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cones

cones Sentence Examples

  • It bears cones as large as a man's head.

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  • This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.

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  • The cones are very small, ovate and pointed.

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  • The cones are from 8 to 82 in.

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  • The dominating features of south New Zealand are not ferny plateaus or volcanic cones, but stern chains of mountains.

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  • The dominating features of south New Zealand are not ferny plateaus or volcanic cones, but stern chains of mountains.

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  • The number of main craters may be about twenty-five, but there are very many small eruptive cones on the flanks of the old volcanoes.

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  • The number of main craters may be about twenty-five, but there are very many small eruptive cones on the flanks of the old volcanoes.

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  • The cones, about the size of a small walnut, bear spirally arranged imbricated scales which subtend the three-angled winged seeds.

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  • These bodies had long been known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones."

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  • The scales of its cones are winged, and have a hook at the apex.

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  • In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.

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  • Its northern shores are bordered by the beautiful basaltic cones of the Bakony mountains, the volcanic soil of which produces grapes yielding excellent wine; the southern consist partly of a marshy plain, partly of downs.

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  • Its northern shores are bordered by the beautiful basaltic cones of the Bakony mountains, the volcanic soil of which produces grapes yielding excellent wine; the southern consist partly of a marshy plain, partly of downs.

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  • A bird sits on the next bough, life-everlasting grows under the table, and blackberry vines run round its legs; pine cones, chestnut burs, and strawberry leaves are strewn about.

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  • The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.

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  • The main shaft bearings are in two sets and composed of steel balls running in steel cones and cups; the governor is an iron rod about 16 in.

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  • The leaves of the cypresses are scale-like, overlapping and generally in four rows; the female catkins are roundish, and fewer than the male; the cones consist of from six to ten peltate woody scales, which end in a curved point, and open when the seeds are ripe; the seeds are numerous and winged.

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  • Near the posterior pole of the fundus, but somewhat excentrically placed towards the temporal or outer side, is the fovea centralis, a slight depression in the retina, composed almost entirely of cones, the spot of most acute vision.

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  • In some instances the cones are quite intact, and the beds of ash and scoriae are as yet almost unaffected by denuding agencies.

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  • The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.

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  • In this case the pigment-cells are endodermal, forming a cup of pigment in which the visual cones are embedded.

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  • The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each.

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  • edge of the principal crater, which is surrounded by twelve smaller cones.

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  • in Ischia, and Camaldoli, 1488 ft., west of Naples, are the highest cones.

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  • ordinary indifferent cells of the epithelium containing pigment-granules, and (2) visual cells, slender sensory epithelial cells of the usual type, which may develop visual cones or rods at their free extremity.

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  • 6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.

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  • Their cones are composed of thin, rounded, closely imbricated scales, each with a more or less conspicuous bract springing from the base.

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  • In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.

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  • In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.

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  • The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.

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  • A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.

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  • This kind is sometimes seen in plantations, where it may be recognized by its shorter, darker leaves and longer cones.

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  • The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.

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  • A decoction of the buds in milk or whey is a common household remedy for scurvy; and the young shoots or green cones form an essential ingredient in the spruce-beer drank with a similar object, or as an occasional beverage.

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  • The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.

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  • Cones; scale with seeds.

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  • A, Branch bearing (a) young female cones, (b) ripe cones, reduced.

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  • The cones, produced in great abundance, are short and oval in shape, the scales with rugged indented edges; they are deep purple when young, but become brown as they ripen.

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  • The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.

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  • The yew-like leaves spread laterally, and are of a deep green tint; the cones are furnished with tridentate bracts that project far beyond the scales.

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  • The large cones stand erect on the branches, are cylindrical in shape, and have long bracts, the curved points of which project beyond the scales.

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  • The cones do not ripen till the second year.

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  • The full series of forty-four teeth was developed; and the upper molars were short-crowned, or brachyodont, with six low cones, two internal, two intermediate.

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  • 23) were furnished with a pair of truncated cones b b, of soft iron forming an extension of the conical ends of the bobbin c. The most suitable form for the pole faces is investigated in the paper, and the conclusion arrived at is that to produce the greatest concentration of force upon the central neck, the cones FIG.

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  • 23 should have a common vertex in the middle of the neck with a semi-vertical angle of 54° 44', while the condition for a uniform field is satisfied when the cones have a semivertical angle of 39° 14'; in the latter case the magnetic force in the air just outside is sensibly equal to that within the neck.

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  • A pair of cones having a semi-vertical angle of 45° were considered to combine high concentrative power with a sufficient approximation to uniformity of field.

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  • The corresponding intensity of the outside field was 24,500, but, owing to the wide angle of the cones used (about X63°), this was probably greater than the value of the magnetic force within the metal.

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  • It is shown in the paper that the greatest possible force which the isthmus method can apply at a point in the axis of the bobbin is F = 11, 137 I, log i n b/a, I, being the saturation value of the magnet pores, a the radius of the neck on which the cones converge, and b the radius of the bases of the cones.

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  • It may be readily deduced that the directions of minimum deviation for a pencil of parallel rays lie on the surface of cones, the semi-vertical angles of which are equal to the values given in the above table.

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  • 2 represents sections of the drop and the cones containing the minimum deviation rays after I, 2, 3 and 4 reflections; the order of the colours is shown by the letters R (red) and V (violet).

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  • It is apparent, therefore, that all drops transmitting intense light after one internal reflection to the eye will lie on the surfaces of cones having the eye for their common vertex, the line joining the eye to the sun for their axis, and their semi-vertical angles equal to about 41° for the violet rays and 43° for the red rays.

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  • Similarly, drops transmitting rays after two internal reflections will be situated on covertical and coaxial cones, of which the semi-vertical angles are 51° for the red rays and 54° for the violet.

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  • The glass in all is greenish, very thick, with many bubbles, and has been cut with the wheel; in some instances circles and cones, and in one the outlines of the figure of a leopard, have been left standing up, the rest of the surface having been laboriously cut away.

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  • Painted terra-cotta cones were also embedded in the plaster.

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  • Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.

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  • The cones, which are on the upper side of the branches, are flattened at the ends and are 4 to 5 in.

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  • C. atlantica, the Atlas cedar, has shorter and denser leaves than C. Libani; the leaves are glaucous, sometimes of a silvery whiteness, and the cones smaller than in the other two forms; its wood also is hard, and more rapid in growth than is that of the ordinary cedar.

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  • A little steam still issues from several smaller cones on the summit of the ridge, as well as from one, called Eniwa, on the northern side.

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  • cones (extinct), on the N.

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  • Hence we see that if the whole surface of the sphere is divided into pairs of elements by cones described through any interior point, the resultant force at that point must consist of the sum of pairs of equal and opposite forces, and is therefore zero.

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  • Particularly steep slopes are found in the case of submarine domes, usually incomplete volcanic cones, and there have been cases in which after such a dome has been discovered by the soundings of a surveying ship it could not be found again as its whole area was so small and the deep floor of the ocean from which it rose so flat that an error of 2 or 3 m.

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  • From the floor of this vast and profound depression numerous isolated volcanic cones rise with abrupt slopes, and even between the islands of the Hawaiian group there are depths of more than 2000 fathoms. The Society Islands and Tahiti crown a rise coming within 150o fathoms of the surface, two similar rises form the foundation of the Paumotu group where Agassiz found soundings of.

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  • The same thing can be effected in a more perfect manner by the use of spiral or scroll drums, in which the rope is made to coil in a spiral groove upon the surface of the drum, which is formed by the frusta of two obtuse cones placed with their smaller diameters outwards.

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  • The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.

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  • This suspension is then run through a conical mill in order td remove all grit, the cones of the mill fitting so tightly that water cannot pass through unless the mill is running; the speed of the mill when working is about 3000 revolutions per minute.

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  • Ikurangi, their highest summit, though a fine mass, does not compare with the isolated volcanic cones which, rising W.

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  • The " knoppern " galls of Cynips polycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge.

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  • Their waters unite in one stream whose course is marked by gigantic limestone cones, some of which are 36 ft.

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  • The name and the cones are accounted for by a legend which represents that at this spot lived a sheikh who, finding his sister too beautiful to be married to anyone else, determined to espouse her himself.

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  • The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.

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  • At first it is rather a succession of isolated volcanic cones than a continuous ridge, the most conspicuous peaks being Orosi (5185 ft.), the four-crested Rincon de la Viej a (4500), Miravalles (4698) and Tenorio (6800).

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  • Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.

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  • at the much Sequoia sempervirens - a, Branch with green cones and male catkins; b, Section or cone; c, Scale of cone.

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  • The cones, from 4 to 1 in.

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  • The male catkins are small, solitary, and are borne at the ends of the twigs; the cones are from 12 to 3 in.

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  • The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range.

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  • Viewed from the coast, the volcanic cones seem to rise directly from the central heights of the Sierra Madre, above which they tower; but in reality their bases are, as a rule, farther south.

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  • A group of large volcanoes occurs on the limestone platform s6uth of the Grand Canyon, culminating in Mt San Francisco (12,794 ft.), a moderately dissected cone, and associated with many more recent smaller cones and freshlooking lava flows.

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  • Mt Taylor in western New Mexico is of similar age, but here dissection seems to have advanced farther, probably because of the weaker nature of the underlying rocks, with the result of removing the smaller cones and exposing many lava conduits or pipes in the form of volcanic necks or buttes.

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  • The earlier supposition that these vast lava flows came chiefly from fissure eruptions has been made doubtful by the later discovery of flat-sloping volcanic cones from which much lava seems to have been poured out in a very liquid state.

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  • The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.

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  • Blackrock diabase (cones and dikes) -

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  • The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.

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  • The yellow stamen-bearing flowers are in sessile, nearly spherical catkins; the fertile ones vary in colour, from red or purple to greenish-white, in different varieties; the erect cones, which remain long on the branches, are above an inch in length and oblong-ovate in shape, with reddish-brown scales somewhat waved on the edges, the lower bracts usually rather longer than the scales.

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  • The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.

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  • The larch is raised from seed in immense numbers in British nurseries; that obtained from Germany is preferred, being more perfectly ripened than the cones of home growth usually are.

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  • microcarpa) the cones are very small, rarely exceeding z in.

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  • pendula) has rather larger cones, of an oblong shape, about 4 in.

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  • The leaves are short, thicker and more rigid than in any of the other larches; the cones are much larger than those of the hackmatacks, egg-shaped or oval in outline; the scales are of a fine red in the immature state, the bracts green and extending far beyond the scales in a rigid leaf-like point.

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  • above the sea; from this plateau many regularly shaped truncated cones rise another 2000 ft.

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  • Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.

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  • Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous on the upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai; but the more typically Hawaiian pit or engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai and Mokuaweoweo, crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as Kilauea, to the S.E.

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  • It has numerous cinder cones on its S.W.

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  • There are few craters on the loftier heights, but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with craters, some of lava, others of tuf a.

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  • The silicious matter has also built up around the springs and geysers cones or mounds of considerable size and great beauty of form.

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  • There are also some 200 subsidiary cones, some of them over 3000 ft.

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  • If all the minor cones and monticules could be stripped from the mountain, the diminution of bulk would be extremely slight.

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  • So also in fir cones (fig.

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  • Carnelley and Williams employed certain salts of known melting point; whilst the Seger's cones, employed in porcelain manufacture, depend on the fusion of small cones made of clay.

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  • The cheek-teeth are low-crowned, with the external cones of the upper molars fused into a W-like outer wall, and the inner ones retaining a regular conical form; while in the lower teeth the crown is formed of crescentic ridges, of which there are three in the last and two each in the other teeth.

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  • But the sameness is relieved along the western coast of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty by groups of cones and stacks, and farther south by the terraced plateaus and abru p t conical hills of Skye, Rum and Mull.

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  • Occasionally a ridge has been carved into a series of cones united at their bases, as in the chain of the Pentland Hills.

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  • A further stage in denudation brings us to isolated groups of cones completely separated from the rest of the rocks among which they once lay buried.

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  • In many cases, however, the groups point to the existence of some boss of rock of greater durability than those in the immediate neighbourhood, as in the Cuchullins and Red Hills of Skye and the group of granite cones of Ben Loyal, Sutherland.

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  • They are made by dissolving ordinary soda-ash in hot water, adding a small quantity of chloride of lime for the destruction of colouring matter and the oxidation of any ferrous salts present, carefully settling the solution, without allowing its temperature to fall below the point of maximum solubility (34° C.), and running the clarified liquid into cast-iron crystallizers or " cones," where, on cooling down, most of the sodium carbonate is separated in large crystals of the decahydrated form.

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  • Although volcanic cones are known both in Persia and in Baluchistan, none have yet been described in Afghanistan itself.

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  • In Leyte there are several isolated volcanic cones, two of which, in the north part, exceed 4000 ft.

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  • There are eight other volcanoes, which although extinct or dormant have well-preserved cones.

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  • No crater now exists at the summit of either, but well-formed parasitic cones occur upon their flanks.

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  • 1-7), explained fully the means whereby the jaws and the muscles which direct their movements become so effective in riving asunder cones or apples, while at the proper moment the scoop-like tongue is instantaneously thrust out and withdrawn, conveying the hitherto protected seed to the bird's mouth.

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  • Between these two extremes the chief cones, proceeding southwards, are: the Maribios chain, comprising El Viejo (5840 ft.), Santa Clara, Telica, Orota, Las Pilas,'Axosco, Momotombo (4127 ft.), all crowded close together between the Bay of Fonesca and Lake Managua; Masaya or Popocatepac (which was active in 1670, 1782, 1857 and 5902, and attains a height of 2972 ft.), and Mombacho (4593 ft.), near Granada; lastly, in Lake Nicaragua the two islands of Zapatera and Ometepe or Omotepec with its twin peaks Ometepe (5 6 43 ft.) and Madera.

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  • Several minor ranges rise above the level of the eastern plateau, and in the south groups of volcanic peaks and cones extend for about 150 m.

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  • If q be any variable co-ordinate defining the position or (in the case of a system of bodies) the configuration, the velocity of each particle at any instant will be proportional to 4, and the total kinetic energy may be expressed in the form 1/8A42, where A is in general a function of q The special case where both cones are right circular and a is constant is important ~n astronomy and also in mechanism (theory of bevel wheels).

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  • The polhode and herpoihode cones are then right circular, and the motion is precessional according to the definition of 18.

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  • the axis of the rolling cone, OT the line of contact of the two cones at the instant under consideration.

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  • The whole of the foregoing reasonings are applicable, not merely when A and B are actual regular cones, but also when they are the osculating regular cones of a pair of irregular conical surfaces, having a common apex at 0.

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  • When the velocity ratio is variable, the line of contact will shift its position in the plane C1OC2, and the wheels will be cones, with eccentric or irregular bases.

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  • constant; the line of contact is constant in position, and the rolling surfaces of the wheels are regular circular cones (when they are called bevel wheels); or one of a pair of wheels may have a flat disk for its rolling surface, as W2 in fig.

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  • The rolling surfaces of actual wheels consist of frusta or zones of the complete cones or disks, as shown by W~, Wi in figs.

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  • Perpendicular to 01 draw A1IA2, cutting the axe8 in Ai, A2 make the outer rims of the patterns and of the wheels portions of the cones A1B1I, A,B2I, of which the narrow zones occupied by the teeth will be sufficiently near to a spherical surface described about 0 for practical purposes.

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  • Describe the figures of teeth for the developed arcs as for a pair of spur-wheels; then wrap the developed arcs on the cones, so as to make them coincide with the pitch-circles, and trace the teeth on the conical surfaces.

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  • The speed-cones are either continuous cones or conoids, as A, B, whose velocity ratio can be varied gradually while they are in motion by shifting the belt, or sets of pulleys whose radii vary by steps, as C, D, in which case the velocity ratio can be changed by shifting the belt from one pair of pulleys to another.

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  • That condition is / fulfilled by a pair of con- B ?-D tinuous cones generated by - \ the revolution of two straight 2 / lines inclined opposite ways to -, their respective axes at equal angles.

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  • When the cones are pressed together or engaged, their friction causes the pulley to rotate along with the shaft; when they are disengaged, the pulley is free to stand still.

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  • The angle made by the sides of the cones with the axis should not be less than the angle of repose.

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  • The east group includes the fields of Canyon City (whose product is the ideal domestic coal of the western states), Raton and the South Platte; the Park group includes the Cones field and the Middle Park; the west group includes the Yampa, La Plata and Grand River fields - the last prospectively (not yet actually) the most valuable of all as to area and quality.

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  • When finally taken out, it is unloosed and put up in cones, instead of being grassed, and when quite dry it is stored for some time previous to undergoing the operation of scutching.

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  • It works in conjunction with the disk and scroll, the cones, or the expanding pulley, to impart an intermittingly variable speed to the bobbin (each layer of the bobbin has its own particular speed which is constant for the full traverse, but each change of direction of the builder is accompanied by a quick change of speed to the bobbin).

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  • The builder, which receives its motion from the disk and scroll, from the cones, or from the expanding pulley, has also an intermittingly variable speed.

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  • Beza, in his cones, published in 1580, makes it 1515; Sir Peter Young (tutor to James VI.

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  • Through the Mesozoic beds are intruded granitic and other igneous rocks of Tertiary age, and upon the folded Mesozoic foundation rise the volcanic cones of Tertiary and later date.

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  • The leaves are rather short, curved, and often twisted; the male catkins, in dense cylindrical whorls, fill the air of the forest with their sulphur-like pollen in May or June, and fecundate the purple female flowers, which, at first sessile and erect, then become recurved on a lengthening stalk; the ovate cones, about the length of the leaves, do not reach maturity until the autumn of the following year, and the seeds are seldom scattered until the third spring; the cone-scales terminate in a pyramidal FIG.

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  • a, Male flower and young cones; b, male catkin; c, d, outer and inner side of anther-scale.

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  • The Scotch fir is a very variable tree, and certain varieties have acquired a higher reputation for the qualities of their timber than others; among those most prized by foresters is the one called the Braemar pine, the remaining fragments of the great wood in the Braemar district being chiefly composed of this kind; it is mainly distinguished by its shorter and more glaucous leaves and ovoid cones with blunt recurved spines, and especially by the early horizontal growth of its ultimately drooping boughs; of all varieties this is the most picturesque.

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  • The foliage much resembles that of the Scotch fir, but is shorter, denser and more rigid; the cones are smaller but similar in form.

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  • long; the ovate blunt cones are about half.

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  • Nearly allied is P. Banksiana, the grey or Labrador pine, sometimes called the scrub pine from its dwarfish habit; it is the most northerly representative of the genus in America, and is chiefly remarkable for its much recurved and twisted cones, about 2 in.

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  • long; the cones, either in pairs or several together, project horizontally, and are of a light brown colour.

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  • The light-coloured, glossy, horizontal cones are generally in pairs, but sometimes three or four together.

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  • The leaves are long and of a light bright green; the cones are solitary, oblong, conical and of a yellow tint.

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  • In plantations its bright foliage, with the orange cones and young shoots, render it an ornamental tree, hardy in southern Britain.

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  • The branches curve upwards like the stem, with their thick covering of long dark green leaves, giving a massive rounded outline to the tree; the ovate cones are from 4 to 6 in.

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  • The beautiful reddish-brown shining cones, roundly ovate in shape, with pyramidal scale apices, have been prized from the ancient days of Rome for their edible nut-like seeds, which are still used as an article of food or dessert.

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  • The leaves are long, slender, and of a bluish-green hue; the pendant cones are about i z in.

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  • in diameter; the short dark-green leaves are in thick tufts, contrasting with the pale yellowish, usually clustered cones, the scales of which are furnished with small curved spines.

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  • high, having sometimes a girth of 6 or 8 ft., with a broad spreading head; the leaves are rather long and of a light green tint, the cones generally in pairs, the scales terminating in a sharp incurved prickle.

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  • The leaves are very long and twisted, the small oval cones armed with recurved prickles; the tree is said to be of rapid growth.

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  • P. Coulteri or macrocarpa, is remarkable for its enormous cones (sometimes a foot long, 6 in.

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  • Nearly related to this is P. Sabiniana, the nut-pine of California, the cones of which are 7 to 9 in.

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  • P. longifolia, a Himalayan species, is remarkable for the great length of its lax slender leaves, of a grass-green tint; the cones have the points of the scales recurved.

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  • long; in the earlier stages of growth it has a pyramidal form, in open glades the lower boughs often touching the ground, but in old age it acquires a wide almost cedar-like top. The light bluish-green foliage is somewhat lax, very dense in young trees; the cones are long and rather curved, with thin smooth scales a little thickened at the apex, and generally more or less covered with exuding white resin; they are about 5 or 6 in.

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  • broad; the male catkins are of a bluish tint; the cones ripen in the autumn of the second year.

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  • Nearly approaching this is P. excelsa, the Bhotan pine, which differs chiefly in its longer cones and drooping glaucous foliage.

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  • The pendent cones are very large, sometimes 18 in.

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  • It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.

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  • P. occidentalis, a five-leaved pine with pale-green foliage and small ovate cones, is found on the high mountains of Santo Domingo and Cuba.

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  • m., and consists almost entirely of a remarkable volcano (5400 ft.) formed of three superimposed cones.

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  • Great masses of syenite and diorite were intruded during the Tertiary period, and within the curve of the folded belt a line of recent volcanic cones stretches from western Baluchistan into eastern Persia.

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  • The lavas and ashes which form these cones are mostly andesitic. Mud " volcanoes " occur upon the Makran coast, but it is doubtful whether these are in any way connected with true volcanic agencies.

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  • It has roundish cones, with numerous scales and wingless seeds.

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  • In the San Francisco mountains, in the north central part of the state, three peaks rise to from io,000 to 12,794 ft.; three others are above 9000 ft.; all are eruptive cones, and among the lesser summits are old cinder cones.

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  • Many volcanic cones mark the surface, but by far the most prominent among them are Big Butte, which rises precipitously 2350 ft.

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  • In Italy mannite is prepared for sale in the shape of small cones resembling loaf sugar in shape, and is frequently prescribed in medicine instead of manna.

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  • From the nitrate are made (a) argenti nitras indurata, toughened caustic, containing 19 parts of silver nitrate and one of potassium nitrate fused together into cylindrical rods; (b) Argenti nitras mitigatus, mitigated caustic, in which 1 part of silver nitrate and 2 parts of potassium nitrate are fused together into rods or cones.

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  • in Hydromedusae, of Schafer.) two kinds of elements: (After (I) visual cells, sensory ectodermal cells, which may develop terminal visual cones; (2) pigment-cells, usually ectodermal, but in one known instance endodermal.

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  • The subumbral ocellus of Aurelia is found to be of the inverted type, with the visual cones turned away from the light, as in Tiaropsis amongst Hydromedusae, and here also the pigment is furnished by the endoderm, forming a cup into which the ectodermal visual cells project (Schewiakoff ['31) In) the Stauromedusae tentaculocysts are either absent altogether, as in - St.

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  • The narrow, pointed leaves are spirally arranged and persist for four or five years; the cones are small, globose and borne at the ends of the branchlets, the scales are thickened at the extremity and divided into sharply pointed lobes, three to five seeds are borne on each scale.

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  • The great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, and there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active; many of the islands, however, are not wholly volcanic, but contain crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of lignite.

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  • The cones themselves are composed largely of acid andesites, but many of the lavas are augite andesites and basalts.

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  • Dioecious; flowers in the form of cones, except the female flowers of Cycas, which consist of a rosette of leaf-like carpels at the apex of the stem.

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  • - The stem does not grow through the female flower; both male and female flowers are in the form of cones.

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  • - Large cones; the carpellary scales terminate in a peltate distal expansion.

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  • In structure a cycadean sporangium recalls those of certain ferns (Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae), but in the development of the spores there are certain peculiarities not met with among the Vascular Cryptogams. With the exception of Cycas, the female flowers are also in the form of cones, bearing numerous carpellary scales.

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  • Flowers monoecious or dioecious, unisexual, without a perianth, often in the form of cones, but never terminal on the main stem.

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  • Some authors use the term Coniferae in a restricted sense as including those genera which have the female flowers in the form of cones, the other genera, characterized by flowers of a different type, being placed in the Taxaceae, and often spoken of as Taxads..

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  • A new genus of conifers, Taiwania, has recently been described from the island of Formosa; it is said to agree in habit with the Japanese Cryptomeria, but the cones appear to have a structure which distinguishes them from those of any other genus.

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  • The long linear leaves of some species of Podocarpus, in which the lamina is traversed by a single vein, recall the pinnae of Cycas; the branches of some Dacrydiums and other forms closely resemble those of lycopods; these superficial resemblances, both between different genera of conifers and between conifers and other plants, coupled with the usual occurrence of fossil coniferous twigs without cones attached to them, render the determination of extinct types a very unsatisfactory and frequently an impossible task.

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  • In the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to different interpretations of their morphology.

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  • The female flowers (cones) vary considerably in size; the largest are the more or less spherical cones of Araucaria - a single cone of A.

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  • imbricata may produce as many as 300 seeds, one seed to each fertile cone-scale - and the long pendent cones, I to 2 ft.

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  • Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.

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  • The Cupressineae have cones composed of a few scales arranged in alternate whorls; each scale bears two or more seeds, and shows no external sign of being composed of two distinct portions.

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  • The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.

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  • Monstrous cones are fairly common; these in some instances lend support to the axillary-bud theory, and it has been said that this theory owes its existence to evidence furnished by abnormal cones.

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  • Some monstrous cones lend no support to the axillary-bud theory.

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  • In Larix the axis of the cone often continues its growth; similarly in Cephalotaxus the cones are often proliferous.

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  • It may be that the interpretation of the female cone of the Abietineae as an inflorescence, which finds favour with many botanists, cannot be applied to the cones of Agathis and Araucaria.

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  • Pinus and Picea) - in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the seeds are ripe - the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the seeds; in Cedrus, Araucaria and Abies the scales become detached and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on the tree.

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  • An inflorescence has the form of a dichotomouslybranched cyme bearing small erect cones; those containing the female flowers attain the size of a fir-cone, and are scarlet in colour.

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  • Numerous cones exist.

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  • The peaks of this system are much higher than those of the Coast Range, varying from 5000 to 11,000 ft., and the highest of them are cones of extinct volcanoes.

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  • If two cones are placed back to back the belt tends to rise to the ridge and stay there.

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  • When the small winged fruits have been scattered the ripe, woody, blackish cones remain, often lasting through the winter.

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  • They thus differ considerably from the cones of other members of the order Coniferae, of Gymnosperms, to which the junipers belong.

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  • The author considers not only plane curves, but also cones, or, what is almost the same thing, the spherical curves which are their sections by a concentric sphere.

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  • And it then appears that there are two kinds of non-singular cubic cones, viz, the simplex, consisting of a single sheet, and the complex, consisting of a single sheet and a twin-pair sheet; and we thence obtain (as for cubic curves) the crunodal, the acnodal and the cuspidal kinds of cubic cones.

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  • I), in which the crowns are single-pointed, slightly curved cones, and the roots also single and tapering; so that all the teeth are alike in form from the anterior to the posterior end of the series, though it may be with some slight difference in size, those at the two extremities being rather smaller than the others.

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  • In the dolphins the teeth form simple cones, but in the seals they are often trident-like; while in the otters the dentition differs but little from the ordinary carnivorous type.

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  • The city is prettily situated on an island-studded and mountain-locked harbour, with a background of forest and snow-capped mountain cones; an extinct volcano, Mt Edgecumbe (3467 ft.), on Kruzof Island, is a conspicuous landmark in the bay.

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  • of Lipari, consisting of the cones of two extinct volcanoes, that on the S.E., Monte Salvatore (3155 ft.), being the highest point in the islands, is the most fertile of the whole group and produces good Malmsey wine: it takes its name from the salt-works on the south coast.

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  • Some of the branches terminated in cones, which present a general similarity to those of Equisetum.

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  • The general morphology of the cones, on the other hand, suggests some affinity with the Equisetales.

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  • The leaves, which bear the sporangia, are dichotomous, and do not form definite cones, but alternate in irregular zones with the foliage leaves.

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  • As general characteristics of the Lycopodiales, the simple form of the leaves, which are generally of small size, and the situation of the sporangia on the upper surface of the sporophylls, which are often associated in cones, close to their insertion on the axis, may be mentioned; there are both homosporous and heterosporous forms, the prothalli exhibiting corresponding differences.

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  • G, Portion of a mature plant showing the creeping habit, the adventitious roots and the specialized erect branches bearing the strobili or cones.

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  • The sporophylls are arranged radially in the cones, which are terminal on the branches.

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  • The cones, which in some instances at least were heterosporous, presented a general resemblance to those of Lycopodium and Selaginella, a single sporangium being situated on the upper surface of each sporophyll.

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  • These lava streams, which are of a doleritic character, flowed before the Glacial age, or during its continuance, out of lava cones with gigantic crater openings, such as may be seen at the present day.

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  • The quartzites here form bare white cones and ridges, notably in Errigal and Aghla Mt.

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  • The quartzites, like those of the Dalradian series, weather out in cones, such as the two Sugarloaves south of Bray, or in knob-set ridges, such as the crest of Howth or Carrick Mt.

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  • Some are a few square miles in extent, others are merely rocky cones projecting from the deep. For purposes of administration they are divided between St Vincent and Grenada.

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  • There is now no active volcano in Madagascar, but a large number of extinct cones are found, some apparently of very recent formation.

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  • Some miles south of Diego-Suarez is a huge volcanic mountain, Ambohitra, with scores of subsidiary cones on its slopes and around its base.

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  • south-west of Antananarivo there is a still larger extinct volcano, Ankaratra, with an extensive lava field surrounding it; while near Lake Itasy are some 200 volcanic cones.

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  • The demands made upon the eyepiece, which has to represent a relatively large field by narrow cones of rays, are not very considerable.

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  • The sine-condition is, however, the most important as far as the microscopic representation is concerned, because it must be possible to represent a surfaceelement through the objective by wide cones of rays.

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  • The cones of rays issuing from a point situated only a little to the FIG.

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  • Its purpose in a microscope is by means of narrow cones of rays to represent at infinity the real magnified image which the objective produces.

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  • Then it is necessary to use powerfully concentrated cones of light.

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  • Hence a condenser, for lighting with very oblique cones, must have about the same aperture as the objective, and therefore be of very wide aperture; they therefore closely resemble microscope objectives in construction.

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  • This depends on the good combination of the entering cones of rays, which should be as oblique as possible; this is most easily done by mirror condensers.

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  • This diaphragm is sometimes fixed to a handle piercing the condenser, and which can be moved up and down, so that the aperture of the oblique entering cones of rays can be altered.

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  • The half cones of rays have now semicircular sections, the diaphragms having the same form.

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  • The cones must be so directed through the divided system that the two exit pupils correspond to the interpupillary distance of the observer.

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  • He realized that the division of the cones of rays by prisms could only be satisfactorily performed if the prism was placed in the position of the exit pupil of the objective or in the position of the real image of this exit pupil.

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  • 1S a type of seed-plants, the microor macro-sporophylls are generally associated, often in large numbers, in separate cones, to which the term " flower " has been applied.

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  • But there is considerable difference of opinion as to the relation between these cones and the more definite and elaborate structure known as the flower in the higher group of seed-plants--the Angiosperms - and it is to this more definite structure that we generally refer in using the term " flower."

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  • Thus, the cones of firs and the stroboli of the hop are composed of a series of spirally arranged bracts covering fertile flowers; and the scales on the fruit of the pine-apple are of the same nature.

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  • The scenery in the neighbourhood is magnificent, the snowy cones rising from amidst woods of araucaria, and being surrounded by blue lakes.

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  • Volcanic cones continue to predominate, the old crystalline rocks almost disappear, while the Mesozoic rocks are most 38° S.

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  • Fertile shoot, bearing numerous cones and a few leaves.

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  • In many cases the cones have been found in connexion with branches bearing characteristic Calamarian foliage.

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  • Other cones, however, namely, those known as Pothocites, have also been attributed on good grounds to the genus Archaeocalamites; they are long strobili, constricted at intervals, and it is probable that the succession of fertile sporangiophores was interrupted here and there by the intercalation of sterile bracts, which may also have been present, at long intervals, in Renault's species.

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  • Cones from the Middle Coal Measures, described by Kidston under the name of Equisetum Hemingwayi, but probably belonging to one of the Calamarieae, bear a striking external resemblance to those of recent Equisetum.

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  • In Sphenophyllum majus, where the cones are less sharply defined, the forked bract bears a group of four sporangia at the bifurcations, but their mode of insertion has not yet been made out.

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  • Williamson thoroughly worked out, in petrified specimens, the organization of a cone which he named Bowmanites Dawsoni; it was subsequently demonstrated by Zeiller that this fructification belonged to a Sphenophyllum, the cones of the well known species S.

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  • The type of fructification described by Williamson and now named Sphenophyllum Dawsoni consists of long cylindrical cones, in external habit not unlike those of some Calamarieae.

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  • The cones, more or less sharply differentiated, terminated certain of the branches.

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  • The cones, often of large size, were either terminal on the'smaller twigs, or, it is alleged, borne laterally on special branches of con- (After Stur.

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  • The cones of Lepidodendron and its immediate allies are for the most part grouped under the name Lepidostrobus.

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  • These cones, varying from an inch to a foot in length, according to the species, were borne either on the ordinary twigs, or, as was conjectured, on the special branches (Ulodendron and Halonia) above referred to.

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  • In Ulodendron the large circular, distichously arranged prints were supposed to have been formed by the pressure of the bases of sessile cones, though this interpretation of the scars is open to doubt, and it is now more probable that they bore deciduous vegetative branches; in the Halonial branches characteristic of the genus Lepidophloios the tubercles may perhaps mark the points of insertion of pedunculate strobili.

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  • The cones of Bothrodendron and another form named Mesostrobus are in some respects intermediate between Lepidostrobus and Spencerites.

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  • The cones, of which several species have been described, bear a strong general resemblance to Lepidostrobus, differing somewhat in the form of the sporophylls and some other details.

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  • That the cones were heterosporous there can be no doubt, though little is known as yet of the microsporangia.

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  • The inflorescence is usually a spike bearing lateral cones or catkins, arranged sometimes distichously, sometimes in a spiral order.

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  • Much further investigation will be needed before the homologies between Cordaitean cones and the fructifications of the higher Cryptogams can be established.

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  • filiciformis) appear to be comparable to female Araucarian cones.

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  • An Equisetaceous plant, which Brongniart named Phyllotheca in 1828, is another member of the same flora; this type bears a close resemblance to Equisetum in the long internodes and the whorled leaves encircling the nodes, but differs in the looser leaf-sheaths and in the long spreading filiform leaf-segments, as also in the structure of the cones.

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  • represented by casts of Triassic age, Equisetites arenaceus and other species, probably possessed the power of secondary growth in thickness; the cones were of the modern type, and the rhizomes occasionally formed large underground tubers like those frequently met with in Equisetum arvense, E.

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  • This genus, like the allied Calamites, appears to have possessed cones of more than one type; but we know little of the structure of these Mesozoic Equisetaceous genera as compared with our much more complete knowledge of Calamites and Archaeocalamites.

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  • It remains to be seen if the ovuliferous cone in the centre of the flower represents simply a functionless gynoecium, as in Welwitschia and abnormal cones of certain Coniferae, or if the flowers were hermaphrodite, with both male and female organs fully developed.

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  • This genus has long been known as a common and widely spread Jurassic and Cretaceous conifer, but owing to the absence of petrified specimens and of well-preserved cones, it has been impossible to refer it to a definite position in the Coniferales.

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  • Some of the fossils referred to the genus Kaidocarpon, and originally described as monocotyledonous inflorescences, are undoubted Araucarian cones; other cones of the same type have been placed in the genus Cycadeostrobus and referred to Cycads.

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  • A flower of a rather different type, Pseudaraucaria major, exhibiting in the occurrence of two seeds in each scale an approach to the cones of Abietineae, has been described by Professor Fliche from Lower Cretaceous rocks of Argonne.

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  • Among the more abundant Conifers of Jurassic age may be mentioned such genera as Thuytes and Cupressites, which agree in their vegetative characters with members of the Cupressineae, but our knowledge of the cones is far from satisfactory.

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  • Cones of Lower Cretaceous age have been described by Fliche from Argonne, which bear a close resemblance to the female flowers of recent species of Cedrus.

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  • The two surviving species of Sequoia afford an illustration of the persistence of an old type, but unfortunately most of the Mesozoic species referred to this genus do not possess sufficiently perfect cones to confirm their identification as examples of Sequoia.

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  • Some of the best examples of cones and twigs referred to Sequoia are those described by Heer from Cretaceous rocks of Greenland, and Professor D.

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  • Other seams are full of the twigs and cones of Athrotaxis, a Conifer now confined to Tasmania.

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  • In Minahassa, at the northern extremity, there is a large area of tuffs and agglomerates consisting chiefly of augite andesite, and in this area there are many recent volcanic cones.

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  • Where the operation is simply one of fusion, as in the ironfounder's cupola, in which there is no very great change in volume in the materials on their descent to the tuyeres, the stack is nearly or quite straight-sided; but when, as is the case with the smelting of iron ores with limestone flux, a large proportion of volatile matter has to be removed in the process, a wall of varying inclination is used, so that the body of the furnace is formed of two dissimilar truncated cones, joined by their bases, the lower one passing downwards into a short, nearly cylindrical, position.

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  • South: The apex of both cones point downwards East: The apex of both cones point downwards East: The apex of the two cones point away from each other.

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  • It does not bear cones, but instead has fleshy, red arils which partially enclose the seed.

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  • The three volcanic cones are relatively old and comprise late-stage fractionated and highly vesicular basalt.

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  • They wound the thread from the cones onto wooden bobbins about nine inches long.

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  • Follow the roads around the airport where you will see a number of cones each marking nest burrows of the owls.

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  • cinder cones by wide strip.

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  • The heating surface is the underside of hollow, rotating cones.

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  • cones in the retina.

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  • We will shortly be stocking the natural undyed ecru on a 400g cones.

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  • vaginal cones Vaginal cones are weights that can help you exercise the muscles of your pelvic floor, and can help SUI.

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  • cones elephants teletubbies etc presentation and said volunteer fire brigade.

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  • Do the curious checkered sacks beneath his chin represent fir cones or grapes?

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  • PLUS a bag of 10 high quality mixed incense cones.

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  • On deeper horizons noise sources are displaced under a chain of cinder cones by wide strip.

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  • After eating indian food we all got ice-cream cones.

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  • confetti cones or for decorating 5 tables seating 10.

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  • defrocked priest wearing a black cloak decorated with fir cones.

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  • dribble round cones.

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  • We will shortly be stocking the natural undyed ecru on a 400g cones.

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  • There is something quite eerie about the extinct cones.

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  • Your favors or confetti cones will look absolutely fabulous in this basket.

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  • It is suitable for burning loose incense on a charcoal block, incense on a charcoal block, incense cones and tealight candles.

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  • incense cones.

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  • Based on ancient originals this brass effect incense burner features a double pagoda roof and has ample room to burn incense cones or dhoop.

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  • The mountains, with their lonely crags, volcanic cones and deep kloofs unfolded before our eyes one by one.

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  • A third signal uses all 3 cones to produce luminance.

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  • Moxa therapy usually takes around 10 - 30 minutes, depending on the number of moxa therapy usually takes around 10 - 30 minutes, depending on the number of moxa cones used in the session.

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  • nag champa incense sticks and cones ensure our aromatics department is a delight for your senses.

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  • Our perception of color arises from the presence of three types of retinal photoreceptors (cones) sensitive to different wavelengths of light.

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  • photoreceptor cells (cones or rods) are present.

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  • pine cones, animals made from recycled tin.

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  • A versatile, low-cost drying kiln for opening pine cones, by A.M.J. Robbins.

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  • Tell tale signs of their presence include scratches on the bark of trees and chewed pine cones.

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  • shepherd huts shaped like cones.

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  • Available on cones and spools (we do have some skeins still in stock - please contact the office for details ).

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  • Just a row of tiny little cones, no higher than 6 inches, separating you from oncoming traffic in the other lane.

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  • Scotch Pines in the neck Posted 2:02PM Mon 11 Aug 2003 Would a garden vac be any good for the pine cones?

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  • woofer cones - This patent pending technology deliver a cone with more surface area than competing models of the same size.

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  • This treatise is in two books, dedicated to Dositheus, and deals with the dimensions of spheres, cones, "solid rhombi" and cylinders, all demonstrated in a strictly geometrical method.

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  • The cones are from 8 to 82 in.

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  • The scales of its cones are winged, and have a hook at the apex.

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  • It bears cones as large as a man's head.

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  • In Tertiary times the Central Plateau was the theatre of great volcanic activity from the Miocene, to the Pleistocene periods, and many of the volcanoes remain as nearly perfect cones to the present day.

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  • In some instances the cones are quite intact, and the beds of ash and scoriae are as yet almost unaffected by denuding agencies.

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  • edge of the principal crater, which is surrounded by twelve smaller cones.

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  • In order to enable two or more motions to be worked together, or independently as required, reversing friction cones are used for the subsidiary motions, especially the slewing motion.

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  • The metal is usually obtained from the flue-dust (produced during the first three or four hours working of a zinc distillation) which is collected in the sheet iron cones or adapters of the zinc retorts.

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  • in Ischia, and Camaldoli, 1488 ft., west of Naples, are the highest cones.

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  • ordinary indifferent cells of the epithelium containing pigment-granules, and (2) visual cells, slender sensory epithelial cells of the usual type, which may develop visual cones or rods at their free extremity.

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  • Besides the ordinary type of ocellus just described, there is found in one genus (Tiaropsis) a type of ocellus in which the visual elements Si are inverted, and have their cones Sub jj "'` * turned away from '` the light, as in the 4V5:40--* ?? ?` ' ahuman retina (fig.

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  • In this case the pigment-cells are endodermal, forming a cup of pigment in which the visual cones are embedded.

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  • 6); and it has been suggested that the association of these two is analogous to the association of the rods and cones of the animal eye with their pigment layer, the light absorbed by the red pigment-spot setting up changes which react upon the refractive granule and being transmitted to the flagellum bring about those modifications in its vibrations by which the direction of movement of the organism is regulated.

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  • The action of rain, ice and rivers conspires with the movement of land waste to strip the layer of soil from steep slopes as rapidly as it forms, and to cause it to accumulate on the flat valley bottoms, on the graceful flattened cones of alluvial fans at the outlet of the gorges of tributaries, or in the smoothly-spread surface of alluvial plains.

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  • These bodies had long been known as "fossil fir cones" and "bezoar stones."

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  • In the retina the cones prevail in numbers over the rods, as in the mammals, and their tips contain, as in other Sauropsida, coloured drops of oil, mostly red or yellow.

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  • Near the posterior pole of the fundus, but somewhat excentrically placed towards the temporal or outer side, is the fovea centralis, a slight depression in the retina, composed almost entirely of cones, the spot of most acute vision.

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  • The molten sulphur accumulates on the sole, whence it is from time to time run out into a square stone receptacle, from which it is ladled into damp poplar-wood moulds and so brought into the shape of truncated cones weighing 110 to 130 lb each.

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  • Although there are no active cones, Upolu has in comparatively recent times been subject to volcanic disturbances, and according to a local tradition, outbreaks must have occurred in the 17th or 18th century.

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  • The leaves of the cypresses are scale-like, overlapping and generally in four rows; the female catkins are roundish, and fewer than the male; the cones consist of from six to ten peltate woody scales, which end in a curved point, and open when the seeds are ripe; the seeds are numerous and winged.

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  • It is a tapering, flame-shaped tree resembling the Lombardy poplar; its branches are thickly covered with small, imbricated, shining-green leaves; the male catkins are about 3 lines in length; the cones are between i and 12 in.

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  • The cones, about the size of a small walnut, bear spirally arranged imbricated scales which subtend the three-angled winged seeds.

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  • Their cones are composed of thin, rounded, closely imbricated scales, each with a more or less conspicuous bract springing from the base.

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  • In the spruce firs (Picea), the cones are pendent when mature and their scales persistent; the leaves are arranged all round the shoots, though the lower ones are sometimes directed laterally.

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  • In the genus Abies, the silver firs, the cones are erect, and their scales drop off when the seed ripens; the leaves spread in distinct rows on each side of the shoot.

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  • The elongated cylindrical cones grow chiefly at the ends of the upper branches; they are purplish at first, but become afterwards green, and eventually light brown; their scales are slightly toothed at the extremity; they ripen in the autumn, but seldom discharge their seeds until the following spring.

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  • A, branch bearing male cones, reduced; B, single male cone, enlarged; C, single stamen, enlarged.

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  • This kind is sometimes seen in plantations, where it may be recognized by its shorter, darker leaves and longer cones.

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  • The bark and young cones afford a tanning material, inferior indeed to oakbark, and hardly equal to that of the larch, but of value in countries where substances more rich in tannin are not abundant.

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  • A decoction of the buds in milk or whey is a common household remedy for scurvy; and the young shoots or green cones form an essential ingredient in the spruce-beer drank with a similar object, or as an occasional beverage.

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  • The well-known "Danzig-spruce" is prepared by adding a decoction of the buds or cones to the wort or saccharine liquor before fermentation.

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  • Cones; scale with seeds.

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  • A, Branch bearing (a) young female cones, (b) ripe cones, reduced.

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  • The cones, produced in great abundance, are short and oval in shape, the scales with rugged indented edges; they are deep purple when young, but become brown as they ripen.

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  • The white spruce (Picea alba), sometimes met with in English plantations, is a tree of lighter growth than the black spruce, the branches being more widely apart; the foliage is of a light glaucous green; the small light-brown cones are more slender and tapering than in P. nigra, and the scales have even edges.

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  • The cones are very small, ovate and pointed.

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  • The yew-like leaves spread laterally, and are of a deep green tint; the cones are furnished with tridentate bracts that project far beyond the scales.

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  • The large cones stand erect on the branches, are cylindrical in shape, and have long bracts, the curved points of which project beyond the scales.

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  • The cones do not ripen till the second year.

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  • He evolved an ingenious solution of the duplication of the cube, which shows considerable knowledge of the generation of cylinders and cones.

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  • The full series of forty-four teeth was developed; and the upper molars were short-crowned, or brachyodont, with six low cones, two internal, two intermediate.

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  • 23) were furnished with a pair of truncated cones b b, of soft iron forming an extension of the conical ends of the bobbin c. The most suitable form for the pole faces is investigated in the paper, and the conclusion arrived at is that to produce the greatest concentration of force upon the central neck, the cones FIG.

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  • 23 should have a common vertex in the middle of the neck with a semi-vertical angle of 54° 44', while the condition for a uniform field is satisfied when the cones have a semivertical angle of 39° 14'; in the latter case the magnetic force in the air just outside is sensibly equal to that within the neck.

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  • A pair of cones having a semi-vertical angle of 45° were considered to combine high concentrative power with a sufficient approximation to uniformity of field.

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  • The corresponding intensity of the outside field was 24,500, but, owing to the wide angle of the cones used (about X63°), this was probably greater than the value of the magnetic force within the metal.

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  • It is shown in the paper that the greatest possible force which the isthmus method can apply at a point in the axis of the bobbin is F = 11, 137 I, log i n b/a, I, being the saturation value of the magnet pores, a the radius of the neck on which the cones converge, and b the radius of the bases of the cones.

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  • It may be readily deduced that the directions of minimum deviation for a pencil of parallel rays lie on the surface of cones, the semi-vertical angles of which are equal to the values given in the above table.

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  • 2 represents sections of the drop and the cones containing the minimum deviation rays after I, 2, 3 and 4 reflections; the order of the colours is shown by the letters R (red) and V (violet).

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  • It is apparent, therefore, that all drops transmitting intense light after one internal reflection to the eye will lie on the surfaces of cones having the eye for their common vertex, the line joining the eye to the sun for their axis, and their semi-vertical angles equal to about 41° for the violet rays and 43° for the red rays.

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  • Similarly, drops transmitting rays after two internal reflections will be situated on covertical and coaxial cones, of which the semi-vertical angles are 51° for the red rays and 54° for the violet.

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  • The glass in all is greenish, very thick, with many bubbles, and has been cut with the wheel; in some instances circles and cones, and in one the outlines of the figure of a leopard, have been left standing up, the rest of the surface having been laboriously cut away.

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  • Painted terra-cotta cones were also embedded in the plaster.

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  • Volcanic cones still exist in large numbers, and the sheets of lava appear as fresh as any recent flows of Etna or Vesuvius.

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  • The cones, which are on the upper side of the branches, are flattened at the ends and are 4 to 5 in.

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  • C. atlantica, the Atlas cedar, has shorter and denser leaves than C. Libani; the leaves are glaucous, sometimes of a silvery whiteness, and the cones smaller than in the other two forms; its wood also is hard, and more rapid in growth than is that of the ordinary cedar.

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  • A little steam still issues from several smaller cones on the summit of the ridge, as well as from one, called Eniwa, on the northern side.

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  • cones (extinct), on the N.

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  • Hence we see that if the whole surface of the sphere is divided into pairs of elements by cones described through any interior point, the resultant force at that point must consist of the sum of pairs of equal and opposite forces, and is therefore zero.

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  • Particularly steep slopes are found in the case of submarine domes, usually incomplete volcanic cones, and there have been cases in which after such a dome has been discovered by the soundings of a surveying ship it could not be found again as its whole area was so small and the deep floor of the ocean from which it rose so flat that an error of 2 or 3 m.

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  • From the floor of this vast and profound depression numerous isolated volcanic cones rise with abrupt slopes, and even between the islands of the Hawaiian group there are depths of more than 2000 fathoms. The Society Islands and Tahiti crown a rise coming within 150o fathoms of the surface, two similar rises form the foundation of the Paumotu group where Agassiz found soundings of.

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  • The same thing can be effected in a more perfect manner by the use of spiral or scroll drums, in which the rope is made to coil in a spiral groove upon the surface of the drum, which is formed by the frusta of two obtuse cones placed with their smaller diameters outwards.

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  • The geography of the Western province includes many interesting features, the in many ways peculiar Albert Nyanza (q.v.), the great snowy range of Ruwenzori (q.v.), the dense Semliki, Budonga, Mpanga and Bunyaraguru forests, the salt lakes and salt springs of Unyoro and western Toro, the innumerable and singularly beautiful crater lakes of Toro and Ankole, the volcanic region of Mfumbiro (where active and extinct volcanoes rise in great cones to altitudes of from 11,000 to nearly 15,000 ft.), and the healthy plateaus of Ankole, which are in a lesser degree analogous in climate and position, and the Nandi plateau on the east of Victoria Nyanza.

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  • This suspension is then run through a conical mill in order td remove all grit, the cones of the mill fitting so tightly that water cannot pass through unless the mill is running; the speed of the mill when working is about 3000 revolutions per minute.

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  • Ikurangi, their highest summit, though a fine mass, does not compare with the isolated volcanic cones which, rising W.

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  • The " knoppern " galls of Cynips polycera, Gir., are cones having the broad, slightly convex upper surface surrounded with a toothed ridge.

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  • Their waters unite in one stream whose course is marked by gigantic limestone cones, some of which are 36 ft.

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  • The name and the cones are accounted for by a legend which represents that at this spot lived a sheikh who, finding his sister too beautiful to be married to anyone else, determined to espouse her himself.

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  • The peaks or sharp cones in which they Islands Of The Pacific Ocean The above figures give a total land area for the whole region of 69,561 sq.

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  • At first it is rather a succession of isolated volcanic cones than a continuous ridge, the most conspicuous peaks being Orosi (5185 ft.), the four-crested Rincon de la Viej a (4500), Miravalles (4698) and Tenorio (6800).

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  • Both bear their round or ovoid male catkins at the ends of the slender terminal branchlets; the ovoid cones, either terminal or on short lateral twigs, have thick woody scales dilated at the extremity, with a broad disk depressed in the centre and usually furnished with a short spine; at the base of the scales are from three to seven ovules, which become reversed or partially so by compression, ripening into small angular seed with a narrow wing-like expansion.

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  • at the much Sequoia sempervirens - a, Branch with green cones and male catkins; b, Section or cone; c, Scale of cone.

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  • The cones, from 4 to 1 in.

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  • The male catkins are small, solitary, and are borne at the ends of the twigs; the cones are from 12 to 3 in.

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  • The direction of the great volcanic cones, which rise in an irregular line above it, is not identical with the main axis of the Sierra itself, except near the Mexican frontier, but has a more southerly trend, especially towards Salvador; here the base of many of the igneous peaks rests among the southern foothills of the range.

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  • Viewed from the coast, the volcanic cones seem to rise directly from the central heights of the Sierra Madre, above which they tower; but in reality their bases are, as a rule, farther south.

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  • A group of large volcanoes occurs on the limestone platform s6uth of the Grand Canyon, culminating in Mt San Francisco (12,794 ft.), a moderately dissected cone, and associated with many more recent smaller cones and freshlooking lava flows.

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  • Mt Taylor in western New Mexico is of similar age, but here dissection seems to have advanced farther, probably because of the weaker nature of the underlying rocks, with the result of removing the smaller cones and exposing many lava conduits or pipes in the form of volcanic necks or buttes.

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  • The earlier supposition that these vast lava flows came chiefly from fissure eruptions has been made doubtful by the later discovery of flat-sloping volcanic cones from which much lava seems to have been poured out in a very liquid state.

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  • The region was by no means a peneplain before its slanting uplift; its surface then was hilly and in the south mountainous; in its central and still more in its northern part it was overspread with lavas which flowed westward along the broad open valleys from many vents in the eastern part: near the northern end of the range, eruptions have continued in the present cycle, forming many cones and young lava flows.

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  • Blackrock diabase (cones and dikes) -

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  • The members of the genus Larix are distinguished from the firs, with which they were formerly placed, by their deciduous leaves, scattered singly, as in Abies, on the young shoots of the season, but on all older branchlets growing in whorl-like tufts, each surrounding the extremity of a rudimentary or abortive branch; they differ from cedars (Cedrus), which also have the fascicles of leaves on arrested branchlets, not only in the deciduous leaves, but in the cones, the scales of which are thinner towards the apex, and are persistent, remaining attached long after the seeds are discharged.

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  • The yellow stamen-bearing flowers are in sessile, nearly spherical catkins; the fertile ones vary in colour, from red or purple to greenish-white, in different varieties; the erect cones, which remain long on the branches, are above an inch in length and oblong-ovate in shape, with reddish-brown scales somewhat waved on the edges, the lower bracts usually rather longer than the scales.

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  • The Siberian larch has smooth grey bark and smaller cones, approaching in shape somewhat to those of the American hackmatack; it seems even hardier than the Alpine tree, growing up to latitude 68°, but, as the inclement climate of the polar shores is neared, dwindling down to a dwarf and even trailing bush.

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  • The larch is raised from seed in immense numbers in British nurseries; that obtained from Germany is preferred, being more perfectly ripened than the cones of home growth usually are.

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  • microcarpa) the cones are very small, rarely exceeding z in.

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  • pendula) has rather larger cones, of an oblong shape, about 4 in.

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  • The leaves are short, thicker and more rigid than in any of the other larches; the cones are much larger than those of the hackmatacks, egg-shaped or oval in outline; the scales are of a fine red in the immature state, the bracts green and extending far beyond the scales in a rigid leaf-like point.

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  • above the sea; from this plateau many regularly shaped truncated cones rise another 2000 ft.

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  • Cinder cones and tufa cones abound, but one of the most distinguishing features of the Hawaiian volcanoes is the great number of craters of the engulfment type, i.e.

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  • Cinder cones are the predominant type of craters on both Mauna Kea and the Kohala Mountains, and they are also numerous on the upper slopes of Mauna Hualalai; but the more typically Hawaiian pit or engulfment craters also abound on Mauna Hualalai and Mokuaweoweo, crowning the summit of Mauna Loa, as well as Kilauea, to the S.E.

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  • It has numerous cinder cones on its S.W.

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  • There are few craters on the loftier heights, but on the coasts there are several groups of small cones with craters, some of lava, others of tuf a.

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  • The silicious matter has also built up around the springs and geysers cones or mounds of considerable size and great beauty of form.

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  • There are also some 200 subsidiary cones, some of them over 3000 ft.

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  • If all the minor cones and monticules could be stripped from the mountain, the diminution of bulk would be extremely slight.

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  • So also in fir cones (fig.

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  • 32); the second, in the bay, holly, Plantago media; the third, in the cones of Picea alba (fig.

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  • Carnelley and Williams employed certain salts of known melting point; whilst the Seger's cones, employed in porcelain manufacture, depend on the fusion of small cones made of clay.

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  • The cheek-teeth are low-crowned, with the external cones of the upper molars fused into a W-like outer wall, and the inner ones retaining a regular conical form; while in the lower teeth the crown is formed of crescentic ridges, of which there are three in the last and two each in the other teeth.

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  • But the sameness is relieved along the western coast of the shires of Sutherland and Ross and Cromarty by groups of cones and stacks, and farther south by the terraced plateaus and abru p t conical hills of Skye, Rum and Mull.

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  • Occasionally a ridge has been carved into a series of cones united at their bases, as in the chain of the Pentland Hills.

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  • A further stage in denudation brings us to isolated groups of cones completely separated from the rest of the rocks among which they once lay buried.

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  • In many cases, however, the groups point to the existence of some boss of rock of greater durability than those in the immediate neighbourhood, as in the Cuchullins and Red Hills of Skye and the group of granite cones of Ben Loyal, Sutherland.

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  • They are made by dissolving ordinary soda-ash in hot water, adding a small quantity of chloride of lime for the destruction of colouring matter and the oxidation of any ferrous salts present, carefully settling the solution, without allowing its temperature to fall below the point of maximum solubility (34° C.), and running the clarified liquid into cast-iron crystallizers or " cones," where, on cooling down, most of the sodium carbonate is separated in large crystals of the decahydrated form.

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  • Although volcanic cones are known both in Persia and in Baluchistan, none have yet been described in Afghanistan itself.

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  • In Leyte there are several isolated volcanic cones, two of which, in the north part, exceed 4000 ft.

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  • There are eight other volcanoes, which although extinct or dormant have well-preserved cones.

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  • No crater now exists at the summit of either, but well-formed parasitic cones occur upon their flanks.

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  • 1-7), explained fully the means whereby the jaws and the muscles which direct their movements become so effective in riving asunder cones or apples, while at the proper moment the scoop-like tongue is instantaneously thrust out and withdrawn, conveying the hitherto protected seed to the bird's mouth.

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  • (See Mosquito Coast.) Though situated almost on the western edge of the country, and greatly inferior, both in continuity and in mean altitude, to the main cordillera, the chain of volcanic cones constitutes a watershed quite equal in importance to the cordillera itself.

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  • Between these two extremes the chief cones, proceeding southwards, are: the Maribios chain, comprising El Viejo (5840 ft.), Santa Clara, Telica, Orota, Las Pilas,'Axosco, Momotombo (4127 ft.), all crowded close together between the Bay of Fonesca and Lake Managua; Masaya or Popocatepac (which was active in 1670, 1782, 1857 and 5902, and attains a height of 2972 ft.), and Mombacho (4593 ft.), near Granada; lastly, in Lake Nicaragua the two islands of Zapatera and Ometepe or Omotepec with its twin peaks Ometepe (5 6 43 ft.) and Madera.

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  • Several minor ranges rise above the level of the eastern plateau, and in the south groups of volcanic peaks and cones extend for about 150 m.

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  • If q be any variable co-ordinate defining the position or (in the case of a system of bodies) the configuration, the velocity of each particle at any instant will be proportional to 4, and the total kinetic energy may be expressed in the form 1/8A42, where A is in general a function of q The special case where both cones are right circular and a is constant is important ~n astronomy and also in mechanism (theory of bevel wheels).

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  • The polhode and herpoihode cones are then right circular, and the motion is precessional according to the definition of 18.

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  • the axis of the rolling cone, OT the line of contact of the two cones at the instant under consideration.

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  • The whole of the foregoing reasonings are applicable, not merely when A and B are actual regular cones, but also when they are the osculating regular cones of a pair of irregular conical surfaces, having a common apex at 0.

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  • When the velocity ratio is variable, the line of contact will shift its position in the plane C1OC2, and the wheels will be cones, with eccentric or irregular bases.

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  • constant; the line of contact is constant in position, and the rolling surfaces of the wheels are regular circular cones (when they are called bevel wheels); or one of a pair of wheels may have a flat disk for its rolling surface, as W2 in fig.

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  • The rolling surfaces of actual wheels consist of frusta or zones of the complete cones or disks, as shown by W~, Wi in figs.

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  • originally by Tredgold, is generally used LetO(fig.io6)bethecommon apex of a pair of bevel-wheels; OBiT, OB2I their pitch cones; FIG.

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  • Perpendicular to 01 draw A1IA2, cutting the axe8 in Ai, A2 make the outer rims of the patterns and of the wheels portions of the cones A1B1I, A,B2I, of which the narrow zones occupied by the teeth will be sufficiently near to a spherical surface described about 0 for practical purposes.

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  • Describe the figures of teeth for the developed arcs as for a pair of spur-wheels; then wrap the developed arcs on the cones, so as to make them coincide with the pitch-circles, and trace the teeth on the conical surfaces.

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  • The speed-cones are either continuous cones or conoids, as A, B, whose velocity ratio can be varied gradually while they are in motion by shifting the belt, or sets of pulleys whose radii vary by steps, as C, D, in which case the velocity ratio can be changed by shifting the belt from one pair of pulleys to another.

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  • That condition is / fulfilled by a pair of con- B ?-D tinuous cones generated by - \ the revolution of two straight 2 / lines inclined opposite ways to -, their respective axes at equal angles.

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  • When the cones are pressed together or engaged, their friction causes the pulley to rotate along with the shaft; when they are disengaged, the pulley is free to stand still.

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  • The angle made by the sides of the cones with the axis should not be less than the angle of repose.

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  • The east group includes the fields of Canyon City (whose product is the ideal domestic coal of the western states), Raton and the South Platte; the Park group includes the Cones field and the Middle Park; the west group includes the Yampa, La Plata and Grand River fields - the last prospectively (not yet actually) the most valuable of all as to area and quality.

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  • When finally taken out, it is unloosed and put up in cones, instead of being grassed, and when quite dry it is stored for some time previous to undergoing the operation of scutching.

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  • It works in conjunction with the disk and scroll, the cones, or the expanding pulley, to impart an intermittingly variable speed to the bobbin (each layer of the bobbin has its own particular speed which is constant for the full traverse, but each change of direction of the builder is accompanied by a quick change of speed to the bobbin).

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  • The builder, which receives its motion from the disk and scroll, from the cones, or from the expanding pulley, has also an intermittingly variable speed.

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  • Beza, in his cones, published in 1580, makes it 1515; Sir Peter Young (tutor to James VI.

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  • Through the Mesozoic beds are intruded granitic and other igneous rocks of Tertiary age, and upon the folded Mesozoic foundation rise the volcanic cones of Tertiary and later date.

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  • The leaves are rather short, curved, and often twisted; the male catkins, in dense cylindrical whorls, fill the air of the forest with their sulphur-like pollen in May or June, and fecundate the purple female flowers, which, at first sessile and erect, then become recurved on a lengthening stalk; the ovate cones, about the length of the leaves, do not reach maturity until the autumn of the following year, and the seeds are seldom scattered until the third spring; the cone-scales terminate in a pyramidal FIG.

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  • a, Male flower and young cones; b, male catkin; c, d, outer and inner side of anther-scale.

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  • The Scotch fir is a very variable tree, and certain varieties have acquired a higher reputation for the qualities of their timber than others; among those most prized by foresters is the one called the Braemar pine, the remaining fragments of the great wood in the Braemar district being chiefly composed of this kind; it is mainly distinguished by its shorter and more glaucous leaves and ovoid cones with blunt recurved spines, and especially by the early horizontal growth of its ultimately drooping boughs; of all varieties this is the most picturesque.

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  • The foliage much resembles that of the Scotch fir, but is shorter, denser and more rigid; the cones are smaller but similar in form.

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  • long; the ovate blunt cones are about half.

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  • Nearly allied is P. Banksiana, the grey or Labrador pine, sometimes called the scrub pine from its dwarfish habit; it is the most northerly representative of the genus in America, and is chiefly remarkable for its much recurved and twisted cones, about 2 in.

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  • long; the cones, either in pairs or several together, project horizontally, and are of a light brown colour.

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  • The light-coloured, glossy, horizontal cones are generally in pairs, but sometimes three or four together.

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  • The leaves are long and of a light bright green; the cones are solitary, oblong, conical and of a yellow tint.

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  • In plantations its bright foliage, with the orange cones and young shoots, render it an ornamental tree, hardy in southern Britain.

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  • The branches curve upwards like the stem, with their thick covering of long dark green leaves, giving a massive rounded outline to the tree; the ovate cones are from 4 to 6 in.

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  • The beautiful reddish-brown shining cones, roundly ovate in shape, with pyramidal scale apices, have been prized from the ancient days of Rome for their edible nut-like seeds, which are still used as an article of food or dessert.

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  • The leaves are long, slender, and of a bluish-green hue; the pendant cones are about i z in.

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  • in diameter; the short dark-green leaves are in thick tufts, contrasting with the pale yellowish, usually clustered cones, the scales of which are furnished with small curved spines.

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  • high, having sometimes a girth of 6 or 8 ft., with a broad spreading head; the leaves are rather long and of a light green tint, the cones generally in pairs, the scales terminating in a sharp incurved prickle.

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  • The leaves are very long and twisted, the small oval cones armed with recurved prickles; the tree is said to be of rapid growth.

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  • P. Coulteri or macrocarpa, is remarkable for its enormous cones (sometimes a foot long, 6 in.

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  • Nearly related to this is P. Sabiniana, the nut-pine of California, the cones of which are 7 to 9 in.

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  • P. longifolia, a Himalayan species, is remarkable for the great length of its lax slender leaves, of a grass-green tint; the cones have the points of the scales recurved.

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  • The leaves, short and glaucous, like those of the Scotch fir, have deciduous sheaths; the cones have recurved scale-points like those of the cheer pine.

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  • long; in the earlier stages of growth it has a pyramidal form, in open glades the lower boughs often touching the ground, but in old age it acquires a wide almost cedar-like top. The light bluish-green foliage is somewhat lax, very dense in young trees; the cones are long and rather curved, with thin smooth scales a little thickened at the apex, and generally more or less covered with exuding white resin; they are about 5 or 6 in.

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  • broad; the male catkins are of a bluish tint; the cones ripen in the autumn of the second year.

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  • Nearly approaching this is P. excelsa, the Bhotan pine, which differs chiefly in its longer cones and drooping glaucous foliage.

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  • The pendent cones are very large, sometimes 18 in.

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  • It is a straight-growing tree, with grey bark and whorls of horizontal branches giving a cylindro-conical outline; the leaves are short, rigid and glaucous; the cones, oblong and rather pointing upwards, grow only near the top of the tree, and ripen in the second autumn; the seeds are oily like those of P. Pinea, and are eaten both on the Alps and by the inhabitants of Siberia; a fine oil is expressed from them which is used both for food and in lamps, but, like that of the Italian pine, it soon turns rancid.

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  • P. occidentalis, a five-leaved pine with pale-green foliage and small ovate cones, is found on the high mountains of Santo Domingo and Cuba.

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  • m., and consists almost entirely of a remarkable volcano (5400 ft.) formed of three superimposed cones.

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  • Great masses of syenite and diorite were intruded during the Tertiary period, and within the curve of the folded belt a line of recent volcanic cones stretches from western Baluchistan into eastern Persia.

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  • The lavas and ashes which form these cones are mostly andesitic. Mud " volcanoes " occur upon the Makran coast, but it is doubtful whether these are in any way connected with true volcanic agencies.

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  • It has roundish cones, with numerous scales and wingless seeds.

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  • In the San Francisco mountains, in the north central part of the state, three peaks rise to from io,000 to 12,794 ft.; three others are above 9000 ft.; all are eruptive cones, and among the lesser summits are old cinder cones.

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  • Many volcanic cones mark the surface, but by far the most prominent among them are Big Butte, which rises precipitously 2350 ft.

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  • In Italy mannite is prepared for sale in the shape of small cones resembling loaf sugar in shape, and is frequently prescribed in medicine instead of manna.

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  • From the nitrate are made (a) argenti nitras indurata, toughened caustic, containing 19 parts of silver nitrate and one of potassium nitrate fused together into cylindrical rods; (b) Argenti nitras mitigatus, mitigated caustic, in which 1 part of silver nitrate and 2 parts of potassium nitrate are fused together into rods or cones.

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  • in Hydromedusae, of Schafer.) two kinds of elements: (After (I) visual cells, sensory ectodermal cells, which may develop terminal visual cones; (2) pigment-cells, usually ectodermal, but in one known instance endodermal.

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  • 8, c) (better perhaps termed a conjunctiva), below which the spherical lens projects into the optic vesicle, imbedded in the vitreous humour (v.b) which fills it; the retina (r) consists of visual cells with long cones (fig.

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  • The subumbral ocellus of Aurelia is found to be of the inverted type, with the visual cones turned away from the light, as in Tiaropsis amongst Hydromedusae, and here also the pigment is furnished by the endoderm, forming a cup into which the ectodermal visual cells project (Schewiakoff ['31) In) the Stauromedusae tentaculocysts are either absent altogether, as in - St.

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  • The narrow, pointed leaves are spirally arranged and persist for four or five years; the cones are small, globose and borne at the ends of the branchlets, the scales are thickened at the extremity and divided into sharply pointed lobes, three to five seeds are borne on each scale.

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  • The great majority of the islands bear evident marks of volcanic origin, and there are numerous volcanic cones on the north side of the chain, some of them active; many of the islands, however, are not wholly volcanic, but contain crystalline or sedimentary rocks, and also amber and beds of lignite.

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  • The cones themselves are composed largely of acid andesites, but many of the lavas are augite andesites and basalts.

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  • Dioecious; flowers in the form of cones, except the female flowers of Cycas, which consist of a rosette of leaf-like carpels at the apex of the stem.

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  • - The stem does not grow through the female flower; both male and female flowers are in the form of cones.

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  • - Large cones; the carpellary scales terminate in a peltate distal expansion.

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  • In structure a cycadean sporangium recalls those of certain ferns (Marattiaceae, Osmundaceae and Schizaeaceae), but in the development of the spores there are certain peculiarities not met with among the Vascular Cryptogams. With the exception of Cycas, the female flowers are also in the form of cones, bearing numerous carpellary scales.

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  • The cones of cycads attain in some cases (e.g.

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  • Flowers monoecious or dioecious, unisexual, without a perianth, often in the form of cones, but never terminal on the main stem.

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  • Some authors use the term Coniferae in a restricted sense as including those genera which have the female flowers in the form of cones, the other genera, characterized by flowers of a different type, being placed in the Taxaceae, and often spoken of as Taxads..

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  • A new genus of conifers, Taiwania, has recently been described from the island of Formosa; it is said to agree in habit with the Japanese Cryptomeria, but the cones appear to have a structure which distinguishes them from those of any other genus.

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  • The long linear leaves of some species of Podocarpus, in which the lamina is traversed by a single vein, recall the pinnae of Cycas; the branches of some Dacrydiums and other forms closely resemble those of lycopods; these superficial resemblances, both between different genera of conifers and between conifers and other plants, coupled with the usual occurrence of fossil coniferous twigs without cones attached to them, render the determination of extinct types a very unsatisfactory and frequently an impossible task.

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  • In the conifers proper the female reproductive organs have the form of cones, which may be styled flowers or inflorescences according to different interpretations of their morphology.

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  • The female flowers (cones) vary considerably in size; the largest are the more or less spherical cones of Araucaria - a single cone of A.

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  • imbricata may produce as many as 300 seeds, one seed to each fertile cone-scale - and the long pendent cones, I to 2 ft.

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  • Smaller cones, less than an inch long, occur in the larch, Athrotaxis (Tasmania), Fitsroya (Patagonia and Tasmania), &c. In the Taxodieae and Araucarieae the cones are similar in appearance to those of the Abietineae, but they differ in the fact that the scales appear to be single, even in the young condition; each cone-scale in a genus of the Taxodiinae (Sequoia, &c.) bears several seeds, while in the Araucariinae (Araucaria and Agathis) each scale has one seed.

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  • The Cupressineae have cones composed of a few scales arranged in alternate whorls; each scale bears two or more seeds, and shows no external sign of being composed of two distinct portions.

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  • The female flowers of the Taxaceae assume another form; in Microcachrys (Tasmania) the reproductive structures are spirally disposed, and form small globular cones made up of red fleshy scales, to each of which is attached a single ovule enclosed by an integument and partially invested by an arillus; in Dacrydium the carpellary leaves are very similar to the foliage leaves - each bears one ovule with two integuments, the outer of which constitutes an arillus.

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  • The latter view receives support from abnormal cones in which carpellary scales subtend axillary shoots, of which the first two leaves (fig.

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  • Monstrous cones are fairly common; these in some instances lend support to the axillary-bud theory, and it has been said that this theory owes its existence to evidence furnished by abnormal cones.

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  • Some monstrous cones lend no support to the axillary-bud theory.

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  • In Larix the axis of the cone often continues its growth; similarly in Cephalotaxus the cones are often proliferous.

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  • Androgynous cones may be produced, as in the cone of Pinus rigida (fig.

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  • It may be that the interpretation of the female cone of the Abietineae as an inflorescence, which finds favour with many botanists, cannot be applied to the cones of Agathis and Araucaria.

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  • Pinus and Picea) - in which the cone-scales persist for some time after the seeds are ripe - the cones hang down and so facilitate the fall of the seeds; in Cedrus, Araucaria and Abies the scales become detached and fall with the seeds, leaving the bare vertical axis of the cone on the tree.

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  • An inflorescence has the form of a dichotomouslybranched cyme bearing small erect cones; those containing the female flowers attain the size of a fir-cone, and are scarlet in colour.

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