This minimum was at first fixed at 50%, but on and after the 1st of August 1906 it was raised to 75%, with the result that soon after that date practically all the rolling stock of American railways, whether passenger or freight, was provided with compressed air brakes.
Within recent years, owing to the initiative of Colonel English, a method of raising oil by the agency of compressed air has been introduced into the Baku oil-fields.
This treatment with acid and alkali is usually effected by agitation with compressed air.
He was said to be the inventor of a kind of flying-machine, a wooden pigeon balanced by a weight suspended from a pulley, and set in motion by compressed air escaping from a valve.'
Steam locomotives have been largely superseded by compressed air or electric locomotives.
By using compressed air vitiation of the mine air is avoided, as well as all danger of fire or explosion of gas.
Trolley haulage lacks the flexibility of steam or compressed air haulage, and is limited to main lines because the wires must be strung throughout the length of the line.
Electric and compressed air locomotives are durable, easily operated, and can be built to run under the low roofs of thin veins.
Electric locomotives are in general more economical then either steam or compressed air.
For heavy gradients rope haulage has no rival, though for moderate grades it is often advantageously replaced by electric and compressed air haulage.
both with compressed air and with steam with considerable success.
In the " sandblast " process the surface of the glass is exposed to a stream of sharp sand driven by compressed air.
The blower places the glass in the mould, closes the mould by pressing a lever with his foot, and either blows down the blowing iron or attaches it to a tube connected with a supply of compressed air.
A bottle-making machine combines the process of pressing with a plunger with that of blowing by compressed air.
The neck of the bottle is first formed by the plunger, and the body is subsequently blown by compressed air admitted through the plunger.
The moulds are opened and closed by cams actuated by compressed air.
As soon as a blowing iron is in connexion with an air jet, the sections of the mould close upon the molten glass, and the compressed air forces the glass to take the form of the mould.
The plate with the glass attached to it is inverted, and compressed air or steam is introduced through openings in the plate.
These small furnaces are usually heated by an oil spray under the pressure of steam or compressed air.
The first difficulty was to make it sufficiently light in relation to the power its machinery could develop; and several machines were built in which trials were made of steam, and of compressed air and carbonic acid gas as motive agents.
The second principal method of sinking through water-bearing ground is by compressed air.
The pumps, placed close to the point where the water accumulates, may be worked by an engine on the surface by means of heavy reciprocating rods which pass down the shaft, or by underground motors driven by steam, compressed air or electricity.
The substitution of machinery for hand labour in cutting coal has long been a favourite problem with inventors, the earliest plan being that of Michael Meinzies, in 1761, who proposed to work a heavy pick underground by power transmitted from an engine at the surface, through the agencies of spear-rods and chains passing over pulleys; but none of the methods suggested proved to be practically successful until the general introduction of compressed air into mines furnished a convenient motive power, susceptible of being carried to considerable distances without any great loss of pressure.
In some instances electric motors have been substituted for compressed-air engines in such machines.
Where the load has to be hauled up a rising gradient, underground engines, driven by steam or compressed air or electric motors, are used.
In some cases steam generated in boilers at the surface is carried in pipes to the engines below, but there is less loss of power when compressed air is sent down in the same way.
In mines that are worked from the outcrop by adits or day levels traction by locomotives driven by steam, compressed air or electricity is used to some extent.
The use of small auxiliary blowing ventilators underground, for carrying air into workings away from the main circuits, which was largely advocated at one time, has lost its popularity, but a useful substitute has been found in the induced draught produced by jets of compressed air or high-pressure water blowing into ejectors.
This may be done by water-carts or hose and jet, but preferably by finely divided water and compressed air distributed from a network of pipes carried through the workings.
A direct proof of its material nature was given by Galileo, who weighed a copper ball containing compressed air.
It consists of a cylindrical chest of brass, the base of which is pierced at its centre with an opening in which is fixed a brass tube projecting outwards, and Siren of intended for supplying the cavity of the cylinder with Cagniard de compressed air or other gas, or even liquid.
Sometimes they are closed in and kept free of water by compressed air so that excavation work can be carried on inside them (fig.
In this case the compressed air process was used.
This consists of a series of vertical earthenware condensing tubes through which compressed air is passed in order to reduce the quantity of nitrogen peroxide to a minimum.
S, Hole through which compressed air is fed.
Incidentally, however, they do in some cases partially discharge that function, namely, when what is called a "preheater" is used to warm up the compressed air before it enters in the motor cylinder.
It has been found, however, that very efficient condensers can be made with compressed air as dielectric. If a number of metal plates separated by small distance pieces are enclosed in an iron box which is pumped full of air to a pressure, say, of 10o lb.
1 The other forces which assist in elevating the wings are - (a) the elevator muscles of the wings, (b) the elastic properties of the wings, and (c) the reaction of the compressed air on the under surfaces of the wings.
In compressed air at ordinary temperature there is no glowing, but it may be brought about by heating.
For the purpose of discharging the coke from the retort either compressed air or hydraulic machinery is employed, a rake being made to enter the retort and withdraw the coke on returning.
One of the best-known gas-producers for working with compressed air from below is Taylor's, shown in fig.
Compressed-air Machines.-A compressed-air refrigerating machine consists in its simplest form of three essential parts -a compressor, a compressed-air cooler, and an expansion cylinder.
In 1877 a compressed-air machine was designed by J.
Another, perhaps the principal, feature was the interchanger, an apparatus whereby the compressed air was further cooled before expansion by means of the comparatively cold air from the room in its passage to the compressor, the same air being used over and over again.
In such compressed-air machines as are now made there is no injection of water during compression, and the compressed air is cooled in a surface cooler, not by actual mixture with a shower of cold water.
The compressed air then passes through coolers in which it is cooled to within about 5° of the initial temperature of the cooling water, and is deprived of a portion of its moisture, after which it is admitted into the expansion cylinder and expanded nearly to atmospheric pressure.
As heat is both taken in and discharged at constant temperature during the change in physical state of the agent, a vapour compression machine must approach the ideal much more nearly than a compressed-air machine, in which there is no such change.
An ideal machine, working between 5° below zero and 75° above, has a coefficient of about 5.7, or nearly six times that of an ideal compressed-air machine of usual construction performing the same useful cooling work.
With compressed-air machines which discharge the cold air direct into the insulated room or hold, a snow box is provided close to the outlet of the expansion cylinder to catch the snow and congealed oil.
In the meat trade between the River Plate, the United States, Canada and Great Britain, ammonia or carbonic acid machines are now exclusively used, but for the Australian and New Zealand frozenmeat trade compressed-air machines are still employed to a small extent.
Among the new manufactories were a shipbuilding establishment at Groton near New London, which undertook contracts for the United States government, and a compressed-air plant near Norwich.
Such furnaces are known by the general name of reverberatory or reverbatory furnaces, also as air or wind furnaces, to distinguish them from those worked with compressed air or blast.
Both siphoning and the use of compressed air cylinders were experimented with but failed to noticeably improve the up to 3.5% C02.
The starter motor combustion chamber is scavenged by compressed air.
In order to remove this water vapor as well, specially designed compressed air dryers have to be fitted.
remove the last residue of the lens cleaner with another dry cotton swab or two and then remove any cotton lint with compressed air.
The compressed air supply in the turbine nacelle is only used to release the mechanical brake on a ` start ' command.
When a filter is in use this should be lowered by removing compressed air from the pneumatic pistons.
plunger pump or a hand operated compressed air pump.
This installation developed about 4,000 hp and supplied compressed air for distributing through the streets of Paris to drive various prime movers.
While irregular compressed air demand is not always totally evened out by a large compressed air receiver, it is balanced between suitable limits.
Heating causes the relative humidity of the compressed air to be reduced.
To prevent sedimentation in the tanks the slurry is agitated by either mechanical means or by compressed air.
In the United Kingdom the Regulation of Railways Act 1889 empowered the Board of Trade to require all passenger trains, within a reasonable period, to be fitted with automatic continuous brakes, and now all the passenger stock, with a few trifling exceptions, is provided with either compressed-air or vacuum brakes (see Brake), and sometimes with both.
Anaximenes, a pupil of Anaximander, was the first to reject the view that the earth was a circular plane, but held it to be an oblong rectangle, buoyed up in the midst of the heavens by the compressed air upon which it rested.
Recently, however, a well-known sugar maker in Germany has altered his battery in such manner that instead of having to open a large door below the cells in order to discharge them promptly, he opens a comparatively small valve and, applying compressed air at the top of the cell, blows the whole contents of spent slices up a pipe to the drying apparatus, thus saving not only a great deal of time but also a great deal of labour of a kind which is both arduous and painful, especially during cold weather.
In the transmission of power by compressed air (see POWER TRANSMISSION) the air-driven motors are for the most part machines resembling steam-engines in the general features of their pistons, cylinders, valves and so forth.
The object of this interchanger was not only to cool the compressed air before expansion, but to condense part of the moisture in it, so reducing the quantity of ice or snow produced during expansion.
The compressed air then passes through coolers in which it is cooled to within about 5Ã‚° of the initial temperature of the cooling water, and is deprived of a portion of its moisture, after which it is admitted into the expansion cylinder and expanded nearly to atmospheric pressure.
An ideal machine, working between 5Ã‚° below zero and 75Ã‚° above, has a coefficient of about 5.7, or nearly six times that of an ideal compressed-air machine of usual construction performing the same useful cooling work.
Airbrushing is essentially a makeup technique where makeup is applied using compressed air through an airbrush gun, which creates a lightweight, fine mist of makeup.
Snow guns produce water droplets by combining cooled water with compressed air.
When you're on the slopes, you might notice snow guns that are attached to two different hoses: one for water hydrant stations and one for compressed air hydrant stations.
The compressed air atomizes and cools the water droplets, and blows them into the air.
The availability of compressed air and electricity should also be taken into consideration.
In an internal mix system, compressed air and water are mixed in an internal chamber of the snow gun.
In an external snow making system, the compressed air and water are mixed outside of the snow gun to form snow crystals.
Dodonpa: This compressed air launch coaster can be found at Fuji-Q Highland park in Japan.
These steps require a source of compressed air, a compressed air adapter and a gallon or more of RV antifreeze.
Turn on the compressed air on keeping the pressure on a low setting.
Use a can of compressed air or even a vacuum with an attachment in order to dry the phone.
Suggestions for improving efficiency include using the energy from exhaust gas, waste heat and compressed air or traditional gasoline hybrid engines.
The fresh air design works with either compressed air or Air 160/190 respiratory units.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.