west of the city) is a memorial erected by the United Confederate Veterans.
ALEXANDER HAMILTON STEPHENS (1812-1883), American statesman, vice-president of the Confederate States during the Civil War, was born in Wilkes (now Taliaferro) county, Georgia, on the 11th of February 1812.
The Confederates were once more unsuccessful, and the losses were so heavy that the "fighting" policy ordered by the Confederate government was countermanded.
Napoleon, who could brook no equal, was nourishing the secret hope that his confederate might be used as a docile subordinate in the realization of his own plans, and the confederate soon came to suspect that he was being duped.
On the 10th of January 1861 an ordinance of secession, which declared Florida to be a " sovereign and independent nation," was adopted by a state convention, and Florida became one of the Confederate States of America.
Halleck, with a greatly superior force, cautiously and slowly advanced upon the Confederate position, consuming more than a month in the operation.
Covered by Howard at Ezra Church, Schofield led this advance, but the new Confederate lines baffled him.
He eluded the Confederate lookout and reached the "Albemarle" unseen.
By an ordinance of secession passed on the 26th of January 1861, Louisiana joined the Confederate States.
Before the Georgia legislature in November 1860, and again in that state's secession convention in January 1861, he strongly opposed secession, but when Georgia seceded he "followed his state," assisted in forming the new government, and was elected vice-president of the Confederate States.
In 1861 he was a member of the Texas secession convention, served in the Confederate provisional Congress, and on the 6th of March was appointed postmaster-general in President Davis's cabinet.
Seddon (1815-1880), Secretary of War of the Confederate States in 1862-64; and John R.
His plan of operations was directed primarily to the seizure of the Decatur railway, by which the Confederate commander, General J.
During the war the principal iron foundry of the Confederacy (Tredegar Iron Works) was in Richmond, and here most of the cannon used by the Confederate armies were cast.
In Oakland Cemetery is a large monument to Confederate soldiers; another monument in Oakland, "To the unknown Confederate Dead," is a reproduction of the Lion of Lucerne; in West View Cemetery (4 m.
The Executive Mansion of the Confederate States of America, built in 1819, purchased by the city in 1862, and leased to the Confederate government and occupied by President Jefferson Davis in 1862-65, was acquired in 1890 by the Confederate Memorial Library Society, and is now a Confederate Museum with a room for each state of the Confederacy and a general library in the " Solid South " room; it has valuable historical papers, collected by the Southern Historical Society, and the society has published a Calendar of Confederate Papers (1908).
Stephens headed the Confederate commission to the peace conference at Hampton Roads in February 1865.
Three miles south-east of the city is a (state) soldiers' home, for aged, infirm and disabled Confederate veterans.
On the 9th of February he received the unanimous vote of the provisional congress of the seceded states as president of the "Confederate States of America."
The importance of Richmond during the Civil War was principally due to its having been made the capital of the Confederate States (by act of the Provisional Government on the 8th of May 1861).
Jefferson Davis was a prisoner here for two years, from the 22nd of May 1865, and Clement Claiborne Clay (1819-1882), a prominent Confederate, from the same date until April 1866.
In the north-eastern part of the city is Oakwood Cemetery, in which are the graves of about 18,000 Confederate soldiers.
The Confederate States were never able to form a sea-going squadron, and Tattnall had no chance to do more than make a struggle with insufficient resources on its rivers.
Afterwards, Davis himself, as president of the Confederate states, was to appoint many volunteer officers.
(1866), and of Life in the South: a Companion to Uncle Tom's Cabin (1852), was superintendent of common schools in1853-1865(the executive head of the state's educational department having previously been a " literary board "), and won the name of the " Horace Mann of the South " by his wise reforms. He kept the public schools going through the Civil War, having advised against the disturbance of the school funds and their reinvestment in Confederate securities.
Augustine, a hospital for the insane at Chattahoochee and a reform school at Marianna, all wholly supported by the state, and a Confederate soldiers' and sailors' home at Tallahassee, which is partially supported by the state.
In June 1861 Jefferson City was occupied by Union forces, and in September - October 1864 it was threatened by Confederate troops under General Sterling Price.
After the first Confederate line of defence had been broken by the capture of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson (February 1862), Corinth was fortified by General P. G.
In this office in 1863 he won before the Supreme Court of the United States the famous prize case of the "Amy Warwick," on the decision in which depended the right of the government to blockade the Confederate ports, without giving the Confederate states an international status as belligerents.
- The Southern presbyteries of the Old School Assembly withdrew in 1861, and delegates from ten southern synods (47 presbyteries) met in Augusta, Georgia, in December, and organized as the General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the Confederate States of America, which included 700 ministers, 1000 churches and 75,000 communicants.
JEFFERSON DAVIS (1808-1889), American soldier and statesman, president of the Confederate states in the American Civil War, was born on the 3rd of June 1808 at what is now the village of Fairview, in that part of Christian county, Kentucky, which was later organized as Todd county.
The army of the portent's, commanded by Colonel Bartolome Mitre, was defeated at Cepeda by the confederate forces under Urquiza, and Buenos Aires agreed to re-enter the confederation (November 11, 1859).
A detachment of the Confederate cavalry under General John Morgan invaded the state in 1863, but was badly defeated in the battle of Buffington's Island (July 18th).
Among prominent public buildings are the State Capitol (completed 1889), containing a law library of about 65,000 volumes and a collection of portraits of famous Georgians, the north-west front of the Capitol grounds containing an equestrian statue (unveiled in 1907) of John Brown Gordon (1832-1904), a distinguished Confederate general in the American Civil War and governor of Georgia in 1887-1890; the court house; the Carnegie library, in which the young men's library, organized in 1867, was merged in 1902; the post office building; and the Federal prison (about 4 m.
As Hardee's attack rolled up the Union army from left to right, the remainder of the Confederate army was to issue from the Atlanta fortifications and join in the battle.
Some prominent examples (dealt with elsewhere under their appropriate titles) are the dispute between the United States and Great Britain respecting the " Alabama " and other vessels employed by the Confederate government during the American Civil War (award in 1872); that between the same powers respecting the fur-seal fishery in Bering Sea (award in 1893); that between Great Britain and Venezuela respecting the boundary of British Guiana (award in 1899); that between Great Britain, the United States and Portugal respecting the Delagoa railway (award in 1900); that between Great Britain and the United States respecting the boundary of Alaska (award in 1903).
While he did not succeed in preventing the French occupation of Mexico or the escape of the Confederate cruiser "Alabama" from England, his diplomacy prepared the way for a future adjustment satisfactory to the United States of the difficulties with these powers.
On the 19th of October 1864 a small band of Confederate soldiers under Lieutenant B.
During the early part of the Civil War a small Confederate force was in possession, but in November 1862 it was driven out by United States gunboats.
The former prevailed, and by a convention that assembled in April 1864 a constitution was framed closely following that of 1852 but repudiating the debt incurred by Louisiana as one of the Confederate states and abolishing slavery.
The state has two small areas in which bituminous coal occurs; one in the basin of the Dan and one in the basin of the Deep. Very little coal was produced in the state until the Civil War, when, in 1862 and again in 1863, 30,000 short tons were obtained for the relief of the Confederate government, an amount which up to 1905, when the yield was only 1557 short tons (falling off from 7000 short tons in 1904), had not since been equalled; in 1906, in 1907 and in 1908 no coal was mined in the state.
A movement begun by the Confederate Veterans Association in October 1889 resulted in the establishment in 1890 of a home for disabled veterans at Raleigh; this became a state institution in 1891.
The ancient Perusia first appears in history as one of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
Aaron Burr was tried for treason and then for misdemeanour in this building in 1807, the Virginia secession convention met here in 1861, and during the Civil War the sessions of the Confederate Congress were held here.
There is also a state home for disabled Confederate soldiers at New Orleans on Bayou St John.
In 1862, during the famous campaign in Kentucky of General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) and General D.
Belle Isle (the site of a Confederate prison camp during the Civil War), about a m.
The city's charitable institutions include the Memorial (1903), Virginia Sheltering Arms (1889) and St Luke's hospitals, the Retreat for the Sick (1877), the Eye, Nose, Ear and Throat Infirmary (1880), the Confederate Soldiers' Home (1884), supported jointly by the state and the city, a Home for Needy Confederate Women (1900), the City Almshouse and Hospital, and several orphanages and homes for the aged.
Manufacturing interests soon became important, and during the Civil War Atlanta was the seat of Confederate military factories and a depot of supplies.
He also wrote a Short History of the Confederate States of America (1890).
The absence in the army of the Confederate sympathizers helps to explain the small vote against the formation of the new state.
The more important expenditures are for public schools, state departments, educational and charitable institutions and pensions for Confederate veterans.
After several preliminary engagements Sherman on the 26th and 27th of June made repeated unsuccessful attempts to drive the Confederates from their defences at Kenesaw Mountain; he then resorted to a flanking movement which forced the Confederate general to retire (July 2) toward Atlanta.
On the 8th of November 1861 he stopped the British mail packet "Trent," and took off the Confederate commissioners to Europe, James M.
He entered the Confederate army in 1861, took part as a private in the battle of Wilson's Creek, and as colonel commanded the Tenth Texas Infantry at Arkansas Post, Chickamauga (where he commanded a brigade during part of the battle), Missionary Ridge and Atlanta.
The number of naval ships was increased between 1861 and 1865 from 90 to 670, the officers from 1300 to 6700, the seamen from 7500 to 51,500, and the annual expenditure from $12,000,000 to $123,000,000; important changes were made in the art of naval construction, and the blockade of the Confederate ports was effectively maintained.
Passing the first of these vessels with terrific broadsides, the "Merrimac" rammed the "Cumberland" and then turned her fire again on the "Congress," which in an attempt to escape ran aground and was there under fire from three other Confederate gun-boats which had meanwhile joined the "Merrimac."
She was in such shallow water that the Confederate iron-clad ram could not get near her at ebb tide, and about 5 o'clock the Confederates postponed her capture until the next day and anchored off Sewell's Point.
In 1865 he rejected the more radical views of his party as to the treatment to be accorded to the late Confederate states, opposed the immediate and unconditional enfranchisement of freedmen, and, though not accepting President Johnson's views in their entirety, he urged the people of Massachusetts to give the new president their support.
American Civil War provides guidelines to uniforms and gear of the Confederate Army.
Sherman, the Federal commander, made Marietta his next intermediate point in his Atlanta campaign, and the Confederate commander, General Joseph E.
Uniforms worn by Confederate drummers didn't look much different from uniforms worn by the other troops.
Valentine of Brig.-General Williams Carter Wickham (1820-1888) of the Confederate army.
In Congress he joined the radical wing of the Republican party, advocated the confiscation of Confederate property, approved and defended the Wade-Davis manifesto denouncing the tameness of Lincoln, and was soon recognized as a hard worker and ready speaker.
Here on the 17th of June 1861, Captain (Major-General) Nathaniel Lyon, commanding about 2000 Union troops, defeated a slightly larger, but undisciplined Confederate force under BrigadierGeneral John S.
Here, too, are buried about 16,000 Confederate soldiers (to whose memory there is a massive pyramid of undressed granite, 40 ft.
When southern soldiers first showed up in Richmond, the uniforms of Confederate soldiers were anything but uniform.
A.)] After the assassination of President Lincoln a disposition was shown by his successor, Andrew Johnson, to deal severely with the Confederate leaders, and it was understood that indictments for treason were to be brought against General Lee and others.
The most important event in foreign policy was the treaty with Great Britain of the 8th of May 1871, commonly known as the Treaty of Washington, whereby several controversies between the United States and Great Britain, including the bitter questions as to damage inflicted upon the United States by the "Alabama" and other Confederate cruisers built and equipped in England, were referred to arbitration.
When, however, surveillance became blockade, prizes could only with difficulty be brought into port, and, since the parties interested gained nothing by burning merchantmen, privateering soon died out, and was replaced by commerce-destroying pure and simple, carried out by commissioned vessels of the Confederate navy.
There were Confederate batteries on the left bank of the Mississippi opposite Island No.
Eventually, confederate manufacturers started to produce painted haversacks similar to those of the Union army.
Like the haversack, confederate canteens were often discarded and replaced by a captured Union canteen when the opportunity presented itself.
Whether you are a member of a Civil War reenactment group or need a realistic uniform for a costume ball, wearing a reproduction Confederate uniform will make you feel like to are back in the 1860s.
Even after the War Department of the Confederate States issued a standard uniform, the soldiers still had a mixture of different uniform types.
The sketch clearly shows 26 different uniforms of the Confederate Army of the time.
The uniforms worn by Confederate Army reenactors vary, just as the uniforms of the actual soldiers do.
While many of the reenactment groups require that the Confederate uniform reproductions are completely realistic, others do not require strict authenticity.
Progressive reenactment groups stay true to every tiny detail of the Confederate soldiers' clothing and lifestyle.
Reproduction uniforms of Confederate soldiers are available from online suppliers, sutlers and brick and mortar retail stores.
The website American Civil War offers reproduction Confederate soldier costume uniforms for children and adults.
The Regimental Quartermaster provides everything a Confederate reenactor needs including uniforms, accouterments and weapons.
After the Confederate retreat from Dalton in May 1864, General William T.
Volaterrae (Etruscan Velathri) was one of the most powerful of the twelve confederate cities of Etruria.
Once it was determined that the Confederacy would provide the uniforms, a handful of factories in the south, known as depots, became responsible for manufacturing uniforms for Confederate soldiers along with other needed equipment.
A Civil War soldier uniform served as an important distinction between the Union soldiers of the North and Confederate soldiers of the South.
Such differences in Civil War soldier uniforms existed in the Southern Confederate States as well.
During that assault, a number of Union troops battled wearing trousers and gray coats which took on the appearance of many Confederate styles.
Often a Confederate soldier would take the jacket and pants of the Union soldier to wear when they needed a new one.
A Confederate uniform set a soldier from the South apart from ones from the North.
The Confederate states included the following: Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and Virginia.
There were actually shortages of uniforms during the war for the Confederate soldiers.
The Confederate soldier did not have a high quality pair of shoes.
Confederate sharpshooters wore western-style hats and carried special rifles.
There were standard features of the Confederate issued uniform.
Wearing a reproduction Confederate uniform makes you feel as if you have gone back in time.
The first distinction drawn by color among Civil War uniforms is the blue of the North and the gray of the southern Confederate troops.
Confederate officers wore insignias on their collars to designate rank.
As mentioned earlier, the early war Confederate uniforms included a wide variety of designs.
Some of the Confederate units even wore dark blue and were mistaken for the enemy on the battlefield.
This was not an uncommon practice among the Confederate troops either as the wide brim helped keep the sun off their neck and stopped the rain from running down their collar.
Different band uniform were worn whether as a Union or Confederate soldier, and both sides wore civilian patterned cotton shirts.
Disputes between the confederate towns were brought for adjudication before the general assembly, but the League had no recognized federal judiciary.
President Lincoln commuted this sentence to banishment, and Vallandigham was sent into the Confederate lines, whence he made his way to Canada.
(who had reached the rank of commander in 1843 and that of captain in 1855) was assigned to the command of the "San Jacinto" to search for the Confederate commerce destroyer, "Sumter."
During the first years of its alliance with Rome it held the rank of a free confederate city; but, having sought arbitration on some of its domestic disputes, it was subjected to the imperial jurisdiction, and gradually stripped of its privileges, until reduced to the status of an ordinary Roman colony.
JOSEPH EGGLESTON JOHNSTON (1807-1891), American Confederate general in the Civil War, was born near Farmville, Prince Edward county, Virginia, on the 3rd of February 1807.
In April 1861 he resigned from the United States army and entered the Confederate service.
When McDowell advanced upon the Confederate forces under Beauregard at Manassas, Johnston moved from the Shenandoah Valley with great rapidity to Beauregard's assistance.
As senior officer he took command on the field, and at Bull Run (Manassas) (q.v.) won the first important Confederate victory.
In March 1863, still troubled by his wound, he was assigned to the command of the south-west, and in May was ordered to take immediate command of all the Confederate forces in Mississippi, then threatened by Grant's movement on Vicksburg.
The wisdom of Johnston's plan was soon abundantly clear, and the Confederate cause was already lost when Lee reinstated him on the 23rd of February 1865.
When the Seven Days' battle began Porter's corps had to sustain alone the full weight of the Confederate attack, and though defeated in the desperately fought battle of Gaines's Mill (June 27, 1862) the steadiness of his defence was so conspicuous that he was immediately promoted major-general of volunteers and brevet origadiergeneral U.S.A. His corps, moreover, had the greatest share in the successful battles of Glendale and Malvern Hill.
He was a lieutenant-colonel of engineers in the Confederate army during the Civil War.
Railways and material were destroyed, the country cleared of supplies, and the Confederate government severed from its western states.
from Pittsburg Landing), the Confederate army deployed in line of battle, and advancing directly on the Landing, surprised and broke up a brigade of the most advanced Union division (Prentiss's) which had been sent forward from camp to reconnoitre.
The various Union divisions hurriedly prepared to defend themselves, but they were dispersed in several camps which were out of sight of one another, and thus the Confederate army lapped round the flanks of each local defence as it encountered it.
The two advanced divisions were swiftly driven in on the others, who were given a little time to prepare themselves by the fact that in the woods the Confederate leaders were unable to control or manoeuvre their excited troops.
There was a last fruitless assault, delivered by some of the Confederate brigades on the right that had not received Beauregard's order against Nelson's intact troops, who were supported by the fire of the gunboats on the Tennessee.
It was a Confederate failure, but not a Union victory, and, each side being weakened by about io,000 men, neither made any movements for the next three weeks.
From 1861 to 1862 he was secretary of state in the Southern Confederacy; and from 1862 to 1865 was a member of the Confederate senate, in which he was, at times, a caustic critic of the Davis administration.
Stuart (Confederate) preliminary to the battle of Gettysburg.
For example, he proposed a Confederate memorial on Stone Mt.
Michael Scot (1175-1234), acting as a confederate of the Evil One (so the fable runs) cleft Eildon Hill, then a single cone, into the three existing peaks.
Forrest operated in 1862-1863, and was alternately occupied by Confederate and Federal forces during General Hood's Nashville campaign (November-December 1864).
Five confederate lords with Gloucester at their head took up arms against the king's favourite ministers, and the Wonderful Parliament put to death without remorse almost every agent of his former administration who had not fled the country.
Hancock's superb presence and power over men never shone more clearly than when, as the 150 guns of the Confederate army opened the attack he calmly rode along the front of his line to show his soldiers that he shared the dangers of the cannonade with them.
But it had captured twenty-seven Confederate battle flags and as many prisoners as it had men when the fighting ceased.
Just as the Confederate troops reached the Union line Hancock was struck in the groin by a bullet, but continued in command until the repulse of the attack, and as he was at last borne off the field earnestly recommended Meade to make a general attack on the beaten Confederates.
At the Wilderness he commanded, during the second day's fighting, half of the Union army; at Spottsylvania he had charge of the fierce and successful attack on the "salient"; at Cold Harbor his corps formed the left wing in the unsuccessful assault on the Confederate lines.
and Alexander of Macedon were confronted by a confederate host from central Greece and Peloponnese under the leadership of Thebes and Athens, which here made the last stand on behalf of Greek liberty.
A statute of 1899, authorized by a constitutional amendment of 1897, instituted a system of pensions for Confederate veterans.
In Fayetteville there are a National cemetery with 1236 soldiers' graves (782 "unknown") and a Confederate cemetery with 725 graves and a memorial monument.
The citizens of Fayetteville were mainly Confederate sympathizers; Fayetteville was raided by Federal cavalry on the 14th of July 1862, and was permanently occupied by Federal troops in the autumn of the same year.
Confederate cavalry under Brigadier-General William Lewis Cabell attacked the city on the 18th of April 1863, but were driven off.
Jackson, a hotel proprietor, from whose building Ellsworth had removed a Confederate flag.
Certain commercial interests of New York City favoured the Confederate cause, but MayorWood's suggestion that the city (with Long Island and Staten Island) secede and form a free-city received scant support, and after the san ' James Fenimore Cooper's novels Satanstoe (1845), The Chainbearer (1845) and The Redskins (1846) preach the anti-rent doctrine.
The president's mother, Martha Bullock, was of an old Georgia family of Scotch-Irish and Huguenot extraction; her grandfather was Archibald Bullock (1730-1777), first president (1776-77) of Georgia; and her brother, James Dunwoody Bullock, often compared by Theodore Roosevelt to Colonel Newcome, was in the Confederate navy, and equipped in England vessels (including the "Alabama") as Confederate cruisers.
During November tlfe British West India steamer "Trent" was boarded by a vessel of the Federal Navy, the "San Jacinto," and Messrs Slidell and Mason, commissioners for the Confederate States, who were on their way to England, were seized.
After the Confederate success at Wilson's Creek (Aug.
The losses were: Confederate, 25 killed and 75 wounded; Federal, 39 killed and 120 wounded.
During the Civil War it was occupied, late in February 1862, by Confederate troops under General Henry Hopkins Sibley (1816-1886), who soon afterwards advanced with his main body into northern New Mexico.
(1340), who for nine years had held Jutland and Funen and dominated the rest of Denmark, first opened Valdemar's way to the throne, and on midsummer day 1340 he was elected king at a Landsting held at Viborg, after consenting to espouse Helveg, the sister of his most important confederate, Valdemar, duke of Schleswig.
General McClellan had captured the passes of South Mountain farther east on the 14th, and his Army of the Potomac marched to meet Lee's forces which, hitherto divided, had, by the 16th, successfully concentrated between the Antietam and the Potomac. The Confederate Army of Northern Virginia occupied a position which, in relation to the surrounding country, may be compared to the string of a bow in the act of being drawn, Lee's left wing forming the upper half of the string, his right the lower, and the Potomac in his rear the bow itself.
He strongly opposed secession, but finally voted for the Virginia ordinance, was commissioned brigadier-general in the Confederate army and served throughout the war.
It is the seat of the Tennessee Female College and the Battle Ground Academy, and its chief objects of interest are the battle-ground, the Confederate cemetery and the Confederate monument.
The losses were very heavy; Hood's effective forces in the engagement numbered about 27,000, Schofield's about 28,000; the Confederate losses (excluding cavalry) were about 650o, excluding the slightly wounded; six general officers were killed (including Major-General P. R.
In two of the Confederate brigades all the general and field officers were killed or wounded.
The political history of the war, its antecedents and its consequences, are dealt with in the articles United States (History) and Confederate States.
For the purposes of the military narrative it is sufficient to say that eleven southern states seceded from the Union and formed the Confederate States of America.
Missouri, at the other flank of the line, contained an even stronger Confederate element, and it was not without a severe struggle that the energy of Mr (afterwards General) F.
the export of cotton and the import of war material, protecting the Union commerce afloat, hindering the creation of a Confederate navy and co-operating with the land forces.
C. Buell in Kentucky had likewise drilled his troops to a high state of efficiency and was preparing to move against the Confederate general Albert Sidney Johnston, whose reputation was that of being the foremost soldier on either side.
The Confederate commanders proved themselves quite unequal to the crisis, and 15,000 men surrendered with the fort on the 16th of February.
Halleck went to Washington as general-in-chief, Pope was transferred to Virginia, Grant, with his own Army of the Tennessee and Rosecrans's (lately Pope's) Army of the Mississippi, was entrusted with operations on the latter river, while Buell's Army of the Ohio was ordered to east Tennessee to relieve the inhabitants of that district, who, as Unionist sympathizers, were receiving harsh treatment from the Confederate and state authorities.
The latter early in August lay near Murfreesboro, covering Nashville, but the Confederate general did not intend to threaten that place.
The Confederates fell back to the southward, escaping Grant once more, and thus ended the Confederate advance in the West.
The Confederate failures of Corinth, Perryville and Antietam were followed by a general advance by the Federals.
Charleston was attacked without success in 1862, but from June to August 1863 it was besieged by General Gillmore and Admiral Dahlgren, and under great difficulties the Federals secured a lodgment, though it was not until Sherman appeared on the land side early in 1865 that the Confederate defence collapsed, Fort Fisher near Wilmington also underwent a memorable siege by land and sea.
A Confederate attack on the post of Helena, Arkansas, was the last serious fight on the great river, and before the end of July the first merchant steamer from St Louis discharged her cargo at New Orleans.
On the left Sherman made little progress; on the right, however, Hooker and the men from the Potomac army fought and won the extraordinary "Battle above the Clouds" on Lookout Mountain, and on the 25th the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge was brilliantly stormed by Thomas and the Army of the Cumberland.
With a bare 70,000 men the Confederate general struck at the flank of Grant's marching columns in that same Wilderness where Jackson had won his last battle twelve months before.
Johnston, than whom there was no better soldier in the Confederate service when a careful defence was required, disposed of sensibly inferior forces, and it was to be expected that the 18th-century methods of making war by manoeuvring and by combats, not battles, would receive a modern illustration in Georgia.
A fortnight later the same manoeuvres, combined with constant "tapping" at the Confederate defences, caused him to fall back again.
- Although General Canby, with a Federal force in the south, had been ordered to capture Mobile early in the year - after which he was to operate towards Atlanta - Mobile still flew the Confederate flag, and Hood, about to resume the offensive, was thus able to base himself on Montgomery in order to attack Sherman in flank and rear.
The Confederate general Hardee managed to gather some force (chiefly from the evacuated coast towns) wherewith to oppose the onward progress of the Federals.
Johnston surrendered to Sherman at Durham Station on the 26th, and soon afterwards all the remaining Confederate soldiers followed their example.
The great advantage of the Confederate - an advantage which he had in a less degree as against the hardier and country-bred Federal of the west - was that he was a hunter and rider born and bred, an excellent shot, and still not infrequently settled his quarrels by the duel.
These raids, and the more ordinary screening work, were never executed more brilliantly than by Lee's great cavalry general, "Jeb" Stuart, in Virginia, but the Federal generals, Pleasonton and Sheridan, did excellent work in the east, as also Wheeler and Forrest on the Confederate, Wilson and Grierson on the Federal, side in the west.
It has been said that the blockade of the Confederate coast became in the end practically impenetrable, and that every attempt of the Confederate naval forces to break out was checked at once by crushing numerical preponderance.
On the 17th of June 1863 after a brief action the monitor "Weehawken" captured the Confederate ironclad "Atlanta" in Wassaw Sound, South Carolina.
- Letters of marque were issued to Confederate privateers as early as April 1861, and Federal commerce at once began to suffer.
- The United States government's Official Records of the Union and Confederate Armies (70 vols., most of which are divided into two or three "parts," and atlas, 1880-1900) include every important official document of either side that it was possible to obtain in the course of many years' work.
A similar but less voluminous work is the Records of the Union and Confederate Navies (1894-); The Rebellion Record (1862-1868), edited by F.
P. Alexander's Military Memoirs of a Confederate (1906).
For biographies, memoirs and general works, see the lists appended to the various biographical articles and to the articles UNITED STATES and CONFEDERATE STATES.
General Lee had thus on the seventh day concentrated his army of ten divisions in the enemy's front; but Jackson's dispositions were unfortunate and General Lee's plan of attack was thus upset; and while seeking a route to turn the enemy's right the Confederate commander was apprised that a battle had been improvised by the divisions in advance.
In the north a feeling of despondency overtook Congress at the "lame and impotent conclusion" of a campaign of invasion which was expected to terminate the war by the defeat of the Confederate army, the capture of Richmond and the immediate overthrow of the Confederacy.
Some of the secessionists took this as a defeat and left the state immediately to join the Confederate ranks.
An election in August of one-half the Senate and all of the House of Representatives resulted in a Unionist majority in the new legislature of 103 to 35, and in September, after Confederate troops had begun to invade the state, Kentucky formally declared its allegiance to the Union.
From September 1861 to the fall of Fort Donelson in February 1862 that part of Kentucky which is south and west of the Green River was occupied by the Confederate army under General A.
Throughout the war Kentucky was represented in the Confederate Congress - representatives and senators being elected by Confederate soldiers from the state.
Zollicoffer (1812-1862) had entered the south-east part of the state through Cumberland Gap in September, and later with a Confederate force of about 7000 men attempted the invasion of central Kentucky, but in October 1861 he met with a slight repulse at Wild Cat Mountain, near London, Laurel county, and on the 19th of January 1862, in an engagement near Mill Springs, Wayne county, with about an equal force under General George H.
Carlos Buell, in command of the Federal Army of the Ohio stationed there, and entering Kentucky in August 1862 proceeded slowly toward Louisville, hoping to win the state to the Confederate cause and gain recruits for the Confederacy in the state.
On his retreat, Bragg attempted to set up a Confederate government at Frankfort, and Richard J.
At the close of a day of victory he was reconnoitring the hostile positions when suddenly the Confederate outposts opened fire upon his staff, whom they mistook in the dark and tangled forest for Federal cavalry.
A Confederate Soldiers' monument, a granite shaft 50 ft.
There are two Italian marble monuments in honour of Confederate soldiers, and monuments to the Southern poets, Paul Hamilton Hayne and Richard Henry Wilde (1789-1847).
During the Civil War Augusta was the seat of extensive military factories, the tall chimney of the Confederate powder mills still standing as a memorial.
After long debate this convention adopted on the i 1 th of January an ordinance of secession, and Alabama became one of the Confederate states of America, whose government was organized at Montgomery on the 4th of February 1861.
In the early part of the Civil War Alabama was not the scene of military operations, yet the state contributed about 120,000 men to the Confederate service, practically all her white population capable of bearing arms, and thirty-nine of these attained the rank of general.
Forrest, one of the ablest Confederate cavalry leaders.
Georgia had responded freely to the call for volunteers, but when the Confederate Congress had passed, in April 1862, the Conscript Law which required all white men (except those legally exempted from service) between the ages of 18 and 35 to enter the Confederate service, Governor Brown, in a correspondence with President Davis which was continued for several months, offered serious objections, his leading contentions being that the measure was unnecessary as to Georgia, unconstitutional, subversive of the state's sovereignty, and therefore " at war with the principles for the support of which Georgia entered into this revolution."
The Confederate Records of the State of Georgia were published at Atlanta in 1909.
Such men were not necessarily friends of the Confederate cause.
In August he left the gulf in a fruitless search for the Confederate cruiser "Sumter."
In the operations for the capture of Vicksburg in 1863 unsuccessful attempts were made in February and March by Porter's vessels to penetrate through connecting streams and bayous to the Yazoo river and reach the right rear of the Confederate defences on the bluffs.
of the city is San Pedro Park (40 acres), the source of the San Pedro river; in Travis Park is a Confederate monument; and 3 m.
Twiggs (1790-1862), a veteran of the Mexican War, surrendered the Department of Texas, without resistance, to the Confederate general, Ben McCulloch; for this General Twiggs was dismissed from the United States army, and in May he became a major-general in the Confederate service.
and arming of the slaves, the execution of prominent Southern leaders, and the wholesale confiscation of Confederate property.
It was the central point of one of the greatest battles of the Civil War, fought on the 2nd and 3rd of May 1863, between the Union Army of the Potomac under Major-General Hooker, and the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under General Lee.
He continued to serve as a member of the convention until it adjourned in December, in the meantime acting as one of the commissioners to negotiate a temporary union between Virginia and the Confederate States of America.
He was also a member of the provisional Confederate Congress from May 1861, when the capital of the Confederacy was removed from Montgomery, Alabama, to Richmond.
Twiggs, to surrender to the Confederate forces, and escaped with the garrison.
After his release in October he commanded cavalry in East Tennessee, making successful raids into Virginia and North Carolina, and on the 12th of April 1865 defeated a Confederate force near Salisbury, North Carolina, and captured a large number of prisoners.
Along with Halicarnassus and Cos, and the Rhodian cities of Lindus, Camirus and Ialysus it formed the Dorian Hexapolis, which held its confederate assemblies on the Triopian headland, and there celebrated games in honour of Apollo, Poseidon and the nymphs.
The confederate lords on entering Edinburgh were welcomed by the citizens, and after three hours' persuasion Lethington, who had now joined them, prevailed on the captain of the castle to deliver it also into their hands.
The council of deputies from the confederate cities undertook the routine of administration and jurisdiction.
He also advocated the Freedmen's Bureau bills and the Tenure of Office Act, and went beyond Congress in favouring the confiscation of the property of the Confederate States and "of the real estate of 70,000 rebels who own above 200 acres each, together with the lands of their several states," for the benefit of the freedmen and loyal whites and to reimburse, it was said, the sufferers from Lee's invasion of Pennsylvania, during which Stevens's own ironworks at Chambersburg had been destroyed.
On the 30th of August 1862 a Confederate force of about 7000 men under General Edmund Kirby Smith won a decisive victory here over a Union force of a nearly equal number under Generals Mahlon D.
In 1864 he married a young lady who had helped him to escape from some Confederate marauders; and by the end of the war he rose to be major.
The village was the scene of the surrender of the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia under General Robert E.
neither "side arms of the officers nor their private horses or baggage" to be surrendered; and, as many privates in the Confederate Army owned horses and mules, all horses and mules claimed by men in the Confederate Army to be left in their possession.
The confederate tribes were originally organized for purposes of war into six great divisions or clans, this organization developing into the main social fabric of the state.
In 1860-1861, when the federal government passed into the control of the stronger section, the Southern states, individually, seceded and then formed the Confederate states, and in the war that followed they were conquered and forced back into the Union.
See Jefferson Davis, Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (New York, 1881); A.
Curry, Civil History of the Confederate States (Richmond, 1900); J.
See also STATE RIGHTS, NULLIFICATION, and CONFEDERATE STATES.
ROBERT EDWARD LEE (1807-1870), American soldier, general in the Confederate States army, was the youngest son of major-general Henry Lee, called "Light Horse Harry."
1543), English bishop, belonged general (then the highest rank) in the Confederate service.
The Church has publishing houses in Philadelphia (replacing that of Chambersburg, Pa., founded in 1840 and destroyed in July 1864 by the Confederate army) and in Cleveland, Ohio.
During the Civil War there was a Confederate military prison here.
He served in the provisional Contederate congress (1861) and also in the first regular congress (1862) of the Confederate constitution.
He entered the Confederate army as a colonel, became a brigadiergeneral (April 16, 1862), and took part in the battles of Williamsburg, Seven Pines, second Bull Run and Antietam.
Within the next few days large numbers of Confederate volunteers assembled here; and Harper was succeeded in command (27th April) by "Stonewall" Jackson, who was in turn succeeded by Brigadier-General Joseph E.
Union, &c., where formerly Confederate, Federal, &c., were used,.
The notorious Jack Sheppard, wearied of Wild's exactions, at last refused to deal with him, whereupon Wild secured his arrest, and himself arrested Sheppard's confederate, "Blueskin."
of Salem, there are buried some 2460 Confederate soldiers, who died during the Civil War while prisoners of war at Fort Delaware, on an island in Delaware river nearly opposite the mouth of Salem Creek.
A provisional government under the designation "The Confederate.
The famous contest between the new ironclads "Monitor" and "Merrimac" (9th April), though indecisive, effectually stopped the career of the Confederate vessel, which was later destroyed by the Confederates themselves.
As the Federal Government did not, at the time, actually have jurisdiction over the rest of the territory of the Confederate States, that really affected, some writers have questioned whether the proclamation really emancipated any slaves when it was issued.
The arrest (8th of November 1861) by Captain Charles Wilkes of two Confederate envoys proceeding to Europe in the British steamer "Trent" seriously threatened peace with England.
Later friendly relations between the United States and Great Britain, where, among the upper classes, there was a strong sentiment in favour of the Confederacy, were seriously threatened by the fitting out of Confederate privateers in British ports, and the Administration owed much to the skilful diplomacy of the American minister in London, Charles Francis Adams. A still broader foreign question grew out of Mexican affairs, when events culminating in the setting up of Maximilian of Austria as emperor under protection of French troops demanded the constant watchfulness of the United States.
Many unfounded rumours of a willingness on the part of the Confederate States to make peace were circulated to weaken the Union war spirit.
It did, indeed, assent to a treatyafterwards signed on behalf of the confederationby which Prussia and Austria guaranteed each other, but it resolutely opposed the mobilization of the confederate army.
On the 31st of October, then commanded by Joseph Fry, a former officer of the Federal and Confederate navies, and having a crew of fifty-two (chiefly Americans and Englishmen) and 103 passengers (mostly Cubans), she was captured off Morant Bay, Jamaica, by the Spanish vessel "Tornado," and was taken to Santiago, where, after a summary XXIV.
Prior to these episodes Athens had not been in hostile contact with any of the Peloponnesian confederate states for more than ten years, and Pericles had abandoned a great part of his imperial policy.
so powerful a confederate as Corinth.
Further, Thucydides is wrong on his own showing in saying that Sparta refused to tolerate democratic government in confederate cities: it was not till after 418 that this policy was adopted.
During the Civil War the city was a centre for Confederate commissary supplies and the seat of a Treasury depository.
In July 1864 General George Stoneman (1822-1894) with 500 men was captured near the city by the Confederate general, Howell Cobb.
Tell is called "the first Confederate," and his feat is treated as the real and only reason why the Confederation was formed and the tyrants driven out of the land.
Brooke in Hamersley's Naval Encyclopaedia.) When the Civil War broke out, he was on ordnance duty in the Washington navy yard, and he was one of the three officers who did not resign from confederate sympathies.
The Knights of the Golden Circle, and other secret societies, whose aims were the promulgation of state sovereignty and the extension of aid to the Confederate states, began to flourish, and it is said that in 1864 there were 50,000 members of the Sons of Liberty in the state.
Henry Hines, of the Confederate army, was appointed by Jefferson Davis to co-operate with these societies.
For a time his headquarters were in Chicago, and an elaborate attempt to liberate Confederate prisoners in Chicago (known as the Camp Douglas Conspiracy) was thwarted by a discovery of the plans.
In February 1861 he was a delegate to the Peace Conference in Washington; he opposed secession, but was loyal to his state when it seceded, and was one of its representatives in the Confederate Congress during the Civil War.
On discovering in 1863 that a French shipbuilder, with the connivance of Napoleon III., was constructing two formidable iron-clads and two corvettes for the use of the Confederacy, he devoted his energies to thwarting this scheme, and succeeded in preventing the delivery of all but one of these vessels to the Confederate agents.
In his work entitled France and the Confederate Navy (New York, 1888) he gives an account of this episode.
In 1861 Confederate forces attempted to seize Fort Taylor, but they were successfully resisted by General William H.
New Madrid was occupied by Confederate troops under General Gideon J.
Pillow, on the 28th of July 1861, and after the surrender of Fort Donelson (February 16, 1862) the troops previously at Columbus, forming the Confederate left flank, were withdrawn to New Madrid and Island No.
On the 16th of May Arkansas became one of the Confederate States of America.
The Federal and Confederate forces controlled at this time different parts of the state; there was some ebb and flow of military fortune in 1864, and for a short time two rival governments.
' Confederate governor.
He favoured a vigorous prosecution of the Civil War, but at its close advocated a mild policy toward the late Confederate states, declaring that part of the guilt of slavery lay upon the North.
In 1646 he went to Kilkenny, then in the hands of the rebel "confederate Catholics," and, in opposition to the papal nuncio Rinuccini, urged, and in 1649 helped to secure, peace with the viceroy Ormonde.
But finally Frankfort, having chosen the wrong side in the war of 1866, was annexed by Prussia, and only the three seaboard towns remain as full members of the new confederate Empire under the style of Freie and Hansestddte.
In February 1864 General William Tecumseh Sherman, with an army of about 20,000, made an expedition from Vicksburg to Meridian, then an important railway centre and depot for Confederate supplies, chiefly for the purpose of making inoperative the Mobile & Ohio and the Jackson & Selma railways; on the 14th of the month his army entered Meridian, and within a week destroyed nearly everything in the city except the private houses, and tore up over i io m.
Johnston surrendered on the 26th of April 1865 the Confederate army under his command to General W.
In the course of this was fought the battle of Yellow Tavern, where the Confederate general J.
At the close of the first day's bombardment of Fort Sumter (April 12th, 1861) Leroy P. Walker (1817-1884), the Confederate Secretary of War, boasted that before the 1st of May the Confederate flag would float over the Capitol.
For registration prior to 1904 one of four additional qualifications was required: service in the army or navy of the United States, of the Confederate States, or of some state of the United States or of the Confederate States; direct descent from one who so served; ownership of property upon which state taxes amounting to at least one dollar were paid in the preceding year; or ability to read the constitution or at least to show an understanding of it.
An alliance was made with the provisional government of the Confederate States, on April 25, without waiting for the vote of the people on the ordinance.
With the surrender of the Confederate army under General Lee to Grant at Appomattox the task of reconstruction began.
JUDAH PHILIP BENJAMIN (1811-1884), Anglo-American lawyer, of Jewish descent, was born a British subject at St Thomas in the West Indies on the 11th of August 1811, and was successively an American lawyer, a leading Confederate politician and a distinguished English barrister.
In 1861 he withdrew from the Senate, left Washington and actively espoused the Confederate cause.
Although at times subject to fierce criticism with regard to matters of administration and finance, he was recognized as one of the ablest men on the Confederate side, and he remained with Jefferson Davis to the last, sharing his flight after the surrender at Appomattox, and only leaving him shortly before his capture, because he found himself unable to go farther on horseback.
An early portrait of him is to be found in Jefferson Davis's Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government.
The confederate authority was vested in a board of eight commissioners, two from each colony chosen annually by its General Court.
Near Memphis, on the 6th of June 1862, a Union fleet of 9 vessels and 68 guns, under Commander Charles Henry Davis (1807-77), defeated a Confederate fleet of 8 vessels and 28 guns under Commander J.
Montgomery after a contest of little more than one hour, three of the Confederate vessels being destroyed and four of them captured, and from this victory until the close of the war the city was in possession of the Union forces.
In August 1864, however, a Confederate force under General N.
While the troops were occupied with the Confederate invaders the Indians had a free hand, but in 1863 an energetic campaign was begun by General James H.
Bancroft, the loyalty to the Union cause resulted " largely from the fact that the Confederate invasion came from Texas, the old hatred of the Texans being the strongest popular feeling of the natives, far outweighing their devotion to either the North or the South."
Sedalia was a Union military post throughout the Civil War; on the r 5th of October 1864 a detachment from Sterling Price's raiding column dislodged a small Union force that was occupying the town, but the Confederate occupation lasted only one day.
In 1862 a large number of Confederate prisoners were confined in Camp Randall, at Madison, and many of them died in hospital.
I, 1 20 Hanover Stockholm > 7) and obtained the bishoprics of Bremen and Verden for Frederiks- herself and Stettin for her confederate Prussia.
Reinforced by Phocian and Orchomenian troops and a Spartan army, he met the confederate forces at Coronea in Boeotia, and in a hotly contested battle was technically victorious, but the success was a barren one and he had to retire by way of Delphi to the Peloponnese.
In 1849 it was made the state capital, remaining so until 1862, when Shreveport became the Confederate state capital.
Thomas Williams (1815-1862) against an attack by Confederate forces under General John C. Breckinridge on the 5th of August 1862; Gen.
The curious Chapman (or Asbury Harpending) case of 1863 was a Confederate scheme involving piracy on Federal vessels in the Pacific and an effort to gain the secession of the state.
In 1861 it was occupied by a Texan force, declared for the Confederacy, and sent a delegate (who was not admitted) to the Confederate congress.
Mason and John Slidell, the envoys of the Confederate States to Great Britain and France respectively, who had been taken by a Federal vessel from the British ship "Trent," were restored by the Federal authorities to H.B.M.S.
Crittenden as United States senator from Kentucky in March 1861, but having subsequently entered the Confederate service he was expelled from the Senate in December 1861.
As brigadiergeneral he commanded the Confederate reserve at Shiloh, and in August 1862 he became major-general.
Being transferred to the department of South-west Virginia, he fought a number of minor engagements in eastern Tennessee, and in January 1865 became secretary of war for the Confederate States.
Captain Semmes there took command of her under a commission from the Confederate government.
The second was in respect of breaches of neutrality in allowing the "Alabama," the "Florida" (originally the "Oreto"), the "Shenandoah" and other Confederate vessels to be built and equipped on British territory.
It was found that in the American case damages were claimed not only for the property destroyed by the Confederate cruisers, but in respect of certain other matters known as "indirect losses," viz.
The United States National Military Cemetery at Winchester contains the graves of 4480 Union soldiers, 2382 of them unknown, and adjoining it is the Confederate Stonewall Cemetery, with about 8000 graves.
In the Civil War, Winchester, because of its position in the lower Shenandoah Valley, played a great part, and was several times the scene of engagements between the Union and Confederate forces - in 1862, Jackson's actions of Kernstown and Winchester; in the Gettysburg campaign, the capture of a Union garrison by Ewell (14-15 June 1863); and in Sheridan's campaign of 1864 the battle of Winchester or Opequon (Sept.
This distinction was emphasized during the Civil War between North and South, the seceding states forming a Confederation (Confederate States of America) in opposition to the Federal Union.
By delaying the Confederate general J.
He was appointed in August 1861 commissioner of the Confederate States to Great Britain.
He remained in Europe, spending most of his time at Paris and holding blank commissions which he was authorized to fill in at his discretion in case the presence of a Confederate commissioner should seem desirable at any particular European court.
McClellan followed up the Confederate rearguard and approached Richmond, using White House on the Pamunkey as a base of supplies; this entailed a division of his forces on either bank of the Chickahominy.
At Fair Oaks (Seven Pines) was fought on the 31st of May a bloody battle, ending the following day in a Confederate repulse.
Charitable and Penal Institutions.-The charitable and penal institutions of the state include the penitentiary at Jefferson City, opened in 1836, which is self-supporting; a training school for boys at Boonville (opened 1889), an industrial home for girls at Chillicothe (established 1887), hospitals for the insane at Fulton (1847), St Joseph (opened 1874), Nevada (1887), and Farmington (1899); a school for the blind at St Louis (opened 1851); a school for the deaf at Fulton (opened 1851); a colony for the feeble-minded and epileptic at Marshall (established 1899); a state sanitorium, for consumptives, at Mount Vernon (established 1905, opened 1907); a Federal soldiers' home at St James, and a Confederate soldiers' home at Higginsville (both established 1897).
On the 10th of August 1861 at Wilson's Creek, near Springfield, General Nathaniel Lyon was defeated by a superior Confederate force in one of the bloodiest battles of the war.
In the autumn of 1864 Sterling Price led a brilliant but rather bootless Confederate raid across the state, along the Missouri River, and was only forced to retreat southward by defeat at Westport (Kansas City).
Probably 25,000 or 30,000 soldiers served in the Confederate armies, and 109,111 were furnished to the Union arms. 3 This was a remarkable showing.
There was more or less internecine conflict throughout the war, and local disaffection under Union rule; and Confederate recruiting was carried on even north of the Missouri.
In October 1861 a rump of the deposed Assembly passed an act of secession, which the Confederate States saw fit to regard as legitimate, and under which they admitted Missouri to their union by declaration of the 28th of November.
Crittenden commanding the Union left was hurriedly called back from his attack on the Confederate right to support McCook.
Thomas's corps checked the Confederate attack.
It originally enjoyed independence under the rule of its tribunes and judges, and was one of the twelve confederate islands of the lagoons.
After the Civil War he vigorously opposed the Congressional plan of reconstructing the late Confederate states, and himself drafted the message of President Johnson, vetoing the Reconstruction Act of the 2nd of March 1867.
He held that England's according the rights of belligerents to the Confederate states had doubled the duration of the war, entailing inestimable loss.
He therefore insisted that England should be required not merely to pay damages for the havoc wrought by the " Alabama " and other cruisers fitted out for Confederate service in her ports, but that, for " that other damage, immense and infinite, caused by the prolongation of the war," the withdrawal of the British flag from this hemisphere could " not be abandoned as a condition or preliminary of such a settlement as is now proposed."
In June 1863 the state was invaded by Confederate cavalry under General John H.
On the collapse of his confederate's rising, Roger was tried before the Great Council, deprived of his lands and earldom, and sentenced to perpetual imprisonment; but he was released, with other political prisoners, at the death of William I.
The Confederate officers began by repressing predatory plundering from Missouri; but after James H.
In the autumn of 1864 the Confederate general, Sterling Price, aiming to enter Kansas from Missouri but defeated by General Pleasanton's cavalry, retreated southward, zigzagging on both sides of the Missouri-Kansas line.
On the one side the Confederate Statesas the seceding states were calledwere animated by a resolution to protect their property.
In the course of 1862 indeed, when the Confederate armies had secured many victories, Gladstone, speaking at Newcastle, used the famous expression that President Jefferson Davis had made a nation;and Lord Palmerston~ language in the House of Commonswhile opposing a motion for the recognition of the Southinduced the impression that his thoughts were tending in the same direetion as MrGlad~tones.
In June 1862 the American minister in London drew Lord Russells attention tothe fact that a vessel, lately launched at MessrsLairds yard at Birkenhead, was obviously intended to be en~iloyed as .a Confederate cruiser.
It contains the most popular place of pilgrimage in Oudh, the tomb of Masaud, a champion of Islam, slain in battle by the confederate Rajputs in 1033, which is resorted to by Mahommedans and Hindus alike.
The remaining inhabitants, after seeing their city burnt down by Xerxes, furnished a force of 1800 men to the confederate Greek army at Plataea.
In the last days of his term he apparently had such an intention, but during the year 1860 the Southern States actually received less than their full quota of arms. After the secession of Virginia he was commissioned a brigadier-general in the Confederate service.
He was first employed in some unsuccessful operations in western Virginia, and in February 1862 became commander of the Confederate forces at Fort Donelson, from which he fled with his second in command, General Gideon J.
After Lincoln's re-election in 1864 Blair thought that his former close personal relations with the Confederate leaders might aid in bringing about a cessation of hostilities, and with Lincoln's consent went unofficially to Richmond and induced President Jefferson Davis to appoint commissioners to confer with representatives of the United States.
Among others, Ericsson replied, and as it was thought that his design might be serviceable in inland waters, the first armoured turret ship, the "Monitor," was ordered; she was launched on the 30th of January 1862, and on the 9th of March she fought the celebrated action with the Confederate ram "Merrimac."
During Green's " reign " the economic condition of Tristan was considerably affected by the desertion of the neighbouring seas by the whalers; this was largely due to the depredations of the Confederate cruisers " Alabama " and " Shenandoah " during the American Civil War, many whaling boats being captured and burnt by them.
Forrest (Confederate), with a force one-third the size of that of his opponent.
Some days later, however, he was attacked before Granson by the confederate army and suffered a shamful defeat, being compelled to fly with a handful of attendants, and leaving his artillery and an immense booty in the hands of the allies (February 1476).
The extent and permanence of the Danish influence in Lincolnshire is still observable in the names of its towns and villages and in the local dialect, and, though about 918 the confederate boroughs were recaptured by Edward the Elder, in 993 a Viking fleet again entered the Humber and ravaged Lindsey, and in 1013 the district of the five boroughs acknowledged the supremacy of Sweyn.
Mitchel, but the Confederate army of General Braxton Bragg was transferred thither by rail from Corinth, Miss., before Mitchel was able to advance.
Thus Rosecrans was confined to a semicircle of low ground around Chattanooga itself, and his supplies had to make a long and difficult detour from Bridgeport, the main road being under fire from the Confederate position on Lookout and in the Wauhatchie valley adjacent.
His plan was that Thomas in the Chattanooga lines should contain the Confederate centre on Missionary Ridge, while Hooker on the right at Wauhatchie was to attack Lookout Mountain, and Sherman farther up the river was to carry out the decisive attack against Bragg's extreme right wing at the end of Missionary Ridge.
On the 23rd of November a forward move of Thomas's army, intended as a Confederate line of defence.
X X XX Union troops.,.® demonstration, developed into a serious and successful action, whereby the first line of the Confederate centre was driven in for some distance.
the centre advanced on the Confederate's trenches at the foot of Missionary Ridge.
Hooker now advanced in earnest on Rossville, and by nightfall the whole Confederate army, except the troops on Tunnel Hill, was retreating in disorder.
On Lyon's refusal to accede to the Secessionists' proposal that the state should be neutral, hostilities opened in earnest, and Lyon, having cleared Missouri of small hostile bands in the central part of the state, turned to the southern districts, where a Confederate army was advancing from the Arkansas border.
States Government Building, the County Court House, the City Hall, the Tennessee School for the Blind, the Tennessee Industrial School, the State Library, the Library of the State Historical Society housed in Watkins Institute, a Carnegie library, park buildings, the State Penitentiary, Vendome Theatre, the Board of Trade Building, the City Hospital, the St Thomas Hospital (Roman Catholic), and, near the city, a Confederate Soldiers' Home and a State Hospital for the Insane.
In Mount Olivet Cemetery is a beautiful Confederate Soldiers' monument surrounded by the graves of 2000 Confederate soldiers, and a little to the north of the city is a National Cemetery in which 16,643 Federal soldiers are buried, the names of 4711 of them being unknown.
Then, on the 15th, he emerged from the entrenchments and by a vigorous attack on the Confederate left forced back Hood's line to a second position i 2 m.
The pursuit was vigorous, and only a remnant of the Confederate forces reassembled at Columbia, 40 m.
Called the Confederate Catholics, they had set up a provisional government, and when the nuncio reached Kilkenny they were engaged in negotiating for peace with the lord lieutenant, the marquess, afterwards duke, of Ormonde.
His brother George Cary Eggleston (1839-), American journalist and author, served in the Confederate army; was managing editor and later editor-in-chief of Hearth and Home (1871-1874); was literary editor of the New York Evening Post (1875-1881), literary editor and afterwards editor-in-chief of the New York Commercial Advertiser (1884-1889), and editorial writer for The World (New York) from 1889 to 1900.
These mines were the principal source of the supply of copper for the Confederate States during the Civil War.
Charities, &c. - The charitable and penal institutions of the state consist of the Central Hospital for the Insane near Nashville; the Eastern Hospital for the Insane near Knoxville; the Western Hospital for the Insane near Bolivar; the Tennessee School for the blind at Nashville; the Tennessee Deaf and Dumb School at Knoxville; the Confederate Soldiers' Home near Nashville, on the " Hermitage," the estate formerly belonging to Andrew Jackson; and the Penitentiary and the Tennessee Industrial School, both at Nashville; and in 1907 the legislature passed an Act for the establishment in Davidson county of the Tennessee Reformatory for boys.
The Confederate Soldiers' Home is managed by a board of fifteen trustees, of whom six are women, each serving until death or resignation, when his or her successor is appointed by the governor upon the recommendation of the corporation known as the Association of Confederate Soldiers.
The management became a question of party politics, and during the Civil War its funds were used to advance the Confederate cause.
The Confederate line of defence was broken and General D.
Rosecrans (Federal) fought with General Braxton Bragg (Confederate) the bloody but indecisive battle of Stone River (Murfreesboro).
Tennessee was the first of the Confederate states to be readmitted to the Union (July 24, 1866), after ratifying the Constitution of the United States with amendments, declaring the ordinance of secession void, voting to abolish slavery, and declaring the war debt void.
1 The state furnished 115,000 soldiers to the Confederate and 31,000 to the Union Army.
Another 5,000 were killed during the confederate army during the American Civil War.
Unless you had a confederate at Bath I do not know how to send you anything.
Fact: Neither Shipi nor any other potential confederate was permitted in the target area during the tests.
confederate flag removed from Georgia's own flag.
confederate soldier in the American Civil War.
confederate troops with his singing and dancing at a retirement home in Georgia.
confederate gold that's been missing since the American Civil War.
miscalculated the size of the remaining Confederate forces and decided he needed more reinforcements before he could do anything.
spying missions behind the Confederate lines.
Not only must we prevent the next murder, but we must also unmask whoever this confederate is.
The feat by which he will be remembered was the destruction of the Confederate ironclad "Albemarle" in the Roanoke river on the 27th of October in 1864.
Many voters absent in the Confederate army when the vote was taken refused to acknowledge the transfer on their return.
The constitutions and rituals of these secret orders have declarations of principles, of which the following are characteristic: to protect and succour the weak and unfortunate, especially the widows and orphans of Confederate soldiers; to protect members, of the white race in life, honour and property from the encroachments of the blacks; to oppose the Radical Republican party and the Union League; to defend constitutional liberty, to prevent usurpation, emancipate the whites, maintain peace and order, the laws of God, the principles of 1776, and the political and social supremacy of the white race - in short, to oppose African influence in government and society, and to prevent any intermingling of the races.
In Franklin cemetery rest the remains of Daniel Boone and of Theodore O'Hara (1820-1867), a lawyer, soldier, journalist and poet, who served in the U.S. army in 1846-1848 during the Mexican War, took part in filibustering expeditions to Cuba, served in the Confederate army, and is best known as the author of "The Bivouac of the Dead," a poem written for the burial in Frankfort of some soldiers who had lost their lives at Buena Vista.
An ordinance of secession was passed on the 9th of January 1861, and the constitution was soon amended to conform to the new constitution of the Confederate States.
In Hollywood Cemetery (dedicated in 1849) are the graves of many famous men, including presidents James Monroe and John Tyler; Jefferson Davis, John Randolph of Roanoke, the Confederate generals, A.
The city's police force was unable to cope with the situation created by the influx of soldiers, gamblers and adventurers, and on the 1st of March 1862 President Davis (by authority of a secret Act of the Confederate Congress passed on the 2nd of February) declared martial law in the city and the country within a radius of io m., suspended the writ of habeas corpus, and appointed General John H.
General Winder's arbitrary exercise of his power was, however, resented so vigorously by the citizens that on the 19th of April the Confederate Congress materially modified the law under which he received these powers from the president.
9, 1861), which was bringing supplies to Anderson, and the bombardment of Fort Sumter; and was a zealous supporter of the Confederate cause.
(See Confederate States; and American Civil War.) In the shortest time he organized and put into the field one of the finest bodies of soldiers of which history has record.
the "Cumberland," which, while it steadily careened, had been keeping up a heavy fire at the Confederate vessels, sank, with "her pennant still flying from the topmast above the waves."
Though the battle between the two vessels was indecisive, its effect was to "neutralize" the "Merrimac," which had caused great alarm in Washington, and to prevent the breaking of the Federal blockade at Hampton Roads; in the history of naval warfare it may be regarded as marking the opening of a new era - the era of the armoured warship. On the 3rd of February 1865 near Fortress Monroe on board a steamer occurred the meeting of President Lincoln and Secretary Seward with Confederate commissioners which is known as the Hampton Roads Conference (see Lincoln, Abraham).
In order to obstruct and embarrass the Republican administration the members of the order held peace meetings to influence public opinion against the continuance of the war; purchased arms to be used in uprisings, which were to place the peace party in control of the Federal government, or failing in that to establish a north-western confederacy; and took measures to set free the Confederate prisoners in the north and bring the war to a forced close.
There are insane asylums at Austin (the State Lunatic Asylum), San Antonio (the Southwestern Insane Asylum), and Terrell (North Texas Hospital for the Insane); the Texas School for the Deaf (1857), an institution for deaf, dumb and blind coloured youths (1889), a School for the Blind (1856), and a home for dependent Confederate soldiers, at Austin, a state orphan home (1889) at Corsicana, an epileptic colony at Abilene, and a state reformatory (1889) for boys under seventeen years at Gatesville.
In September 1862 the city was threatened by a Confederate force under General Kirby Smith, who led the advance of General Bragg's army (see American Civil War).
To oppose them the Confederates, limited as they were for means, managed to construct various ironclads, and to improvise a considerable fleet of minor vessels, and, though a fighting navy never assembled under a Confederate flag-officer, the Southern warships found another more damaging and more profitable scope for their activity.
This limits the right to vote to those who can read and write any article of the constitution of the United States, and have worked or been regularly engaged in some lawful employment, business or occupation, trade or calling for the greater part of the twelve months next preceding the time they offer to register, unless prevented from labour or ability to read and write by physical disability, or who own property assessed at $300 upon which the taxes have been paid; but those who have served in the army or navy of the United States or of the Confederate States in time of war, their lawful descendants in every degree, and persons of good character "who understand the duties and obligations of citizenship under a republican form of government," are relieved from the operation of this law provided they registered prior to the 20th of December 1902.
But in May the fleet ran past the Vicksburg batteries, mastered the Confederate forts at Grand Gulf, and made it possible for Grant's army to undertake the brilliant campaign which led to the fall of the place (see American Civil War and Vicksburg).
With other radical Republicans Davis was a bitter opponent of Lincoln's plan for the reconstruction of the southern states, and on the 15th of February 1864 he reported from committee a bill placing the process of reconstruction under the control of Congress, and stipulating that the Confederate states, before resuming their former status in the Union, must disfranchise all important civil and military officers of the Confederacy, abolish slavery, and repudiate all debts incurred by or with the sanction of the Confederate government.
While attempting to seize the Confederate prison at Andersonville (July 31, 1864), he was captured at Clinton, Georgia.
He was appointed to command a new "Army of the Shenandoah" to oppose the forces of General Early, and conducted the brilliant and decisive campaign which crushed the Confederate army and finally put an end to the war in Northern Virginia (see American Civil War and Shenandoah Valley Campaigns).
C. Buell, and of the court which in 1865 tried and condemned Henry Wirz, commander of the Confederate prison at Andersonville, Ga.
Despite her narrow escape, Cushman agreed to carry out further spying missions behind the Confederate lines.
Enjoy blues music and a laid back vibe while you see a town where seven Confederate generals used to live.
Trachelospermum jasminoides, called star or Confederate jasmine, is usually recommended for zones 8 and warmer, with a few cultivars recommended for zone 7.
Confederate States of America: Texas was part of the Confederacy during the Civil War, and from 1861 to 1865 flew the Stars and Bars.
In this option, you have a few campaign choices: Birth of the Rebellion, The Confederate Uprising, Republic Sovereignty, and the Dark Reign of the Empire.
Arlington National Cemetery is located on the former property of Confederate General Robert E.
Held on the last Monday in May, Memorial Day, formerly known as Decoration Day, was originally designed to honor Union and Confederate soldiers who died during the Civil War.
At that time, flowers were put on the graves of Union and Confederate soldiers buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
The Southern states finally observed this holiday after World War I, except for several states that still have an additional day set aside to honor the deceased Confederate soldiers.
Those who died pre-Civil War were buried in Arlington after 1900, as were Confederate soldiers and officers who weren't allowed to be buried there earlier.
Texas has Confederate pension applications and Republic of Texas records in searchable form.
The U.S. National Park Service maintains the Civil War Soldiers and Sailors System, a listing of Union and Confederate soldiers.
NARA also maintains microfilms of Confederate and Union service records.
Confederate pension applications were granted by the individual Southern states.
NARA maintains a list of links for state Confederate pension applications.
Men were asked if they were either a Union or Confederate veteran of the Civil War.
NARA has extensive information on both Union and Confederate service.
Confederate pensions were granted by the Southern state where the veteran lived when he applied for the pension.
State archives will usually have a listing of Confederate pension applications.
Confederate pension applications are maintained by the state where the veteran applied for a pension.
These holdings include both Union and Confederate Civil War service records.
The cemetery is located on the banks of the Potomac River, just outside of Washington D.C. Built on the former estate of confederate general Robert E.
Lee after the Confederate States' defeat in the Civil War. During that conflict, the house served as the base for the Army of the Potomac.
Gradually the Army began using the fortress to house Confederate spies and army deserters.
As the war raged on longer than anyone expected, the Confederate War Department formulated a system to issue uniforms and other equipment needed for the Confederate volunteer regiments.
Even with this organized system, Confederate soldiers suffered shortages for the duration of the war.
Hat - A gray slouch hat or cap was army issue but many of the Confederate soldiers preferred to wear a broad-brimmed felt hat that protected them from the sun and rain.
Brogans - If a Confederate soldier was lucky, he had a pair of black shoes known as brogans.
Confederates often salvaged Federal haversacks from the battlefield or Union prisoners of war and discarded their stained confederate issued counterpart.
The state furnished about 36,000 soldiers to the Federal armies and somewhat less than io,000 to the Confederate.
Montgomery, in Alabama, was the first Confederate capital, but after Virginia joined her sister states, the seat of government was removed to Richmond, on the 29th of May 1861.
Moreover, he was not, like Lincoln, a great manager of men; he often acted without tact; he was charged with being domineering and autocratic, and at various times he was seriously hampered by the meddling of the Confederate Congress and the opposition of such men as the vice-president, A.
The last days of the Confederate Congress were spent in recriminations between that body and President Davis, and the popularity with which he commenced his administration had almost entirely vanished.
In January 1865 the Congress proposed to supersede the president and make General Lee dictator, - a suggestion, however, to which the Confederate commander refused to listen.
After his release he visited Europe, and spent the last years of his life in retirement, during which he wrote his Rise and Fall of the Confederate Government (2 vols., 1881).
Several biographies and memoirs of Davis have been published, of which the best are: Jefferson Davis, Ex-President of the Confederate States (2 vols., New York, 1890), by his widow; F.
After the war he allied himself with the radical wing of his party, was a member of the joint committee that outlined the congressional plan of reconstructing the late Confederate States, and laboured for the impeachment of President Johnson.
During the Civil War the city ranked next to Richmond in the manufacture of supplies for the Confederate army.
From November 1863 until the close of the Civil War it was the seat of a Confederate military prison.
The terrible conditions obtaining there were due to the lack of food supplies in the Confederate States, the incompetence of the prison officials, and the refusal of the Federal authorities in 1864 to make exchanges of prisoners, thus filling the stockade with unlooked-for numbers.
18, 1864), eulogizing him as the commander who had successfully met and defeated the best general and the strongest army on the Confederate side.
In Kentucky the Unionist victory was secured almost without a blow, and, even at the end of 1861, the Confederate outposts west of the Alleghenies lay no farther north than the line Columbus - Bowling Green - Cumberland Gap, though southern Missouri was still a contested ground.
In the central theatre (Kentucky), the only event of importance was a daring reconnaissance of the Confederate fort at Columbus on the Mississippi by a small force under Brigadier-General U.
This body, composed mostly of Kentucky men who had joined the Confederate army, passed an ordinance of secession, elected state officers, and sent commissioners to the Confederate Congress, which body voted on the 9th of December to admit Kentucky into the Confederacy.
Military minds conceived of Alcatraz as an ideal location for Confederate prisoners.
Starting in 1861, Confederate prisoners and later army-convicts were assigned to the Citadel for detention.