Much, however, is effected towards unification, by compulsory military service, it being the principle that no man shall serve within the military district to which he belongs.
Primary education is free and secular, and is compulsory for children of 6 to 14 years.
Education is neither compulsory nor free; but the fees are low (Is.
Military training is compulsory on all lads over ten attending government schools.
Primary instruction is free but not compulsory, and the schools are supported and supervised by the states.
There are 22 public elementary schools for boys and 18 for girls (education being compulsory and gratuitous), with about 20,000 pupils, and 56 private schools with 5700 pupils.
On other estates the serfs' compulsory labor was commuted for a quitrent.
Compulsory attendance of young men at national guard drills is enforced for at least two months of the year, under penalty of enforced service in the Line.
Owing to the forced abstention from agricultural labour in the winter months the peasants of central Russia, more especially those of the governments of Moscow, Vladimir, Yaroslavl, Kostroma, Tver, Smolensk and Ryazan have for centuries carried on a variety of domestic handicrafts during the period of compulsory leisure.
Compulsory service with the colors is in Germany no longer universal, as there are twice as many able-bodied men presented by the recruiting commissions as the active army can absorb.
Compulsory and gratuitous schooling for the Protestants had been enforced in Livonia since 1860, and in Courland since 1875.
The second class maintained communications between the fiefs and the Tokugawa court as well as their own families in Yedo, for in the alternate years of a feudatorys compulsory residence in that city his family had to live there.
The first Prayer Book passed parliament on the 21st of January 1549, but did not receive the royal assent till later, probably March, and was not in compulsory use till Whitsunday, June 9th, 2549.
This Assize, which has been described as the earliest English Building Act, is of great value from an historical point of view, but unfortunately it had little practical effect, and in 1212 what was called " Fitz-Ailwyne's Second Assize," with certain compulsory regulations, was enacted.
At the Hanseatic assembly of 1469, Dantzig, Hamburg and Breslau opposed the maintenance of a compulsory staple at Bruges in the face of the new conditions produced by a widening commerce and more advantageous markets.
Under an act of the 12th of April 1883, as amended on the 4th of April 1902, education is compulsory for children between the ages of seven and fifteen, but the maximum limit is reduced to thirteen for children who are employed at lawful labour.
Early in the session he brought in a bill abolishing compulsory church-rates, and this passed into law.
The number of lines is not compulsory: sometimes they may reach to thirty, forty or even more, but the alternation of 5 and 7 syllables is compulsory.
He was appointed inspector-general of higher education in 1876, and after his election as life senator in 1881 he continued to take an active interest in educational questions, especially as affected by compulsory military service.
Recruiting and Strength.EJniversal compulsory service was adopted after the disasters of 1870-1871, though in principle it had been established by Marshal Niels reforms a few years before that date.
The non-commissioned officers are, as usual in universal service armies, drawn partly from men who voluntarily enlist at a relatively early age, and partly from men who at the end of their compulsory period of service are re-engaged.
If educated at home, the child (after two years of the compulsory period has expired) must undergo a yearly examination, and if it is unsatisfactory the parents will be compelled to send him to a public or private school.
It is not compulsory, nor is it entirely gratuitous, but the fees are small and the state offers a great many scholarships, by means of which a clever child can pay for its own instruction.
Education is very widely distributed, and in every state it is compulsory for children of school ages to attend school.
The schools are open to all children between the ages of 5 and 20, and attendance for twenty-six weeks in each year is made compulsory for those who are between the ages of 8 and 15.
The price is to be fixed by the Railway and Canal Commissioners as arbitrators on the basis of the " then value," exclusive of any allowance for past or future profits or any compensation for compulsory sale or other consideration.
The law of 1877 rendering education compulsory for children between six and nine years of age has been the principal cause of the spread of elementary education.
As a general rule the annalists wrote in a spirit of uncritical patriotism, which led them to minimize or gloss over such disasters as the conquest of Rome by Porsena and the compulsory payment of ransom to the Gauls, and to flatter the people by exaggerated accounts of Roman prowess, dressed up in fanciful language.
The third, or major examination, which qualifies for registration as a pharmaceutical chemist, is not, like the minor, a compulsory one, but ranks as an honours examination.
The redemption was not calculated on the value of the allotments of land, but was considered as a compensation for the loss of the compulsory labour of the serfs; so that throughout Russia, with the exception of a few provinces in the S.E., it was - and still remains, notwithstanding a very great increase in the value of land - much higher than the market value of the allotment.
Accustomed to the use of compulsory labour, they have failed to accommodate themselves to the new conditions.
Useful compulsory laws regarding the details of train management are difficult to frame and hard to carry out; but the Board has exercised a persistent persuasiveness and has secured most of its objects.
Its investigations justified the law making the block system compulsory, thus removing the worst danger of railway travel.
The Diseases of Animals Act 1896 provided for the compulsory slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing.
C. 2) made compulsory the slaughter of diseased cattle, and permitted the slaughter of cattle which had been exposed to infection, compensation being provided out of the rates.
It is compulsory on owners to notify the authorities as to the existence of scab amongst their sheep. By the Diseases of Animals Act (1903) powers to prescribe the dipping of sheep, irrespective of the presence or otherwise of sheep scab, were conferred upon the Board of Agriculture.
The compulsory slaughter at the place of landing does not extend to animals shipped from Ireland into Great Britain, and this is a matter of the highest importance to Irish stock-breeders, who find their best market close at hand on the east of St George's Channel.
Gondolas are mentioned as far back as 1094, and, prior to a sumptuary edict passed by the great council in the 16th century, making black their compulsory colour, they were very different in appearance from now.
The industry is conducted upon a basis of recognized standards of quality, and testing is necessary in the interests of both refiner and consumer, as well as compulsory in connexion with the various statutory and municipal regulations.
The anthers are so situated that the pollen on escaping comes into contact with the stigma; in such flowers self-fertilization is compulsory and very effectual, as seeds in profusion are produced.
But the evidence was practically unanimous that the Indian was undesirable in Natal other than as a labourer and the commission recommended compulsory repatriation.
Other proposals were: the maintenance of the system of the joint army as established in 1867, but with the concession that all Hungarian recruits were to receive their education in Magyar; the maintenance till 1917 of the actual customs convention with Austria; a reform of the land laws, with a view to assisting the poorer proprietors; complete religious equality; universal and compulsory primary education.
In the negotiations which followed, President Kruger at length agreed to extend " most favoured nation " privileges to British subjects in reference to compulsory military service, and five British subjects who had been sent as prisoners to the front were released.
It is drawn in imitation of European models, and makes military service compulsory for all Venezuelans between 21 and 50 years.
The Germans recognized the staple rights of Bruges for a number of commodities, such as wool, wax, furs, copper and grain, and in return for this material contribution to the growing commercial importance of the town, they received in 1309 freedom from the compulsory brokerage which Bruges imposed on foreign merchants.
Book and engine room register are not compulsory, but are usually kept.
In the republican chamber elected after the 16th of May, he became minister of public instruction (December 1877), and proposed var i ous republican laws, notably on compulsory primary education.
Annulled a number of vexatious, restrictive regulations, such as the compulsory wearing of beards, the prohibition against going out in the forenoon on Sundays or holidays, or frequenting public pleasure resorts.
The law of 1890 makes it " compulsory for every Jew to be a member of the congregation of the district in which he resides, and so gives to every congregation the right to tax the individual members " (op. cit.).
In the counties there is a board of education and there is also a local school committee of three in each township. The compulsory attendance at school of children between the ages of eight and fourteen for sixteen weeks each year by a state law is optional with each county.
The German system of compulsory education of every child above the age of six was introduced directly after the annexation.
The Fertilizers and Feeding Stuffs Act 1906, amending and re-enacting the act of 1893, provided for the compulsory appointment by county councils of official samplers.
C. 15) rendered compulsory the slaughter of imported live stock at the place of landing, a boon for which British stock-breeders had striven for many years.
Laws passed in 1877, 1890, 1893 and 1902 have made education compulsory for children between the ages of eight and fourteen.
In order to protect dealers against the losses due to the insolvency of those with whom they have had transactions, weekly settlements on the exchange have been made compulsory; between brokers and their clients they are also usual.
Education is compulsory, the elementary schools being communal, assisted by state grants.
Primary education is declared by the constitution to be free and compulsory; and its expenses are paid by the central government so far as it may be beyond the power of the province or municipality to bear them.
After the outbreak of the World War he endorsed the Administration's peace policy, supported the League to Enforce Peace, and urged that the national guard be tried fully before compulsory service be decided upon.
Primary Inslruction.All primary public instruction is free and compulsory for children of both sexes between the ages of six and thirteen, but if a child can gain a certificate of primary studies at the age of eleven or after, he may be excused the rest of the period demanded by law.
In addition to this there is compulsory service in the National Guard (a) in the first class, consisting of men between seventeen and thirty years of age, liable for service with the standing army, and numbering some 15,000; (b) in the second class, for departmental service only, except in so far as it may be drawn upon to make up losses in the more active units in time of war, consisting of men from thirty to forty-five years of age, and (c) in the third class, for local garrison duty, consisting of men between forty-five and sixty years old.
There was every reason to anticipate the success of the second.
The conquered peoples fell into an inferior caste, made to work for, and to pay for the subsistence of, their conquerors, as under the Arab domination; the principal taxes exacted from them were the kharaj, a tax of indeterminate amount upon realty, based on the value of lands owned by unbelievers - (in contradistinction to the tithe [ashar] which was a tax of fixed amount upon lands owned by believers) - and levied in payment of the privilege of gaining means of existence in a Mussulman country, and the jiziye, a compulsory payment, or poll-tax, to which believers were not subjected, in lieu of military service.
The chief attraction of military service has consisted and will consist in this compulsory and irreproachable idleness.