Concordats Sentence Examples
It is to concordats in this later sense that this article refers.
It is for this reason that concordats always present a clearly marked character of mutual concession, each of the two powers renouncing certain of its claims in the interests of peace.
The shades which distinguish these three forms are not without significance, but they in no way detract from the contractual character of concordats.
Since concordats are contracts they give rise to that special mutual obligation which results from every agreement freely entered into; for a contract is binding on both parties to it.
Concordats are undoubtedly conventions of a particular nature.Advertisement
They may make certain concessions or privileges once given without any corresponding obligation; they constitute for a given country a special ecclesiastical law; and it is thus that writers have sometimes spoken of concordats as privileges.
Again, it is quite certain that the spiritual matters upon which concordats bear do not concern the two powers in the same manner and in the same degree; and in this sense concordats are not perfectly equal agreements.
But with these reservations it must unhesitatingly be said that concordats are bilateral or synallagmatic contracts, from which results an equal mutual obligation for the two parties, who enter into a juridical engagement towards each other.
They have thus upheld the true contractual nature of concordats and the mutual juridical obligation which results from them.
The foregoing statements must not be taken to mean that concordats are in their nature perpetual, and that they cannot be broken or denounced.Advertisement
On several occasions concordats have established a new division of dioceses, and provided that future erections or divisions should be made by a common accord.
Certain concordats deal with the orders and congregations of monks and nuns with a view to subjecting them to a certain control while securing to them the legal exercise of their activities.
After the political and territorial upheavals which marked the end of the 18th century and the beginning of the 19th, all these concordats either fell to the ground or had to be recast.
In the 1 9th century we find a long series of concordats, of which a good number are still in force.
For Piedmont, completed in 1836 and 1841; was suppressed, like all other Italian concordats, by the formation of the kingdom of Italy.Advertisement
It had to be replaced by new concordats concluded with Wurttemberg in 1857 and the grand-duchy of Baden in 1859; but these conventions, not having been ratified by those countries, never came into force.
The numerous concordats concluded towards the middle of the 19th century with several of the South American republics either have not come into force or have been denounced and replaced by a more or less pacific modus vivendi.
On the nature and obligation of concordats see Mgr.
His foreign policy, entrusted at first to Della Somaglia and then to the more able Bernetti, moved in general along lines laid down by Consalvi; and he negotiated certain concordats very advantageous to the papacy.
By concluding concordats with all the important Catholic powers save Austria he made it possible to crush Jansenism, Febronianism and Gallicanism.Advertisement
On the Spanish model concordats were arranged with various Central and South American republics, perhaps the most ironclad being that concluded with Ecuador in 1862 (abrogated 1878).
Among the more stable governments of Europe reaction in favour of conservatism and religion after 1848 was used by clerical parties to obtain concordats more systematic and thoroughgoing than had been concluded even after 1814.
Since the constitution Sapienti, its competency has been confined to the examination, at the request of the secretary of state, of questions which are submitted to it, and especially those arising from civil laws and concordats.
The effects of concordats and bulls alike are tempered by the exercise by the civil power of certain traditional reserved rights, e.g.
For a list of the principal " concordats," see Calvo, Droit international theorique et pratique t.Advertisement
Having made this remark, we must distinguish between the countries which are still subject to the system of concordats and other countries.
It is plain that the agreements under the concordats have a certain action upon a number of points in the canonical laws; and all these points go to constitute the local concordatory law.
As a matter of fact, however, the revolution caused by the secularization of the ecclesiastical states in 1803 practically put an end to the system, and the servitia have either been commuted via gratiae to a moderate fixed sum under particular concordats, or are the subject of separate negotiation with each bishop on his appointment.
The Roman Catholic Church, even when recognized as the state religion, is nowhere "established" in the sense of being identified with the state, but is rather an imperium in imperio which negotiates on equal terms with the state, the results being embodied in concordats (q.v.) between the state and the pope as head of the Church.
The concordats are of the nature of truces in the perennial conflict between the spiritual and secular powers, and imply in principle no surrender of the claims of the one to those of the other.
In addition to the JMC agreement, there are four separate overarching concordats intended to apply broadly uniform arrangements across Government.
Many of these relate to specific concordats with individual countries and you have to apply directly through the equivalent organization your home country.
Concordats extend the reach of Canon Law, and human rights lawyers express concern about the impending Slovak " conscience concordats extend the reach of Canon Law, and human rights lawyers express concern about the impending Slovak " conscience concordat " .
The pope on his side grants the temporal sovereign certain rights, such as that of making or controlling the appointment of dignitaries; engages to proceed in harmony with the government in the creation of dioceses or parishes; and regularizes the situation produced by the usurpation of church property &c. The great advantage of concordats - indeed their principal utility - consists in transforming necessarily unequal unilateral claims into contractual obligations analogous to those which result from an international convention.
As regards candidates for ecclesiastical offices, the concordats concluded with Catholic nations regularly give the sovereign the right to nominate or present to bishoprics, often also to other inferior benefices, such as canonries, important parishes and abbeys; or at least the choice of the ecclesiastical authority is submitted to the approval of the civil power.
Scholars agree in associating the earliest concordats with the celebrated contest about investitures (q.v.), which so profoundly agitated Christian Europe in the 11th and 12th centuries.
We conclude with a brief chronological survey of the concordats during the 19th century, some now abrogated or replaced, others maintained.
To conform to the decrees of the council, the new pope drew up a project of reform with the concurrence of the fathers still remaining at Constance, and subsequently made various reforming treaties or concordats with the nations of the council, which finally broke up after the 45th session, held on the 22nd of April 1418.
Thus while the emperor, as king of Prussia, is summus episcopus of the Prussian Evangelical Church, as emperor he enjoys no such ecclesiastical headship. In the several states the relations of church and state differ fundamentally according as these states are Protestant or Catholic. In the latter these relations are regulated either by concordats between the governments and the Holy See, or by bulls of circumscription issued by the pope after negotiation.