct railway between Lubeck and Hamburg.
After an ineffective siege of Basel, he made peace with the Swiss confederation, and led his robber soldiers into Alsace to ravage the country of the Habsburgs, who refused him the promised winter quarters.
But its attempts to be admitted into the Swiss Confederation Were fruitless, though after it adopted the Reformation in 1525, it was closely associated with the Protestant cantons.
But as yet the idea of unity made but little headway, for southern Italy was too widely separated by geographical conditions, history, tradition and custom from the rest of the peninsula, and the majority of the Liberals - themselves a minority of the population - merely aspired to a constitutional Neapolitan monarchy, possibly forming part of a confederation of Italian states.
The immediate result was the Confederation of Bar, which practically destroyed the ambassador's handiwork.
In 1109 Andernach received civic rights, passed in 1167 to the electors of Cologne, in 1253 joined the confederation of the Rhine cities and was the most southern member of the Hanseatic league.
In November 1847 and March 1848 Radowitz was sent by King Frederick William to Vienna to attempt to arrange common action for the reconstruction of the German Confederation.
When the confederation was almost in a state of collapse because of the failure of the states to respond to requisitions of Congress for supplies for the federal treasury, Madison was among the first to advocate the granting of additional powers to Congress, and urged that congress should forbid the states to issue more paper money.
In 1781 he favoured an amendment 'of the Articles of Confederation giving Congress power to enforce its requisitions, and in 1783, in spite of the open opposition of the Virginia legislature, which considered the Virginian delegates wholly subject to its instructions, he advocated that the states should grant to Congress for twenty-five years authority to levy an import duty, and suggested a scheme to provide for the interest on the debt not raised by the import duty - apportioning it among the states on the basis of population, counting three-fifths of the slaves, a ratio suggested by Madison himself.
In 1807 Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach entered the Confederation of the Rhine and in the subsequent campaigns it suffered greatly.
In 1866 the grand-duchy joined Prussia against Austria, although its troops were then garrisoning towns in the interests of the latter power; afterwards it entered the North German Confederation and the new German empire.
The principal treaties affecting the distribution of territory between the various states of Central Europe are those of Westphalia (Osnabruck and Miinster), 1648; Utrecht, 1713;1713; Paris and Hubertusburg, 1763; for the partition of Poland, 1772, 1793; Vienna, 1815; London, for the separation of Belgium from the Netherlands, 1831, 1839; Zurich, for the cession of a portion of Lombardy to Sardinia, 1859; Vienna, as to SchleswigHolstein, 1864; Prague, whereby the German Confederation was dissolved, Austria recognizing the new North German Confederation, transferring to Prussia her rights over SchleswigHolstein, and ceding the remainder of Lombardy to Italy, 1866; Frankfort, between France and the new German Empire, 1871.
Berne), the capital of the Swiss canton of the same name, and, by a Federal law of 1848, the political capital of the Swiss confederation.
In the second battle Bern received help from the three forest cantons with which it had become allied in 1323, while in 1353 it entered the Swiss confederation as its eighth member.
From 1815 to 1848 it shared with Zurich and Lucerne the supreme rule (which shifted from one to the other every two years) in the Swiss confederation, while in 1848 a federal law made Bern the sole political capital, where the federal government is permanently fixed and where the ministers of foreign powers reside.
Others seceded as members of the Swiss Confederation.
The word "confederation," as distinct from "federation" has been sometimes, though not universally, used to distinguish from such a federal state (Bundesstaat) a mere union of states (Staatenbund) for mutual aid, and the promotion of interests common to all (see Confederation).
Before the French Revolution the German empire was a complex confederation, with the states divided into electoral colleges, consisting-00 of the ecclesiastical electors and of the secular electors, including the king of Bohemia; (2) of the spiritual and temporal princes of the empire next in rank to the electors; and (3) of the free imperial cities.
This imposing confederation came to an end by the conquests of Napoleon; and the Confederation of the Rhine was established in 1806 with the French emperor as protector.
But in 1815 the Germanic confederation (Deutscher Bund) was established by the congress of Vienna, which in its turn has been displaced by the present German empire.
By the Articles of Confederation and Perpetual Union adopted by the Continental Congress in 1777, and in effect in 1781-1789, the states bound themselves in a league of common defence.
The principality entered the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807 and the German League in 1815.
In 1864 Altona was occupied in the name of the German Confederation, passed to Prussia after the war of 1866, and 1888 together with Hamburg joined the Zollverein, while retaining certain free trade rights over the Freihafengebiet which it shares with Hamburg and Wandsbek.
In 1843 the Piedmontese -priest Gioberti brought out a remarkable book, in which he urged his countrymen to combine into an Italian confederation with the pope at its head.
Nothing remained to check those centrifugal forces in state and church which substituted a confederation of rival European powers for the earlier ideal of universal monarchy, and separate religious constitutions for the previous Catholic unity.
At the height of the Renaissance the five great powers in the peninsula formed a confederation of independent but mutually attractive and repellent states.
To meet these needs they organized, under Articles of Confederation signed in 1643, the first form of colonial union in America; they called it The United Colonies of New England, but it is more commonly known as the New England Confederacy.
From 1786 to 1788 he was a delegate to the Confederation Congress, and in the lastnamed year in the Virginia convention he favoured the adoption of the Federal constitution.
In accordance with instructions given by the Virginia House of Burgesses, Lee introduced in Congress, on the 7th of June 1776, the following famous resolutions: (1) "that these united colonies are, and of right ought to be, free and independent states, that they are absolved from all allegiance to the British crown, and that all political connexion between them and the state of Great Britain is, and ought to be, totally dissolved"; (2) "that it is expedient to take the most effectual measures for forming foreign alliances"; and (3) "that a plan of confederation be prepared and transmitted to the respective colonies for their consideration and approbation."
He served on the committee which drafted the Articles of Confederation, and contended that there should be no treaty of peace with Great Britain which did not grant to the United States both the right to the Newfoundland fisheries and the free navigation of the Mississippi.
The name of the Araucanians, the most powerful of the tribes, came to be applied to the whole confederation of Indians living south of the Bio-bio river.
In 1836 Chile also became involved in a war with a confederation of Peru and Bolivia, which ended in the victory of Chile and the dissolution of the confederation.
In order that future disputes might be amicably settled, a treaty was signed by which it was agreed that any question that might arise should be submitted to the arbitration of Great Britain or in default of that power to the Swiss Confederation.
A confederation of separate states under the supremacy of the pope was the genuine ideal of Balbo, as it was the ostensible one of Gioberti.
They are not a single colony, but a confederation of three separate colonies with a common governor-in-chief, who resides at St George's, Grenada.
Froude to visit South Africa unofficially, and by travelling through its different states find out what were the obstacles to confederation and the means by which such obstacles could be removed.
The secretary of state sought the aid of Sir Bartle Frere as his chief agent in carrying through confederation, the then governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner for South Africa, Sir Henry Barkly, sharing the views of the Cape ministry that the time was inopportune to force such a step upon South Africa.
I am indeed now considering the details of a bill for their confederation, which I desire to introduce next session, and I propose to press, by all means in my power, my confederation policy in South Africa.
During the interval between Shepstone's arrival in the country and the annexation the Volksraad had rejected the proposals for confederation laid before them in accordance with Lord Carnarvon's permissive bill, and had made no real attempt at reform.
In July of that year proposals for a confederation conference were submitted to the Cape parliament.
Confederation had, for the time being, ceased to be a living issue some time before its formal shelving by the Cape parliament.
The new administration, notwithstanding Mr Gladstone's public utterances, declared their intention of retaining British sovereignty in the Transvaal, coupling with that decision a pious hope for the speedy accomplishment of confederation so as to allow of free institutions being given to Natal and the Transvaal.
The absence of a strong central authority accounts for the tendency of confederation in the beginning of modern societies.
The mass of twisted flexures, the curved wrinkles that end the Suliman system, is occupied by true Baluchis, the Marri and Bugti sections of the great Rind confederation of tribes owning an Arabic origin.
ACHAEAN LEAGUE, a confederation of the ancient towns of Achaea.
In 1835, when a struggle for the chief power had made two factions in the neighbouring republic of Peru, Santa Cruz was induced to take a part in the contest; he marched into that country, and after defeating General Gamarra, the leader of one of the opposing parties, completed the pacification of Peru in the spring of 1836, named himself its protector, and had in view a confederation of the two countries.
In Germany progress was hindered by the political conditions of the country under the old Confederation; for the Hanse cities, which practically monopolized the oversea trade, lacked the means to establish a consular system on the French model.
It was initiated by an act of the parliament of the North German Confederation (Nov.
8, 1867), subsequently incorporated in the statutes of the Empire, which laid down the principle that the German consulates were to be under the immediate jurisdiction of the president of the Confederation (later the emperor).
In 1768 a confederation of the Polish nobles (see next article) against the Russians was formed in the town, which was shortly after taken by storm, but did not become finally united to Russia till the partition of 1793.
Confederation of Bar >>
The congress of Vienna in 1815 had declared that that country should form part of the newly formed Germanic Confederation; this was done without consulting the estates of the country, as had been customary even after the battle of the White Hill on the occasion of serious constitutional changes.
Article 1, after expressing the regret felt by Her Majesty's government for the escape, in whatever circumstances, of the "Alabama" and other vessels from British ports, and for the depredations committed by these vessels, provided that "the claims growing out of the acts of the said vessels, and generically known as the ` Alabama ' claims" should be referred to a tribunal composed of five arbitrators, one to be named by each of the contracting parties and the remaining three by the king of Italy, the president of the Swiss Confederation and the emperor of Brazil respectively.
(15th of November 1863) the town was occupied by the Saxon troops acting as the executive of the German Confederation, and it was the base of the operations of the Austrians and Prussians against Schleswig in the spring of the following year.
All this seemed to foreshadow the creation of a Balkan confederation hostile to Turkey, and the sultan had reason to feel alarmed.
The Congress of the Confederation met in Princeton, in Nassau Hall, which still stands, from June to November 1783.
This merely federal plan, reported from a Conference attended by the delegates from Connecticut, New York and Delaware, as well as those from New Jersey (and by Luther Martin of Maryland), consisted of nine resolutions; the first was that " the Articles of Confederation ought to be so revised, corrected and enlarged as to render the federal Constitution adequate to the exigencies of government and the preservation of the Union "; and the actual " plan " was for a single legislative body, in which each state should be represented by one member, and which should elect the supreme court and have power to remove the executive (a Council), to lay taxes and import duties, to control commerce, and even, if necessary, to make requisitions for funds from the states.
The peace of Pressburg in 1805 transferred it, under the name of an electorate, to Ferdinand, formerly grand-duke of Tuscany, who joined the confederation of the Rhine and took the title of grand-duke of Wurzburg.
the German Confederation (Bund), established by the congress of Vienna in 1815, and the Confederation of the Rhine (Rheinbund), a league of certain German states under the protection of Napoleon (1806-1813).
The alliance of the Great Powers by which Europe was governed after 1815 was sometimes, especially by the emperor Alexander I., called the "Confederation of Europe"; but this expressed rather a pious aspiration than the actual state of affairs.
The distinction between Confederation and Federation (see Federal Government), synonymous in their origin, has been developed in the political terminology of the United States.
Up to 1789 these were a Confederation; then the word Federation, or Federal Republic, was introduced as implying closer union.
This distinction was emphasized during the Civil War between North and South, the seceding states forming a Confederation (Confederate States of America) in opposition to the Federal Union.
Confederation thus comes to mean a union of sovereign states in which the stress is laid on the sovereign independence of each constituent body (cf.
As applied to individuals, while "confederation" is used of certain open unions of people for political or other purposes (e.g.
the Miners' Confederation), "confederacy" - from its obsolete legal sense of conspiracy - has come frequently to imply a secret bond, a combination for illicit purposes, or of persons whose identity is not disclosed.
In 1807 the two princes joined the Confederation of the Rhine and in 1815 the German confederation.
The last transaction in which Palmerston engaged arose out of the attack by the Germanic Confederation, and its leading states Austria and Prussia, on the kingdom of Denmark and the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein.
He was a nephew of James Otis, and the son of Samuel Allyne Otis (1740-1814), who was a member of the Confederation Congress in 1787-1788 and secretary of the United States Senate from its first session in 1789 until his death.
He had consistently advocated Alexander's project of a "universal union," symbolized by the Holy Alliance, in contradistinction to the narrower system of the alliance of the great powers; and, when the Greek insurrection broke out, he did much to determine the tsar to sacrifice his sympathy with the Orthodox Greeks to his dream of the European confederation (see Alexander I., emperor of Russia).
Here the title of emperor designates the president of a federal state; and here the Holy Roman emperor of the 17th and 18th centuries, the president of a loose confederation of German states, may be said to have found his successor.
In 1853 an important alteration of the constitution took place, by which the right was granted to every province to declare itself independent, and to enter into merely federal connexion with the central republic, which was now known as the Granadine Confederation.
A movement was now set afoot in favour of a confederation of the three republics of Colombia, Ecuador and Venezuela on the basis of the original conditions existing after the expulsion of Spanish authority, and a resolution was passed by the chamber of deputies to that effect.
The policy, imposed by the home government, of abandoning responsibility beyond the Orange river, was, he perceived, a mistaken one, and the scheme he prepared in 1858 for a confederation of all South Africa (q.v.) was rejected by Great Britain.
In 1874 the 4th earl of Carnarvon, secretary of state for the colonies, who had been successful in aiding to bring about the federation of Canada, turned his attention to a similar scheme for the confederation of South Africa.
A resolution was passed (June 11, 1875) stating that any scheme in favour of confederation must in its opinion originate within South Africa itself.
Lord Carnarvon, still bent on confederation, now appointed Sir Bartle Frere governor of Cape Colony and high commissioner of South Africa.
In the meantime Lord Carnarvon had resigned his position in the British cabinet, and the scheme fox confederation which he had been pushing forward was abandoned.
As a matter of fact, at that time Cape Colony was too fully occupied with native troubles to take into consideration very seriously so great a question as confederation.
The British government keep on talking about a confederation under the British flag, but that will never be brought about.
There is just one obstacle in the way of confederation, and that is the British flag.
In the year 1888, in spite of the failure of statesmen and high commissioners to bring about political confederation, the members of the Cape parliament set about the establishment of a South African Customs Union.
WINKELRIED The incident with which this name is connected is, after the feat of William Tell, the best known and most popular in the early history of the Swiss Confederation.
Sully in his Economies royales attributes to his master the "great design" of constituting, after having defeated Austria, a vast European confederation of fifteen states - a "Christian Republic" - directed by a general council of sixty deputies reappointed every three years.
The new ministry remained in office for a year, a disastrous year which saw the culmination of Napoleons power: the ciushing of Prussia in the campaign of Jena, the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine and the end of the Holy Roman Empire.
In the 17th century a powerful Kalmuck confederation arose in Dzungaria, and extended its sway over the Ili and Issyk-kul basins, having its capital on the Ili.
The constitution of the Granadine Confederation of 1853 gave the states the right to withdraw, and in 1857 Panama' again seceded, soon to return.
Another memorable piece of work, the confederation of Canada, had already been accomplished.
He opposed Confederation in 1864-1867, and as late as 1886 won a provincial election on the promise to advocate the repeal of the British North America Act.
In 1806 he joined the Confederation of the Rhine and received further additions of territory containing 160,000 inhabitants; a little later, by the peace of Vienna in October 1809, about 11o,000 more persons were placed under his rule.
In 1815 the king joined the Germanic Confederation, but the congress of Vienna made no change in the extent of his lands.
Instead of accepting the Constitution upon the condition of amendments, - in which way they might very likely have secured large concessions, - the Anti-Federalists stood for unconditional rejection, and public opinion, which went against them, proved that for all its shortcomings the Constitution was regarded as preferable to the Articles of Confederation.
They were formerly a large and powerful confederation, and took a prominent part in the history of the Berber race.
Knowler (1739); Thomas Carte, Life of Ormonde (1735-1736), and Ormonde Papers (1739); Roger Boyle, earl of Orrery, State Letters (1743); the Contemporary History of Affairs in Ireland, 1641-1652 (1879-1880), and History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland, 1641-1649 (1882--1891), both edited by Sir J.
The newly elected diet was soon dissolved for its advocacy of a great South Slavonic confederation under imperial rule, and no other was elected until 1865.
the candidature of Prince Xavier, the dauphines brother, and the patriotic efforts of the confederation of Bar, contributed to bring about the Polish crisis which the partition of 1772 resolved in favor of Frederick II.; and the Turks were, in their turn dragged into the same disastrous affair.
supported the confederation of princes (Ftirstenbund) which Frederick II.
The threat of Chrtien Francois de Lamoignon, keeper of the seals, to imitate Maupeou, aroused public opinion and caused a fresh confederation of the parlements of the kingdom.
Darmstadt and Saxony, which he attached to France under the name of the Confederation of the Rhine; but the treaty of Presburg gave France nothing but the danger of a more centralized and less docile Germany.
Prussia alone remained outside the Confederation of the Rhine, of which Napoleon was Protector, and to further her decision he offered her English Hanover.
From that day Spain became a partthe leader, then the paymaster, then the dupe-of the international monarchical confederation.
The conflict of the ministers and the House assumed at times the fort to discuss a reform of the confederation, Bismarck Foreign policy.
He then formed a separate confederation of the North German states, but did not attempt to unite the whole of Germany, partly because of the internal difficulties which this would have produced, partly because it would have brought about a war with France.
In the new confederation he became sole responsible minister, with the title Bundes-Kanzler; this position he held till 1890, in addition to his former post of premier minister.
He also, in the constitution for the new confederation, introduced a parliament (Bundestag) elected by universal suffrage.
Benedetti then made another proposal, submitting a draft treaty by which France was to support Prussia in adding the South German states to the new confederation, and Germany was to support France in the annexation of Luxemburg and Belgium.
The pressure at home for completing the work of German unity was so strong that he could with difficulty resist it, and in 1870 he was much embarrassed by a request from Baden to be admitted to the confederation, which he had to refuse.
Here he was occupied chiefly with the arrangements for admitting the southern states to the confederation, and the establishment of the empire.
The ill-will between the king and the chancellor reached an acute stage when Sigismund appointed an opponent of Zamoyski vice-chancellor, and made other ministerial changes which limited his authority; though ultimately, with the aid of his partisans and the adoption of such desperate expedients as the summoning of a confederation to annul the royal decrees in 1592, Zamoyski recovered his full authority.
II, 20) find no place by the side of the more detailed records of David's sojourn under the protection of a king of Gath, one of a confederation of Philistine cities (i Sam.
In letters of 1779-1780' he correctly diagnoses the ills of the Confederation, and suggests with admirable prescience the necessity of centralization in its governmental powers; he was, indeed, one of the first, if not to conceive, at least to suggest adequate checks on the anarchic tendencies of the time.
The feeble inadequacy of conception, infirmity of power, factional jealousy, disintegrating particularism, and vicious finance of the Confederation were realized by many others; but none other saw so clearly the concrete nationalistic remedies for these concrete ills, or pursued remedial ends so constantly, so ably, and so consistently.
The loose and barren rule of the Confederation seemed to conservative minds such as Hamilton's to presage, in its strengthening of individualism, a fatal looseness of social restraints, and led him on to a dread of democracy that he never overcame.
In 1864 he vigorously opposed the scheme of confederation, on the ground that it would prove fatal to the distinctive position held by the French Canadians.
Soon after the first settlements were made, a dispute arose with Massachusetts regarding the boundary between the two colonies; after the brief war with the Pequot Indians in 1637 a similar quarrel followed regarding Connecticut's right to the Pequot lands, and in the New England Confederation (established in 1643) friction between Massachusetts and Connecticut continued.
Cavour resigned office, and by the peace of Zurich (loth of November 1859) Austria ceded Lombardy to Piedmont but retained Venetia; the central Italian princes who had been deposed by the revolution were to be reinstated, and Italy formed into a confederation of independent states.
Joining the Confederation of the Rhine in 1807, they supported Napoleon until 1813, when they transferred their allegiance to the allies; in 1815 they became members of the Germanic Confederation, and in 1828 joined, somewhat reluctantly, the Prussian Zollverein.
confederation of tribes.
confederation of the two states.
confederation of independent organizations which select, recruit and employ their own staff.
confederation of trade union associations now in control of these strike actions.
confederation formed by the original American colonies was soon found to be ineffective and gave way to the present US constitution in 1789.
Over the next 100 years the various territories of Canada became the confederation that forms the state of Canada today.
In different eras many efforts have been made toward Caribbean unity, for instance, the proposed West Indian confederation in the 19th century.
The Phoenician homeland was a loose confederation of half a dozen cities along the coast of Lebanon.
There was no " people " until the tribal confederation portrayed in Joshua 24.
Fight for socialist change For a socialist confederation of England, Scotland, Wales and Ireland.
german confederation set up under the leadership of Austria.
These are based on the workforce development confederation business plans.
The trade union confederation CGT has withdrawn from CPA.
Two days before the football started, the bidding countries were given the floor at the biennial congress of the Confederation of African Football.
They were visited by the Confederation and became desirous of staying in order to aid the planetary consciousness.
About a fifth of school leavers are functionally innumerate and illiterate, a situation described by the Confederation of British Industry as a Ã¢disgraceÃ¢ .
tiro associates Ltd is a full member of the Recruitment and Employment Confederation.
workforce development confederation (WDC) to address these problems.
He was elected president of the Argentine confederation and did his utmost to settle the questions which had led to so many civil wars, on a permanent and sound basis.
But though peace was for a time restored, the old causes of soreness and dissension remained unappeased, and as the time for the next presidential election began to draw near, it became more and more evident that a critical struggle was at hand, and that the people of Buenos Aires, supported by the province of Corrientes, were determined to bring to an issue the question as to what position Buenos Aires was to hold for the future with regard to the remaining provinces of the confederation.
This federalization of the capital has proved to be a most important factor in binding together the different parts of the confederation, and in promoting the evolution of an Argentine nation out of a loosely cemented union of a number of semi-independent states.
The vice-president of the confederation, Carlos Pellegrini, who had been minister of war under presidents Avellaneda and Roca and had had much administrative experience, succeeded without opposition to the vacant post.
It may be divided into three groups: the Monti Albani, the second highest1 of which, Monte Cavo (3115 ft.), is the ancient Mons Albanus, on the summit of which stood the temple of Jupiter Latialis, where the assemblies of the cities forming the Latin confederation were held; the Monti Cimini, which extend from the valley of the Tiber to the neighbourhood of Civita Vecchia, and attain at their culminating point an elevation of 3454 ft.; and the mountains of Radicofani and Monte Amiata, the latter of which is 5688 ft.
On the 11th the two emperors met at Villafranca, where they agreed that Lombardy should be ceded to Piedmont, and Venetia retained by Austria but governed by Liberal methods; that the rulers of Tuscany, Parma and Modena, who had been again deposed, should be restored, the Papal States reformed, the Legations given a separate administration and the pope made president of an Italian confederation including Austria as mistress of Venetia.
He served in the Massachusetts General Court in1783-1784and in the Confederation Congress in 1784-1787.
It was largely through his efforts that the General Court in 1784 rejected the amendment to the Articles of Confederation authorizing Congress to levy a 5% impost.
Their conservatism became increasingly a reactionary fear of democracy; indeed, it is not a strained construction of the times to regard the entire Federalist period from the American point of view as reactionary - a reaction against the doctrines of natural rights, individualism, and states' rights, and the financial looseness of the period of the War of Independence and the succeeding years of the Confederation.
Soc., 3 vols., Dublin, 1879); also History of the Irish Confederation and the War in Ireland (Dublin, 1882); John O'Hart, Irish Pedigrees (Dublin, 1881); The Montgomery MSS., " The Flight of the Earls, 1607" (p. 767), edited by George Hill (Belfast, 1878); Thomas Carte, History of the Life of James, Duke of Ormonde (3 vols., London, 1 735); C. P. Meehan, Fate and Fortunes of Hugh O'Neill, Earl of Tyrone, and Rory O'Donel, Earl of Tyrconnel (Dublin, 1886); Richard Bagwell, Ireland under the Tudors, with an Account of the Earlier History (3 vols., London, 1885-1890); J.
Nub II., in order to retain at least a nominal sway over those Afghan territories, confirmed him in his high position and even invested Sabuktagin's son Mahmud with the governorship of Khorasan, in reward for the powerful help they had given him in his desperate struggles with a confederation of disaffected nobles of Bokhara under the leadership of Fa'iq and the troops of the Dailamites, a dynasty that had arisen on the shores of the Caspian Sea and wrested already from the hands of the Samanids all their western provinces.
It is now the second most populous (109,161 inhabitants) town (ranking after Zurich) in the Swiss Confederation, while it is reputed to be the richest, the number of resident millionaires (in francs) exceeding that of any other Swiss town.
In 1806, on the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine, the sovereign counts were all mediatized (see Mediatization).
The various treaties of Prague, Berlin and Vienna which followed the armistice secured the annexation by Prussia of Hanover, the Elbe duchies, the electorate of Hesse, Nassau and Frankfurt, the dissolution of the existing confederation and the creation of a new North German Confederation under the hegemony of Prussia, and the payment of war indemnities to Prussia (the Austrian share being 6,000,000).
Dortmund held aloof from the Cologne Confederation on the ground that it had no concern in Scandinavian politics.
The change thus begun was confirmed by the exclusion of Austria from the German Confederation and the restoration of her Constitution'to Hungary, events which gave an immense impetus to the two rival capitals.
The independence of Frankfort was brought to an end in 1806, on the formation of the Confederation of the Rhine; and in 1810 it was made the capital of the grand-duchy of Frankfort, which had an area of 3215 sq.m.
He avoided as yet a forward policy, and having taken Pydna and Potidaea soon after Amphipolis, he made them over to the Olynthian confederation (see Olynthus).