"What are your conditions?" she asked.
I am frequently asked how I overcome the peculiar conditions under which I work in college.
They forget that my whole body is alive to the conditions about me.
But such ordinary conditions of life were nowhere to be found.
You gave me three conditions, not two.
In 1920 she went to Russia as a member of one of the various Labour delegations invited to inspect Soviet conditions of government.
Yes, he had named three conditions, and yes, she remembered agreeing after that fantastic kiss.
The conditions must, of course, be such as to secure that no ions shall escape, otherwise there is an underestimate.
People accustomed to think in that way forget, or do not know, the inevitable conditions which always limit the activities of any commander in chief.
Dissipation seems largely dependent on meteorological conditions, but the phenomena at different stations vary so much as to suggest that the connexion is largely indirect.
Social conditions in western Virginia were entirely unlike those existing in the eastern portion of the state.
The one thing he now desired with his whole soul was to get away quickly from the terrible sensations amid which he had lived that day and return to ordinary conditions of life and sleep quietly in a room in his own bed.
She knew the essential conditions of the instrument.
What theory and science is possible about a matter the conditions and circumstances of which are unknown and cannot be defined, especially when the strength of the acting forces cannot be ascertained?
Romas had made no other conditions, for there were none to be made.
Of course, all of those conditions are unacceptable to the responsible drunk.
There were markedly different conditions just a few miles away.
When the economy entered recession, the workhouse conditions had to be worsened more.
displaced by the sphere, and assumes a statical state of conditions and that the conductor itself exerts no disturbing influence.
Above the level plain of absolutely smooth surface, devoid of houses or vegetation, the equipotential surfaces under normal conditions would be strictly horizontal, and if we could determine the potential at one metre above the ground we should have a definite measure of the potential gradient at the earth's surface.
Under what conditions can we claim victory in this war on disease?
I abhor the conditions under which we commercially raise farm animals today.
On the eastern forested slopes and in the lower valleys tropical conditions prevail.
The transition from blue to orange or red at sunset is usually through green, but exceptional conditions may easily disturb the normal state of things.
During summer there may be eight or nine successive generations when conditions are favourable and food abundant.
To Droysen and Kaerst it accords with the historical conditions; to Grote and to Beloch it is a betrayal of the prerogative of Hellenism.
Brady had conducted many missions in austere conditions in other countries.
"We made an agreement based on three conditions," he said.
Under favourable conditions more than half the light is polarized.
They reveal to us the true and better side of George Sand, the loyal and devoted friend, the mother who under happier conditions might have been reputed a Roman matron.
Assuming that these conditions can be rigidly realized, we have the following very simple modus operandi: i.
The disturbing conditions of will, life and organic forces are eliminated from the problem; he starts with the clear and distinct idea of extension, figured and moved, and thence by mathematical laws he gives a hypothetical explanation of all things.
But we gather that in two directions our reason is bound up with bodily conditions, which make or mar it, according as the will, or central energy of thought, is true to itself or not.
But with all these often opposed conditions, we find less variation than might be expected, the main and really important divergence being due to the necessity of transposition, which added a very high pitch to the primarily convenient low one.
It was decided to send a deputation of bishops with a letter of greeting to the national council of the Russian Church about to be assembled (60) and certain conditions were laid down for intercommunion with certain of the Churches of the Orthodox Eastern Communion (62) and the "ancient separated Churches of the East" (63-65).
Resolution 67 warned Anglicans from contracting marriages, under actual conditions, with Roman Catholics.
The indifference of the Jews to the desolate conditions of their sanctuary opens up a problem of some difficulty.
By doing this, we will come to understand those conditions better and perhaps prevent them.
If people with those conditions get better, information about their treatment can be widely shared with those who have the common genetic factors.
What we call "heart disease" will become hundreds of individual conditions each with its own cause and, hopefully, cure.
But outsourcing to pollute, oppress workers, or have unsafe working conditions hurts the world's standard of living.
If the first order of genetic modification is deliberately keeping desirable mutations, then this is the second order: creating conditions for such genetic modifications to occur more rapidly.
For environmentalist organizations like Greenpeace to be against GMO in all its forms under all conditions does nothing at all to serve them or the constituencies they purport to represent.
We have not only outlawed cruelty to animals, but increasingly, people care about the living conditions of even the animals they eat.
Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
He felt that only in the ordinary conditions of life would he be able to understand himself and all he had seen and felt.
It is very difficult for events to be reflected in their real strength and completeness amid the conditions of court life and far from the scene of action.
Apart from conditions of war and law, that look established human relations between the two men.
Men who want to fight will always put themselves in the most advantageous conditions for fighting.
On the contrary, the army had never under the best material conditions presented a more cheerful and animated aspect.
The French perished from the conditions to which the Russian army was itself exposed.
He was surprised to find that this inner freedom, which was independent of external conditions, now had as it were an additional setting of external liberty.
Historians of the third class assume that the will of the people is transferred to historic personages conditionally, but that the conditions are unknown to us.
Such is the reply historians who assume that the collective will of the people is delegated to rulers under conditions which they regard as known.
To explain the conditions of that relationship we must first establish a conception of the expression of will, referring it to man and not to the Deity.
He maintained that, under varying conditions, two substances could combine in an indefinitely large number of different ratios, that there could in fact be a continuous variation in the combining ratio.
Yet a closer inquiry into the social conditions of Vico s time, and of the studies then flourishing, shows him to have been thoroughly in touch with them.
Dissipation was above the average when cyclonic conditions prevailed, but this seemed simply a consequence of the increased wind velocity.
For a wire exposed under the conditions observed by Elster and Geitel the emanation seems to be almost entirely derived from radium.
Above sea-level, the climate is hot, humid and unhealthy, and the conditions for permanent settlement are apparently unfavourable.
The coming and going of envoys from many states, Greek and Oriental, taught him something of the actual conditions of the world.
All genetic conditions that one would reasonably wish to alter would also be altered.
It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio.
If the conditions weren't sterile—a word that was not even comprehended at the time—the inoculation didn't work, or worse, introduced a new disease.
Then, people could start reporting all their medical issues—headaches, halitosis, heart disease—and we will begin to see commonalities between genes and conditions we do not generally regard as genetic.
Is it possible for the College to accommodate itself to these unprecedented conditions, so as to enable me to pursue my studies at Radcliffe?
What if physical conditions have built up high walls about us?
And finally all the conditions were good for that first nature school, in which the teacher and pupil played together, exploring together and educating themselves, pupil and teacher inseparable.
He always came to table under precisely the same conditions, and not only at the same hour but at the same minute.
Those speeches were intended for quite other conditions, they were for the most part to be spoken at a moment of victory and triumph, generally when he was dying of wounds and the sovereign had thanked him for heroic deeds, and while dying he expressed the love his actions had proved.
After a short period of adapting himself to the old conditions of life, Nicholas found it very pleasant to be at home again.
It vanished as soon as he returned to the customary conditions of his life, but he knew that this feeling which he did not know how to develop existed within him.
Having once more entered into the definite conditions of this regimental life, Rostov felt the joy and relief a tired man feels on lying down to rest.
All this is only the coincidence of conditions in which all vital organic and elemental events occur.
In a new country, amid new conditions, Prince Andrew found life easier to bear.
The battle of Borodino was not fought on a chosen and entrenched position with forces only slightly weaker than those of the enemy, but, as a result of the loss of the Shevardino Redoubt, the Russians fought the battle of Borodino on an open and almost unentrenched position, with forces only half as numerous as the French; that is to say, under conditions in which it was not merely unthinkable to fight for ten hours and secure an indecisive result, but unthinkable to keep an army even from complete disintegration and flight.
He had pictured each of those young ladies as almost all honest-hearted young men do, that is, as a possible wife, adapting her in his imagination to all the conditions of married life: a white dressing gown, his wife at the tea table, his wife's carriage, little ones, Mamma and Papa, their relations to her, and so on--and these pictures of the future had given him pleasure.
And without considering the multiplicity and complexity of the conditions any one of which taken separately may seem to be the cause, he snatches at the first approximation to a cause that seems to him intelligible and says: "This is the cause!"
But for a long time in his dreams he still saw himself in the conditions of captivity.
If we examine a man little dependent on external conditions, whose action was performed very recently, and the causes of whose action are beyond our ken, we get the conception of a minimum of inevitability and a maximum of freedom.
"Do you concur with my three conditions?" the warrior asked in a husky voice.
The thought of her in rough conditions or battle met instant instinctual resistance.
Detective Hunter advised the Sentinel by phone that tidal conditions on the Chesapeake might make retrieving a body difficult.
Endospore formation, the conditions for which are as follows: (1) suitable temperature, (2) presence of air, (3) presence of moisture, (4) young and vigorous cells, (5) a food supply in the case of one species at least is necessary, and is in no case prejudicial.
The presence, however, of apparatus or observers upsets the conditions, while above uneven ground or near a tree or a building the equipotential surfaces cease to be horizontal.
The large difference between the means obtained at Potsdam and Kremsmtinster, as compared to the comparative similarity between the results for Kew and Karasjok, suggests that the mean value of the potential gradient may be much more dependent on local conditions than on difference of latitude.
Brady watched the feds, irritated at the pockets of elite unaffected by the squalid conditions the non-elite were forced to live in.
Such analyses, which do not always admit of great accuracy, have been confirmed by a few carefully planned experiments in which two components were brought together under very varied conditions, and the resulting compound analysed.
Gabriel stared, surprised, then dismayed, at her conditions.
I'll help you on two conditions.
I will help you on three conditions.
I can take care of myself for the most part, and wouldn't mind rough conditions.
The higher alcohols such as propyl, isobutyl, amyl, capryl, oenanthyl and caproyl, have been identified; and the amount of these vary according to the different conditions of the fermentation.
liquids is a well-known phenomenon and common to all micro-organisms. A free still surface with a direct access of air are the necessary conditions.
The potential gradient near the ground varies with the season of the year and the hour of the day, and is largely dependent on the weather conditions.
It is even somewhat precipitate to assume that a mean value deduced from a single year is fairly representative of average conditions.
If V be the potential, p the density of free electricity at a point in the atmosphere, at a distance r from the earth's centre, then assuming statical conditions and neglecting variation of V in horizontal directions, we have r2 (d/dr) (r 2 dV/dr) - - 4.rp = o.
Gerdien's estimate of the convection current is for fine weather conditions.
Several railway lines have been projected, but there is no great probability of their construction under existing political conditions.
The climate of Manitoba, being that of a region of wide extent and of similar conditions, is not subject to frequent variations.
Freeman and Charles Elton discovered by historical research that a breach of the conditions of the professorship had occurred, and Christ Church raised the endowment from Loo a year to £50o.
Settled social conditions, however, soon established themselves.
19.2), and to certain conditions of rank.
The area of the lake is shrinking owing to the progressive desiccation of the country, Saharan climate and conditions replacing those of the Sudan.
The temperature and rainfall are governed by conditions different from those in corresponding latitudes of the northern hemisphere..
In the vicinity of Buenos Aires the climatic conditions vary very little from those of the pampa region; the mean annual temperature is about 63° (maximum 104°; minimum 32°), and the annual rainfall is 34 in.; snow is rarely seen.
In the rural districts of the northern provinces, the increase in population is much less than in the central provinces, the conditions of life being less favourable.
Unfavourable political and economic conditions of a temporary character influence the emigration movement.
The rapid development of the foreign trade of the republic since 1881 is due to settled internal conditions and to the prime necessity to the commercial world of many Argentine products, such as beef, mutton, hides, wool, wheat and Indian corn.
The principle of arbitration being accepted, the conditions were quickly arranged.
Eberian influence in the south-west, Ligurian on the shores of the Mediterranean, Germanic immigrations from east of the Rhine and Scandinavian immigrations in the north-west have tended to produce ethnographical diversities which ease of intercommunication and other modern conditions have failed to obliterate.
It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.
Public Debt.The national debt of France is the heaviest of any country in the world., Its foundation was laid early in the 15th century, and the continuous wars of succeeding centuries, combined with the extravagance of the monarchs, as well as deliberate disregard of financial and economic conditions, increased it at an alarming rate.
The law further provides for the re-engagement of men of all ranks, under conditions varying according to their rank.
After attempting to govern under these conditions for nearly two years, the prince, with the consent of the tsar Alexander III., assumed absolute power (May 9, 1881), and a suspension of the ultra-democratic constitution for a period of seven years was voted by a specially convened assembly (July 13).
Except on Charles Island, where settlement has existed longest, little or no influence of the presence of man is evident in the group; still, the running wild of dogs and cats, and, as regards the vegetation, especially goats, must in a comparatively short period greatly modify the biological conditions of the islands.
The origin and development of these conditions, in islands so distinctly oceanic as the Galapagos, have given its chief importance to this archipelago since it was visited by Darwin in the "Beagle."
A man may live on in the world by his teaching and example as a power for good, a factor of human progress, and he may also be continuing and completing his course under conditions still more favourable to all most worthy in him.
away from land and more probably were caused by subsidence; the old river-channels known to exist below sea-level, as well as the former land connexion with New Guinea, seem to point to the conditions assumed in Darwin's well-known subsidence theory, and any facts that appear to be inconsistent with the theory of a steady and prolonged subsidence are explainable by the assumption of a slight upheaval.
The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the Carboniferous conditions.
to 44.4 The climatic conditions of the western districts of the state are entirely different from those of the other two regions.
This is due in part to the different physical conditions there prevailing and in part to the invasion of the north-eastern portion of the continent by a number of plants characteristically Melanesian.
Political And Economic Conditions Population.
During the twenty years preceding the census of 1901 there was a fall in the death rate of 3.4 per thousand, of which, however, 1 per thousand is attributable to the decline in the birth rate, the balance being attributable to improved sanitary conditions.
Practically the whole of the territory between the 145° meridian and the Great Dividing Range, as well as extensive tracts in the south and west, are a natural sheep pasture with climatic conditions and indigenous vegetation pre - eminently adapted for the growth of wool of the highest quality.
But Mr Howitt finds in this being " no trace of a divine nature, though under favourable conditions the beliefs might have developed into an actual religion."
When that system was abolished, the social conditions of New South Wales, Victoria, and South Australia became more equal.
Very few of the members who refused to take the pledge were returnca, and the adherents of the united party were able to accomplish more with their reduced number than under the old conditions.
It was eventually compromised by giving the power, but only with safeguarding conditions, to the Federal arbitration court.
The chief authority for determining whether these conditions are satisfied or not is the Federal arbitration court.
Worthy of special note are canon 33, enjoining celibacy upon all clerics and all who minister at the altar (the most ancient canon of celibacy); canon 36, forbidding pictures in churches; canon 38, permitting lay baptism under certain conditions; and canon 53, forbidding one bishop to restore a person excommunicated by another.
His principal characteristic was perfect confidence in any result obtained by the treatment of symbols in accordance with their primary laws and conditions, and an almost unrivalled skill and power in tracing out these results.
On these conditions Mary obtained the hearty support of the states Against France, but her humiliations were not yet at an end; two of her privy councillors, accused of traitorous intercourse with the enemy, were, despite her entreaties, seized, tried and beheaded (April 3).
The prince of Orange, Don Requesens, who had now formally entered the Calvinist communion, governor- was inexorable in laying down three conditions as general.
C. Palazzo (1907) support this formula, finding that methyl nitrolic acid, NO 2 CH: N-OH, yielded under certain conditions fulminic acid, and vice versa (Palazzo, 1907).
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
The thegn became a member of a territorial nobility, and the dignity of thegnhood was attainable by those who fulfilled certain conditions.
There is no doubt that under average conditions of atmospheric density, the .005 should be replaced by 003, for many independent authorities using different methods have found values very close to this last figure.
For example, does the heat generated by friction vary as the friction and the time during which it acts, or is it proportional to the friction and the distance through which the rubbing bodies are displaced - that is, to the work done against friction - or does it involve any other conditions?
The ratio of the portion of the energy of a system which can under given conditions be converted into mechanical work to the whole amount of energy operated upon may be called the "availability" of the energy.
All we can do in such cases is to place the system under certain conditions of transformation, and be content with the amount of work which it is, as it were, willing to render up under those conditions.
Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for dategroves four years' free tenure was allowed.
Many conditions might be inserted: as that the wife should act as maidservant to her mother-in-law, or to a first wife.
She could only be divorced on the same conditions as a wife.
The climatic conditions in the British Islands are such that it is not possible to maintain, in unfavourable weather, a higher standard than that named, which is the insulation obtained when all the insulators are in perfect condition and only the normal leakage, due to moisture, is present.
by the disk, for any difference in speed between nut and screw will cause the nut to move along the screw until the diameter of the cone is reached which fulfils the above conditions for equality in speed.
Owing to the experience gained with many thousands of miles of cable in all depths and under varying conditions of weather and climate, the risk, and consequently the cost, of laying has been greatly reduced.
But the cost of effecting a repair still remains a very uncertain quantity, success being dependent on quiet conditions of sea and weather.
All interruptions are not so costly, for in shallower waters, with favourable conditions of weather, a repair may be only a matter of a few hours, and it is in such waters that the majority of breaks occur, but still a large reserve fund must be laid aside for this purpose.
The actual number of sets of apparatus it was possible to work multiplex depended upon the length of the line, for if the latter were long, retardation effects modified the working conditions.
been found under certain conditions to give better results than those obtained with sharp reversals.
A, slip as received on recorder, using ordinary relays for translating on to second cable; B, slip as received on recorder, when interpolator is used at intermediate station, for sending on to second cable; C (four cells through a line, KR=3.6), signals with recorder under ordinary conditions; D, all conditions the same as in C, but magnifying relay inserted between the end of the line and the recorder.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
If we suppose the cable interrupted at any place, and both sides of the gap earthed by connexion to plates, then the same conditions will still hold.
Owing to the rough seas sweeping over the Fastnet, the conditions are such that any ordinary submarine cable would be broken by the wearing action of the waves at the rock boundary in a very short time.
of a condenser produces an electric spark which under proper conditions creates an effect propagated out into space as an electric wave.
These static and kinetic conditions succeed each other rapidly, and the result is to detach or throw off from the antenna semi-loops of electric force, which move outwards in all directions and are accompanied by expanding circular lines of magnetic force.
Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.
These suggestions were to some extent an anticipation of the work of Reis; but the conditions to be fulfilled before the sounds given out at the receiving station can be similar in pitch, quality and relative intensity to those produced at the transmitting station are not stated, and do not seem to have been appreciated.
This advance did not merely remove the primary batteries from the subscribers' stations; it removed also the magneto-generator, and at the same time it modified considerably the conditions governing the exchange operating.
This alteration improved the operating conditions in three ways.
The conditions permit of the circulation of the alternating currents of low periodicity, which are used for operating the bells, but in respect of the battery the circuit is open until the subscriber lifts the receiver, when the hook switch, thus released, joins the transmitter with one winding of an induction coil in series across the circuit.
It was found possible to exchange speech when the conditions were exceptionally favourable; but in spite of the partial success of the experiment, a public service between the two capitals is not at present practicable.
varies from yellow-green to deep crimson in different species and in individuals according to exposure to sunlight and other conditions.
Mortality is decreasing, but if we may judge from the physical conditions of the recruits the physique of the nation shows little or no improvement.
The great variety in physical and social conditions throughout the peninsula gives corresponding variety to the methods of agriculture.
One of the great evils of Italian agricultural taxation is its lack of elasticity and of adaptation to local conditions.
In Sicily leasehold prevails under special conditions.
The match-making industry is subject to special fiscal conditions.
Private institutions and working-class associations have striven to improve the intellectual conditions of the working classes.
These conditions made a territorial system of recruiting or organization, as understood in Germany, practically impossible.
But the conditions under which it could arise, casting from itself all foreign and feudal trammels, recognizing its true past in ancient Rome, and reconstructing a civility out of the ruins of those glorious memories, were now at last granted.
The conditions which have the five been described, of despotism, mercenary warfare and bourgeois prosperity, determined the character of this epoch, which was also the period when the great achievements of the Renaissance were prepared.
The complete disregard shown by Napoleon for one of the chief conditions of the treaty of Lunville (February 1801)that stipulating for the independence of the Ligurian and Cisalpine Republicsbecame more and more apparent every year.
His object was to restore his dominions to the conditions preceding the French occupation.
Yet after these warlike declarations and after the signing of a military convention at Turin, the king agreeing to all the conditions proposed by Napoleon, the latter suddenly became pacific again, and adopted the Russian suggestion that Italian affairs should be settled by a congress.
The negotiations were long drawn out; for Cavour struggled to save Nice and Napoleon was anxious to make conditions, especially as regards Tuscany.
Under the stress of the appalling financial conditions represented by chronic deficit, crushing taxation, the heavy expenditure necessary for the consolidation of the kingdom, the reform of the army and the interest on the pontifical debt, Sella, on the 11th of December 1871, exposed to parliament the financial situation in all its nakedness.
than in Italy; both at home and abroad she is hemmed in ~ / by political and economic conditions which leave un/s a.
The political conditions of Europe favored the realization of Italian desires.
Though he considered such precipitation impolitic, Robilant, finding that confidential information of Italian intentions had already been conveyed to the Austrian government, sought an interview with King Humbert, and on the 17th of October started for Vienna to settle the conditions of the visit.
No concession could be denied to deputies, or groups of deputiec, whose support was indispensable to the life of the cabinet, nor, under such conditions, was it possible to place any effective check upon administrative abuses in which politicians or their electors were interested.
For a time Giolitti successfully opposed inquiry into the conditions of the state banks, but on the 21st of March was compelled to sanction an official investigation by a parliamentary commission composed of seven members.
Intimately acquainted with the conditions of his native island, Crispi adopted efficacious remedies.
The strikes and other economic agitations at this time may be divided roughly into three groups: strikes in industrial centres for higher wages, shorter hours and better labor conditions generally; strikes of agricultural laborers in northern Italy for better contracts with the landlords; disturbances among the south Italian peasantry due to low wages, unemployment (particularly in Apulia), and the claims of the laborers to public land occupied illegally by the landlords, combined with local feuds and the struggle for power of the various influential families.
Whereas in the past the strikes had been purely local and due to local conditions, they now appeared of more general and political character, and the sympathy strike came to be a frequent and undesirable addition to the ordinary economic agitation.
But while the majority of the deputies, were nominally in favor of the bill, the parliamentary committee reported against it, and public opinion was so hostile that an anti-divorce petition received 3,500,000 signatures, including not only those of professing Catholics, but of free-thinkers and Jews, who regarded divorce as unsuitable to Italian conditions.
Sir Leslie Stephen finds that moral laws are the conditions needful for the good of the social organism, and are imposed as such by society upon its individual members.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
Reason - under conditions of sensation - created the world of (valid) knowledge; Reason created the practical world of duty.
Its doing so depends upon the totality of conditions.
Does not Stephen himself rather say that morally good things are conditions of social, not personal welfare?
Briefly, they are to be found in the conditions of the time; the increasing insularity of the English barons, now no longer the holders of estates in Normandy; the substitution of an unpopular for a popular king, an active spur to the rising forces of discontent; and the unprecedented demands for money - demands followed, not by honour, but by dishonour, to the arms of England abroad.
Arbitration under such conditions was contemptuously rejected, and after the king had ordered the sheriffs to seize the lands and goods of the revolting nobles, London opened its gates and peacefully welcomed the baronial army.
- In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
Moreover, P. Hallez , has recently shown that hydroids hitherto regarded as distinct species are only forms of „ the same species grown under different conditions.
The speaker seeks to make intelligible the appearance of art and contrivance in the world as a result of a natural settlement of the universe (which passes through a succession of chaotic conditions) into a stable condition, having a constancy in its forms, yet without its several parts losing their motion and fluctuation.
We see how different this metaphysical conception is from that scientific notion of cosmic evolution in which the lower stages are the antecedents and conditions of the higher.
Thus he does not account for the fact that organic beings - which have always existed as preformations (in the case of animals as animaux spermatiques) - come to be developed under given conditions.
In his Ideen zur Philosophic der Geschichte, Herder adopts Leibnitz's idea of a graduated scale of beings, at the same time conceiving of the lower stages as the conditions, of the higher.
The observation of the existence of an analogy between the series of gradations presented by the species which compose any great group of animals or plants, and the series of embryonic conditions of the highest members of that group.
The observation of the effects of varying conditions in modifying living organisms.
It is not true, for example, that a fish is a reptile arrested in its development, or that a reptile was ever a fish; but it is true that the reptile embryo, at one stage of its development, is an organism which, if it had an independent existence, must be classified among fishes; and all the organs of the reptile pass, in the course of their development, through conditions which are closely analogous to those which are permanent in some fishes.
The older advocates of evolution sought for the causes of the process exclusively in the influence of varying conditions, such as climate and station, or hybridization, upon living forms. Even Treviranus has got no further than this point.
But the causes and conditions of variation have yet to be thoroughly explored; and the importance of natural selection will not be impaired, even if further inquiries should prove that variability is definite, and is determined in certain directions rather than in others, by conditions inherent in that which varies.
When a series of the modifications of an anatomical structure has been sufficiently examined, it is frequently possible to decide that one particular condition is primitive, ancestral or central, and that the other conditions have been derived from it.
Such modified conditions have been termed apocentric. It is obvious that the mere apocentricity of a character can be no guide to the affinities of its possessor.
Especially in the case of manifest adaptations, organs possessed by creatures far apart genealogically may be moulded into conditions that are extremely alike.
Ray Lankester's term, homoplasy, has passed into currency as designating such cases where different genetic material has been pressed by similar conditions into similar moulds.
Mrs Stowe passed eighteen years in Cincinnati under conditions which constantly thrust the problem of human slavery upon her attention.
But none suits the conditions.
The surface-layer of the body in the massive Fungi differs in character according, to its function, which is not constant throughout the class, as in the Algae, because of the very various conditions of life to which different Fungi are exposed.
This is especially the case in the lichens (symbiotic organisms composed of a fungal mycelium in association with algal cells), which are usually exposed to very severe fluctuations in external conditions.
trace a three-fold division of tissue systems, a division of which there are indications among the lower plants, and which is the expression of the fundamental conditions of the evolution of a bulky differ- Tissue entiated plant-body.
2, B), since there is no difference in the illumination and other external conditions, --------
All the surviving forms, however, have a completely established double system with the specific characters alluded to, and since there is every reason to believe that the conditions of evolution of the primitive Pteridophyte must have been essentially similar to those of the Bryophytes, the various stages in the evolution of the conducting system of the latter (p. 732) are very useful to compare with the arrangements met with in the former.
The radial structure is characteristic of all root-steles, which have in essential points a remarkably uniform structure throughout the vascular plants, a fact no doubt largely dependent on the very uniform conditions under which they live.
A very considerable body of knowledge relating to this subject already exists, but further work on experimental lines is urgently required to enable us to understand the actual economy of plants growing under different conditions of life and the true relation of the hereditary anatomical characters which form the subject matter of systematic anatomy to those which vary according to the conditions in which the individual plant is placed.
The nitrogen of the atmosphere is not called into requisition, except by a few plants and under special conditions, as will be explained later.
Opinions are conflicting also as to the conditions, under which proteids are formed.
Supply and Distribution of Energy in PlantsIt is well known that one of the conditions of life is the maintenance of the process which is known as respiration.
The growth of such a cell will be found to depend mainly upon five conditions: (I) There must be a supply of nutritive or plastic materials, at the expense of which the increase of its living substance can take place, and which supply the needed potential energy.
When these conditions are present, the course of the growth of a cell appears to be the following: The young cell, immediately it is cut off from its fellow, absorbs water, in consequence of the presence in it of osmotically active substances.
These two conditions are generally described under the names of hyponasty and epiizasty respectively.
We find on further investigation that these two conditions are traceable to different parts of the organs concerned.
an organ.ism the conditions of whose life render locomotion impossible great elaboration would seem superfluous.
Under different conditions it can retain it more strongly or allow it to escape more freely.
For instance, a Fungus epidemic is impossible unless the climatic conditions are such as to favor the dispersal and germination of the spores; and when plants are killed off owi~ig to the supersaturation of the soil with water, it is by no means obvious whether the excess of water and dissolved materials, or the exclusion of oxygen from the root-hairs, or the lowering of the temperature, or the accumulation of foul products of decomposition should be put into the foreground.
Every plant is constrained to carry Out its functions of germination, growth, nutrition, reproduction, &c., between certain limits of temperature, and somewhere between the extremes of these limits each function finds ao optimum temperature at which the working of the living machinery is at its best, and, other things being equal, any great departure from this may induce pathological conditions; and many disasters are due to the failure to provide such suitable temperaturese.g.
It may be that in particular cases particular modes of cultivation disfavour the host; or that the soil, climate or seasons do so; but overwhelming evidence exists to show that the principal causes of epidemics reside in circumstances which favor the spread, nutrition and reproduction of the pest, and the lesson to be learnt is, that precautions against the establishment of such favoring conditions must be sought.
Lack of other ingredients may also induce chlorotic conditions.
Conditions of hyper-turgescence are common in herbaceous plants in wet seasons, or when overcrowded and in situations too moist for them.
No sharp line can be drawn between these diseases and some of the preceding, inasmuch as it often depends on the external conditions whether necrosis is a dry-rot, in the sense I employ the term here, or a wet-rot, when it would come under the preceding category.
Such frost-cracks, sun-cracks, &c., may then be slowly healed over by callus, but if the conditions for necrosis recur the crack may be again opened, or if Fungi, &c., interfere with occlusion, the healing is prevented; in such cases the local necrosis may give rise to cankers.
This subject brings the domain of pathology, however, into touch with that of variation, and we are profoundly ignorant as to the complex of external conditions which would decide in any given case how far a variation in form would be prejudicial or otherwise to the continued existence of a species.
This is equally true of the phenomena of apogamy and apospory in the light of recent researches into the effects of external conditions on reproduction.
Following SchrOter1 (Flahault and SchrOter, 1910: 24), the term autecology may be used for the study of the habitat conditions in relation to the single species, and the term synecology for this study in relation to plant communities.
Thus, associ- 1~e] ions of Agropyrum (Triticum) junceum, of Carex arenaria, of ~ ~nmophila (Psamma) arenaria, and of other plants occur on sa rid dunes: the associations are related by the general identity ph the habitat conditions, namely, the physiological dryness f d the loose soil; but they are separated by differences in f~1
Such groups are interesting in that they are vegetation units whose physiognomy is, in a broad sense, related more to climatic than to edaphic conditions.
Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.
ii plants under such conditions become smaller and more succulent.
With regard to the occurrence of plants, such as Juncus effusus, which possess xerophytic characters and yet live in situations which are not ordinarily of marked physiological dryness, it should be remembered that such habitats are liable to occasional physical drought; and a plant must eventually succumb if it is not adapted to the extreme conditions of its habitat.
Hygrophytes.Living, as these plants do, under medium conditions as regards soil, moisture and climate, they exhibit no characters which are markedly xerophytic or hydrophytic. Hence, such plants are frequently termed mesophytes.
In these, under favorable conditions, streaming movements of the cytoplasm in various directions can be observed.
In the yeast cell it accumulates and disappears very rapidly according to the conditions of nutrition and is sometimes so abundant as to fill the cell almost entirely (Errera, 1882, 1895: Wager and Peniston, 1910).
It has been shown that, in cells of Spiro gyra placed under special conditions, amitotic division can be induced, and that normal mitosis is resumed when they are placed again under normal conditions.
It may be inquired what meaning is to be attached to these expressions, and what are the conditions and the nature of the changes assumed by them.
These changes may be brought about by external causes, such as the attacks of insects or of fungi, alterations in external conditions, &c., or by some unexplained internal disturbance of the morphological equilibrium.
v.): In all cases there are two factors, the nature of the organism, which is much the most important of the two, and the nature of the conditions.
The direct action of changed conditions leads to definite or indefinite results.
In the former case the nature of the organism is such that it yields readily, when subjected to certain conditions, and all or nearly all the individuals become modified in the same way.
In spite of the statement that the nature of the organism is the most important factor in variation, the tendency amongst evolutionists has been to take much more account of the influence of external conditions.
It is inconceivable that external conditions can impart to an organism the capacity to develop something that it does not already possess: can impart to it, that is, the capacity for variation in the direction of higher complexity.
Influence of External Cond itions.T his position does not, however, exclude the influence of external conditions; that influence is undeniable.
Darwins expression the nature of the organism has been interpreted in the preceding paragraph to mean an inherent tendency towards higher organization; that interpretation may now be completed by adding that the organism is susceptible to, and can respond to, the action of external conditions.
There is every reason to believe that plants are as irritable to varying external conditions as they are to light or to gravity.
The study of existing Algae, that is of plants that have continued to live in water, shows that under these conditions no high degree of organization has been reached, though some of them have attained gigantic dimensions.
This evolution of the sporophyte is no doubt to be correlated with the great change in the external conditions of life.
AdaptationThe morphological and physiological differentiation of the plant-body has, so far, been attributed to (I) the nature of the organism, that is to its inherent tendency towards higher organization, and (2) to the indefinite results of the external conditions acting as a stimulus which excites the organism to variation, but does not direct the course of variation.
The definite results of the action of external conditions have still to be considered.
This so-called direct effect of external conditions upon the form and structure of the body differs from the indirect effect in that the resulting variations bear a relation, of the nature of adaptation, to those conditions; the effect of the conditions is not only to cause variation, but to cause variation in a particular direction.
In endeavouring to trace the causation of adaptation, it is obvious that it must be due quite as much to properties inherent in the plant as to the action of external conditions; the plant must possess adaptive capacity.
Thus there is no essential difference between the direct and the indirect action of external conditions, the difference is one of degree only.
Beyerinck was led to take up the decided position just mentioned by his researches into the conditions determining the formation of plant-galls as the result of injury by insects.
Grisebach declined to see anything in such forms but the production by nature of that which responds to external conditions and can only exist as long as they remain unchanged.
From this point of view it is not sufficient, in attempting to map out the earths surface into regions of vegetation, to have regard alone to adaptations to physical conditions.
The boreal is cold, the austral warm, and the tropical affords conditions of heat and moisture to which the vegetation of the others would be intolerant.
In the southern hemisphere the Palaeozoic flora appears ultimately to have been profoundly modified by a lowering of temperature and the existence of glacial conditions over a wide area.
And one essentially similar but adapted to slightly cooler conditions existed as far north as the latitude of Greenland.
The tertiary era opens with a climate in which during the Eocene period something like existing tropical conditions must have obtained in the northern hemisphere.
They point to cooler conditions in the northern hemisphere: palms and tropical types diminish; deciduous trees increase.
While Europe and probably North America were occupied by a warm temperate flora, tropical types had been driven southward, while the adaptation of others to arctic conditions had become accentuated.
The evidence which has thus been briefly summarized, points unmistakably to the conclusion that existing vegetation originated in the northern hemisphere and under climatic conditions corresponding to what would now be termed sub-tropical.
High elevations reproduce the physical conditions of high latitudes.
Or to take the small but welldefined group of five-leaved pines, all the species of which may be seen growing side by side at Kew under identical conditions: we have the Weymouth pine (Pinus Strobus) in eastern North America, P. monlicola and the sugar pine (P. Lambertiana) in California, P. Ayacahwite in Mexico, the Arolla pine (P. Cembra) in Switzerland and Siberia, P. Peuce in Greece, the Bhotan pine (P. excelsa) in the Himalayas, and two other species in Japan.
Assuming that in its circumpolar origin the North Temperate flora was fairly homogeneous, it would meet in its centrifugal extension with a wide range of local conditions; these would favor the preservation of numerous species in some genera, their greater or less elimination in others.
We may compare this with extreme alpine conditions: on a spot above the Aletsch glacier at a height of 10,700 ft.
A detailed examination of mountain floras shows that a large local element is present in each besides the arctic. The one is in tact the result of similar physical conditions to that which has produced the other.
Continued existence implies perpetual adaptation to new conditions, and, as the adjustment becomes more refined, the corresponding structural organization becomes more elaborate.
Fagus, starting from the northern hemisphere, has more than held its own in Europe and Asia, but has all but died out in North America, finding conditions favorable for a fresh start in Australasia.
It is certain that they originally existed under warmer conditions of climate than now obtain, and that progressive refrigeration.
The result of migration is that races of widely different origin and habit have had to adapt themselves to similar conditions.
The applications of anthropogeography to human uses give rise to political and commercial geography, in the elucidation of which all the earlier departments or stages have to be considered, together with historical and other purely human conditions.
de Lapparent and Elisee Reclus - has his individual point of view, one devoting more attention to the results of geological processes, another to anthropological conditions, and the rest viewing the subject in various blendings of the extreme lights.
(2) The tundra or region of intensely cold winters, forbidding tree-growth, where mosses and lichens cover most of the ground when unfrozen, and shrubs occur of species which in other conditions are trees, here stunted to the height of a few inches.
Australia and Polynesia By 87, 000,000 392,000,000 170,000,000 1 43, 000,000 7,000,000 influence of climate, and by the development of trade even to inhabit countries which cannot yield a food-supply, the mass of mankind is still completely under the control of those conditions which in the past determined the distribution and the mode of life of the whole human race.
It is in some such manner as these that the natural conditions of regions, which must be conformed to by prudence .and utilized by labour to yield shelter and food, have led to the growth of peoples differing in their ways of life, thought and speech.
Many of the great historic movements of peoples were doubtless due to the gradual change of geographical or climatic conditions; and the slow desiccation of Central Asia has been plausibly suggested as the real cause of the peopling of modern Europe and of the medieval wars of the Old World, the theatres of which were critical points on the great natural lines of communication between east and west.
In the case of centripetal migrations people flock to some particula place where exceptionally favourable conditions have been found to exist.
Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.
The territorial divisions and subdivisions often survive the conditions which led to their origin; hence the study of political geography is allied to history as closely as the study of physical geography is allied to geology, and for the same reason.
The older navigation by utilizing the power of the wind demands a very intimate knowledge of these conditions, and it is probable that a revival of sailing ships may in the present century vastly increase the importance of the study of maritime meteorology.
The drug is absorbed through the unbroken skin - a very valuable property in the treatment of such conditions as an incipient whitlow.
8) or saddle-shaped; the anterior surface is concave in a transverse, but convex in a vertical direction, which on posterior surface shows the conditions reversed.
Starting with the kiwi and cassowary, people have got into the habit of confounding flightless with wingless conditions.
The muscles of the limbs show a great amount of specialization, away from the fundamental reptilian and mammalian conditions.
This fact alone is sufficient proof that these conditions, or rather reductions, have been acquired independently of the various groups.
The right and left halves are completely divided by septa, no mixture of the venous and arterial blood being possible, an advance upon reptilian conditions, even the highest.
Under such conditions we might expect to find an extremely plentiful animal population, one as rich as that.
In any case the various Nearctic subdivisions completely merge into each other, just as is to be expected from the physical configuration and other bionomic conditions of the North American continent.
It has an extraordinary power over the pain of acute gout; it lessens the severity and frequency of the attacks when given continuously between them, and it markedly controls such symptoms of gout as eczema, bronchitis and neuritis, whilst it is entirely inoperative against these conditions when they are not of gouty origin.
The natives of Uruguay, though living in conditions similar to those of the Argentine population, are in general more reserved, showing more of the Indian type and less of the Spaniard.
Uruguayan wool is favourably regarded in foreign markets, on account of the clean state in which it is shipped, this being largely due to the natural conditions of the land and climate.
The president of the senate, Juan Cuestas, in accordance with the constitution, assumed the duties of president of the republic. He arranged that hostilities should cease on the conditions that representation of the Blancos was allowed in Congress for certain districts where their votes were known to predominate; that a certain number of the jefes politicos should be nominated from the Blancos; that free pardon be extended to all who had taken part in the revolt; that a sufficient sum in money be advanced to allow the settlement of the expenses contracted by the insurgents; and that the electoral law be reformed on a basis allowing the people to take part freely in e1ctions.
Lomba, La Republica Oriental del Uruguay (Montevideo, 1884); The Uruguay Republic, Territory and Conditions, reprinted by order of the ConsulGeneral of Uruguay (London, 1888); V.
Sulphur and sulphur waters such as those of Harrogate, Aix-la-Chapelle and Aix-les-Bains, have a powerful effect in congested conditions of the liver and intestines, haemorrhoids, gout and gravel.
the social conditions of Great Britain and Germany.
C. Baur and his school - important as the first scientific attempt to conceive New Testament conditions and literature as a whole - has been abandoned.
At the last meeting of the Lambeth Conference (1907) some overtures, on certain conditions, were made for (a) joint consecration of bishops, (b) joint ordination of ministers, (c) interchange of pulpits.
They had slaves, but so few as not to alter the social conditions.
In the region of the tundras life has to contend with such unfavourable conditions that it cannot be abundant.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
The Baptists have also made considerable progress, notably among the Molokani.1 Social Conditions.
Accustomed to the use of compulsory labour, they have failed to accommodate themselves to the new conditions.
In consequence of these more favourable conditions there is greater variety in the cropping; a good deal of wheat is grown, as well as beetroot for sugar, fibre plants and oleaginous plants, fruit, and even (W.
The steppe conditions extend over the greater part of the Crimea and up to the foothills of the Caucasus.
Boris has often been called the creator of serfage in Russia, but in reality he merely accelerated a process which was the natural result of economic conditions.
They were well received, and a reconciliation was effected on certain conditions, the first of which was that Prince Ferdinand's eldest son and heir should become a member of the Eastern Orthodox Church.
trans., 1896), an admirable account, partly historical, partly based on personal observation of the government, religion and the social and economic conditions of Russia; Combes de Lestrade, La Russie economique et sociale (Paris, 1896); " Nikolai " (pseudonym of Danielson), Histoire des developpement economique de la Russie depuis l'abolition du servage (Paris, 1899).
The last two of these engines broke down under trial, but the Rocket fulfilled the conditions and won the prize.
How far this movement will extend it is impossible to say; it is certain, however, that it will be enormously important in re-aligning trade conditions in the United States, Canada and Mexico.
But there are long stretches of pine loam in the South where branch lines can be, and are, built and equipped for £2400 or less per mile, while the construction of new main line in the prairie region of the West ought not to cost more than £4000 per single-track-mile, under present conditions.
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.
If these special rates are published in the tariff, and are offered to all persons alike, provided they can fulfil the conditions imposed by the company, they are known as commodity rates, and are apparently a necessity in any scheme of railway charges.
It was believed by its advocates that this system of prescribing the conditions of construction and operation of lines could promote public safety, prevent waste of capital and secure passengers and shippers against extortionate rates.
From the early days of railways parliament has also been careful to provide for the safety of the public by inserting in the general or special acts definite conditions, and by laying upon the Board of Trade the duty of protecting the public using a railway.
It forbids a railway which has reduced its rates while in competition with a water route to raise them again when the competition has ceased, unless the Commission permits it to do so because of other changed conditions.
The maximum gradient possible depends on climatic conditions, a dry climate being the most favourable.
In practice the gradient should not exceed i in 221, and even that is too steep, since theoretical conditions cannot always be realized; a wet rail will reduce the adhesion, and the gradients must be such that some paying load can be hauled in all weathers.
The amount of superelevation required to prevent derailment at a curve can be calculated under perfect running conditions, given the radius of curvature, the weight of the vehicle, the height of the centre of gravity, the distance between the rails, and the speed; but great experience 1 See The Times Engineering Supplement (August 22, 1906), p. 265.
only under exceptional conditions; the old " broad gauge " of 7 ft.
In general, however, the conditions are less simple.
The relation between the b.h.p. and the torque on the driving-axle is 55 o B.H.P. =Tu., (9) It is usual with steam locomotives to regard the resistance R as including the frictional resistances between the cylinders and the driving-axle, so that the rate at which energy is expended in moving the train is expressed either by the product RV, or by the value of the indicated horse-power, the relation between them being 55 0 I.H.P. =RV (Io) or in terms of the torque 55 0 I.H.P.X€=RVe=TW (II) The individual factors of the product RV may have any value consistent with equation (to) and with certain practical conditions, so that for a given value of the I.H.P. R must decrease if V increases.
The draw-bar pull for a given load is a function of the speed of the train, and numerous experiments have been made to find the relation connecting the pull with the speed under various conditions.
These considerations also indicate what a difficult matter it is to find the exact rate of working against the resistances, because of the difficulty of securing conditions which eliminate the effect both of the gradient and of acceleration.
- A locomotive must be designed to fulfil two conditions.
First, it must be able to exert a tractive force sufficient to start the train under the worst conditions possible on the railway over which it is to operate - for instance, when the train is stopped by signal on a rising gradient where the track is curved and fitted with a guard-rail.
7 hose conditions are to a certain extent mutually antagonistic, since an engine designed to satisfy either condition independently of the other R euld Le a different engine from that designed to make the best ccmpromise between them.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
It may be pointed out, however, that the social and geographical conditions are different in the United - Kingdom and the United States, and in each country the.
methods of carrying goods and passengers have developed in accordance with the requirements of those conditions.
In the other country precisely the opposite conditions exist.
Under the first set of conditions quickness and flexibility of service are relatively more important than under the second set.
The weight and speed of goods trains vary enormously according to local conditions, but the following figures, which refer to traffic on the London & North-Western railway between London and Rugby, may be taken as representative of good English practice.
Their speed must obviously depend greatly on topographical conditions.
The cost of intra-urban railways depends not only on the type of construction, but more especially upon local conditions, such as the nature of the soil, the presence of subsurface structures, like sewers, water and gas mains, electric conduits, &c.; the necessity of permanent underpinning or temporary supporting of house foundations, the cost of acquiring land passed under or over when street lines are not followed, and, in the case of elevated railways, the cost of acquiring easements of light, air and access, which the courts have held are vested in the abutting property.
As a general classification the commissioners have divided the schemes that have come before them into three classes: (A) those which like ordinary railways take their own line across country; (B) those in connexion with which it is proposed to use the public roads conjointly with the ordinary road traffic; and (Neutral) which includes inclined railways worked with a rope, and lines which possess the conditions of A and B in about equal porportions.
They expressed the opinion that an improvement could be effected enabling the construction of many much-needed lines by an amendment of some of the provisions of the Light Railways Act, and by a reconsideration of the conditions under which financial or other assistance should be granted to such lines by the state and by local authorities.
The so-called light railways in the United States and the British colonies have been made under the conditions peculiar to new countries.
In Italy many railways which otherwise fulfil the conditions of a light railway are constructed with a gauge of 4 ft.
They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.
These conditions, as well as the degree of control over the construction and working of the lines, are left to the regulation of the provincial governments.
Similarly, the same authorities decide for themselves the conditions under which the public roads may be used, and the precautions for public safety, all subject to the confirmation of the imperial government.
Most spiritualists know that much fraud in connexion with them has been discovered - frequently by spiritualists themselves - and that the conditions favourable to obtaining them are often such as favour fraud.
Joseph Maxwell, of Bordeaux, has published accounts 8 of raps and movements of objects without contact, witnessed with private and other mediums, which he appears to have observed with care, though he does not describe the conditions sufficiently for others to form any independent judgment about them.
But when the nomadic clans of Israel came to occupy the settled abodes of the agricultural Canaanites who had a stake in the soil which they cultivated, these conditions evidently reacted on their religion.
Now when the Hebrews succeeded to these agricultural conditions and acquired possession of the Canaanite abodes, they naturally fell into the same cycle of religious ideas and tradition.
But the new conditions created by the return of the exiles and the germinating influence of Ezekiel's ideas developed a process of new legislative construction.
There were a number of important contributory conditions (enumerated in Harnack's Mission and Ausbreitung des Christentums) which Gibbon did not take into account.
The " black mouse " or Carson field mouse (Microtus montanus) is found throughout Nevada, as well as in Utah, north-eastern California, and eastern Oregon; it multiplies rapidly under favourable conditions, and at times causes serious injury to crops.
That conditions are favourable to the animal industry is shown by the fact that in 1897 the valleys of northern Nevada were so overrun with wild horses, to the detriment of the grazing grounds for cattle, that the legislature authorized the killing of such animals.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
confirmed the Sicilian agreement on conditions even more favourable to Charles, who sailed in 1265, and conferred on the expedition all the privileges of a crusade.
Experiments in protection on a larger scale, and under more ordinary conditions, have been carried out with equal success by Professor Celli and other Italian authorities.
Similarly, the subsidence of malaria during cold weather and its seasonal prevalence find an adequate explanation in the conditions governing insect life.
This immunity is apparently not due to the absence of favourable conditions, but rather to the presence of some inimical factor which prevents the development of the parasite.
In 1877 he was offered the post of vice-chancellor with a seat in the Prus s ian ministry, but refused it because Bismarck or the king would not agree to his conditions.
Acting on the queen's explicit instructions, Essex, after some ill-managed operations, had a meeting with Tyrone at a ford on the Lagan on th 7th of September 1599, when a truce was arranged; but Elizabeth was displeased by the favourable conditions allowed to the O'Neill and by Essex's treatment of him as an equal.
On his own initiative he conducted exhaustive inquiries into the conditions of the Sicilian peasants and of the Tuscan metayers, and in 1877 published in co-operation with Signor Leopoldo Franchetti a masterly work on Sicily (La Sicilia, Florence, 1877).
Whilst this principle is undoubtedly applicable to the great majority of chemical actions under ordinary conditions, it is subject to numerous exceptions, and cannot therefore be taken (as its authors originally intended) as a secure basis for theoretical reasoning on the connexion between thermal effect and chemical affinity.
The existence of reactions which are reversible on slight alteration of conditions at once invalidates the principle, for if the action proceeding in one direction evolves heat, it must absorb heat when proceeding in the reverse direction.
If we consider now the transformation of one system of chemical substances into another system under specified conditions, we shall find that in general the intrinsic energy of the second system is different from the intrinsic energy of the first.
Since the intrinsic energy of a substance varies with the conditions under which the substance exists, it is necessary, before proceeding to the practical application of any of the laws mentioned above, accurately to specify the conditions of the initial and final systems, or at least to secure that they shall not vary in the operations considered.
expresses that under certain conditions the intrinsic energy of hydriodic acid is greater than the intrinsic energy of its component elements by 12200 cal., i.e.
This being the case, we are at liberty to make the assumption that the intrinsic energy of each element (under specified conditions) is zero, without thereby introducing any risk of self-contradiction in thermochemical calculations.
In time, notwithstanding a certain inherent individualism and impatience of control, veritable despotisms arose in the Semitic world, although such organizations were invariably liable to sudden collapse as the old forms of life broke down with changing conditions.'
Taanach), together with the contemporary archaeological evidence (from Lachish, Gezer, Megiddo, Jericho, &c.), represent advanced conditions of life and culture, the precise chronological limits of which cannot be determined with certainty.
The historical traditions are to be supplemented by the great body of prophetic, legal and poetic literature which reveal contemporary conditions in various internal literary, theological or sociological features.
3 Scientific biblical historical study, nevertheless, is still in a relatively backward condition; and although the labours of scholars since Ewald constitute a distinct epoch, the trend of research points to the recognition of the fact that the purely subjective literary material requires a more historical treatment in the light of our increasing knowledge of external and internal conditions in the old Oriental world.
Without sufficient external and independent evidence wherewith to interpret in the light of history the internal features of the intricate narratives, any reconstruction would naturally be hazardous, and all attempts must invariably be considered in the light of the biblical evidence itself, the date of the Israelite exodus, and the external conditions.
The discovery of the inscription of a later king of Moab (q.v.) has proved that the east-Jordanic tribes were no uncivilized or barbaric folk; material wealth, a considerable religious and political organization, and the cultivation of letters (as exemplified in the style of the inscription) portray conditions which allow us to form some conception of life in Israel itself.
5 The defeat of Ben-hadad by the king of 3 It is possible that Hadad-nirari's inscription refers to conditions in the latter part of his reign (812-783 B.C.), when Judah apparently was no longer independent and when Jeroboam II.
The prophets taught that the national existence of the people was bound up with religious and social conditions; they were in a sense the politicians of the age, and to regard them simply as foretellers of the future is to limit their sphere unduly.
Their writings are to be understood in the light of their age and of the conditions which gave birth to them.
If the impression left upon current thought can be estimated from certain of the utterances of the court-prophet Isaiah and the Judaean countryman Micah, the light which these throw upon internal conditions must also be used to gauge the real extent of the religious changes ascribed to Hezekiah.
Internal Conditions and the Exile.
The down-trodden peasants were left in peace to divide the land among them, and new conditions arose as they took over the ownerless estates.
But the old continuity was not entirely broken; there was a return to earlier conditions, and life moved more freely in its wonted channels.
In view of subsequent events it would be difficult to find a more interesting subject of inquiry than the internal religious and sociological conditions in Samaria at this age.
In Elephantine, as in Nippur, the legal usages show that similar elements of Babylonio-Assyrian culture prevailed, and the evidence from two such widely separated fields is instructive for conditions in Palestine itself.3 20.
Unfortunately the internal conditions in the 6th century B.C. can be only indirectly estimated (§ 18), and the political position must remain for the present quite uncertain.
The differences between the form of the written history and the conditions which prevailed have impressed themselves variously upon modern writers, and efforts have been made to recover from the Old Testament earlier forms more in accordance with the external evidence.
Although the light thrown upon ancient conditions of life and thought has destroyed much that sometimes seems vital for the Old Testament, it has brought into relief a more permanent and indisputable appreciation of its significance, and it is gradually dispelling that pseudo-scientific literalism which would fetter the greatest of ancient Oriental writings with an insistence upon the verity of historical facts.
In subsequent negotiations he accepted the disarmament of the besieged and a tribute as conditions of peace, and in response to their entreaty left Jerusalem without a garrison.
After six years of civil war he appealed to them to, state the conditions under which they would lay aside their hostility.
Curiously enough in Italy - and particularly in Rome - the external conditions were better.
The funeral rites are similar, and the religious representations show an identical form of worship. At the same time the local traditions and conditions differentiate the continental from the insular branch.
But in every case these artistic efforts were followed at short intervals by gross relapses into barbarism which reflect the anarchy of the political conditions.
Zaimis called the attention of the powers to the fact that these conditions had been fulfilled, and on the 11th of May the powers announced to the high commissioner their intention of beginning the evacuation at once and completing it within a year.
There are undrained, swampy districts in Campeche, in the vicinity of the Terminos Lagoon, where malarial diseases are prevalent, and the same conditions prevail along the coast where mangrove swamps are found.
The public school system, established in 1846, never was universal, because of special legislation for various counties; public education was retarded during the Civil War and the Reconstruction period (when immense sums appropriated for schools were grossly mismanaged), but conditions gradually improved after 1875, especially through the concentration of schools.
Thompson, From the Cotton Field to the Cotton Mill, a Study of the Industrial Transition in North Carolina (New York, 1906), contains some interesting observations on the changes in social conditions resulting from the growth of the cotton-manufacturing industry.
He enters at length into the conditions of ecstasy and the yearnings that precede it.
boundaries, from following lines on which the continuity of the land is interrupted, often necessarily indicate important differences in the conditions of adjoining countries, and of their political and physical relations, yet variations of the elevation of the surface above the sea-level frequently produce effects not less marked.
Hence the study of the mountain ranges of a continent is, for a proper apprehension of its physical conditions and characteristics, as essential as the examination of its extent and position in relation to the equator and poles, and the configuration of its coasts.
From such causes the physical conditions of a large part of Asia, and the history of its population, have been very greatly influenced by the occurrence of the mass of mountain above de Iiima- scribed, which includes the Himalaya and the whole tayan elevated area having true physical connexion with that boundary.
The mountain mass, moreover, is not less important in causing a complete separation between the atmospheric conditions on its opposite flanks, by reason of the extent to which it penetrates that stratum of the atmosphere which is in contact with the earth's surface and is effective in determining climate.
The rainfall, though not heavy, is sufficient to maintain such vegetation as is compatible with the conditions of temperature, and the surface is often swampy or peaty.
interests, the material progress of the Eastern world has appeared to remain stationary, yet large accessions to geographical knowledge have at least been made, and in some instances a deeper knowledge of the surface of the country and modern conditions of life has led to the straightening of many crooked paths in history, and a better appreciation of the slow processes of advancing civilization.
Under such conditions of the soil, the land, nevertheless, produces crops of wheat and other grain from fifteen to forty fold.
Its animals and plants have a special character suited to the peculiar climatal conditions, more closely allied to those of the adjacent northern Siberian tract than of the other bordering regions.
The foregoing brief review of the principal territorial divisions according to which the forms of life are distributed in Asia, indicates how close is the dependence of this distribution on climatic conditions, and this will be made more apparent by a somewhat fuller account of the main features of the flora and fauna.
The general physiognomy of the Indian flora is mainly determined by the conditions of humidity of climate.
The walking or climbing fishes, which are peculiar to south-eastern Asia and Africa, are organized so as to be able to breathe when out of the water, and they are thus fitted to exist under conditions which would be fatal to other fishes, being suited to live in the regions of periodical drought and rain in which they are found.
In general terms they extend, with modifications of character probably due to admixture with other types and to varying conditions of life, over the whole of northern Asia as far south as the plains bordering the Caspian Sea, including Tibet and China, and also over the IndoMalayan peninsula and Archipelago, excepting Papua and some of the more eastern islands.
larity of climate and other conditions throughout the northern half of Asia which they occupy.
forced upon them by the physical conditions of the region they inhabit.
The few cases where the government is not monarchical, as Arabia, seem to represent the persistence of every ancient conditions.
The main problem is whether the account of David's rule has been exaggerated, or whether the attempt has been made to throw back to the time of the first king of all Israel later political conditions.
Such principles are not derived from sensation, but are "suggested" on occasion of sensation, in such a way as to constitute the necessary conditions of our having perceptive experience at all.
It has been indeed largely upon the conditions characterizing the Chaetopoda that the conception of the coelom in the Coelomocoela has been based.
The condition is interesting as a persistence of the conditions obtaining in the provisional nephridia of e.g.
The logical conclusion appears to be that the Charrette poem is a "Tendenz-Schrift," composed under certain special conditions, in response to a special demand.
According to Louis Pasteur, about oth of the sugar transformed under ordinary conditions in the fermentation of grape juice and similar saccharine liquids into alcohol and other products becomes converted into glycerin.
In 1317 John de Lilleburn, who was holding the castle of Knaresburgh for Thomas duke of Lancaster against the king, surrendered under conditions to William de Ros of Hamelak, but before leaving the castle managed to destroy all the records of the liberties and privileges of the town which were kept in the castle.
The conditions of appointment of the emirs are fully laid down in the terms accepted at Sokoto on the close of the Sokoto-Kano campaign of 1903.
When the preliminaries of peace came to be discussed at Versailles in February 1871, the cession of Alsace, together with what is called German Lorraine, was one of the earliest conditions laid down by Bismarck and accepted by Thiers.
The statutes of the Order were altered to suit the new conditions, and a whole system of administration arose.