How to use Concordat in a sentence
Down to the repeal of the Concordat in 1905 all French governments continued to uphold two of the ancient "Gallican Liberties."
Up to 1905 it was also the case in France, where the ancient local customs now continue, pending the reorganization of the Church without the concordat.
His bull of the 1st of July 1519, which regulated the discipline of the Polish Church, was later transformed into a concordat by Clement VII.
A concordat may assume divers forms - historically, three.
The rupture of the concordat at once terminates the obligations which resulted from it on both sides; but it does not break off all relation between the church and the state, since the two societies continue to coexist on the same territory.Advertisement
In the 17th century we have only to mention the concordat between Urban VIII.
Save in the provisions relating to ecclesiastical benefices, all the property of which had been confiscated, it reproduced the concordat of 1516.
The concordat was solemnly promulgated on Easter Day 1802, but the government had added to it unilateral provisions of Gallican tendencies, which were known as the Organic Articles.
It must be observed that the denunciation of a concordat by a nation does not necessarily entail the separation of the church and the state in that country or the rupture of diplomatic relations with Rome.
For the Italian republic, between Napoleon and Pius VII., analogous to the French concordat; abrogated.Advertisement
It is impossible to designate as a concordat the concessions which were wrested by violence from Pius VII.
This first concordat was immediately suspended, and was not ratified until 1827; it is partially maintained.
The emperor of Austria continues to nominate to bishoprics by virtue of rights anterior to this concordat.
Before these alterations the relations between the state and the Roman Catholic communion, by far the largest and most important in France, were chiefly regulated by the provisions of the Concordat of 1801, concluded between the first consul, Bonaparte, and Pope Pius VII.
But during his administration the influence of the church over the schools was really much less than, by the theory of the concordat, it would have appeared to be.Advertisement
By the concordat of Worms, 1122, the emperor surrendered the right of investiture by ring and staff, and granted the right of election to the clergy.
Leopold of Tuscany suspended the constitution, and in 1852 formally abolished it by order from Vienna; he also concluded atreatyof semi-subjection with Austria and a Concordat with the pope for granting fresh privileges to the Church.
The hellenizers had not lost all hope of converting the nation and were indisposed to acquiesce in the concordat.
The reader is referred to the article France (Law and Institutions) for the information respecting the various codes dating from this period, and to the article Concordat for the famous measure whereby Napoleon re-established official relations between the state and the church in France.
The promulgation of the Concordat (18th of April 1802) and the institution of what was in all but name a state religion tended strongly in the same direction, the authority of the priests being generally used in support of the man to whom Chateaubriand applied the epithet "restorer of the altars."Advertisement
The prestige which the First Consul had gained by the Concordat was now lost by the overweening emperor.
It was clear that the spiritual forces of the time were also slipping out of his grasp. Early in January he sought to come to terms with the pope (then virtually a captive at Fontainebleau) respecting various questions then in debate concerning the Concordat.
His protest against the Concordat of the 21st of February 1857 between Portugal and the Holy See, regulating the Portuguese Padroado in the East, his successful opposition to the entry of foreign religious orders, and his advocacy of civil marriage, were the chief landmarks in his battle with Ultramontanism, and his Estudos sobre o Casamento Civil were put on the Index.
The Concordat brought the clergy into subjection, and enabled him to distribute benefices at his pleasure among the most docile of his courtiers.
In April 1850 he concluded a treaty with Austria sanctioning the continuation for an indefinite period of the Austrian occupation with 10,000 men; in September he dismissed parliament, and the following year established a concordat with the Church of a very clerical character.Advertisement
In 1448 Eugenius's successor, Nicholas V., concluded a concordat with the emperor Frederick III.
Nothing was said in the concordat of a great part of the chief subjects of complaint.
This gave the princes an excuse for the theory that the decrees of Constance and Basel were still in force, limiting the papal prerogatives in all respects not noticed in the concordat.
The pope is constantly accused of violating the concordat, and constant demands are made for a general council, or at least a national one, which should undertake to remedy the abuses.
Bonaparte, in the Concordat which he forced upon the pope in 1801, did not provide for the return of any of the lands of the Church which had been sold, but agreed that the government should pay the salaries of bishops and priests, whose appointment it controlled.
In 1292 a synod was held here, and in 1474 an imperial diet, preliminary to that of Vienna, in which the concordat was decided which has therefore been sometimes called the Aschaffenburg Concordat.
Thereafter, when the restoration of the Roman Catholic religion was in the mind of the First Consul, Fesch resumed his clerical vocation and took an active part in the complex negotiations which led to the signing of the Concordat with the Holy See on the 15th of July 1801.
He had a hand in the negotiations for the Concordat, but, according to Lucien Bonaparte, looked on that measure as "ill-advised and retrograde."
But in 1798 the city was annexed to France and became the capital of the French department of Leman (to be carefully distinguished from the Swiss canton of Leman, that is Vaud, of the Helvetic Republic, also set up in 1798), while in 1802, by the Concordat, the ancient bishopric of Geneva was suppressed.
However, a solution that was right in principle proved impossible in practice, and the long struggle ended in a compromise by the Concordat of Worms (1122).
This had greatly increased since the Concordat of Worms, and reached its height under Innocent III.
In 1860 he prepared the legislative unification of Italy, opposed the idea of an alliance between Piedmont and Naples, and, after the fall of the Bourbons, was sent to Naples as administrator of justice, in which capacity he suppressed the religious orders, revoked the Concordat, proclaimed the right of the state to Church property, and unified civil and commercial jurisprudence.
In March 1825 he was created cardinal by Leo XII., and shortly afterwards was entrusted with an important mission to adjust a concordat regarding the interests of the Catholics of Belgium and the Protestants of Holland.
The understanding, however, between the two contracting parties was very far from being clear and complete, as each party still sought to attain its own aim by spreading in the Christian world divergent interpretations of the concordat and widely-differing plans for reducing it to its final form.
When the schism of 1130 broke out he endeavoured to procure the cancellation of the clauses of the Concordat of Worms and to recover lay investiture by way of compensation for the support he had given to Innocent II., one of the competing popes.
He also had to submit to the consequences of his origin on the occasion of a double election not foreseen by the Concordat of Worms, when he was forced to admit the necessity of appeal to Rome and to acknowledge the supremacy of the papal decision.
In the Empire the affairs of the Church were ameliorated - though not so quickly - by the Concordat of Vienna (1448).
The conquest of Milan by the French led to a personal interview at Bologna, where the " Concordat " with France was concluded.
The harrying was halted in 1795; and soon after the directory had been succeeded by the consulate, the Catholic religion was re-established by the concordat of 1801.
In the concordat of 1801 the papacy recognized the validity of the sales of Church of 180E g Y property, and still further reduced the number of dioceses; it provided that the government should appoint and support the archbishops and bishops, but that the pope should confirm them; and France recognized the temporal power, though shorn of Ferrara, Bologna and the Romagna.
The indignation of the pope and his advisers was not deep enough to prevent the ratification in 1803 of a somewhat similar concordat for the Italian Republic. In 1804 Pius consented to anoint Napoleon emperor, thus casting over a conquered crown the halo of legitimacy.
After the return from Moscow the emperor negotiated with his prisoner a new and more exacting concordat, but two months later the repentant pope abrogated this treaty and declared all the official acts of the new French bishops to be invalid.
In France, under the Concordat, the sovereign - and under the republic the president - had the right of nomination.
By additional articles the equality of religions was guaranteed and the rights of Protestants safeguarded, concessions which were denounced at Rome as a breach of the Concordat, which had been signed immediately before.
With the view of terminating these differences the king in 1827 entered into a concordat with the pope, and an agreement was reached with regard to nominations to bishoprics, clerical education and other questions, which should have satisfied all reasonable men.
In other words, most men since his day who have not been contented with a mere concordat, have let religion go and contented themselves with reason.
Pascal, equally discontented with the concordat, held fast to religion and continued to fight out the questions of difference with reason.
In 1887 he again visited India, to carry out the terms of the concordat arranged with Portugal.
At last, in September 1122, the investiture question was settled by the concordat of Worms. By this compromise, which exhaustion forced upon both parties, the tight of electing prelates was granted to the clergy, and the emperor surrendered the privilege of investing of Worms. them with the ring and the staff.
Seven years before, at Eger in July 1213, he had made extensive concessions to the church, undertaking to take no part in episcopal elections, thus surrendering the advantages gained by the concordat of Worms, and to allow to German bishops the right of appeal to Rome.
The consent of several of the electors having been purchased by concessions, Frederick signed with Pope Nicholas V., the successor of Eugenius, in February 1448 the concordat of Vienna, an arrangement which bound the German Church afresh to Rome and perpetuated the very evils from which earnest churchmen had been seeking deliverance.
The Hanoverian government, backed by the Frankfort diet, was still more successful in its warfare with the moderate reformers whom it was pleased to treat as revolutionists; and in Austria the feudalists so completely gained the upper hand that on the 18th of August 1855 the government signed a concordat, by which the state virtually submitted itself to the control of the church.
The concordat of 1855 had given the The Church complete freedom in the management of all Liberals ecclesiastical affairs; there was full liberty of inter- and the course with Rome, the state gave up all control over concordat.
Some change in this system was essential; the Liberal party demanded that the government should simply state that the concordat had ceased to exist.
So it came about in 1869, that on the first occasion when there was a joint sitting of the Delegations to settle a point in the von Rauscher (1797-1875), cardinal archbishop of Vienna, who had earned his red hat by the share he had taken in arranging the concordat of 1855, and now attempted to use his great personal influence with the emperor (his former pupil) to defeat the bill.
The pope, in an allocution of 22nd June 1868, declared that these " damnable and abominable laws " which were " contrary to the concordat, to the laws of the Church and to the principles of Christianity," were " absolutely and for ever null and void."
They claimed that the laws were inconsistent with the concordat, that the concordat still was in force, and that the laws were consequently invalid.
Rudigier, bishop of Linz, was summoned to a criminal court for disturbing the public peace; he refused to appear, for by the concordat bishops were not subject to temporal jurisdiction; and when he was condemned to imprisonment the emperor at once telegraphed his full pardon.
On the proclamation of papal infallibility in 1870, the government took the opportunity of declaring that the concordat had lapsed, on the ground that there was a fundamental change in the character of the papacy.
He altered the constitution in a more Liberal direction, and struck various blows at the Clerical party, among other things abolishing the concordat with Rome.
In 1818 he concluded a Concordat with the Church, by which the latter renounced its suzerainty over the kingdom, but was given control over education, the censorship and many other privileges.
The concordat of Worms closed the investiture controversy in 1 12 2.
He concluded a concordat with Rudolph of Habsburg in May 1278, by which the Romagna and the exarchate of Ravenna were guaranteed to the pope; and in July he issued an epochmaking constitution for the government of Rome, which forbade foreigners taking civil office.
A " concordat," to which the pope, as a spiritual authority, is one of the parties, is therefore not a treaty, nor is a convention between a state and an individual, nor a convention between the rulers of two states with reference to their private affairs.
While the council was still sitting the Bavarian minister, Prince Chlodwig zu Hohenlohe-Schillingsfiirst, suggested to Bismarck that the 'Powers would do well to bring its deliberations to an end; and immediately after the publication of its decrees Austria notified the pope that so vast an extension of the Church's claims would necessitate a revision of the concordat.
He took the lead in the national church councils of 1 797 and 1801; but he was strenuously opposed to Napoleon's policy of reconciliation with the Holy See, and after the signature of the concordat he resigned his bishopric (October 8, 1801).
In the case of the former, the local law is chiefly founded on the concordat, including the derogations and privileges resulting from it.
In Germany it was decided by the concordat of Constance, in 1418, that bishoprics and abbacies should pay the servitia according to the valuation of the Roman chancery in two half-yearly instalments.
The council of Basel (1431-1443) wished to abolish the servitia, but the concordat of Vienna (1448) confirmed the Constance decision, which, in spite of the efforts of the congress of Ems (1786) to alter it, still remains nominally in force.
Napoleon, who had begun life as a disciple of Rousseau, confirmed the wisdom of the philosophy of Burke when he came to make the Concordat.
Almost the last act of William's long reign was to conclude a concordat with the Papacy, but this was repudiated by the diet, which preferred to regulate the relations between church and state in its own way.
Although he had been most violent in denouncing the anti-clerical policy of the Combes cabinet, he now announced his willingness to recognize a new regime to replace the Concordat, and gave the government his support in the establishment of the Associations cultuerles, while he secured some mitigation of the severities attending the separation.
At length in 1122 the struggle was brought to an end by the concordat of Worms, the provisions of which were incorporated in the eighth and ninth canons of the general Lateran council of 1123.
The dispute was bitter, but was carried on without any of the violence which characterized the conflict between papacy and empire; and it ended in a compromise which closely foreshadowed the provisions of the concordat of Worms and received the confirmation of Paschal II..
Their masterstroke was the Concordat of 1516, which meant an immense stride in the path towards absolutism.
The Concordat (July i8oI), drawn up not in the Churchs interest but in.
The relations between Church and state, and the position of the religious orders, were defined by the concordat of 1851, remaining practically unchanged until 1910.
Under the concordat of the 20th of March 1851, by which the relations of Spain and the Vatican are Question of still governed, the law under which since 1836 the the Religi.
They also all of them claimed, under the concordat, exemption from taxes; and, since many of them indulged in commercial and industrial pursuits, they competed unfairly with other traders and manufacturers, and tended to depress the labor market.
It sent General Weyler to keep Barcelona in order, caused the release of most of the prisoners in Monjuich, reduced the forces in Morocco, reopened negotiations with Rome for a modification of the concordat, and on the 31st of December, the end of the financial year, was responsible for the issue of a royal decree stating that the budget would remain in force until the Cortes could pass a new one.
A cry went up that to allow dissident churches to announce their presence was to insult and persecute the Catholic I at Rome the decree was attacked as unconstitutional, and a breach of diplomatic propriety all the more reprehensible as negotiations for a revision of the concordat were actually pending.
This was denounced at Rome as a unilateral assertion on the part of the Spanish government of an authority which, under the concordat, belonged to the Holy See as well.
Both parties have agreed a concordat setting out how we will work together in future.
The PRO and NAW were developing a concordat on record-keeping issues which would be published.
Scope out the funding for an external person to review the concordat.
We have together published a concordat setting out how we work effectively together.
Each Whitehall department is encouraged to agree a bilateral concordat with each of the Devolved Administrations.
Halls finds evidence of Catholic clerics dreaming of a new concordat for France.
For the remaining States the agreements entered into in the present concordat come into force in their entirety.
The Council signed up to the enforcement concordat in 1998 and copies of the enforcement policy are available at the Council offices.
Concordat with the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) 8. Members were invited to approve the draft concordat with the Disability Rights Commission (DRC) 8. Members were invited to approve the draft concordat with the DRC.
Concordats extend the reach of Canon Law, and human rights lawyers express concern about the impending Slovak " conscience concordats extend the reach of Canon Law, and human rights lawyers express concern about the impending Slovak " conscience concordat " .
Business Development Small Business Friendly concordat London Boro of Barking and Dagenham have recently signed a procurement concordat.
Email the Concordat hotline The healthcare Commission is committed to reducing the burden of inspection on frontline healthcare staff.
It is, therefore, to the general interest that all these matters should be settled pacifically, by a common accord; and hence originated those conventions between the two powers which are known by the significant name of concordat, the official name being pactum concordatum or solemnis conventio.
A concordat may assume divers forms, - historically, three.
The most common in modern times is that of a diplomatic convention debated between the authorized mandatories of the high contracting parties and subsequently ratified by the latter; as, for example, the French concordat of 1801.
Nevertheless, there is no example of a concordat having been denounced or broken by the popes, whereas several have been denounced or broken by the civil powers, sometimes in the least diplomatic manner, as in the case of the French concordat in 1905.
Finally we must note that the Cisalpine now took the name of the Italian Republic, and that by a concordat with the pope, Bonaparte regulated its relations to the Holy See in a manner analogous to that adopted in the famous French concordat promulgated at Easter 1802 (see CONCORDAT).
At first the emperor succeeded in persuading the aged pontiff to sign the preliminaries of an agreement, known as the "Fontainebleau Concordat" (25th of January 1813); but, on its insidious character becoming apparent, Pius VII.
He was also in full sympathy with the policy which led up to the signature of the Concordat of 1801-2 with the pope (see Concordat); but it is probable that he had a hand in the questionable intrigues which accompanied the closing parts of that complex and difficult negotiation.
His protests against the Pragmatic Sanction of Bourges were ineffectual, but by means of the Concordat of the Princes, negotiated by Piccolomini with the electors in February 1447, the whole of Germany declared against the antipope.
This scheme, however, was frustrated by the firmness of Innocent and St Bernard, and Lothair had to resign himself to the zealous conservation of the privileges granted to the Empire by the terms of the concordat.
This was found in the so-called "collegial" theory of Church government (Kollegialsystem), which assumed a sort of tacit concordat between the state and the religious community, by which the latter vests in the former the right to exercise a certain part of the jus in sacra properly inherent in the Church (see Pufendorf, Samuel).
Leo X., Julius II.s successor, by an astute volte-face exchanged Parma and the Concordat for a guarantee of all the Churchs possessiOns, which meant the defeat of French plans (1515).
Soon afterwards he went to London, where he lived until his death in 1807, never accepting the Concordat, which had suppressed his archiepiscopal see.
In the long debates between Rome and France about the Concordat Consalvi took the leading part.
His concordat with Florence (1516) guaranteed the free election of the clergy in that city.
To the situation defined by concordat, however, succeeds another situation, more or less uncertain and more or less strained, in which the two powers legislate separately on mixed matters, sometimes not without provoking conflicts.
In this concordat a distinction was made between spiritual investiture, by the ring and pastoral staff, and lay or feudal investiture, by the sceptre.
Analogous to this convention was the concordat concluded between Nicholas IV.
This concordat, however, was not received as law of the Empire.
Through the efforts of some German princes negotiations between pope and emperor were renewed, and the important Concordat of Worms made in September 1122 was the result.
It was largely owing to Consalvi's combined firmness and tact that the Concordat, as ultimately signed, was free from the objectionable clauses on which the First Consul had at first insisted.
For the purposes of a concordat the state recognizes the official status of the church and of its ministers and tribunals; guarantees it certain privileges; and sometimes binds itself to secure for it subsidies representing compensation for past spoliations.
Or, secondly, the concordat may result from two identical separate acts, one emanating from the pope and the other from the sovereign; this was the form of the first true concordat, that of Worms, in 1122.
The Concordat of 1856 and consequent legislation restored matrimonial jurisdiction to the courts Christian over marriages between Roman Catholics.
First we have the attempt at the autocratic centralization of the whole monarchy under Bach; the personal influence of the emperor is seen in the conclusion of the Concordat with Rome, by which in 1855 the work of Joseph II.