How to use Concrete in a sentence
I need concrete evidence before I'm a believer and I don't see that on the horizon.
The walls were solid concrete and windowless.
They had no abstract ideas; in their minds all was concrete, visible and tangible.
Jake trotted behind her, his nails clicking on the concrete floor.
Bound hand and foot he was thrown alive into a mould in which a block of concrete was about to be made.Advertisement
But a religion could not permanently subsist in this world of space and time without some external concrete embodiment.
Speculative or theoretic knowledge is divided into abstract and concrete.
When you are in an underground parking garage surrounded by thick concrete walls, it's understandable that you may not be getting any service from your provider.
Nobody ever means to drop a phone on the concrete, but it happens.
The figures are no longer abstractions; they are concrete examples of the folly of the bibliophile who collects books but learns nothing from them, of the evil judge who takes bribes to favour the guilty, of the old fool whom time merely strengthens in his folly, of those who are eager to follow the fashions, of the priests who spend their time in church telling "gestes" of Robin Hood and so forth.Advertisement
Studies of particular questions, both concrete and theoretical, in foreign languages are too numerous to specify, and much of the best modern work is to be found in economic periodicals.
This concrete side of moral philosophy came specially into evidence when Stoicism was transplanted to Rome.
Seneca even made the discussion of such problems into a regular discipline, claiming that their concrete character gave an interest in morality to those who had no love for abstractions; while they prevented those who had from losing themselves in the clouds.
The harbour lies between the pier on the north and the spur of land called the Nothe on the south, and is protected by a concrete wall extending 500 ft.
Setting concrete limits about the amount of time that can be spent playing games and then enforcing these limits is essential.Advertisement
They need to be especially careful at high elevations and in areas with surfaces that reflect the sun's rays, such as off sand, water, concrete, and snow.
Compared with children, who tend to describe themselves in relatively simple, concrete terms, adolescents are more likely to employ complex, abstract, and psychological self-characterizations.
Prolonged sitting, inappropriate leg positioning during sedentary activity, or standing on concrete flooring for prolonged periods may be associated with an increased incidence of leg cramps.
Younger school-age children, six to 12 years old, should be at the "concrete operations" stage of Piaget's cognitive development theory, characterized by the ability to use logical and coherent actions in thinking and solving problems.
Concrete confirmation of CO poisoning comes from a carboxyhemoglobin test.Advertisement
One concrete preventative is to never feed honey to infants younger than 12 months as it is one known source of botulism spores.
Delicate materials like these may snag on the concrete, so if you do wear them to the pool be sure to lay out a towel before you sit down.
No other sounds stirred but that of her boots over concrete.
Two rolled from his place on the concrete floor in the corner and unwrapped the ratty blanket he used to keep himself warm.
Jonny opened it to reveal a comfortable looking room with a plush couch set, rugs to cover the concrete floors, and television lighting the room.Advertisement
With respect to his attacks on the critical philosophy in the Metakritik (1799), it is easy to understand how his concrete mind, ever alive to the unity of things, instinctively rebelled against that analytic separation of the mental processes which Kant attempted.
The interval between the back of the tubbing and the sides of the borehole is then filled up with concrete, which on setting fixes the tubbing firmly in position.
It has therefore been proposed, for greater depths, to put four columns of tubbings of smaller diameters, 82 and 52 ft., in the shaft, and fill up the remainder of the boring with concrete, so that with thinner and lighter castings a greater depth may be reached.
When hard ground is reached, a seat is formed for the cast iron tubbing, which is built up in the usual way and concreted at the back, a small quantity of caustic soda being sometimes used in mixing the concrete to prevent freezing.
This success was largely due to the originality of its title, the diversity of its contents (von Hartmann professing to obtain his speculative results by the methods of inductive science, and making plentiful use of concrete illustrations), the fashionableness of its pessimism and the vigour and lucidity of its style.Advertisement
School-age children have concrete fears, such being hurt, doing badly in school, dying, or natural disasters.
In the absence of some concrete reason to suspect CO poisoning, the disorder is often misdiagnosed as migraine headache, stroke, psychiatric illness, food poisoning, alcohol poisoning, or heart disease.
For preschool children, explanations should be simple and concrete.
Instead of being placed in a metal coffin or concrete tomb, people who choose this method of burial are placed in biodegradable containers, which will naturally decompose over time.
Another wall fountain is little more than a motif or figurine spout that is attached to the wall and a ceramic, concrete or metal pool is placed below the spout and attached to the recirculation water tube.Advertisement
Timelines are helpful in allowing your child to see history unfold in a concrete way.
There are also real-word problems that are built into the lessons, making it easy to turn abstract concepts into concrete applications.
This curriculum also teaches concepts in a concrete way in the earliest grades, then moves to pictures, and then finally in the higher grades teaches the abstract.
Keep in mind that children are concrete, not literal, thinkers.
For more active children, choosing an i play rash guard provides extra protection against abrasions and other skin irritations associated with chlorine, kick boards, pool ledges, sand and concrete.Advertisement
You may never need to blend chunks of concrete in your kitchen, but if you're looking for a high-powered home appliance capable of liquefying fruits and vegetables in the push of a button, the HealthMaster blender may be your solution.
It's less expensive for the builder to build a home with a crawl space than it is for them to build a foundation on a concrete slab.
There are many other informative books about more concrete aspects of dating available online - such as sexual techniques and information.
By focusing on these kinds of concrete goals, you can get past the bigger fear of "What if they don't like me?"
Although we are always on the hunt for new and exciting inlays, we primarily use wood, horn, other metals, opalescents, stone and now concrete!Advertisement
It is hard to get more eco-friendly than concrete.
Concrete is also amazing because it can be so customized.
We also custom make concrete boxes to complement your own specific ring set.
The only potential difficulty with Aries' pairing with Libra, Gemini or Aquarius is that these signs love the abstract, while Aries prefers things to be a bit more concrete.
While praise can be a reward unto itself, sometimes more concrete rewards are useful as well.Advertisement
The legend continues to live on because there is no concrete evidence to conclusively state without a doubt that there is no monster living within Loch Ness.
The author's intent with they way she speaks is concrete, built upon word by word to enclose her readers into the story until the very last page.
He wanted it to be more complex and added the sounds of a bicycle chain falling on concrete to the mix.
If you do decide to try them out, keep in mind that you're not really getting concrete information, and no application can track simple profile views.
If the company just uses buzz words and can't give concrete evidence that they have a successful method of working, they probably aren't worth your money.
I wish it were more concrete.
While we presumed Daniel Brennan and Merrill Cooms had gleaned much about our group from our many conversations, we continued to volunteer nothing concrete.
The ceiling above us was divided with half the room beneath a concrete slab and the remainder under what appeared as thick planking, well out of reach to either of us.
Her conversation with Jenn made the world around her more concrete.
In hindsight, he didn't know why he thought the rocky beach provided a more yielding place to land than concrete.
But that one step, from the abstract to the concrete, was precisely that which the character of Lagrange's mind indisposed him to make.
It is true that we obtain this result by subtracting 3 from io by means of a subtractiontable (concrete or ideal); but this table merely gives the generalized results of a number of operations of addition or subtraction performed with concrete units.
When, however, we come to the equation x 2 --- 5, where we are dealing with numbers, not with quantities, we have no concrete facts to assist us.
Thus the concrete fact required to enable us to pass arithmetically from the conception of a fractional number to the conception of a surd is the fact of performing calculations by means of logarithms.
It is important to begin the study of graphics with concrete cases rather than with tracing values of an algebraic function.
But the method which was peculiarly his, and which still forms the open road to discoveries in natural science, consisted in the combination of experiment with calculation - in the transformation of the concrete into the abstract, and the assiduous comparison of results.
Its axes are 951and 79 yds., and it is in the main cut in the rock, though some parts of it are built with concrete.
Thus a hypothesis may be ruled out by principles or postulates without any reference to the concrete facts which belong to that division of the subject to explain which the hypothesis is formulated.
To the end, the ego remains, partly the pure logical ego, partly the concrete individual spirit, and no explanation is afforded of the relation between them.
Productive imagination is thus the concrete element'of knowledge, and its general modes are the abstract expression of the a priori laws of all possible experience.
The existence of external things is as certain as the existence of the concrete subject, and the subject cannot cognise himself as existing save in relation to the world of facts of external perception.
The theoretical proof rather serves as useful aid towards the more exact determination of the nature and province of self-determination, and of its relation to the whole concrete nature of humanity.
These conditions, the postulates of practical reason, are the concrete expressions of the three transcendental ideas, and in them we have the full significance of the ideas for reason.
The following day, a super market tabloid offered a one million dollar reward for concrete information on the existence of the "Psychic Tipster," Howard Abbott's new nom de plume.
A car, an unrecognizable hulk of blackened metal, was ground against the concrete abutment of an over pass in a puddle of water.
The entrance under the facility was hastily dug but the tunnel running beneath the facility had thick metal walls and concrete floors and was lit by battery-operated lanterns.
We never had anything concrete to tell herâ€” still don't.
Behind her, claws clicked on the concrete as Brutus followed.
The steel bridge is already waiting on site and concrete abutments have been built for it.
It took in excess of two full loads of readymixed concrete to fill the abyss.
Made from clay, ceramics or refractory concrete consisting of pumice or kiln burnt aggregate bonded with high alumina cement.
The wearing surface was a very hard lime, almost akin to concrete.
New concrete surfaces must be well washed before use to remove all the excess surface alkali.
Be especially careful not to wear them on concrete.
Even though humans ran for thousands of years without the benefit of running shoes, they didn't run on surfaces as hard as concrete or asphalt.
However, the studies are not wowing anyone with concrete proof that people do indeed lose weight by practicing yoga.
While definitive answers to these questions are yet to come, research done over the past decade or so has shown more concrete results when it comes to treatment.
Figurative language is particularly problematic because the individual with Aspergers is quite concrete.
Sample IEP goals for autism can help answer a few of the questions as they present concrete examples.
Many business letters also have a specific "call to action" which means the letter suggests the sender do something specific or take a concrete step.
If you are dealing with metal, concrete, or another hard surface, it is generally best to start with a commercial product designed especially to eliminate rust.
Sweep and hose down sidewalks, driveways, decks and concrete patios.
Mold growing on tile or hard surfaces, such as concrete or linoleum basement floors, can be spot treated.
Let's look at seven concrete steps you can take to make sure you get the most out of your efforts.
The park is the world's first completely concrete indoor skate park.
Reaching the wall, Deidre ignored the scrape of concrete against her hands and knees as she clambered on top.
He was probably looking for some concrete sign that she was in agreement with him.
From this fact arises the ground of political obligation, for the institutions of political or civic life are the concrete embodiment of moral ideas in terms of our day and generation.
The work done includes a concrete dock, mechanically equipped to convey freight between river and railways.
They are repelled by the dryness of much of the matter, the unsuitableness of many of the topics discussed for poetic treatment, the arbitrary assumption of premises, the entire failure to establish the connexion between the concrete phenomena which the author professes to explain and these assumptions, and the erroneousness of many of the doctrines which are stated with dogmatic confidence.
Dr Hopkinson presented a rare combination of practical with theoretical ability, and his achievements in pure scientific research are not less intrinsically notable than the skill with which he applied their results to the solution of concrete engineering problems. His original work is contained in more than sixty papers, all written with a complete mastery both of style and of subject-matter.
Its fundamental motive is the serious consideration, in a continuous and concrete manner, of that union of philosophy and history which had been glimpsed by earlier thinkers, but had hitherto been pursued in a manner more or less capricious.
They are generally of brick and concrete.
He paused, leaning against a concrete abutment, mesmerized by the never-ending torrent as it flowed over the edge of the dam.
A hazard warning reflective beacon will be placed off the west pier to warn sailors of a concrete plinth covered at high tide.
The sugar thus produced, by constant stirring and evaporation almost to dryness, forms a species of small-grained concrete.
In primitive religions inclusive of almost every serious offence even in fields now regarded as merely social or political, its scope is gradually lessened to a single part of one section of ecclesiastical criminology, following inversely the development of the idea of holiness from the concrete to the abstract, from fetishism to mysticism.
Having thus disposed of the ideas of truth and causality, he proceeds to undermine the ethical criterion, and denies that any man can aim at Good, Pleasure or Happiness as an absolute, concrete ideal.
Concrete science relates to objects or beings; abstract science to events.
Thus, physiology is an abstract science; but zoology is concrete.
Chemistry is abstract; mineralogy is concrete.
He was too much under the sway of feeling and concrete imagination to be capable of great things in abstract thought.
The sermons of these men were largely scriptural, the cardinal evangelical truths being emphasized with reality and vigour, but with a tendency to abstract theology rather than concrete religion.
Within the town are two subterranean vaulted buildings in good masonry, of uncertain nature, some other remains under modern buildings, and a concrete ruin known as the "Bagni di Bacco."
A breakwater and mole, constructed of blocks of concrete.
It is by the help of numbers that concrete quantities are practically measured and calculated.
As little is idealism responsible for any attempt to pass off logical abstractions for concrete reality.
A cause is that which contains the effect (" causa aequat effectum "), but this is precisely what can never be proved with respect to anything that is claimed as a real cause in the concrete world.
The materials on the coast were clay and gravel wrought into concrete, sun-dried bricks and pise, or rammed work, cut stalks of plants formed with clay a kind of staff, and lintels were made by burying stems of cana brava (Gynerium saccharoides) in blocks of pise.
It is in reference to the measurement of areas and volumes that it is of special importance to illustrate geometrical truths by means of concrete cases.
In physical and mechanical applications, where concrete measurements are involved, there is, as pointed out in the preceding section, the additional inaccuracy due to want of exactness in the figure itself.
Rockland county quarries considerable trap rock, used mostly for road-making and concrete, and Ulster county has for more than a century produced most of the domestic millstones used in the United States.
Some of these had been prepared with interior parapets and platforms of concrete for medium guns.
In classical and medieval times bridges were constructed of timber or masonry, and later of brick or concrete.
The latest change in the material of bridges has been the introduction of f erro-concrete, armoured concrete, or concrete strengthened with steel bars for arched bridges.
For moderate spans brick, masonry or concrete can be used without excessive cost, but for longer spans steel is more economical, and for very long spans its use is imperative.
Masonry and concrete are more durable than metal, and metal than timber.
For masonry, brick or concrete the arch subjected throughout to compression is the most natural form.
In Germany and America twoand three-hinged arches of masonry and concrete have been built, up to 150 ft.
This space is filled with a flooring of reinforced concrete, resting on the two arches, and carrying the central roadway.
Such hinges have been used not only for metal arches, but in a modified form for masonry and concrete arches.
The concrete is reinforced by eleven 9 -in.
The concrete consisted of I cement, 2 sand and 3 to 4 broken stone.
An important series of experiments on the strength of masonry, brick and concrete structures will be found in the Zeitschr.
The thermal coefficient of expansion of steel and concrete is nearly the same, otherwise changes of temperature would cause shearing stress at the junction of the two materials.
For steel E =28,000,000 to 30,000,000, or on the average about twelve times its value for concrete.
The concrete not only affords much of the strength to resist compression, but effectively protects the steel from corrosion.
The anchor ties are connected to girders embedded in large concrete blocks in the foundations of the approach viaducts.
The anchors are built up of steel plates and angle bars, and are buried in a large mass of concrete.
The heads of the piles are sawn off, and a platform of timber or concrete rests on them.
Cast iron and concrete reinforced piles are now used.
These portions usually consist of masonry in some form, including under that general head stone masonry, brickwork and concrete.
Concrete in a shell is a name which might be applied to all the methods of founding a pier which depend on the very valuable property which strong hydraulic concrete possesses of setting into a solid mass under water.
The interior of the well is generally filled up with concrete or brick when the required depth has been reached.
These can be sunk to almost any depth or brought up to any height, and are filled with Portland cement concrete.
Yet they do not really add much to what is there already, and they have the drawbacks of pseudonymity; they lack concrete and personal qualities; they are general expressions of tendencies which we cannot well locate or measure, save by means of the Apostolic Fathers themselves or of their earliest Catholic successors.
This, again, is a process of abstraction, the attainment of abstract ideas which, apart from the concrete individuals, are conceived as having a substantive existence.
Some concrete examples will best illustrate the nature of such ablutions.
To the prophets knowledge of God is concrete knowledge of the divine character as shown in acts - knowledge of a person, not of an idea.
Tabiya or rammed concrete of red earth and stone is the almost universal building material, and the houses are consequently seldom more than two storeys in height.
Schelling had neither the strength of thinking nor 4-he acquired knowledge necessary to hold the balance between the abstract treatment of cosmological notions and the concrete researches of special science.
In the realm of ideas the absolute finds itself, has its own nature over against itself as objective over against subjective, and thus is in the way of overcoming its abstractness, of becoming concrete.
There are a large gymnasium and a stadium of re-enforced concrete for athletic contests, capable of seating 20,000 people and one of the largest athletic fields in the world.
Within the city limits the Muskingum is crossed by seven bridges (including a notable concrete Y bridge) and the Licking by two.
It was a concrete expansion of the ideas of The Seven Lamps - that the buildings and art of a people are the expression of their religion, their morality, their national aspirations and social habits.
But instead of returning to the concrete fact of the equivalence of momentum, by which each body moving makes the other move oppositely, he denied that bodies do reciprocally act on one another, and even that bodies as mutually resisting substances press one another apart in collision.
The " true account " of the world in his own words is " that the concrete whole, which may be described indifferently as an eternal intelligence realized in the related facts of the world, or as a system of related facts rendered possible by such an intelligence, partially and gradually reproduces itself in us, communicating piecemeal, but in inseparable correlation, understanding and the facts understood, experience and the experienced world."
Metaphysically, he did not, indeed, as is often supposed, think the nature of substance to be matter and form, because in his view God is a substance, yet with no matter; but he did think that every natural substance or body is a concrete whole, composed of matter and form different from matter.
He thought not only that a form, or essence, is something different from, and at most conjoined with, matter in a concrete body, but also that in all the bodies of one kind, e.g.
The townwalls are built of flint and concrete bonded with ironstone, and are backed with earth.
In the megaron and other rooms the floors are of good concrete decorated with a simple series of incised lines, coloured blue and red.
In the first sense the word is used either in the abstract, for jurisprudence generally or for a state of things in which the laws of a country are duly observed ("law and order"), or in the concrete for some particular rule or body of rules.
At the same time pantheism almost necessarily presupposes a more concrete and less sophisticated conception of God and the universe.
A remarkable extension of the use of concrete has been made possible by the introduction of scientific methods of combining it with steel or iron.
Piles made of steel concrete are driven into the ground with blows that would shatter the best of timber.
A fuller description of the combination of steel and concrete will be given later.
The constituents of concrete are sometimes spoken of as the matrix and the aggregate, and these terms, though somewhat oldfashioned, are convenient.
The matrix is the lime or cement, whose chemical action with the added water causes the concrete to solidify; and the aggregate is the broken stone or hard material which is embedded in the matrix.
It has been to a great extent superseded by Portland cement, on account of the much greater strength of the latter, though lime concrete is still used in many places for dry foundations and small structures.
The hydrated lime, after being passed through a fine screen to sort out any lumps unaffected by the water, is ready for concrete making, and if not required at once should be stored in a dry place.
They have the property of entering into chemical combination with the lime, forming a hard setting compound, and increasing the hardness of the resulting concrete.
Experience shows that, although spherical pebbles are to be avoided, Portland cement adheres tightly to smooth flint surfaces, and that rough stones often give a less compact concrete than smooth ones on account of the difficulty of bedding them into the matrix when laying the concrete.
In mixing concrete there is always a tendency for the stones to separate themselves from the sand and cement, and to form "pockets" of honeycombed concrete which are neither water-tight nor strong.
For first-class work, however, and especially in steel concrete, it is customary to reject very large stones, and to insist that all shall pass through a ring a of an inch in diameter.
The water, like all the other constituents of concrete, should be clean and free from vegetable matter.
Sometimes in massive concrete structures large and heavy stones as big as a man can lift are buried in the concrete after it is laid in position but while it is still wet.
Such concrete is known as rubble concrete.
In proportioning the quantities of matrix to aggregate the ideal to be aimed at is to get a concrete in which the voids or air-spaces shall be as small as possible; and as the lime or cement is usually by far the most expensive item, it is desir able to use as little of it as is consistent with strength.
If the situation is cool, the stone hard, and the concrete carefully rammed directly it is laid down and kept moist with damp cloths, only just sufficient to moisten the whole mass is required.
On the other hand, water should be given generously in hot weather, also when absorbent stone is used or when the concrete is not rammed.
In these cases the concrete should be allowed to take all it can, but an excess of water which would flow away, carrying the cement with it, should be avoided.
The thorough mixing of the constituents is a most important item in the production of good concrete.
Roughly it may be said that where a large mass of concrete is to be mixed at one or two places a good machine will be of great advantage.
When mixed the concrete is carried at once to the position required, and if the matrix is quick-setting Portland cement this operation must not be delayed.
One of the few drawbacks of concrete is that, unlike brickwork or masonry, it has nearly always to be deposited within moulds or framing which give it the required shape, and which are removed after it is set.
It is essential that they shall be strong and stiff, so as not to yield at all from the pressure of the wet concrete.
The shutters must be planed, and coated with a mixture of soap and oil, so as to come away easily after the concrete is set.
Moreover, when depositing the concrete, a shovel or other tool must be worked between the wet concrete and the shutter.
Sometimes rough concrete is rendered over with a plaster of cement and sand after the shutters have been removed, but this is liable to peel off and should be avoided.
If for important walls, or for small scantlings such as steel concrete generally involves, the concrete should be deposited in quite small quantities and very carefully rammed ng osit- into position.
Depositing concrete under water for breakwaters and bridge foundations requires special skill and special appliances.
In this system the concrete is filled into bags, which are at once lowered through the water like the blocks.
But in this case the concrete being still wet can adapt itself more or less to the shape of the adjoining bags, and strong rough walls can be built in this way.
The canvas was laid in a hopper barge and there filled with the concrete and sewn up. The enormous bag was then dropped through a door in the bottom of the barge upon the breakwater foundation.
Indeed, this is bound to happen more or less, but it is guarded against by lowering the concrete slowly in a special box, the bottom of which is opened as it reaches the ground on which the concrete is to be laid.
This method can only be carried out in still water, and where strong and tight framing can be built which will prevent the concrete from escaping.
The concrete escapes from the bag, which is then drawn up and refilled.
Concrete may be compared with other building materials like masonry or timber from various points of view, such as strength, durability, convenience of building, fire resistance, appearance and cost.
The safe tensile strength of Portland cement concrete would be something like one-tenth of its compressive strength, and might be far less.
Hence slabs or beams of long span should not be built of plain concrete, though when reinforced with steel it is admirably adapted for these purposes.
In regard to durability good Portland cement concrete is one of the most durable materials known.
The same praise cannot, however, be given to lime concrete.
Portland cement concrete, on the other hand, may be used without fear in sea-water, provided that certain reasonable precautions are taken.
Considerable alarm was created about the year 1887 by the failure of two or three large structures of Portland cement concrete exposed to seawater, both in England and other countries.
But to ensure the permanence of structures in sea-water the great object is to choose a cement containing as little lime and alumina as possible, and free from sulphates such as gypsum; and more important still to proportion the sand and stones in the concrete in such a way that the structure is practically non-porous.
On the other hand, if the concrete is rough and porous the sea-water will gradually eat into the heart of the structure, especially in a case like a dam, where the water, being higher on one side than the other, constantly forces its way through the rough material, and decomposes the Portland cement it contains.
As regards its convenience for building purposes it may be said roughly that in "mass" work concrete is vastly more convenient than any other material.
But concrete is hampered by the fact that the surface always has to be formed by means of wooden or other framing, and in the case of thin walls or floors this framing becomes a serious item, involving expense and delay.
It is true that it can be moulded to any desired shape, but mouldings in concrete generally give the appearance of being unsatisfactory imitations of stone.
These defects will no doubt be overcome as concrete grows in popularity as a building material and its aesthetic treatment is better understood.
Concrete pavings are being used in buildings of first importance, the aggregate being very carefully selected, and in many cases the whole mixture coloured by the use of pigments.
One of the great objections to the appearance of concrete is the fact that soon after its erection irregular cracks invariably appear on its surface.
In the case of a smooth concrete face there are no joints to follow, and the cracks become an ugly feature.
A pleasing "rough" appearance can be given to concrete by brushing it over soon after it has set with a stiff brush dipped in water or dilute acid.
At one time Portland cement concrete was considered to be lacking in fireproof qualities, but now it is regarded as one of the best fire-resisting materials known.
Although experi ments on this matter are badly needed, there is little Y doubt that good steel concrete is very nearly indestruc- tire.
But they are weak, and modern experience goes to show that a strong concrete is the best, and that probably materials like broken clamp bricks or burnt clay, which are porous and yet strong, are far better than cinders as a fireproof aggregate.
The steel reinforcement is of immense importance in fireproof work, because, if properly designed, it enables the concrete to hold together and do its work even when it has been cracked by fire and water.
On the other hand, the concrete, being a non-conductor, preserves the steel from being softened and twisted by excessive temperature.
On the other hand, for reasons already given, thin walls, such as house walls, will cost more in concrete.
The introduction of steel concrete (also known as ferroconcrete, armoured concrete, or reinforced concrete) is generally attributed to Joseph Monier, a French gardener, who about the year 1868 was anxious to build some concrete water basins.
The important point of his idea was that it combined steel and concrete in such a way that the best qualities of each material were brought into play.
Concrete is readily procured and easily moulded into shape.
But it is difficult and expensive to work up into various forms. Concrete has been avoided for making beams, slabs and thin walls, just because its deficiency in tensile strength doomed it to failure in such structures.
Thus the one point of weakness in the concrete slab is overcome by the addition of steel in its simplest form, and both materials are used to their best advantage.
The scientific and practical value of this idea was soon seized upon by various inventors and others, and the number of patented systems of combining steel with concrete is constantly increasing.
The majority of these systems have emanated from France, where steel concrete is largely used.
The concrete itself should always be the very best quality, and Portland cement should be used on account of its superiority to all others.
But, generally speaking, in steel concrete the cost of the cement is but a small item of the whole expense, and it is worth while to be generous with it.
The mixing and laying should all be done very thoroughly; the concrete should be rammed in position, and any old surface of concrete which has to be covered should be cleaned and coated with fresh cement.
At first it was feared that such bars would have a tendency to slip through the concrete in which they were embedded, but experiments have shown that if the bar is not painted but has a natural rusty surface a very considerable adhesion between the concrete and steel - as much as 2 cwt.
Many devices are used, however, to ensure the adhesion between concrete and bar being perfect.
The structures in which steel concrete is used may be analysed as consisting essentially of (I) walls, (2) columns, (3) piles, (4) beams, (5) slabs, (6) arches.
The steel reinforcement is generally applied in the form of vertical rods built in the wall at intervals, with lighter horizontal rods which cross the vertical ones, and thus form a network of steel which is buried in the concrete.
These rods assist in taking the weight, and the whole network binds the concrete together and prevents it from FIG.
In the Cottancin system the concrete is replaced by bricks pierced with holes through which the vertical rods are threaded; the horizontal tie-rods are also used, but these do not merely cross the vertical ones, but are woven in and out of them.
That steel concrete can be used for piles is perhaps the most astonishing feature in this invention.
The fact that a comparatively brittle material like concrete can be subjected not only to heavy loads but also to the jar and vibration from the blows of a heavy pile ram makes it appear as if its nature and properties had been changed by the steel reinforcement.
Considere's ex periments have shown that concrete when reinforced is capable of being stretched, without fracture, about twenty times as much as plain concrete.
The sawdust adapts it self to the rough shape of the concrete, and deadens the blow to some extent.
But it is in the design of steel concrete beams that the greatest ingenuity has been shown, and almost every patentee of a "system" has some new device for arranging the steel reinforcement to the best advantage.
Concrete by itself, though strong in compression, can offer but little resistance to tensile and shearing stresses, and as these stresses always occur in beams the problem arises how best to arrange the steel so as to assist the concrete in bearing them.
They are exceedingly thin, but being buried in concrete no danger of their perishing from rust is to be feared.
But in a thin slab, with its comparatively small span and light load, the concrete is generally strong enough to bear the shearing stresses unaided, and the reinforcement is devoted to assisting it where the tensile stresses occur.
In the Matrai system thin wires are used instead of rods, and are securely fastened to rolled steel joists, which form the beams on which the slabs rest; moreover, the wires instead of being stretched tight from side to side of the slab are allowed to sag as much as the thickness of the concrete will allow.
A concrete arch is reinforced in much the same way as a wall, the stresses being somewhat similar.
In 1900 Nebraska City ranked third among the manufacturing cities of the state, the manufactures including canned fruits and vegetables, packed pork, flour, oatmeal, hominy, grits, meal, starch, cider-vinegar, agricultural implements, windmills, paving bricks, concrete, sewer pipe, beer, over-ails and shirts.
The blocking ships were stripped of all fittings and filled with rubble and concrete.
Concrete walls, properly coped and provided with a trellis, may in some places be cheapest, and they are very durable.
The pathways should be paved with tiles, brick or stone, or made of concrete and cement, and the surface should be gently rounded so that the water required for evaporation may drain to the sides while the centre is sufficiently dry to walk upon; they should also have brick or stone edgings to prevent the water so applied soaking away at the sides and thus being wasted.
The tufa, sperone and peperino were easy to quarry, and could be employed by those who possessed comparatively elementary tools, while travertine, which came into use later, was an excellent building stone, and the lava (selce) served for paving stones and as material for concrete.
Hume naturally expected that the world would see as clearly as he did the connexion between the concrete problems agitating contemporary thought and the abstract principles on which their solution depended.
The Essays are undoubtedly written with more maturity and skill than the Treatise; they contain in more detail application of the principles to concrete problems, such as miracles, providence, immortality; but the entire omission of the discussion forming part ii.
The propositions of mathematics seem to be independent of this or that special fact of experience, and to remain unchanged even when the concrete matter of experience varies.
With regard to geometry, he holds emphatically that it is an empirical doctrine, a science founded on observation of concrete facts.
The lower grades in classification such as sub-species and varieties on the one hand, and the higher grades on the other, such as genera and families, were admitted to be human conceptions imposed on the living world, but species were concrete, objective existences to be discovered and named.
The forts are constructed in concrete with armoured cupolas.
Two long jetties or breakwaters have now been constructed, about 350 acres of harbour area have been dredged to a depth of 30 ft., and two wharves of steel and concrete, one 600 ft.
They were willing enough to admit the abstract claims of the Empire; but in the world of feudalism there was a multitude of established customs and rights which rudely conflicted with these claims, and in action, remote and abstract considerations gave way before concrete and present realities.
C. i is on the earliest dwellings of man; C. 2 on systems of Thales, Heraclitus, Democritus, &c.; c. 3 on bricks; c. 4 on sand; c. 5 on lime; c. 6 on pozzolana; c. 7 on kinds of stone for building; c. 8 on methods of constructing walls in stone, brick, concrete and marble, and on the materials for stucco; c. 9 on timber, time for felling it, seasoning, &c.; and c. to on the fir trees of the Apennines.
C. t is on selection of sites; c. 2 on the planning of buildings to suit different sites; c. 3 on private houses, their construction and styles, the names of the different apartments; c. 4 on the aspects suited for the various rooms; c. 5 on buildings fitted for special positions; c. 6 on farms and country houses; c. 7 on Greek houses and the names of various parts; c. 8 on construction of houses in wood, stone, brick or concrete.
C. t has for its subject pavements and roads, their construction, mosaic floors; c. 2 is on white stucco for walls (opus albarium); c. 3 on concrete vaults, gypsum mouldings, stucco prepared for painting; c. 4 on building of hollow walls to keep out the damp, wall decoration by various processes; c. 5 on methods and styles of wall painting, the debased taste of his time; c. 6 on fine stucco made of pounded marble - three coats to receive wall paintings; c. 7 on colours used for mural decoration; c. 8 on red lead (minium) and mercury, and how to use the latter to extract the gold from wornout pieces of stuff or embroidery; c. 9 on the preparation of red lead and the method of encaustic painting with hot wax, finished by friction; cc. to-14 on artificial colours - black, blue, purple;, c. to white lead and ostrum, i.e.
When Hellenism came to stand in the world for something concrete and organic, it was, of course, no mere abstract principle, but embodied in a language, a literature, an artistic tradition.
It must be remembered that one of the great advantages of concrete is that five-sixths of its total mass may be provided from local sand and gravel, on which no carriage has to be paid.
Thus it comes about that the largest use of cement is for manufacturing concrete for dock and harbour work, and for the making of foundations.
But where the concrete or mortar is not well made and is porous, the continual passage of water through it will gradually break up and dissolve away the calcareous constituents of the cement until its strength is utterly destroyed.
As sea-water contains both sulphates and magnesium salts, it is especially necessary in concrete for harbour work to take every care to produce an impervious structure.
There are various minor external causes for the failure and ultimate destruction of cement mortar and concrete, but their discussion is a matter for the specialist.
Above it is an embanking wall of irregular masonry, and below it some remains of Roman baths, including five parallel vaults of concrete.
This report soon took the more concrete form that he had fled to the Parthians and would return thence to take vengeance on Rome.
The spores of the fungus will find a way through brickwork, concrete and similar material, in order to reach woodwork that may be on the other side.
He finds his panacea in the concrete life of humanity.
This is the lowest stage of concrete consciousness - life, and not knowledge; the spirit inspires, but does not reflect.
He lays special stress on the point that abstract ideas when held in their abstraction are almost interchangeable with their opposites - that extremes meet, and that in every true and concrete idea there is a coincidence of opposites.
Lastly, under the head of " organic," come geology, botany and animal physiology - presenting the concrete results of these processes in the three kingdoms of nature.
The hypostasis through which this takes place is the personal Logos through whose union with this potential man, in the womb of Mary, the potential man acquires a concrete reality, an individual existence.
These three breakwaters, with a united length of rather more than 14 m., are each built of massive concrete blocks in the form of a practically vertical wall founded on the solid chalk and rising to a quay level of 10 ft.
The casual concept, as given by experience, expresses not a necessary objective order of things, but an ordered scheme of perception; it is subjective and cannot be postulated as a concrete law apart from consciousness.
The theatre, covered by a stream of lava, and built partly of small rectangular blocks of the same material, though in the main of concrete, has been superimposed upon the Greek building, some foundations of which, in calcareous stone, of which the seats are also made, still exist.
Even Epicureanism, which might appear concrete, was by him rightly designated abstract.
These uprights are supported on huge piers of masonry and concrete, the foundations for which were carried down, by the aid of iron caissons and compressed air, to a depth of about 15 metres on the side next the Seine, and about 9 metres on the other side.
The speculative sciences, indeed, are classified according to their relation to form, pure, abstract or concrete, i.e.
Thus we start '3 from the point of view of a world of separate persons and things, in which thought mirrors these concrete realities, taken as ultimate subjects of predicates.
If we abstract from any actual combination of subject and predicate and proceed to determine the types of predicate asserted in simple propositions of fact, we have on the one hand a subject which is never object, a " first substance " or concrete thing, of which may be predicated in the first place " second substance " expressing that it is a member of a concrete class, and in the second place quantity, quality, correlation, action and the like.
We need devices, indeed, to determine priority or superior claim to be " better known absolutely or in the order of nature," but on the whole the problem is fairly faced.4 Of science Aristotle takes for his examples sometimes celestial physics, more often geometry or arithmetic, sometimes a concrete science, e.g.
In the sphere of the concrete sciences where law obtains only ws Eiri To 7roX6 this ideal of science can clearly find only a relative satisfaction with large reserves.
On the other, he assigned to vas with its insight into rationality too high a function with regard to the concrete in which the surd was present, a power to certify the truth of scientific principles.
On the Copernican change the heavenly bodies were recognized as concrete and yet subject to calculable law.
Democritean physics without a calculus had necessarily proved sterile of determinate concrete results, and this was more than enough to ripen the naturalism of the utilitarian school into scepticism.
They had devised canons for the investigation of the concrete problems of this, but had either ignored altogether the need to give an account of the mirroring mind, or, in the alternative had been, with some naïveté, content to assume that their nominalist friends, consistently their allies in the long struggle with traditionalism, had adequately supplied or could adequately supply the need.
His grasp of the procedure by which the man of science manipulated his particular concrete problems was admirable.
It is the oscillation which Mill manifests between the conception of his formula as it is actually applicable to concrete problems in practice, and the conception of it as an expression of a theoretical limit to practical procedure.
Even in his " logic " Kant speaks of abstraction from all particular objects of thought rather than of a resolution of concrete thinking into thought and its " other " as separable co-operating factors in a joint product.
The forms of thought and what gives thought its particular content in concrete acts of thinking could not be regarded as subsisting in a purely external and indifferent relation one to the other.
To allow, however, that abstraction admits of degrees, and that it never obliterates all reference to that from which it is abstracted, is to take a step forward in the direction of the correlation of logical forms with the concrete processes of actual thinking.
They are built of concrete faced with small blocks of stone, and at the bottom are nearly 9 ft.
Near Douglas, in Converse county, there is a reinforced concrete dam, impounding the waters of Laprele Creek, to furnish water for over 30,000 acres, and power for transmitting electricity.
The chief critical difficulty felt by this school is in identifying any concrete historic fact with the unchanging idea, that is, in making Jesus of Nazareth the incarnation of God.
The great need of the age was authority; and authority was most likely to strike the imagination of the faithful if it found a vivid concrete embodiment in the person of the pope.
In the Odyssey, where they are represented as bringing round the seasons in regular order, they are an abstraction rather than a concrete personification.
The principal objects of physics are concrete substances, or abstract though physical qualities.
But its inquiries may be directed either towards concrete bodies or towards abstract qualities.
With regard to forms, the investigation may be directed either towards concrete bodies or towards qualities.
One can hardly see how the Baconian method could have applied to concrete substances.
With regard to the first., in ultimate result it depends upon the theory of forms; for whenever the compound body can be regarded as the sum of certain simple natures, then our knowledge of the forms of these natures gives us the power of superinducing a new nature on the concrete body.
The same kind of investigation maybe extended to many cases of natural motion, such as voluntary action or nutrition; and though inquiry is here directed towards concrete bodies, and does not therefore penetrate so deeply into reality as in research for forms, yet great results may be looked for with more confidence.
Its mineral baths are frequented in summer; and the volcanic pozzolana earth (also found near Rome), used now as in Roman times for making cement and concrete, derives its name from the place.
His religion is, however, anything but an abstraction to the savage, and stands rather for the whole of his concrete life so far as it is penetrated by a spirit of earnest endeavour.
From this it will be manifest that the figures of Zoroasters religion are purely abstracrions; the concrete gods of vulgar belief being set aside.
For the masses can make little of abstractions and an omnipotent, omnipresent deity; they need concrete divine powers, standing nearer to themselves and their lot.
Considerable remains of a theatre in concrete faced with brickwork, erected, according to an inscription, in 43 B.C., and 161 ft.
As the plant grows older, a species of fluid is secreted in the hollow joints, in which a concrete substance once highly valued in the East for its medicinal qualities, called tabaxir or tabascheer, is gradually developed.
The most real realities to Plato and Aristotle had been thought and the objects of thought, vows and vomit, whether abstracted from sensibles or inherent in " matter," as the incognizable basis of all concrete existence.
As the result of the reconstruction of this section, thousands of wooden buildings, which had been a striking architectural characteristic of the city, were replaced by structures of steel, brick, and, especially, reinforced concrete.
The use of reinforced concrete as a building material received a special impetus in consequence.
In view, therefore, of the probable decline in the Chinese demand, the cultivation of the drug for the European market in the hilly districts of India, and its preparation after the mode adopted in Turkey, viz., by drying the concrete juice as quickly as possible, might be worthy of the consideration of the British government.
It harmonizes with the concrete visualizing turn of his mind that, to quote Professor Henry Smith, "Clifford was above all and before all a geometer."
As the Pharisees accumulated the oral tradition which was afterwards codified and elaborated or preserved by fragments, which served some useful purpose, in the Talmud and other Rabbinic writings, the Sadducees acquired concrete regulations to oppose so long as they dared.
In Kantian terminology apperception is (1) transcendental - the perception of an object as involving the consciousness of the pure self as subject, and (2) empirical, - the cognition of the self in its concrete existence.
For an abstract thinker he was strangely in love with the concrete facts of life.
These are our best authorities, but they are deficient in concrete facts.
Instead of making the motive to choice a factor within the concrete process of volition, he regards it as a cause antecedent to the exercise of a special mental faculty.
It will not be easy to infuse into so abstract and bloodless a term as "metaphysics" the fuller life (and especially the inclusion of ethical considerations) suggested by the more concrete term "philosophy."
Philosophy corrects in this way the abstractions which are inevitably made by the scientific specialist, and may claim, therefore, to be the only "concrete" science, that is to say, the only science which takes account of all the elements in the problem, and the only science whose results can claim to be true in more than a provisional sense.
In strictness, there is but one res completa or concrete fact, and it is the business of philosophy, as science of the whole, to expound the chief relations that constitute its complex nature.
The first of these deals with the notion of duty, and endeavours to define the good or the ultimate end of action; the second lays out the scheme of concrete duties which are deducible from, or which, at least, are covered by, this abstractly stated principle.
The only grouting that should be permitted in tall buildings would be in levelling up the tops of the concrete footings to receive the masonry courses, or in a very thin layer between the column pedestal and the masonry bed.
Steelwork that has to come in contact with brickwork or concrete should not be painted, but should receive a wash of cement as the brickwork or concrete-work proceeds.
In all cases it is customary to fill on top of the arches with a strong Portland cement concrete to a uniform level, generally the top of the deepest beam; the floor filling is constructed and carried to this level immediately upon the completion of each tier of beams, for the purpose not only of stiffening the frame laterally, and of adding to its stability by the imposition of a static load, but also to afford constantly safe and strong working platforms at regular and convenient intervals for use throughout the entire period of the construction.
The already existing worship of Athena Hygieia had nothing to do with Hygieia the goddess of health, but merely denoted the recognition of the power of healing as one of the attributes of Athena, which gradually became crystallized into a concrete personality.
Percolation toe and concrete t through this sand is thus added to the original leakage.
Water-tight concrete is a suitable material for the purpose; it need not be made so thick as the puddle core, and is therefore sometimes used with considerable advantage in lieu of the puddle for the whole depth below ground.
Obviously, the junction between the puddle and the concrete might have been made at any lower level.
The puddle wall is crossed by a pedestal of concrete carry- - 3 ing the brick discharge cul v ert.
But to all such precautions should be added the use of concrete or brickwork tongues running longitudinally at the bottom of the trench, such as those shown at a higher level in fig.
Riveted sheets of steel have been occasionally used, and, where bedded in a sufficient thickness of concrete, with success.