Comte Sentence Examples
Her father's palace was pillaged by the Turks, and as a child of four years old she was sold to the comte de Ferriol, the French ambassador at Constantinople.
Her early years were clouded by the execution of the duc de Montmorency, her mother's only brother, for intriguing against Richelieu in 1631, and that of her mother's cousin the comte de Montmorency-Boutteville for duelling in 1635; but her parents made their peace with Richelieu, and being introduced into society in 1635 she soon became one of the stars of the Hotel Rambouillet, at that time the centre of all that was learned, witty and gay in France.
Having nominally become king in 1799, that prince created the estate of Ile-Jourdain a duchy, under the title of Avaray, in favour of the comte d'Avaray,, whom he termed his "liberator."
Some of his finest tragedies were written for her, but her repertoire was not confined to them, and many an indifferent play - like Thomas Corneille's Ariane and Comte d'Essex - owed its success to "her natural manner of acting, and her pathetic rendering of the hapless heroine."
The advent of Thiers, his attitude towards the petition of French bishops on behalf of the pope, the recall of Senard, the French minister at Florencewho had written to congratulate Victor Emmanuel on the capture of Romeand the instructions given to his successor, the comte de Choiseul, to absent himself from Italy at the moment of the kings official entry into the new capital (2nd July 1871), together with the haste displayed in appointing a French ambassador to the Holy See, rapidly cooled the cordiality of Franco-Italian relations, and reassured Bismarck on the score of any dangerous intimacy between the two governments.Advertisement
Ethics here stands to sociology in a close relation, similar, in many respects, to that which we find in Hegel and in Comte.
After working under Leopold Gmelin at Heidelberg, and Liebig at Giessen, he spent three years in Paris studying the higher mathematics under Comte.
Benedict, Die Gudrunsage in der neueren Literatur (1902.) '[[Guebriant, Jean Baptiste Budes,' Comte De]] (1602-1643), marshal of France, was born at Plessis-Budes, near St Brieuc, of an old Breton family.
On the 21st of January 1793 Louis became, for the royalists, king of France, and a week later the comte de Provence arrogated to himself the title of regent.
The most important of these pretenders were Karl Wilhelm Naundorff and the comte de Richemont.Advertisement
According to him Barras determined to save the dauphin in order to please Josephine Beauharnais, the future empress, having conceived the idea of using the dauphin's existence as a means of dominating the comte de Provence in the event of a restoration.
On retiring from the service he married Francoise de Castellane, and left at his death, in 1737, three sons - Victor marquis de Mirabeau, Jean Antoine, bailli de Mirabeau, and Comte Louis Alexandre de Mirabeau.
Hitherto weight has been laid on the practical side of Mirabeau's political genius; his ideas with regard to the Revolution after the 5th and 6th of October must now be examined, and this can be done at length, thanks to the publication of Mirabeau's correspondence with the Comte de la Marck, a study of which is indispensable for any correct knowledge of the history of the Revolution between 1789 and 1791.
Auguste Marie Raymond, prince d'Arenberg, known as the Comte de la Marck, was a Flemish nobleman who had been proprietary colonel of a German regiment in the service of France; he was a close friend of the queen, and had been elected a member of the states-general.
However, in April 1790 he was suddenly recalled by the comte de Mercy-Argenteau, the Austrian ambassador at Paris, and the queen's most trusted political adviser, and from this time to Mirabeau's death he became the medium of almost daily communications between the latter and the queen.Advertisement
He had long known Armand Marc, comte de Montmorin, the foreign secretary, and, as matters became more strained from the complications with the princes and counts of the empire, he entered into daily communication with the minister, advised him on every point, and, while dictating his policy, defended it in the Assembly.
Saint Simon relates that he once asked a hearing of the comte de Pontchartrain, saying that he would at first believe him mad, then become interested, and then see he was right.
Maurepas, generally ascribed to the comte de Provence (Louis XVIII.), containing a bitter caricature of Turgot.
These are Ariane (1672) and the Comte d'Essex, in the former of which Rachel attained success.
There are also editions of the correspondence with Gustave d'Eichtal and Comte (specially that of Levy-Bruhl, 1899).Advertisement
From the French governor of Corsica, the comte de Marbeuf, he procured many favours, among them being the nomination of the young Napoleon to the military school at Brienne in the east of France.
Failing through his police to lure the comte d'Artois to land in Normandy, Napoleon pounced on a scion of the House of Bourbon who was within his reach.
His son, comte Emile de Keratry (1832-), became deputy for Finistere in 1869, and strongly supported the war with Germany in 1870.
His publications include Philosophy of Kant (1878); Critical Philosophy of Kant (1889); Religion and Social Philosophy of Comte (1885); Essays on Literature and Philosophy (1892); Evolution of Religion (Gifford Lectures, 1891-1892); Evolution of Theology in the Greek Philosophers (1904); and he is represented in this encyclopaedia by the article on Cartesianism.
He wrote a Notice historique sur la vie et les ouvrages du comte de Lanjuinais, which was prefixed to an edition of his father's Ouvres (4 vols., 1832).Advertisement
Later he held a similar position at Tours, and there he attracted the attention of the duc de Choiseul, who invited him to visit him at Chanteloup. Hauterive thus came in contact with the great men who visited the duke, and one of these, the comte de Choiseul-Goiffier, on his appointment as ambassador to Constantinople in 1784 took him with him.
Francois de Beauvillier, comte de Saint Aignan, after having been through the campaigns in Germany (1634-1635), Franche-Comte (1636), and Flanders (1637), was sent to the Bastille in consequence of his having lost the battle of Thionville in 1640.
Paul Hippolyte de Beauvillier, comte de Montresor, afterwards duc de Saint Aignan, was ambassador at Madrid from 1715 to 1718 and at Rome in 1731, and a member of the council of regency in 1719.
Actually, only some foreign counts could be said to be equivalent to English earls; but "earl" is always translated by foreigners by words (comte, Graf) which in English are represented by "count," itself never used as the synonym of "earl."
That of "count" was, as Luchaire points out, "equivocal" even as late as the 12th century; any castellan of moderate rank could style himself comte who in the next century would have been called seigneur (dominus).
In the field of philosophic speculation, Auguste Comte has had many disciples in Brazil.
In 1864 the princess Isabella, the eldest daughter of the emperor and empress, had married the Comte d'Eu, a member of the Orleans family.
The marriage was never popular in the country, owing partly to the fact that the Comte d'Eu was a reserved man who made few intimate friends and never attempted to become a favourite.
As a fortress Besancon forms one of a group which includes Dijon, Langres and Belfort; these are designed to secure Franche Comte and to cover a field army operating on the left flank of a German army of invasion.
After the school of Comte, yet to a large extent original, is the Az ember es vildga (" Man and his World ") of Charles Bohm, who in 1881 started a philosophical review (Magyar Filozofiai Szemle), subsequently edited by Joseph Bokor, a vigorous thinker.
In March 1784 he entered into relations with a certain Jeanne de St Remy de Valois, a descendant of a bastard of Henry II., who after many adventures had married a soi-disant comte de Lamotte, and lived on a small pension which the king granted her.
Meanwhile the "comte de Lamotte" appears to have started at once for London, it is said with the necklace, which he broke up in order to sell the stones.
The French admiral, the comte de Grasse, attacked the British islands of St Kitts and Nevis with a much superior force to the squadron under Hood's command.
He was made an Irish peer for his share in the defeat of the comte de Grasse on the 9th and 12th of April near Dominica.
The family of Lamartine was good, and the title of Prat was taken from an estate in Franche Comte.
Henri, comte de La Rochejacquelein, born at Dubertien, near Chatillon, sur Sevres, on the 10th of August 1772, did not emigrate with his father.
The comte de La Rochejacquelein had in fact to obey his army, and could only display his personal valour in action.
This new creation became extinct on the death of the comte de Chambord in 1883.
He came of an old family, his father, Guy Francois de Coetnempren, comte de Kersaint, being a distinguished naval officer.
His best legal treatise is Memoire pour le comte de Morangies (Paris, 1772); Linguet's imprisonment in the Bastille afforded him the opportunity of writing his Memoires sur la Bastille, first published in London in 1789; it has been translated into English (Dublin, 1783, and Edinburgh, 1884-1887), and is the best of his works, though untrustworthy.
Among his prisoners was Therese, the divorced wife of the comte de Fontenay, and daughter of the Spanish banker, Francois Cabarrus, one of the most fascinating women of her time, and Tallien not only spared her life but fell in love with her.
On returning to France in 1802 he obtained a divorce from his wife (who in 1805 married the comte de Caraman, later prince de Chimay), and was left for some time without employment.
He corresponded, in that year, with the Comte de Montmort on the subject of Nicolas Malebranche's tenets; and unfinished treatises, " On the Jewish Sacrifices " and " On the Lawfulness of Eating Blood," written on his return from Aix-la-Chapelle in 1719, were afterwards found among his papers.
After he had been two years at the Ecole Polytechnique he took a foremost part in a mutinous demonstration against one of the masters; the school was broken up, and Comte like the other scholars was sent home.
So Comte remained in Paris, living as he best could on something less than 80 a year, and hoping, when he took the trouble to break his meditations upon greater things by hopes about himself, that he might by and by obtain an appointment as mathematical master in a school.
After a short experience of three weeks Comte returned to neediness and contentment.
Towards 1818 Comte became associated as friend and disciple with Saint-Simon, who was destined to exercise a very decisive influence upon the turn of his speculation.
Even at the very moment when Comte was congratulating himself on having thrown off the yoke, he honestly admits that Saint-Simon's influence has been of powerful service in his philosophic education.
We see the debt, and we also see that when it is stated at the highest possible, nothing has really been taken either from Comte's claims as a powerful original thinker, or from his immeasurable pre-eminence over Saint-Simon in intellectual grasp and vigour and coherence.
It is no detriment to Comte's fame that some of the ideas which he recombined and incorporated in a great philosophic structure had their origin in ideas that were produced almost at random in the incessant fermentation of Saint-Simon's brain.
Comte is in no true sense a follower of Saint-Simon, but it was undoubtedly Saint-Simon who launched him, to take Comte's own word, by suggesting the two starting-points of what grew into the Comtist system - first, that political phenomena are as capable of being grouped under laws as other phenomena; and second, that the true destination of philosophy must be social, and the true object of the thinker must be the reorganization of the moral, religious and political systems. We can readily see what an impulse these far-reaching conceptions would give to Comte's meditations.
That Comte would have performed some great intellectual achievement, if Saint-Simon had never been born, is certain.
Comte thought almost as meanly of Plato as he did of Saint-Simon, and he considered Aristotle the prince of all true thinkers; yet their vital difference about Ideas did not prevent Aristotle from calling Plato master.
After six years the differences between the old and the young philosopher grew too marked for friendship. Comte began to fret under Saint-Simon's pretensions to be his director.
The occasion of the breach between them (1824)was an attempt on Saint-Simon's part to print a production of Comte's as if itwereinsomesortconnected with Saint-Simon's schemes of social reorganization.
Not only was the breach not repaired, but long afterwards Comte, as we have said, with painful ungraciousness took to calling the encourager of his youth by very hard names.
In 1825 Comte married a Mdlle Caroline Massin.
Madame Comte conceived a dislike to the circle she found there, and this was the too early beginning of disputes which lasted for the remainder of their union.
Unhappily, after the third lecture of the course, Comte had a severe attack of cerebral derangement, brought on by intense and prolonged meditation, acting on a system that was already irritated by the chagrin of domestic discomfort.
Lamennais, then in the height of his Catholic exaltation, persuaded Comte's mother to insist on her son being married with the religious ceremony, and as the younger Madame Comte apparently did not resist, the rite was duly performed, in spite of the fact that Comte was at the time raving mad.
As has been justly said, if Newton once suffered a cerebral attack without forfeiting our veneration for the Principia, Comte may have suffered in the same way, and still not have forfeited our respect for Positive Philosophy and Positive Polity.
This wise suggestion, still unfulfilled, was at first welcomed, according to Comte's own account, by Guizot's philosophic instinct, and then repulsed by his " metaphysical rancour."
Meanwhile Comte did his official work conscientiously, sorely as he grudged the time which it took from the execution of the great object of his thoughts.
Such sympathy with youthful hope, in union with industry and intelligence, shows that Comte's dry and austere manner veiled the fires of a generous social emotion.
The only amusement that Comte permitted himself was a visit to the opera.
First, the jar of temperament between Comte and his wife had become so unbearable that they separated (1842).
In spite of one or two disadvantageous facts in her career, Madame Comte seems to have uniformly comported herself towards her husband with an honourable solicitude for his well-being.
Comte made her an annual allowance, and for some years after the separation they corresponded on friendly terms. Next in the list of the vexations was a lawsuit with his publisher.
The publisher had inserted in the sixth volume a protest against a certain footnote, in which Comte had used some hard words about Arago.
Comte threw himself into the suit with an energy worthy of Voltaire and won it.
When Comte found himself straitened, he confided the entire circumstances to Mill.
At the end of the year (1845) Comte had taken no steps to enable himself to dispense with the aid of the three Englishmen.
Mill applied to them again, but with the exception of Grote, who sent a small sum, they gave Comte to understand that they expected him to earn his own living.
Mill had suggested to Comte that he should write articles for the English periodicals, and expressed his own willingness to translate any such articles from the French.
Comte at first fell in with the plan, but he speedily surprised and disconcerted Mill by boldly taking up the position of " high moral.
Comte, regarding himself as the promoter of a great scheme for the benefit of humanity, might reasonably look for the support of his friends in the fulfilment of his designs.
Comte's subsequent attitude of censorious condemnation put him entirely in the wrong.
From 1845 to 1848 Comte lived as best he could, as well as made his wife her allowance, on an income of 200 a year.
Littre and others, with Comte's approval, published an appeal for subscriptions, and on the money thus contributed Comte subsisted for the remaining nine years of his life.
It is worth noticing that Mill was one of the subscribers, and that Littre continued his assistance after he had been driven from Comte's society by his high pontifical airs.
We are sorry not to be able to record any similar trait of magnanimity on Comte's part.
It is hardly possible, however, to share the admiration expressed by some of Comte's disciples for his style.
When compared with such philosophic writing as Hume's, Diderot's, Berkeley's, then Comte's manner is heavy, laboured, monotonous, without relief and without light.
Comte pursued one practice which ought to be mentioned in connexion with his personal history, the practice of what he style hygiene cerebrale.
Still this partial divorce of himself from the record of the social and scientific activity of his time, though it may save a thinker from the deplorable evils of dispersion, moral and intellectual, accounts in no small measure for the exaggerated egoism, and the absence of all feeling for reality, which marked Comte's later days.
In 1845 Comte made the acquaintance of Madame Clotilde de Vaux, a lady whose husband had been sent to the galleys for life.
She wrote a little piece which Comte rated so pre- v posterously as to talk about George Sand in the same sentence; it is in truth a flimsy performance, though it contains one or two gracious thoughts.
Madame de Vaux's letters speak well for her good sense and good feeling, and it would have been better for Comte's later work if she had survived to exert a wholesome restraint on his exaltation.
Their friendship had only lasted a year when she died (1846), but the period was long enough to give her memory a supreme ascendancy in Comte's mind.
Comte was as inconsolable after Madame de Vaux's death as D'Alembert after the death of Mademoiselle L'Espinasse.
Whatever other gifts Comte may have had - and he had many of the rarest kind, - poetic imagination was not among them, any more than poetic or emotional expression was among them.
Comte lost no time, after the completion of his Course of Positive Philosophy, in proceeding with the System of Positive Polity, for which the earlier work was designed to be a foundation.
The hope was not fulfilled, but a certain number of philosophic disciples gathered round Comte, and eventually formed themselves, under the guidance of the new ideas of the latter half of his life, into a kind of church, for whose use was drawn up the Positivist Calendar (1849), in which the names of those who had advanced civilization replaced the titles of the saints.
In the years 1849, 1850 and 1851 Comte gave three courses of lectures at the Palais Royal.
In 1852 Comte published the Catechism of Positivism.
Whatever we may think of the political sagacity of such a judgment, it is due to Comte to say that he did not expect to see his dictatorial republic transformed into a dynastic empire, and, next, that he did expect from the Man of December freedom of the press and of public meeting.
But the two are quite capable of being regarded, and for the purposes of an account of Comte's career ought to be regarded, as an integral whole.
A great analysis was to precede a great synthesis, but it was the synthesis on which Comte's vision was centred from the first.
That is the question which Comte's first master-work professes to answer.
The Positive Philosophy opens with the statement of a certain law of which Comte was the discoverer, and which has always been treated both by disciples and dissidents as the key to his system.
Comte's special object is a study of social physics, a science that before his advent was still to be formed; his second object is a review of the methods and leading generalities of all the positive sciences already formed, so that we may know both what system of inquiry to follow in our new science, and also where the new science will stand in relation to other knowledge.
Comte's principle of classification is that the dependence and order of scientific study follows the dependence of the phenomena.
They are thus the double key of The double Comte's systematization of the philosophy of all the key of sciences from mathematics to physiology, and his positive analysis of social evolution, which is the base of philo= sociology.
What tradition brought was the results; what Comte brought was the organization of these results.
Comte's classification of the sciences has been subjected to a vigorous criticism by Herbert Spencer.
Littre, by far the most eminent of the scientific followers of Comte, concedes a certain force to Spencer's objections, and makes certain secondary modifications in the hierarchy in consequence, while still cherishing his faith in the Comtist theory of the sciences.
Mill, while admitting the objections as good, if Comte's arrangement pretended to be the only one possible, still holds the arrangement as tenable for the purpose with which it was devised.
In these three volumes Comte took the sciences roughly as he found them.
We shall now briefly describe Comte's principal conceptions in sociology, his position in respect to which is held by himself, and by others, to raise him to the level of Descartes or Leibnitz.
Comte explains the difference between his two works.
Comte's immense superiority over such praeRevolutionary utopians as the Abbe Saint Pierre, no less than over the group of post-revolutionary utopians, is especially visible in this firm grasp of the cardinal truth that the improvement of the social organism can only be effected by a moral development, and never by any changes in mere political mechanism, or any violences in the way of an artificial redistribution of wealth.
The exaltation of Humanity into the throne occupied by the Supreme Being under monotheistic systems made all the rest of Comte's construction easy enough.
Adoption, for example, as a practice for improving the happiness of families and the welfare of society, is capable of being weighed, and can in truth only be weighed, by utilitarian considerations, and has been commended 1 For Comte's place in the history of ethical theory see Ethics.
The singularity of Comte's construction, and the test by which it must be tried, is the transfer of the worship and discipline of Catholicism to a system in which " the conception of God is superseded " by the abstract idea of Humanity, conceived as a kind of Personality.
It is a mistake to present a great body of hypotheses - if Comte meant them for hypotheses - in the most dogmatic and peremptory form to which language can lend itself.
And there is no more extraordinary thing in the history of opinion than the perversity with which Comte has succeeded in clothing a philosophic doctrine, so intrinsically conciliatory as his, in a shape that excites so little sympathy and gives so much provocation.
Comte's Utopia has pleased the followers of the Catholic, just as little as those of the scientific, spirit.
This provision hardly consists with Comte's congratulations to the tsar Nicholas on the " wise vigilance " with which he kept watch over the importation of Western books.
From his earliest manhood Comte had been powerfully impressed by the necessity of elevating the condition of women.
But the world will take what is available in Comte, while forgetting that in his work which is as irrational in one way as Hegel is in another.
Comte der Begriinder des Positivismus.
Apart from the Churches, men like Carlyle and Matthew Arnold - with whom he had much in common - influenced him; while Herbert Spencer in England and Comte in France afforded the antithesis needful to the dialectical development of his own views.
The Revue contemporaine (1852), founded by the comte de Belval as a royalist organ, had joined to it in 1856 the Athenaeum francais.
In November 1677 he married Mary, eldest daughter of James, duke of York, afterwards King James II., and undertook negotiations with England in the following year which forced Louis to make terms and sign the treaty of Nijmwegen in August 1678, which gave Franche Comte and other places in Spanish Flanders to France.
At the time of his death, on the 13th of March 1854, he had advanced as far as 1816 with his memoirs, which were completed from his correspondence by his family as Memoires et correspondance du comte de Villele (Paris, 5 vols., 1887-90).
A follower of the positive philosophy, but in conflict with Richard Congreve as to details, he led the Positivists who split off and founded Newton Hall in 1881, and he was president of the English Positivist Committee from 1880 to 1905; he was also editor and part author of the Positivist New Calendar of Great Men (1892), and wrote much on Comte and Positivism.
The duke was joined in May, and at Portsmouth, by 40 French ships under the comte d'Estrees, a soldier and noble who had been made an admiral late in life.
Servien lived at Angers or on his estates at Sable until the death of Louis when Mazarin entrusted him with the conduct, conjointly with the comte d'Avaux, of French diplomatic affairs in Germany.
After five years' negotiations, and a bitter quarrel with the comte d'Avaux, which ended in the latter's recall, Servien signed the two treaties of the 24th of October 1648 which were part of the general peace of Westphalia.
The abdication of his father on the 16th of January 1556 constituted Philip sovereign of Spain with its American possessions, of the Aragonese inheritance in Italy, Naples and Sicily, of the Burgundian inheritance - the Netherlands and Franche Comte, and of the duchy of Milan, which his father separated from the empire for his benefit.
Thus the young princess was surrounded by enemies both at court and in the dauphin's household, and came to rely almost entirely upon the Austrian ambassador, the comte de Mercy-Argenteau, whom Maria Theresa had instructed to act as her mentor, at the same time arranging that she herself should be kept informed of all that concerned her daughter, so that she might at once advise her and safeguard the alliance.
At the same time her undisguised impatience of the cumbrous court etiquette shocked many people, and her taste for pleasure led her to seek the society of the comte d'Artois and his young and dissolute circle.
In frequenting the salons of her friends the queen not only came in contact with a number of the younger and more dissipated courtiers, whose high play and unseemly amusements she countenanced, but she fell under the influence of various ambitious intriguers, such as the baron de Besenval, the comte de Vaudreuil, the duc de Lauzun and the comte d'Adhemar, whose interested manoeuvres she was induced to further by her affection for her favourites.
Thus she was often led to interfere for frivolous reasons in public affairs, sometimes with serious results, as in the case of the trial of the comte de Guines (1776), when her interference was responsible for the fall of Turgot.
When Charles X., after retracting the hated ordinances, sent the comte d'Argout 1 to Laffitte to negotiate a change of ministry, the banker replied, "It is too late.
The clamour of the Paris mob for the death of the imprisoned ministers of Charles X., which in October culminated in riots, induced the 1 Apollinaire Antoine Maurice, comte d'Argout (1782-1858), afterwards reconciled to the July monarchy, and a member of the Laffitte, Casimir-Perier and Thiers cabinets.
He was the soul of the reactionary opposition that led to the fall of Thiers; and in 1873 it was he who, with Lucien Brun, carried to the comte de Chambord the proposals of the chambers.
The 11th century only has been treated in detail by Louis Halphen, in Le Comte d'Anjou au XP siecle (Paris, 1906), which has a preface with bibliography and an introduction dealing with the history of Anjou in the 10th century.
His "substitute for religion" is a doctrine in many points akin to Comte and Feuerbach, the former of whom he resembles in his sentimentalism.
In ethics Diihring follows Comte in making sympathy the foundation of morality.
His elder son, Comte Henri Georges Boulay De La Meurthe (1797-1858), was a constant Bonapartist, and after the election of Louis Napoleon to the presidency, was named (January 1849) vice-president of the republic. He zealously promoted popular education, and became in 1842 president of the society for elementary instruction.
A volume of Melanges et correspondance was published posthumously by Charles Comte, author of the Traite de legislation, who was his son-in-law.
Comte, Spencer, Bagehot, Durkheim and Giddings, for example, refer to it, if at all, only briefly and incidentally; they conceive society as an organism, or at all events as a growing whole, no one part or force being the cause of all others, and all interacting; society is not the product of any agreement or of force alone, but of a vast variety of interests, desires and needs.
Claude de Beauharnais, comte des Roches-Baritaud, uncle of the marquis and of the vicomte de Beauharnais, served in the navy and became a vice-admiral.
He found another place with the Comte de Gouvon, but lost this also through coxcombry.
His scientific life was now over, his political life was to begin; in the notoriety of that political life his great scientific and philosophical knowledge was to be forgotten, the high position he had given up denied, and he himself scoffed at as an ignorantcharlatan, who had sold quack medicines about the streets of Paris, and been glad to earn a few sous in the stables of the comte d'Artois.
Settling on the banks of the Delaware, he adopted the title of comte de Survilliers, and sought to promote plans for the rescue of his brother from St Helena.
Several of the earlier events of his life, especially his marriage with the princess Louise of Orleans, and the duel that the comte d'Artois provoked by raising the veil of the princess at a masked ball, caused much scandal.
Masaryk, who, as a counterpoise to German speculation and the intellectualism of Herbart, emphasized the critical study of English philosophy, notably Hume, Spencer and Mill, and the French Comte; at the same time he fully appreciated the value of Kant in epistemology.
Kliiber, Acten des Wiener Congresses (9 vols.); Comte d'Angeberg, Le Congrbs de Vienne (4 vols.).
An influential protector was needed; and Champlain prevailed upon Charles de Bourbon, comte de Soissons, to interest himself to obtain from the king the appointment of lieutenant-general in New France.
The comte de Soissons died almost immediately, and was succeeded in the office by Henri de Bourbon, prince de Conde, and he, like his predecessors and successors, retained Champlain as lieutenantgovernor.
The phrase Cent Jours was first used by the prefect of Paris, the comte de Chabrol, in his speech welcoming the king.
The picture of Mistress Blagge's saintly life at court is heightened in interest when read in connexion with the scandalous memoirs of the comte de Gramont, or contemporary political satires on the court.
The comte de Chinon, as the heir to the Richelieu honours was called, was married at fifteen to Rosalie de Rochechouart, a deformed child of twelve, with whom his relations were never more than formal.
The Bonapartists had attached themselves to the general, and even the comte de Paris encouraged his followers to support him, to the dismay of those old-fashioned Royalists who resented Boulanger's treatment of the duc d'Aumale.
The brilliant French naturalist Georges Louis Leclerc, comte de Buffon (1707-1788), in Les Epoques de la nature, included in his vast speculations the theory of alternate submergence and emergence of the continents.
The Souvenirs du comte de Caylus, published in 1805, is of very doubtful authenticity.
In 1672 Louis de Buade, comte de Frontenac, was named governor of New France, and in 'him the church found her match.
Thus he devoted one summer vacation to the careful analysis of Comte's Politique positive.
By it Spain recovered Franche Comte, but ceded to France Roussillon, and much of French Flanders; and, what was of greater ultimate importance to Europe, Louis XIV.
On realizing the truth he hastily abdicated in favour of his grandson, the duke of Bordeaux (comte de Chambord), and appointed Louis Philippe, duke of Orleans, lieutenant-general of the kingdom (July 30th).
If he had no sympathy with revolutionary disturbers of the peace, he had even less with the fatuous extravagances of the comte d'Artois and his reactionary entourage, and his influence was thrown into the scale of the moderate constitutional policy of which Richelieu and Decazes were the most conspicuous exponents.
Comte tells us that man first gets over theology, then over metaphysics, and finally rests in positivism.
Since the wreck of the training-ship " Comte de Smet de Naeyer " in 1906, it has been decided that a stationary training-ship shall be placed in the Scheldt like the " Worcester " on the Thames.
In May 1832 he hastened from Paris to see the duchess of Berry on her landing in the south of France for the purpose of organizing an insurrection in favour of her son, the duke of Bordeaux, since known as the Comte de Chambord.
The left and centre of the French army were less fortunate, and in their first charge lost their leader, Lieutenant-General Jean Christophe, comte de Gournay, one of the best cavalry officers in the service.
Academies vied with each other in enrolling Leverrier among their members; the Royal Society awarded him the Copley medal; the king of Denmark sent him the order of the Dannebrog; he was named officer in the Legion of Honour, and preceptor to the comte de Paris; a chair of astronomy was created for his benefit at the Faculty of Sciences; he was appointed adjunct astronomer to the Bureau of Longitudes.
Comte applied the term to denominate the view of nature more commonly termed animism.
But in 1796, the Directory having offered to release his mother and his two brothers, who had been kept in prison since the Terror, on condition that he went to America, he set sail for the United States, and in October settled in Philadelphia, where in February 1 797 he was joined by his brothers the duc de Montpensier and the comte de Beaujolais.
Immediately on his arrival, in February 1800, the duke of Orleans, at the suggestion of Dumouriez, sought an interview with the comte d'Artois, through whose instrumentality he was reconciled with the exiled king Louis XVIII., who bestowed upon his brothers the order of the Saint Esprit.
The comte de Beaujolais was ill of the same disease and in 1808 the duke took him to Malta, where he died on the 29th of May.
Hitherto, in letters to Charles X., he had protested the loyalty of his intentions, 3 and the king now nominated him lieutenant-general and then, abdicating in favour of his grandson the comte de Chambord appointed him regent.
Daudet gives the account of the interview left by the comte d'Artois, and he also makes it clear that Louis Philippe, while protesting his loyalty to the head of his house, did not disguise his opinion that a Restoration would only be possible if the king accepted the essential changes made by the Revolution.
Among these may be mentioned Pierre Gassendi, who revived and codified the doctrine in the 17th century; Moliere, the comte de Gramont, Rousseau, Fontenelle and Voltaire.
His brother Auguste Raymond, Comte de la Marck (1753-1833), became famous during the early stages of the French Revolution for his friendship with Mirabeau.
The published Lettre de l'abbe Raynal a l'Assemblee nationale (loth Dec. 1790) was really the work of the comte de Guibert.
His brother, Arthur of Brittany, earl of Richmond (comte de Richemont), was reconciled with the king, and became constable in 1425, with the avowed intention of making peace between Charles VII.
The Orleanists were driven into exile, and the duchess proceeded with her two sons, the comte de Paris and the duc de Chartres, first to Eisenach in Saxony, and then to Claremont in Surrey.
By the death of the latter in 1883 the count became undisputed head of the house of Bourbon; but he did not show any disposition to push his claims. The popularity of the Orleans family, however, was shown on the occasion of the marriage of the comte de Paris's eldest daughter with the duke of Braganza, son of the king of Portugal, in May 1886.
The comte de Paris again retired to England, taking up his abode at Sheen House, near Richmond Park.
He collaborated in the translation of Comte's system of Positive Polity (4 vols., 1875 - 1879), translated his Discourse on the Positive Spirit (1903),, and wrote a biography of Comte for a translation of the first two chapters of his Cours de philosophie positive, entitled Fundamental Principles of Positive Philosophy (1905).
In his philosophy Brownson was a more or less independent follower of Comte for a short time, and of Victor Cousin, who, in his Fragmens philosophiques, praised him; he may be said to have taught a modified intuitionalism.
The other claimant, however, Otto William, count of upper Burgundy, or Franche Comte, offered so stubborn a resistance that it was not until 1015 that the king secured the duchy, which he gave as an apanage to his son Henry.
The battle of Guinegate on the 7th of August 1479 was indecisive, and definite peace was not established until after the death of Mary, when by the treaty of Arras (1482) Louis received Picardy, Artois and the Boulonnais, as well as the duchy of Burgundy and Franche Comte.
In 1845 with Molesworth and Raikes Currie he gave monetary assistance to Auguste Comte, then in financial difficulties.
Two of these - one a French adventurer, Gaston Raoux, comte de Raousset-Boulbon (1817-1854), and William Walker, had very picturesque careers.
The son assumed the title of comte de Rivarol, and asserted his connexion with a noble Italian family, but his enemies said that the name was really Riverot, and that the family was not noble.
Barthelemy's correspondence with Paolo Paciaudi, chiefly on antiquarian subjects, was edited with the Correspondance inedite du comte de Caylus in 1877 by Ch.
With the collaboration of Alfred von Arneth, director of the imperial archives at Vienna, he edited the Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., 1874), the first account based on trustworthy documents of Marie Antoinette's character, private conduct and policy.
On the 9th of June 1156 the king was married at Wiirzburg to Beatrix, daughter and heiress of the dead count of Upper Burgundy, Renaud III., when Upper Burgundy or Franche Comte, as it is sometimes called, was added to his possessions.
See Diderot's Prospectus (Muvres, iii.) and d'Alembert's Discours (Ouvres,i.) The scheme should be compared with later attempts of the same nature by Ampere, Cournot, Comte and Herbert Spencer.
Comte de Mas Latrie published between 1852 and 1861 one volume of History (1191-1291), and two of most precious documents in illustration of the reigns of the Lusignan kings.
On the eve of the contest there was a general assembly of the Hats at the French embassy, where the Comte de Modene furnished them with 6,000,000 livres, but not till they had signed in his presence an undertaking to reform the constitution in a monarchical sense.
Where she deserves blame is in her use of her power for personal patronage, as in compassing the promotions of Chamillart and Villeroi, and the frequent assistance given to her brother Comte Charles d'Aubigne.
Before he departed, the French government undertook to pay the outstanding subsidies to Sweden unconditionally, at the rate of one and a half million livres annually; and the comte de Vergennes, one of the great names of French diplomacy, was transferred from Constantinople to Stockholm.
At the French court he stood in high favour with the comte d'Artois.
At the urgent entreaty of the comte d'Artois in 1791 he quitted Paris for Coblenz, accompanied Artois to Vienna, and was sent to the court of St Petersburg the same year to enlist the sympathies of Catherine II.
His father, Pons, comte de Fenelon, was a country gentleman of ancient lineage, large family and small estate.
The leaders in the movement were Anthero de Quental and Dr Theophilo Braga, the first a student of German philosophy and poetry, the second a disciple of Comte and author of an epic of humanity, Visao dos tempos, whose immense work in the spheres of poetry, criticism and literary history, marred by contradictions, but abounding in life, cannot be judged at present.
Residing at Paris as a teacher of mathematics, he became a disciple of Comte, who appointed him his literary executor.
On the schism of the Positivist body which followed Comte's death, he was recognized as head of the section which accepted the full Comtian doctrine; the other section adhering to Littre, who rejected the religion of humanity as inconsistent with the materialism of Comte's earlier period.
From 1853 Laffitte delivered Positivist lectures in the room formerly occupied by Comte in the rue Monsieur le Prince.
In 1893 he was appointed to the new chair founded at the College de France for the exposition of the general history of science, and it was largely due to his inspiration that a statue to Comte was erected in the Place de la Sorbonne in 1902.
The comte de Flahaut is perhaps better remembered for his exploits in gallantry, and the elegant manners in which he had been carefully trained by his mother, than for his public services, which were not, however, so inconsiderable as they have sometimes been represented to be.
Here she led a retired life with the comte de Cosse-Brissac, and was visited there by Benjamin Franklin and the emperor Joseph II., among many other distinguished men.
The monks of Fontenay le Comte bought some property (half an inn in the town), and among their signatures to the deed of purchase is that of Francois Rabelais.
The next stage in this (so far as evidence goes, purely imaginary) career is the monastery of Fontenay le Comte, where, as has been seen, he is certainly found in 1519 holding a position sufficiently senior to sign deeds for the community, where he, probably in 1511, took priest's orders, and where he also pursued, again certainly, the study of letters, and especially of Greek, with ardour.
His CEuvres were published by the comte de Quatrebarbes (4 vols., Paris and Angers, 1845-46).
An allied force of 37 British sail of the line, under command of the earl of Torrington (Arthur Herbert), and of 2 2 Dutch under C. Evertsen, was at anchor under the headland, while a French fleet of over 70 sail, commanded by the comte de Tourville, was anchored some miles off to the south-west.
Thus the viscounty became extinct on his death, but the English and Irish baronies descended to his elder daughter Margaret (1788-1867), who married the Comte de Flahault de la Billarderie, only to become extinct on her death.
His younger brother, Edouard Marie, comte de Barthelemy, who was born in Angers in 1830, has published a number of documents upon the ancient French nobility and upon the history of Champagne.
See also Correspondance diplomatique du comte Pozzo di Borgo et du comte de Nesselrode, edited by Charles Pozzo di Borgo (Paris, 2 vols., 1890-1897).
His valet had orders to awake him every morning with the words, "Remember, monsieur le comte, that you have great things to do."
In 1817 he began in a treatise entitled L'Industrie to propound his socialistic views, which he further developed in L'Organisateur (181q), a periodical on which Augustin Thierry and Auguste Comte collaborated.
It was this development of his teaching that occasioned his final quarrel with Comte.
Marceau became affianced about this time to Agathe Lepretre de Chateaugiron, but his constant military employment, his broken health, and the opposition of the comte de Chateaugiron on the one hand and of Marceau's devoted half-sister "Emira," wife of the Republican politician Sergent, on the other, prevented the realization of his hopes.
There are 440 apartments, containing pictures of the 17th century and souvenirs of the comte de Chambord.
It was given by Napoleon to Marshal Berthier, from whose widow it was purchased by subscription in 1821, and presented to the duc de Bordeaux, the representative of the older branch of the Bourbons, who assumed from it the title of comte de Chambord.
In the memorable engagement of the 12th of April 1782, in which Rodney defeated the comte de Grasse, near Martinique, Bougainville, who commanded the "Auguste," succeeded in rallying eight ships of his own division, and bringing them safely into St Eustace.
While the Assembly was considering a declaration which might calm revolt, the v i comte de Noailles and the duc d'Aiguillon moved that it should proclaim equality of taxation and the suppression of feudal burdens.
But the only minister who influenced the course of affairs was the comte de Narbonne, minister of war.
The term has also been applied to the philosophy of Comte in virtue of its insistence on the dignity of humanity and its refusal to find in the divine anything external or superior to mankind, and the same tendency has had marked influence over the development of modern Christian theology which inclines to obliterate the old orthodox conception of the separate existence and overlordship of God.
Mill afterwards made popular in England, the influence of Auguste Comte (Philosophic positive, 182g-1842, and Systeme de politique positive, 1851-1854) appears as the chief modifying element.
This influence, so far as it has affected moral as distinct from political speculation, has been exercised primarily through the general conception of human progress; which, in Comte's view, consists in the ever growing preponderance of the distinctively human attributes over the purely animal, social feelings being ranked highest among human attributes, and highest of all the most universalized phase of human affection, the devotion to humanity as a whole.
Accordingly, it is the development of benevolence in man, and of the habit of " living for others," which Comte takes as the ultimate aim and standard of practice, rather than the mere increase of happiness.
It is to be observed that, in Comte's view, devotion to humanity is the principle not merely of morality, but of religion; i.e.
This view extends far beyond the limits of Comte's special school or sect, and has been widely accepted.
Mill, it is true, and Comte both encouraged the idea that society and conduct alike were susceptible of strictly scientific investigation.
His legal occupations did not prevent him from devoting himself also to literature, and after 1789 he published an account of a visit he had made to the comte de Buffon at Montbard.
Turin, the capital of Piedmont, was taken by Henri de Lorraine, comte dHarcourt; the alliance with rebellious portugal facilitated the occupation of Roussillon and almost the whole of Catalonia, and Spain was reduced to defending herself; while the embarrassments of the Habsburgs at Madrid made those of Vienna more tractable.
The incoherent efforts which he made to repair by the secret diplomacy of the comte de Broglie the evils caused by his official policy only aggravated his shortcomings and betrayed his weakness.
From 1749 to 1757 the party of religious devotees grouped round the queen and the kings daughters, with the dauphin as cluef and the comte D,Argenson and Machault dArnouville, keeper of the seals, as lieutenants, had worked against Madame de Pompadour (who leant for supporl upon the parlements, the jansenists and the philosophers)
This reform was justified by the religious intolerance of the parlements; by their scandalous trials of Calas, Pierre Paid Sirven (1709-1777), the chevalier de la Barre and the comte de Lally; by the retrograde spirit that had made them suppress the Encyclopaedia in 1759 and condemn Emile in.
The king, more ponderous and irresolute every day, vacillated MeetIng ol between Necker the liberal on one side and Marie Antoinette, whose feminine pride was opposed to any concessions, with the comte dArtois, a mischievous nobody who could neither choose a side nor stick to one, on the other.
But at the same time, urged by the infernal cabal of the queen and the comte dArtois, Louis XVI.
For a time Mirabeau influenced the counsels of the court through the comte de Montmorin; but the king neither trusted him nor could be brought to see his point of view, and Marie Antoinette, though she resigned herself to negotiating with him, was very far from sympathizing with his ideals.
But though the heads of the goyernment wanted to put an end to the Revolution they had no thought of restoring the monarchy in favor of the Comte de Provence, who had taken the title of Louis XVIII.
The fame of the island is due to the novel, Le Comte de Montecristo, by the elder Dumas.
The term is specifically used of the philosophy of Auguste Comte, who applied the term to his system according to which knowledge is based exclusively on the methods and discoveries of the physical or "positive" sciences.
According to Comte human thought passes through three stages - theological, metaphysical and positive.
In England, however, a number of prominent Positivists have carried out Comte's original ideal of a Church of Humanity with ritual and organization.
It was invented by Auguste Comte and adopted by the English positivists as a convenient antithesis to egoism.
According to Comte the only practical method of social regeneration is gradually to inculcate the true social feeling which subordinates itself to the welfare of others.
The title of comte de Beaujolais was borne by a son of Philippe "Egalite," duke of Orleans, born in 1779, died in 1808.
Louis Stanislas-Xavier, comte de Provence, third son of the dauphin Louis, son of Louis XV., and of Maria Josepha of Saxony, was born at Versailles on the 17th of November 1755.
All this time he was in close communication with the royalists in France, but was much embarrassed by the conflicting policy pursued by the comte d'Artois from England, and was largely at the mercy of corrupt and dishonest agents. ?
At Mittau was realized his cherished plan of marrying Madame Royale, daughter of Louis XVI., to the duc d'Angouleme, elder son of the comte d'Artois.
In September 1804 Louis met the comte d'Artois at Calmar in Sweden, and they issued a protest against Napoleon's action, but being warned that he must not return to Poland, he gained permission from Alexander I.
In 1810 his wife died, and in 1811 d'Avaray died, his place as favourite being taken by the comte de Blacas.'
His concessions to the reactionary and clerical party of the emigres, headed by the comte d'Artois and the duchesse d'Angouleme, aroused suspicions of his loyalty to the constitution, the creation of his Maison militaire alienated the army, and the constant presence of Blacas made the formation of a united ministry impossible.
His position was more passive than active, and consisted in giving his support as far as possible to the 1 Pierre-Louis-Casimir, comte (afterwards duc) de Blacas d'Aulps, was as rigidly royalist as d'Avaray, but more able.
Many documents are published for the first time in Schiemann's work; some, from the archives of Count Nesselrode, are published in the Lettres et papiers du Chancelier Comte de Nesselrode, t.
It is said that on one occasion Auguste Comte, the French Philosopher met Thomas Carlyle, the Scottish essayist.
The society of "ideologists" at Auteuil embraced, besides Cabanis and Tracy, Constantin Francois de Chassebeeuf, Comte de Volney and Dominique Joseph Garat (1749-1833), professor in the National Institute.
Antoine Louis Francois, comte d'Avaray, son of the above, distinguished himself during the Revolution by his devotion to the comte de Provence, afterwards Louis XVIII., whose emigration he assisted.
It might suffice to single out the influence of Auguste Comte, as the last great thinker who wrote before Darwinism began to permeate philosophic speculation.
Though Comte did not actually contribute to a theory of cosmic organic evolution, he helped to lay the foundations of a scientific conception of human history as a natural process of development 'determined by general laws of human nature together with the accumulating influences of the past.
Comte does not recognize that this process is aided by any increase of innate capacity; on the contrary, progress is to him the unfolding of fundamental faculties of human nature which always pre-existed in a latent condition; yet he may perhaps be said to have prepared the way for the new conception of human progress by his inclusion of mental laws under biology.
He wrdte Les Affaires du comte de Boduel, exhibiting himself as the victim of the malice of his enemies, and gained King Frederick II.'s good- will by an offer to restore the Orkneys and Shetlands to Denmark.
The younger generation, however, were Bonapartist in sympathy; Gramont's cousin Antoine Louis Raymond, comte de Gramont (1787-1825), though also the son of an emigre, served with distinction in Napoleon's armies, while Antoine Agenor, duc de Gramont, owed his career to his early friendship for Louis Napoleon.
However, his ability was too great to be neglected by a great minister such as Charles Gravier, Comte de Vergennes undoubtedly was, and after a preliminary tour to Berlin at the beginning of 1786 he was despatched in July 1786 on a secret mission to the court of Prussia, from which he returned in January 1787, and of which he gave a full account in his Histoire secrete de la tour de Berlin (1789).
Target, mayor of Paris, Lafayette generalissimo to reform the army, Louis Philippe, comte de Segur (foreign affairs), Mounier and I.
Others attribute it to the queen, and there is no doubt that she hated Turgot for supporting Vergennes in demanding the recall of the comte de Guines, the ambassador in London, whose cause she had ardently espoused at the prompting of the Choiseul clique.
Some writers have attempted unification by treating algebra as concerned with functions, and Comte accordingly defined algebra as the calculus of functions, arithmetic being regarded as the calculus of values.
If he had been allowed to choose his own position there can be no doubt that he could have prevented the comte de Grasse (1722-1788) from reaching Fort Royal with the reinforcements from France in April (see Rodney, Lord).
The comte de la Marck was exerting himself to bring Mirabeau into touch with the court (see Mirabeau), and for this purpose it was important to secure the assistance of Montmorin.
Though Comte's character and aims were as far removed as possible from Franklin's type, neither Franklin nor any man that ever lived could surpass him in the heroic tenacity with which, in the face of a thousand obstacles, he pursued his own ideal of a vocation.
The twelve years covering the publication of the first of Comte's two elaborate works were years of indefatigable toil, and they were the only portion of his life in which he enjoyed a certain measure, and that a very modest measure, of material prosperity.
As might be supposed by those who know the affectionate anxiety with which Mill regarded the welfare of any onewhom he believed to be doing good work in the world, he at once took pains to have Comte's loss of income made up to him, until Comte should have had time to repair that loss by his own endeavour.
His disciples believe that in time the world will reverence Comte's sentiment about Clotilde de Vaux, as it reveres Dante's adoration of Beatrice - a parallel that Comte himself was the first to hit upon.
Comte separates the collective facts of society and history from the individual phenomena of biology; then he withdraws these collective facts from the region of external volition, and places them in the region of law.
Perhaps we have said enough to show that after performing a great and real service to thought Comte almost sacrificed his claims to gratitude by the invention of a system that, as such, and independently of detached suggestions, is markedly retrograde.
In August 1873 there was an important political conference at Frohsdorf, the result of which was that a fusion was effected, by which the comte de Paris agreed to waive his claims to the throne in favour of those of the comte de Chambord.
It is an age of conscious selection as between ideal systems. Instead of necessitating a wasteful and precarious elimination of inadequate customs by the actual destruction of those who practise them - this being the method of natural selection, which, like some Spanish Inquisition, abolishes the heresy by wiping out the heretics one and all - progress now becomes possible along the more direct and less Comte's own term " fetishism " was most unfortunately misleading (see Fetishism).
Burgundy, and he exalted his office by challenging Anthony, comte de la Roche, the bastard of Burgundy, to single fight in what was one of the most famous tournaments of the age (see the elaborate narrative in Bentley's Excerpta Historica, 176182).
Very similar positions were maintained by Kant and Comte; and, under the name of "agnosticism" (q.v.), the theory has popularized itself in the outer courts of philosophy, and on the shifting borderland of philosophy and literature.
The final stage, positivism, is the understanding of the universe not as composed of a multitude of individuals each with volition, but as an ordered organism governed by necessary laws (see further Comte).
At the same time he cultivated literature, entertaining poets and writers both at the Luxembourg and at his chÃ¢teau of Brunoy (see Dubois-Corneau, Le Comte de Provence a Brunoy, 2909), and gaining a reputation for wit by his verses and mots in the salon of the charming and witty comtesse de Balbi, one of Madame's ladies, who had become his mistress, 4 and till 1793 exerted considerable influence over him.
The Comte de Turenne showed him into a big reception room where many generals, gentlemen-in-waiting, and Polish magnates--several of whom Balashev had seen at the court of the Emperor of Russia--were waiting.
Once when making such calculations he wrote down his own name in French, Comte Pierre Besouhoff, but the sum of the numbers did not come right.
Other years featured Comte de Vogue, Roumier, and this year Maison Louis Jadot.