The condenser commonly used is an old retort.
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
These two circuits are so adjusted that the closed oscillation circuit, consisting of the condenser, primary coil 1 See German Patent of F.
Also another condenser was added in parallel with the sensitive tube.
Owing to the fact that at temperatures between its melting and boiling point zinc has a strong affinity for iron, it is often contaminated by the scraper while being drawn from the condenser, as is shown by the fact that the scraper wears away rapidly.
of a condenser produces an electric spark which under proper conditions creates an effect propagated out into space as an electric wave.
The antenna wire, connected to one spark ball of the induction coil, must be considered to form with the earth, connected to the other spark ball, a condenser.
In any case the antenna serves as one surface of a condenser, the other surface of which is the earth.
In this case a closed condenser circuit is formed with a battery of Leyden jars, an inductance coil and a spark gap, and oscillations are excited in it by discharges created across the spark gap by an induction coil or transformer.
In many cases additional condensers or inductance coils are inserted in various places so that the arrangement is somewhat disguised, but by far the larger part of the electric wave wireless telegraphy in 1907 was effected by transmitters having antennae either inductively or directly coupled to a closed condenser circuit containing a spark gap.
If the direct coupling is adopted then the lower end of the antenna is connected directly to the condenser circuit.
jars or of Leyden panes immersed in oil or some form of air condenser, and the inductance coil or primary circuit of the oscillation transformer consists of a few turns of highly insulated wire wound on a frame and immersed in oil.
The transformer T has its secondary or high-pressure terminals connected to spark balls S1, which are also connected by a circuit consisting of a large glass plate condenser C, and the primary circuit of an air-core transformer called an oscillation transformer.
The secondary circuit of this last is either connected between an aerial A and the earth E, or it may be again in turn connected to a second pair of spark balls and these again to a second condenser oscillation transformer and the aerial A.
In order to produce electric oscillations in the system, the first or alternating current transformer must charge the condenser connected to its secondary terminals, but must not produce a permanent electric arc between the balls.
Various devices have been suggested for extinguishing the arc and yet allowing the condenser oscillatory discharge to take place.
The impedance of the primary or alternator circuit is so adjusted that when both the chokers are in circuit the current flowing is not sufficient to charge the condensers; but when one choker is short-circuited the impedance is reduced so that the condenser is charged, but the alternating arc is not formed.
adjust the frequency so that it has the value of the normal time period of the circuit formed of the condenser and transformer secondary circuit, and thus it is possible to obtain condenser oscillatory discharges free from any admixture with alternating current arc. In this manner the condenser discharge can be started or stopped at pleasure, and long and short discharges made in accordance with the signals of the Morse FIG.
In the case of transmitters constructed as above described, in which the effective agent in producing the electric waves radiated is the sudden discharge of a condenser, it should be noticed that what is really sent out is a train of damped or decadent electric waves.
This last circuit has a natural frequency of its own which is numerically measured by I/27r-!(CL), where C is the capacity of the condenser and L is the inductance of the circuit.
- A, antenna; P S, jigger or oscillation transformer; C, condenser; 0, Fleming oscillation valve; B, working battery; T, telephone; R, rheostat; E, earth-plate.
His transmitter consists of a nearly closed oscillating circuit comprising a condenser or battery of Leyden jars, a spark gap, and the primary coil of an oscillation transformer consisting of one turn of thick wire wound on a wooden frame.
These two circuits are syntonized so that the closed or condenser circuit and the open or antenna circuit are adjusted to have, when separate, the same natural electrical time of vibration.
The secondary circuit of this transformer is cut in the middle and has a condenser inserted in it, and its ends are connected to the sensitive metallic filings tube or coherer as shown in fig.
To the outer end of this lateral wire a condenser was attached and the coherer inserted between the condenser and the earth.
When the methods for effecting this had been worked out practically it finally led to the inventions of Slaby, Braun and others being united into a system called the Telefunken system, which, as regards the transmitter, consisted in forming a closed oscillation circuit comprising a condenser, spark gap and inductance which at one point was attached either directly or through a condenser to the earth or to an equivalent balancing capacity, and at some other point to a suitably tuned antenna.
In the same way the arrangements finally elaborated by Lodge and Muirhead consisted of a direct coupled antenna and nearly closed condenser circuit, and a similar receiving circuit containing as a detector the steel wheel revolving on oily mercury which actuated a siphon recorder writing signals on paper tape.
All of them make use of Marconi's antenna in some form both at the transmitting and at the receiving end, all of them make use of an earth connexion, or its equivalent in the form of a balancing capacity or large surface having capacity with respect to the earth, which merely means that they insert a condenser of large capacity in the earth connexion.
with wireless telegraph transmitters, in which the oscillatory discharge of a condenser is used to create oscillations in an antenna, labours under the disadvantage that the time occupied by the oscillations is a very small fraction of the total time of actuation.
Thus, for instance, when using an induction coil or transformer to charge a condenser, it is not generally convenient to make more than 50 discharges per second, but each of these may create a train of oscillations consisting of, say, 20 to 50 waves.
The condenser method of making oscillations is analogous to the production of air vibrations by twanging a harp string at short intervals.
Across the arc is a transverse or radial magnetic field, and the electrodes are connected by an oscillatory circuit consisting of a condenser and inductance.
The capacity of the condenser is then altered until the maximum current, as indicated by a hot wire ammeter, is produced in the circuit.
When this is the case the amplitude of the potential difference of the surfaces of the tubular condenser becomes a maximum, and this is indicated by connecting a vacuum tube filled with neon to the surfaces of the condenser.
Thomson (Lord Kelvin) observed in 1863 3 that when a condenser is charged or discharged, a sharp click is heard, and a similar observation was made by Cromwell F.
Varley, who proposed to make use of it in a telegraphic receiving instrument.4 In Dolbear's instrument one plate of a condenser was a flexible diaphragm, connected with the telephone line in such a way that the varying electric potential produced by the action of the transmitting telephone caused an increased or diminished charge in the condenser.
This alteration of charge caused a corresponding change in the mutual attraction of the plates of the condenser; hence the flexible plate was made to copy the vibrations of the diaphragm of the transmitter.
At the subscriber's station when the receiver is on the hook switch the circuit is through the call-bell and a condenser.
In one arrangement, now in extensive use, each telephone set is fitted with a relay of high inductance which is bridged across the circuit in series with a condenser.
The top of the still had a removable head, connected with a condenser consisting of a copper worm in a barrel of water.
The stills were formerly completely bricked in, so that the vapours should be kept fully heated until they escaped to the condenser, but since the introduction of the " cracking process," the upper part has usually been left exposed to the air.
The process patented by Dewar and Redwood in 1889 consists in the use of a suitable still and condenser in free communication with each other - i.e.
without any valve between them - the space in the still and condenser not occupied by liquid being charged with air, carbon dioxide or other gas, under the required pressure, and the condenser being provided with a regulated outlet for condensed liquid.
An objectionable feature of the system of allowing the vapour to escape from the still to the condenser through a loaded valve, viz: the irregularity of the distillation, is thus removed, and the benefits of regular vaporization and condensation under high pressure are obtained.
The steam operates by carrying the vapours away to the condenser as fast as they are generated, the injury to the products resulting from their remaining in contact with the highly-heated surface of the still being thus prevented.
The vapours from the still pass through a condenser into a receiver, which is in communication with the exhauster.
In regard to methods and apparatus, mention should be made of his improvements in the technique of organic analysis, his plan for determining the natural alkaloids and for ascertaining the molecular weights of organic bases b y means of their chloroplatinates, his process for determining the quantity of urea in a solution - the first step towards the introduction of precise chemical methods into practical medicine - and his invention of the simple form of condenser known in every laboratory.
The apparatus consists of three parts: - the "retort" or "still," in which the substance is heated; the "condenser," in which the vapours are condensed; and the "receiver," in which the condensed vapours are collected.
In modern times the laboratory practice of distillation was greatly facilitated by the introduction of the condenser named after Justus von Liebig; A.
Frankland introduced the "reflux condenser," i.e.
a condenser so placed that the condensed vapours return to the distilling flask, a device permitting the continued boiling of a substance with little loss; W.
The neck of the retort, or side tube of the flask, is connected to the condenser c by an ordinary or rubber cork, according to the nature of the substance distilled; ordinary corks soaked in paraffin wax are very effective when ordinary or rubber corks cannot be used.
Sometimes an "adapter" is used; this is simply a tapering tube, the side tube being corked into the wider end, and the condenser on to the narrower end.
For less volatile liquids the Liebig condenser is most frequently used.
Of other common types of condenser, we may notice the "spiral" or "worm" type, which consists of a glass, copper or tin worm enclosed in a vessel in which water circulates; and the ball condenser, which consists of two concentric spheres, the vapour passing through the inner sphere and water circulating in the space between this and the outer (in another form the vapour circulates in a shell, on the outside and inside of which water circulates).
Practically any vessel may serve as a receiver - test tube, flask, beaker, &c. If noxious vapours come over, it is necessary to have an air-tight connexion between the condenser and receiver, and to pro vide the latter with an outlet tube leading to an absorption column or other contrivance in which the vapours are taken up. If the substances operated upon decompose when heated in air, as, for example, the zinc alkyls which inflame, the air within the apparatus is replaced by some inert gas, e.g.
The "receiver" must be connected on the one side to the condenser, and on the other to the exhaust pump. A safety vessel and a manometer are generally interposed between the pump and receiver.
This vessel has two tubulures: through one the end of the condenser projects so as to be over one of the receiving tubes; the other leads to the pump. By rotating the disk the tubes may be successively brought under the end of the condenser.
As an auxiliary to air cooling the stack may be cooled by a slow stream of water trickling down the outside of the pipes, or, in certain cases, cold water may be injected into the condenser in the form of a spray, w here it meets the ascending vapours.
A common type of condenser consists of a copper worm placed in a water bath; but more generally straight tubes of copper or cast iron which cross and recross a rectangular tank are employed, since this form is more readily repaired and cleansed.
In cases where the condenser is likely to become plugged there is a pipe by means of which live steam can be injected into the condenser.
The supply of water to the condenser is regulated according to the volatility of the condensate.
Above this "separator" is a reflux condenser, termed the "cooler," maintained at the correct temperature so that only the more volatile component passes to the receiver.
The still is usually fed continuously by the heated water from the condenser.
The modern distilling plant consists of two main parts termed the evaporator and condenser; in addition there must be a boiler (sometimes steam is run off the main boilers, but this practice has several disadvantages), pumps for circulating cold water in the condenser and for supplying salt water to the evaporator, and a filter through which the aerated water passes.
The water vaporizes and is led from the dome of the evaporator to the head of the condenser.
The condenser consists of a vertical cylinder having manifolds at the head and foot and through which a number of tubes pass.
In the Pape-Henneberg condenser, which has been adopted in the German navy, they are oval in section and tend to become circular under the pressure of the steam; this alteration in shape makes the tubes self-scaling.
In the Quiggins condenser, which has been widely adopted, e.g.
In this plant the aeration is conducted by blowing in air at the base of the condenser.
Hence the name condenser.
In the absolute determination of capacity we have to measure the ratio of the charge of a condenser to its plate potential difference.
One of the best methods for doing this is to charge the Ab l condenser by the known voltage of a battery, and then d e t erdischarge it through a galvanometer and repeat this minations.
If a condenser of capacity C is charged to potential V, and discharged n times per second through a galvanometer, this series of intermittent discharges is equivalent to a current nCV.
The metal slips are so placed that, as the disk revolves, the middle brush, connected to one terminal of the condenser C, is alternately put in conductive connexion with first one and then the other outside brush, which are joined respectively to the battery B and galvanometer G terminals.
If one condenser is charged, and then joined in parallel with another uncharged condenser, the charge is divided between them in the ratio of their capacities.
units made directly without reference to any other condenser.
A simple method for condenser comparison is to charge the two condensers to the same voltage by a battery and then discharge them successively through a ballistic galvanometer and observe the respective " throws " or deflections of the coil or needle.
He constructed two equal condensers, each consisting of a metal ball enclosed in a hollow metal sphere, and he provided also certain hemispherical shells of shellac, sulphur, glass, resin, &c., which he could so place in one condenser between the ball and enclosing sphere that it formed a condenser with solid dielectric. He then determined the ratio of the capacities of the two condensers, one with air and the other with the solid dielectric. This gave the dielectric constant K of the material.
p. 299-this paper describes the cone condenser and methods used; " Further Observations on the Dielectric Constants of Frozen Electrolytes at and above the Temperature of Liquid Air," id.
If a charged condenser is suddenly discharged and then insulated, the reappearance of a potential difference between its coatings is analogous to the reappearance of a torque In the case of a glass fibre which has been twisted, released suddenly, and then gripped again at the ends.
in diameter, are introduced into an iron vessel provided with an iron tube that leads into a condenser containing water.
The vaporizing bulb A has fused about it a jacket B, provided with a condenser c. Two side tubes are fused on to the neck of A: the lower one leads to a mercury manometer M, and to the air by means of a cock C; the upper tube is provided with a rubber stopper through which a glass rod passes - this rod serves FIG.
The work of the winding engine, being essentially of an intermittent character, can only be done with condensation when a central condenser keeping a constant vacuum is used, and even with this the rush of steam during winding may be a cause of disturbance.
This difficulty may be overcome by using Rateau's arrangement of a low-pressure turbine between the engine and the condenser.
A new form of condenser was tested on the small engine employed, and the results it yielded formed the starting-point of a series of investigations which were aided by a special grant from the Royal Society, and were described in an elaborate memoir presented to it on the 13th of December 1860.
In 1853 he described the employment of the condenser as a means for increasing the efficiency of the inductioncoil.
Trans., 1869, p. 173) by decomposing the double fluoride of hydrogen and potassium, at a red heat in a platinum retort fitted with a platinum condenser surrounded by a freezing mixture, was having a platinum receiver luted on.
The condenser is in this case 1 Wied.
(c) Under moderate pressures the lines of hydrogen may be widened by powerful sparks taken from a condenser.
(d) If a spark be taken from an electric condenser through air, both the lines of oxygen and nitrogen are wide compared with what they would be at low pressures.
Hemsalech have observed that the insertion of a self-induction in a condenser discharge almost entirely obliterates the air lines, and the same effect is produced by diminishing the spark gap sufficiently.
thick, made no difference in the red glow so long as the connexions were good nd the condenser was quiet.
As soon as a spark-gap was introduced, or the condenser began to emit the humming sound peculiar to it, the beautiful blue glow so characteristic of argon immediately appeared.
Various modifications have been made in the form of the condensing apparatus, the Guttmann condenser (Jour.
The temperature of the condenser is so regulated as to bring about the condensation of the nitric acid only, which runs out at the bottom of the pipe, whilst any uncondensed steam, nitrogen peroxide and other impurities pass into a Lunge tower, where they meet a descending stream of water and are condensed, giving rise to an impure acid.
Nicholson described also another apparatus, the "spinning condenser," which worked on the same principle.
LEYDEN JAR, or Condenser, an electrical appliance consisting in one form of a thin glass jar partly coated inside and outside with tin foil, or in another of a number of glass plates similarly coated.
When the two metal surfaces are connected for a short time with the terminals of some source of electromotive force, such as an electric machine, an induction coil or a voltaic battery, electric energy is stored up in the condenser in the form of electric strain in the glass, and can be recovered again in the form of an electric discharge.
In the former method, now commonly known as charging in cascade, the jars are insulated and the outside coating of one jar is connected to the inside coating of the next and so on for a whole series, the inside coating of the first jar and the outside coating of the last jar being the terminals of the condenser.
To Franklin also we owe the important knowledge that the electric charge resides really in the glass and not in the metal coatings, and that when a condenser has been charged the metallic coatings can be exchanged for fresh ones and yet the electric charge of the condenser remains.
All the lugs on one side are connected together, and so also are all the lugs on the other side, and the two sets of tin foils separated by sheets of mica constitute the two metallic surfaces of the Leyden jar condenser.
All the tin foils on one side of the glass plates are connected together and all the tin foils on the opposite sides, so as to construct a condenser of any required capacity.
For the purpose of a standard condenser a number of concentric metal tubes may be arranged on an insulating stand, alternate tubes being connected together.
One coating of the condenser is formed by one set of tubes and the other by the other set, the air between being the dielectric. Paraffin oil or any liquid dielectric of constant inductivity may replace the air.
Volta added the condenser (Phil.
If the electrified body is touched against the upper plate whilst at the same time the lower plate is put to earth, the condenser formed of the two plates and the film of air or varnish becomes charged with positive electricity on the one plate and negative on the other.
On insulating the lower plate and raising the upper plate by the glass handle, the capacity of the condenser formed by the plates is vastly decreased, but since the charge on the lower plate including the gold leaves attached to it remains the same, as the capacity of the system is reduced the potential is raised and therefore the gold leaves diverge widely.
condenser plate P attached to the outer case, then this substance bestows conductivity on the air between the plates P and P', and the charge of the electroscope begins to leak away.
In 1745 the important invention of the Leyden jar or condenser was made by E.
Such an arrangement constitutes in effect a condenser, and when the two plates respectively are connected to the secondary terminals of an induction coil in operation, the plates are rapidly and alternately charged, and discharged across the spark gap with electrical oscillations (see Electrokinetics).
Calcium phosphate, mixed with sand and carbon, is fed into an electric furnace, provided with a closely fitting cover with an outlet leading to a condenser.
As phosphorus boils at 2 9 0°C. (554° F.), it is produced in the form of vapour, which, mingled with carbon monoxide, passes to the condenser, where it is condensed.
It may be conveniently prepared by passing a rapid current of air over burning phosphorus contained in a combustion tube, and condensing the product in a metal condenser, from which it may be removed by heating the condenser to 50 0 -60° (Thorpe and Tutton, Jour.
The great Andean barrier which crosses the republic from the south to north acts as a condenser to the prevailing easterly winds from the Atlantic, and causes a very heavy rainfall on their eastern slopes and over the forested Amazon plain.
The main difficulty which the condenser ought to overcome and upon which its efficiency should depend is the removal of naphthalene; this compound, which is present in the gas, condenses on cooling to a solid which crystallizes out in the form of white flakes, and the trouble caused by pipe stoppages in the works as well as in the district supplied is very considerable.
The condenser, by effecting the condensation of water vapour, also brings about the deposition of solid naphthalene, apart from that which naturally condenses owing to reduction of temperature.
In water-cooled condensers it is usual to arrange that the water passes through a large number of small pipes contained in a larger one through which the gas flows, and as it constantly happened that condenser pipes became choked by naphthalene, the so-called reversible condenser, in which the stream of gas may be altered from time to time and the walls of the pipes cleaned by pumping tar over them, is a decided advance.
In all microscopes the rays are limited, not in the eyepiece, but in the objective, or before the objective when using a condenser.
To ensure the telecentric transmission, the diaphragm in the back focus of the objective may be replaced by a diaphragm in the front focal plane of the condenser, supposing that uniformly illuminated objects are being dealt with; for in this case all the principal rays in the object-space are transmitted parallel to the axis.
This is effected by a collective lens; it may be compared with the second part of the condenser system of a projecting lantern.
With very powerful objectives these methods are insufficient; and a condenser is fitted below the stage plate.
As a rule an iris diaphragm, which can be moved sideways, is now fitted below this condenser; below is the mirror which can be moved in all directions.
The Abbe apparatus consists of a condenser, movable iris diaphragm, and mirror (fig.
- Abbe Illuminating Apparatus with Ordinary Condenser (Zeiss).
The iris diaphragm can be regulated by the lever p; it can also be turned to one side round the pivot z, so that the condenser k can be removed or changed.
Hence a condenser, for lighting with very oblique cones, must have about the same aperture as the objective, and therefore be of very wide aperture; they therefore closely resemble microscope objectives in construction.
For exceptionally accurate work microscope objectives are sometimes used as condenser systems. When using immersion objectives, an immersion condenser must also be used if rays of extreme obliquity are wanted, for, in consequence of the total reflections, rays can only come from the upper plane surface of the condenser, which have not a larger inclination to the axis than about 41°, varying according to the refractive index of the glass.
In order to let highly inclined rays pass out from the condenser, some immersion liquid must be placed between the upper surface of the condenser and the object slide.
In dark field illumination care has to be taken that no direct rays reach the objective, and hence a good dark field illumination can be produced if the condenser system has a larger aperture than the objective.
45, a more powerful system D is used for a condenser, which has a blackened section on the back of the front lens of such a size that no light can enter the objective A.
This diaphragm is sometimes fixed to a handle piercing the condenser, and which can be moved up and down, so that the aperture of the oblique entering cones of rays can be altered.
Another form of the paraboloid condenser, also due to Wenham, has a plane surface on the upper side.
Some immersion fluid must then be placed between the stage plate and the condenser in order to allow all the rays to pass out; otherwise only those rays would be able to pass out which are close to the axis of the condenser in the inside of the condenser, and are smaller than the limiting angle of the total reflection.
(Objective D can also be used as a condenser (Zeiss).) Th.
A recent condenser of very high illuminating power is due to H.
- Siedentopf's Paraboloid Condenser.
A supplementary spherical surface c is necessary for the completion of the condenser.
The object can be held firmly on the stage plate B by cramps C. On the lower side of the stage plate are the condenser and the diaphragms, and the illuminating mirror J is held by a rod D fixed to the stage plate.
To examine crystals, especially in converging light, a condenser, movable in the optic axis, is needed above the polarizer.
This change can often be brought about by taking away or adding parts of the condenser.
55, is obtained by means of a stop of the form shown in the lower figure and placed under the condenser in the plane The entrance pupil is in this way reduced separate fields, which nevertheless contain rays of is necessary that the outside edge of the diaphragm coincides with the edge of the entrance pupil.
K 1 K 2 = condenser.
The distillation is generally performed in a still with an inlet for steam and an outlet to carry the vapours laden with essential oils into a condenser, where the water and oil vapours are condensed.
There are three principal parts, a refrigerator or evaporator, a compression pump, and a condenser.
The refrigerator, which, Refrigerator Condenser T, Compressor consists of a coil or series of coils, is connected to the suction side of the pump, and the delivery from the pump is connected to the condenser, which is generally of somewhat similar construction to the refrigerator.
The condenser and refrigerator are connected by a pipe in which is a valve named the regulator.
Outside the refrigerator coils is the air, brine or other substance to be cooled, and outside the condenser is the cooling medium, which, as previously stated, is generally water.
The refrigerating liquid (ether, sulphur dioxide, anhydrous ammonia, or carbonic acid) passes from the bottom of the condenser through the regulating valve into the refrigerator in a continuous stream.
The vapours thus generated are drawn into the pump, compressed, and discharged into the condenser at the temperature T2, which is somewhat above that of the cooling water.
A vapour compression machine does not, however, work precisely in the reversed Carnot cycle, inasmuch as the fall in temperature between the condenser and the refrigerator is not produced, nor is it attempted to be produced, by the adiabatic expansion of the agent, but results from the evaporation of a portion of the liquid itself.
In other words, the liquid-refrigerating agent enters the refrigerator at the condenser temperature and introduces heat which has to be taken up by the evaporating liquid before any useful refrigerating effect can be performed.
If r represents the latent heat of the vapour, and q 2 and q1 the amounts of heat contained in the liquid at the respective temperatures of T2 and T11 then the loss from the heat carried from the condenser into the refrigerator is shown by (q2-q1)/r and the useful refrigerating effect produced in the refrigerator is r-(q 2 -q i).
At higher condenser temperatures the results are even much more favourable to ammonia.
When the critical point is reached the value of r disappears altogether, and a carbonic-acid machine is then dependent for its refrigerating effect on the reduction in temperature produced by the internal work performed in expanding the gaseous carbonic acid from the condenser pressure to that in the refrigerator.
Liquid at the condenser temperature being introduced into the refrigerator through the regulating valve, a small portion evaporates and reduces the remaining liquid to the temperature T1.
Evaporation then continues at the constant temperature T, abstracting heat from the substance outside the refrigerator as shown by the line BC. The vapour is then compressed along the line CD to the temperature T2, when, by the action of the cooling water in the condenser, heat is abstracted at constant temperature and the vapour condensed along the line DA.
One end (generally the bottom) of the coils is connected to the liquid pipe from the condenser and the other end o to the suction of the compressor.
A Liquid from the condenser is ad s FIG.
mitted to the coils through an adjustable regulating valve, and by taking heat from the substance outside is evaporated, the vapour being continually drawn off by the compressor and discharged under increased pressure into the condenser.
The condenser is constructed of coils like the refrigerator, the cooling water being contained in a tank; frequently, however, a series of open coils is employed, the cooling water falling over the coils into a collecting tray below, and this form is perhaps the most convenient for ordinary use as it affords great facilities for inspection and painting.
The pressure in the condenser varies according to the temperature of the cooling water, and that in the refrigerator is dependent upon the temperature to which the outside substance is cooled.
at atmospheric pressure water will absorb about 760 times its own volume of ammonia vapour), and this produces an evaporation from the liquid in the vessel previously used as a condenser.
In the absorption machine the cooling water has to take up about twice as much heat as in the compression system, owing to the ammonia being twice liquefied - namely, once in the absorber and once in the condenser.
It is usual to pass the cooling water first through the condenser and then through the absorber.
This contact may be made to close the circuit of a suitable voltmeter, or to charge a condenser in connexion with it, and the reading of the voltmeter will therefore not be the average or effective voltage of the alternator, but the instantaneous value of the electromotive force corresponding to that instant during the phase, determined by the position of the rotating contact slip with reference to the poles of the alternator.
Three springs press against the cylinder and make contact for a short time during each revolution, so that a condenser is charged by the circuit at an assigned instant during the alternating current phase, and then subsequently connected to a voltmeter.
The oscillograph can be made to exhibit optically the form of the current curve in non-cyclical phenomena, such as the discharge of a condenser.
In this case the large vibrating mirror must be oscillated by a current from an alternator, on the shaft of which is a disk of nonconducting material with brass slips let into it and so arranged with contact brushes that in each period of the alternator a contact is made, charging say a condenser and discharging it through the oscillograph.
In this way an optical representation is obtained of the oscillatory discharge of the condenser.
(London, 1901), which contains a list of original papers on the oscillograph; Id., The Principles of Electric Wave Telegraphy (London, 1906), which gives illustrations of the use of the oscillograph and the Braun cathode ray tube in depicting condenser discharges; also, for the development of the oscillograph, A.
The figure below shows the condenser annulus (left) and the phase plate (right) from a more appropriate angle.
While DF and COL offer at least the same resolution, phase contrast limits the resolution due to the condenser annulus.
annulusu have a phase contrast condenser, the largest phase contrast annuli often make excellent patch stops for darkfield!
The condenser aperture controls the fraction of the beam which is allowed to hit the specimen.
apochromatic objectives can come in plan forms. aplanatic - a better corrected condenser than the commonest Abbe design.
cardioid condenser microphone.
Move refrigerators out from the wall and vacuum their condenser coils once a year (unless you have a no-clean condenser model ).
A refrigerated condenser may be used to condense the water vapor.
The circulating pump which cools the condenser is driven from the generator pulley system.
A very commonly used dry condenser has a numerical aperture (NA) of 0.9.
The others include the condenser, evaporator, and expansion device.
When you have a condenser with a rotating turret you can use this to alter the direction of the light.
Registering a cooling tower A form is available on request to notify the council of a cooling tower or evaporative condenser.
I chose to use the separate 0.3 NA lens that comes with the 1.40 NA aplanatic condenser.
Watt's patent for the separate condenser was taken out in 1769.
condenser mics, a power source is needed to maintain an electrical charge between the elements inside.
condenser iris wide open!
condenser iris diaphragm or the image of the light source.
condenser mic 's used to pick up the sound of the percussion.
Adjust the focus of the substage condenser for maximum brightness of the central field of view.
Using a special darkfield oil immersion condenser, finer detail could be revealed.
Figure 2. The aperture in a phase contrast plate is moved off-center in regards to the center of the sub-stage condenser.
The microphone used is a 3 terminal electret condenser microphone insert.
The column or tower should be combined with a top temperature control reflux condenser at its top.
This is a Zeiss phase condenser with the top cover removed for clarity.
Perhaps the easiest methods are to offset a partially closed condenser iris diaphragm or the image of the light source.
KÃ¶hler lighting systems have an iris or field diaphragm which controls the aperture of light going into the condenser.
Others are condenser dryers where the air is cooled, converted to water and collected in internal containers.
electret condenser microphone insert.
To center the condenser close down the iris diaphragm and remove the eyepiece.
Do not forget to set the condenser iris wide open!
The substage condenser has an iris diaphragm and filter carrier.
Open the substage iris diaphragm fully, since the condenser needs to be operating at maximum aperture.
There were 4 condenser mic 's used to pick up the sound of the percussion.
The phantom power is used to power condenser microphones.
reflux condenser at its top.
substage condenser for maximum brightness of the central field of view.
When one of the levers of K is depressed, the condenser C 1 and the cable, and the condenser C2 and the artificial cable, are simultaneously charged in series; but, if the capacity of C 1 bears the same proportion to the capacity of the cable as the capacity of C2 bears to the capacity of the artificial cable, and if the other adjustments are properly made, no charge will be communicated to C3.
In actual practice the receiving instrument is so sensitive that the difference of potential between the two coatings of the condenser C3 produced by the incoming signal is only a very small fraction of the potential of the battery B.
One end of the inductance coil is connected to the earth, and some other point on the closed condenser circuit to an antenna of appropriate length.
In creating powerful electric waves for communication over long distances it is necessary to employ an alternating current transformer (see Transformers) supplied with alternating currents from a low frequency alternator D driven by an engine to charge the condenser (fig.
On the other hand, if a closed oscillation circuit is constructed having capacity and considerable inductance, then oscillations can be set up in it by very small periodic electromotive forces provided these have a frequency exactly agreeing with that of the condenser circuit.
The Fleming closed circuit wave meter, called by him a cymometer, consists of a sliding tube condenser and a long helix of wire forming an inductance; these are connected together and to a copper bar in such a manner that by one movement of a handle the capacity of the tubular condenser is altered in the same proportion as the amount of the spiral inductance which is included in the circuit.
Sainte-Beuve's criticism is almost identical with Gibbon's own; but though he finds that " la lecture en est assez difficile et parfois obscure, la liaison des idees echappe souvent par trop de concision et par le desir qu'a eu le jeune auteur d'y faire entrer, d'y condenser la plupart de ses notes," he adds, y a, chemin faisant, des vues neuves et qui sentent l'historien."
3754 of 1813) describes the closed vacuum pan and the air pump with condenser for steam by injection, the use of a thermometer immersed in the solution in the pan, and a method of ascertaining the density of the solution with a proof stick, and by observations of the temperature at which, while fluid and not containing grain, it could be kept boiling under different pressures shown by a vacuum gauge.
By placing metal plates on either side of a larger sheet of dielectric or insulator we can construct a condenser of relatively large capacity.
Such a pair of concentric spheres constitute a condenser (see Leyden Jar), and it is obvious that by making R2 nearly equal to R 1, we may enormously increase the capacity of the inner sphere.
One form consists of a tuning-fork electrically maintained in vibration of known period, which closes an electric contact at every vibration and sets another electromagnet in operation, which reverses a switch and moves over one terminal of the condenser from a battery to a galvanometer contact.
If R I and R2 are the arms' resistances and C 1 and C2 the condenser capacities, then when the bridge is balanced we have R l: R2= C l: C2.
One large class of electrostatic voltmeters consists of a fixed metal plate or plates and a movable plate or plates, the two sets of plates forming a condenser (see Leyden Jar).
Benjamin Franklin and Bevis devised independently the form of condenser known as a Franklin or Leyden pane, which consists of a sheet of glass, partly coated on both sides with tin foil or silver leaf, a margin of glass all round being left to insulate the two tin foils from each other.
He was assisted to detect the small potential differences then in question by the use of a multiplying condenser or revolving doubler (see Electrical Machine).
Joined to the strip is a transverse wire sl is terminating at one end in a knob C, and at the other end in a condenser ??
greatest discoveries, namely, the effect of the dielectric or in- sulator upon the capacity of a condenser formed with it, in other words, made the discovery of specific inductive capacity (see Electrical Researches, p. 183).
As phosphorus boils at 2 9 0Ã‚°C. (554Ã‚° F.), it is produced in the form of vapour, which, mingled with carbon monoxide, passes to the condenser, where it is condensed.
It may be conveniently prepared by passing a rapid current of air over burning phosphorus contained in a combustion tube, and condensing the product in a metal condenser, from which it may be removed by heating the condenser to 50 0 -60Ã‚° (Thorpe and Tutton, Jour.
For exceptionally accurate work microscope objectives are sometimes used as condenser systems. When using immersion objectives, an immersion condenser must also be used if rays of extreme obliquity are wanted, for, in consequence of the total reflections, rays can only come from the upper plane surface of the condenser, which have not a larger inclination to the axis than about 41Ã‚°, varying according to the refractive index of the glass.
By means of vessels termed the analyser and the rectifier, the bulk of the water was condensed at a comparatively high temperature and run back to the generator, while the ammonia passed into a condenser, and there assumed the liquid form under the pressure produced by the heat in the generator and the cooling action of water circulating outside the condenser tubes.
An absorption apparatus as applied to the cooling of liquids consist s s of a generator containing coils to which steam is supplied at suitable pressure, an analyser, a rectifier, a condenser either of the submerged or open type, a refrigerator in which the nearly anhydrous ammonia obtained in the condenser is allowed to evaporate, an absorber through which the weak liquor from the generator continually flows and absorbs the anhydrous vapour produced in the refrigerator, and a pump for forcing the strong liquor produced in the absorber back through an economizer into the analyser where, meeting with steam from the generator, the ammonia gas is again driven off, the process being thus carried on continuously.
The vapor rises through the narrowing neck of the still and is guided downwards and through a water-cooled condenser.
Regularly clean the condenser coils and other areas of the refrigerator to ensure it is running properly.
Be sure that the refrigerator is far enough from the wall to allow the condenser coils to operate to their full potential.
These systems typically involve a condenser and compressor unit located on the outside of the home, which share the central air handling unit and ductwork used by the forced-air furnace.
A central air conditioner consists of a condenser, compressor and evaporator.
The condenser and compressor are outside the home and the evaporator is installed inside a forced-air furnace.
The gas flows back to the compressor, which pressurizes it and pushes it through the condenser coils on the outside of the home so the absorbed heat can dissipate.
Dryers and dryer vents need to be cleaned regularly, and refrigerators should be vacuumed in the condenser area at the bottom or rear of the refrigerator.
The Condenser, a moc-toe loafer featuring the classic moc-toe stitching and a cushy insole as well as a durable outsole for all-day strolling.
Pull out your refrigerator a few feet and check the condenser coil.
A cylinder condenser has its inner surface insulated and charged to a high positive or negative potential.
Hence he inferred that the amount of heat given up to the condenser of an engine when the engine is doing work must be less than when the same amount of steam is blown through the engine without doing any work.
23, representing the " differential " method, B is the sending battery, B 1 a resistance equal to that of the battery, R a rheostat and C an adjustable condenser.
When the key is released the condensers and cables at once begin to return to zero potential, and if the key is depressed and released several times in rapid succession the cable is divided into sections of varying potential, which travel rapidly towards the receiving end, and indicate their arrival there by producing corresponding fluctuations in the charge of the condenser C3.
The idea was that variations of the primary current would create electromotive force in the secondary circuit which would act through the air condenser formed by the two plates.
At the sending station one battery was to have its positive pole connected to the earth and its negative pole to an insulated condenser.
If, however, the antenna is inductively or directly coupled to a condenser circuit of large capacity then the amount of energy which can be stored up before discharge takes place is very much greater, and hence can be drawn upon to create prolonged or slightly damped trains of waves.
In later improvements the secondary circuit of this jigger was interrupted by a small condenser, and the terminals of the relay and local cell were connected to the plates of this condenser, whilst the sensitive tube was attached to the outer ends of the secondary circuit.
This condenser is charged electrically and then suddenly discharged and violent electrical oscillations are set up in it, that is to say, electricity rushes to and fro between the antenna and the earth.
Marconi 2 imparted practical utility to this idea by tuning the two circuits together, and the arrangement now employed is as follows: - A suitable condenser C, or battery of Leyden jars, has one coating connected to one spark ball and the other through a coil of one turn with the other spark ball of a discharger S.
an antenna of suitable capacity and inductance to a nearly closed electric circuit consisting of a condenser of large capacity, a spark gap and an inductance of low resistance.
Duddell discovered in 1900 that if a continuous current carbon arc had its carbon electrodes connected by a condenser in series with an inductance, then under certain conditions oscillations were excited in this condenser circuit which appeared to be continuous.
2 In Donitz's wave meter a condenser of variable capacity is associated with inductance coils of various sizes, and the wave meter is placed near the antenna so that its inductance coils have induced currents created in them.
Now if the values of the rheostat and condenser are adjusted so as to make the rise and fall of the outgoing current through both windings of the relay exactly equal, then no effect is produced on the armature of the relay, as the two currents neutralize each other's magnetizing effect.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.