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compound

compound

compound Sentence Examples

  • I'm not sure we didn't compound problems.

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  • Blinded by emotion, he made his way out of the underground compound without knowing where he went.

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  • A chill descended over the desert compound as the sun set.

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  • The compound was the eye of a storm.

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  • We left the compound and got ambushed by people we mistook for refugees.

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  • This was no normal government compound, he realized.

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  • During exercises, the government's premier contingency operations compound in the Appalachian Mountains of Tennessee was populated only by maintenance crews and a few relaxed guards.

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  • She twisted in her seat to face General Greene, one of the three people on the compound authorized by the manic commander to be present in the command hub alone.

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  • The windows of the compound at the peak of the mountain were protected by film to keep light from leaking out.

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  • They're almost untraceable and have even showed up at our compound in Texas.

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  • When she opened them, they stood outside a stone façade of a compound built into the side of a mountain and surrounded by evergreen trees whose branches were heavy with snow.

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  • This is the compound of Damian, the White God.

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  • With the former Supreme Commander of the Armed Forces and the Special Assistant to the VP, not to mention the biofields, electromagnetic fields, and other beefed security measures, the compound at the top of the mountain was a fortress commanded by the President's own right-hand man.

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  • As she hopped the short distance from rocks to the ground leading up to the compound, she caught the silhouettes of two men against the cloudy sky.

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  • He appeared in the middle of the White God's compound and began walking.

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  • The law of multiple proportions asserts that if two elements form more than' one compound, then the weights of the one element Law of which are found combined with unit weight of the other multiple in the different compounds, must be in the ratio of two propor or more whole numbers.

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  • "I'm supposed to make Xander miserable, drop off my cousins to a compound filled with complete strangers who have magical powers, and wait for things to blow up this weekend," Jessi summarized.

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  • but prominent compound eyes d, La Mandible.

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  • The area beyond the gates and inspections was quiet, with men and women dressed in government uniforms touring the compound like it was any other day and not possibly the last day of the world.

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  • She jogged across the compound to the area of one of the breaches.

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  • Kiera followed as Evelyn turned toward the main house, a sprawling, single-story compound made of brilliant white stone and dotted with hundreds of glass-less windows.

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  • Stas, in his syntheses of silver iodide, weighed the silver and the iodine separately, and after converting them into the compound he weighed this also.

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  • Brady watched her, doubtful the sort of mayhem that occurred on the compound was as dangerous as that they'd encountered on their trip up the mountain.

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  • It is evident that this is practicable if the number and kind of atoms contained in the molecule of a compound can be determined.

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  • Back at the quiet Texas compound, where the early evening and open space made her feel a little less trapped by her situation.

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  • They were somewhere else completely: a sprawling compound with low buildings, a huge barn and a massive, two-story hacienda style house.

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  • Beyond where the compound ended, she saw the tan sands of the desert punctuated by short, round shrubs It's called Traveling.

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  • Both Elise and the Guardian were grim about the world outside the compound, and neither explained exactly why.

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  • Such analyses, which do not always admit of great accuracy, have been confirmed by a few carefully planned experiments in which two components were brought together under very varied conditions, and the resulting compound analysed.

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  • You can't fully make that decision, until you're willing to accept that all this" Sofi waved her hand around the compound "is your new place in life and that for some reason, you belong with a freak of nature of a man."

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  • She sipped from a container of water and turned again to the wall behind the titanium glass, unable to pinpoint how one of the sensitive keypads had made it outside the compound or when.

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  • The conceptions of "element," "compound" and "mixture" became more precise than they had been hitherto; in an element all the atoms are alike, in a compound all the molecules are alike, in a mixture there are different kinds of molecules.

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  • The fact that the two components can be recovered from the compound by destroying it does not decide the question.

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  • Jenn strode into the compound.

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  • Ruff (Ber., 18 9 8, 3 1, p. 457) from nitro-di-isobutyl by reducing it to the corresponding hydroxylamino compound with aluminium amalgam and oxidizing this with chromic acid mixture.

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  • The unknown he terms arithmos, the number, and in solutions he marks it by the final s; he explains the generation of powers, the rules for multiplication and division of simple quantities, but he does not treat of the addition, subtraction, multiplication and division of compound quantities.

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  • Bianca jogged after the two, who raced towards a small crowd at the opened gate of the compound.

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  • Substitution takes place usually in the nucleus and only rarely in the side chain, and according to the conditions of the experiment and the nature of the compound acted upon, one or more nitro groups enter the molecule.

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  • It readily forms a sodium salt, from the aqueous solution of which on the addition of a mineral acid an isomeric solid form of the nitro compound (melting at 84° C.) is precipitated.

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  • Hardening, Jenn turned away and retreated through the forest and rocks to the compound.

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  • "Stay safe," she said and returned to the compound.

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  • The air was charged by the activated electromagnetic field surrounding the compound.

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  • The shuttle disappeared behind buildings as it headed towards one of the seven helipads on the compound.

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  • Two more helicopters landed at different helipads while the searchlights continued to rove the compound.

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  • Members of the elite federal government and military personnel darted between greencars and buildings, the buzz of radios and shouts adding to the compound's chaos.

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  • Black-clad guards roamed the internal perimeter while others manned the walls of the compound.

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  • The road edged a thatch of forest past the water treatment plant and the power plant, and circled the central command hub in which she worked before leading to the main entrance of the compound.

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  • We're going to have to search the compound.

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  • She was heavily armed, sweating, and outside the compound.

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  • She checked the locator as she waited, seeking out General Greene on the compound.

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  • A charred hole still smoked in the compound's wall.

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  • Arnie's antics hadn't started until the second week on the compound.

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  • Brady tugged Dan's mask off, gaze roving the compound.

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  • All was not quite as it seemed in the peaceful compound.

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  • The laser markings matched similar damage seen on the eastern wall, which they found when they circled the compound.

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  • Brady's attention instinctively shifted to their surroundings as he sought threats among the quiet surroundings of the secured compound.

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  • Like the vamp-cat, Jessi's cousins had gone from panicked at being kidnapped in the middle of the night to content on the compound.

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  • The excellent manner in which the scales and micrometers are mounted, the employment of a compound microscope for viewing the scales, with its ingeniously arranged and admirably efficient reversing prism, and the perfection of its slow motions for focusing and reading, combine to render this a most accurate and convenient instrument for very refined measures, although too slow for work in which the measures must depend on single pointings in each of two reversed positions of the plate, and where speed of working is essential.

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  • In 1831, from a study of the specific heats of compounds, he formulated "Neumann's law," which expressed in modern language runs: "The molecular heat of a compound is equal to the sum of the atomic heats of its constituents."

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  • Laristan is famous for the condiment called mahiabeh (fish-jelly), a compound of pounded small sprat-like fish, salt, mustard, nutmeg, cloves and other spices, used as a relish with nearly all foods.

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  • 16 is probably a corruption of the similar compound Adonijah (so Cheyne, Ency.

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  • He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.

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  • The name was suggested by Prussian blue, the earliest known compound of cyanogen.

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  • GayLussac, who obtained it by heating mercury or silver cyanide; this discovery is of considerable historical importance, since it recorded the isolation of a "compound radical."

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  • The resulting compound, nickel carbonyl, which was described to the Chemical Society in 1890, is both formed and decomposed within a very moderate range of temperature, and on this fact he based a successful process for the extraction of nickel from its ores.

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  • Borimide B 2 (NH) 3 is obtained on long heating of the compound B 2 S 3.6NH 3 in a stream of hydrogen, or ammonia gas at 115-120° C. It is a white solid which decomposes on heating into boron nitride and ammonia.

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  • Platinum and the allied compound metal iridosmine have been found in New South Wales, but so far in inconsiderable quantities.

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  • By passing the vapour of this compound through a red-hot tube, it yields the isomeric a0- pyridylpyrrol, the potassium salt of which with methyl iodide gives a substance methylated both in the pyridine and pyrrol nuclei.

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  • in., with an elongation of at least 5 per cent.), the separate wires being first covered with a firm coating of tape and Chatterton's compound (a FIG.

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  • Sometimes the wires are covered with the compound alone, and the whole cable after being sheathed is finally covered with tarred tape.

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  • 8) the copper strand is passed through a vessel A containing melted Chatterton's compound, then through the cylinder C, in which a quantity of gutta percha, purified by repeated washing in hot water, by facture.

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  • Using these buoys to guide the direction of tow, a grapnel, a species of fivepronged anchor, attached to a strong compound rope formed of strands of steel and manila, is lowered to the bottom and dragged at a slow speed, as it were ploughing a furrow in the sea bottom, in a line at right angles to the cable route, until the behaviour of the dynamometer shows that the cable is hooked.

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  • In the types of cable that were first used, the wires, usually with a cotton insulation, were drawn into lead tubes, and the tubes filled with paraffin or other similar compound, which kept the wires from the injurious effects of any moisture which might penetrate the lead tube.

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  • This is known as the minor examination, and must be passed before anyone can legally dispense, compound and sell scheduled poisons.

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  • Certain Algae have been found capable of forming nutritive carbohydrates in darkness, when supplied with a compound of this body with sodium-hydrogen-sulphite.

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  • Borelli (De motu animalium, Rome, 1680), explained that birds are enabled to grasp the twig on which they rest whilst sleeping, without having to make any muscular exertion, because the weight of the body bends the knee and ankle-joints, over both of which pass the tendons of this compound muscle.

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  • The character of this skull and the compound rhamphotheca (known by the imprints left upon the jaws) indicate affinities with the Steganopodes.

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  • Compound rhamphotheca.

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  • Rhamphotheca compound.

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  • Rhamphotheca compound; cosmopolitan.

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  • Sulphuretted hydrogen, H 2 S, a compound first examined by C. Scheele, may be obtained by heating sulphur in a current of hydrogen, combination taking place between 200° C. and 358° C., and being complete at the latter temperature, dissociation taking place above this temperature (M.

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  • The curves on railways are either simple, when they consist of a portion of the circumference of a single circle, or compound, when they are made up of portions of the circumference of two or more circles of different radius.

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  • Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.

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  • In compound working the combined volumes of the low-pressure cylinders is a measure of the power of the engine, since this represents the final volume of the steam used per stroke.

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  • Compound locomotives have been built by various designers, but opinion is still uncertain whether any commercial economy is obtained by their use.

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  • The first true compound locomotive was constructed in 1876 from designs by A.

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  • The first true compound locomotive in England was constructed at Crewe works in 1878 by F.

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  • A complete account of Webb's engines will be found in a paper, " The Compound Principle applied to Locomotives," by E.

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  • Locomotives have to start with the full load on the engine, consequently an outstanding feature of every compound locomotive is the apparatus or mechanism added to enable the engine to start readily.

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  • In the Webb compound the driver opened communication from the high-pressure exhaust pipe to the blast-pipe, and at the same time opened a valve giving a supply of steam from the boiler direct to the lowpressure valve chest.

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  • Worsdell developed the design of the two-cylinder compound in England and built several, first for the Great Eastern railway and subsequently for the North-Eastern railway.

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  • A famous type of compound locomotive developed on the continent of Europe is the four-cylinder De Glehn, some of which have been tried on the Great Western railway.

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  • Vauclain introduced a successful type of four-cylinder compound in America in 1889.

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  • Later Vauclain introduced the " balanced compound."

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  • Compound locomotives have been tried, as stated in § 17, but the tendency in England is to revert to the simple engine for all classes of work, though on the continent of Europe and in America the compound locomotive is largely adopted, and is doing excellent work.

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  • And these bring forth the ant-lion, a compound of both, and in part like to either, for his fore part is that of a lion, and his hind part like that of an ant.

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  • If now it is required to find the heat of formation of the compound CO, which cannot be directly ascertained, we have merely to subtract the second equation from the first, each symbol representing constant intrinsic energy, and thus we obtain C+0 - 00= 26300 cal., or C+0=C0+26300 cal., that is, the heat of formation of a gramme-molecule of carbon monoxide is 26300 cal.

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  • This assumption has the great advantage, that the intrinsic energy of a compound relatively to its elements now appears as the heat of formation of the compound with its sign reversed.

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  • With knowledge then of the heats of formation of the substances involved in any chemical action, we can at once calculate the thermal effect of the action, by placing for each compound in the energy-equation its heat of formation with the sign reversed, i.e.

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  • The oxygen contained in the compound was deducted, together with the equivalent amount of hydrogen, and the heat of combustion of the compound was then taken to be equal to the heats of combustion of the elements in the residue.

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  • 'QUEZAL, or Quesal, the Spanish-American name for one of the most beautiful of birds, abbreviated from the Aztec or Maya Quetzal-tototl, the last part of the compound word meaning fowl, and the first, also written Cuetzal, the long feathers of rich green with which it is adorned.'

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  • But the script itself is as yet undeciphered, though it is clear that certain words have changing suffixes, and that there were many compound words.

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  • For example, a minute species (Solenopsis fugax) lives in a compound nest with various species of Formica, forming narrow galleries which open into the larger galleries of its host.

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  • The "Essay on Quantity, occasioned by reading a Treatise in which Simple and Compound Ratios are applied to Virtue and Merit," denies the possibility of a mathematical treatment of moral subjects.

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  • Berthelot, and many other chemists, from whose researches it results that glycerin is a trihydric alcohol indicated by the formula C 3 H 5 (OH) 3j the natural fats and oils, and the glycerides generally, being substances of the nature of compound esters formed from glycerin by the replacement of the hydrogen of the OH groups by the radicals of certain acids, called for that reason "fatty acids."

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  • What is called Atholl brose is a compound, in equal parts, of whisky and honey (or oatmeal), which was first commonly used in the district for hoarseness and sore throat.

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  • In 1887, at Newcastle-on-Tyne, a prize of 200 went to a compound portable agricultural engine, one of £loo to a simple portable agricultural engine, and lesser prizes to a weighing-machine for horses and cattle, a weighing-machine for sheep and pigs, potato-raisers and one-man-power cream separators.

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  • Spengel's observation of the osphradium and its nervesupply in these forms; the nerve to that organ, which is placed somewhat anteriorly - on the dorsal surface - being given off from the hinder part (visceral) of the right compound ganglion - the fellow to that marked A in fig.

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  • The compound eyes of insects resemble so closely the similar organs in Crustaceans that there can hardly be reasonable doubt of their homology, and the primitively appendicular nature of the eyes in the latter class suggests that in the Hexapoda also they represent the appendages of an anterior (protocerebral) segment.

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  • On either side a variable amount of convex area is occupied by the compound eye; in many insects of acute sense and accurate flight these eyes are very large and sub-globular, almost meeting on the middle line of the head.

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  • Most insects possess a pair of compound eyes, and many have, in addition, three simple eyes or ocelli on the vertex.

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  • B, Section through compound eye (after Miall and Denny); C, organs of smell in cockchafer; (after Kraepelin); D, a, b, sensory pits on cercopods of golden-eye fly; c, sensory pit on palp of stone-fly (after Packard); E, sensory hair (after Miall and Denny); F, ear of long-horned grasshopper; a, Front shin showing outer opening and air-tube; b, section (after Graber); G, ear of locust from within (after Graber).

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  • or " vertex," the compound eyes and the front divisions of the genae are formed by the cephalic lobes of the embryo (belonging membrane analogous to the amnion of higher Vertebrates andto the ocular segment), while the mandibular and maxillary segments known by the same term.

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  • In most respects, the shortened abdomen, for example, they are more specialized than the Thysanura, and most of the features in which they appear to be simple, such as the absence of a tracheal system and of compound eyes, can be explained as the result of degradation.

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  • Altogether about 22 names of gods are found in Palmyrene; some of them, however, only occur in compound proper names.

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  • The main product is the refined oil, which is used for a great number of purposes, such as a substitute for olive oil, mixed with beef products for preparation of compound lard, which is estimated to consume one-third of cotton seed oil produced in the States.

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  • This compound combines with hydrocyanic acid to form a nitrile which hydrolyses to dichlorhydroxy iso-butyric acid.

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  • Another compound, properly of mixed sex, appears in the Aramaean Atargatis (`At[t]ar-`athe), worn down to Derketo, who is specifically associated with sacred pools and fish (Ascalon, Hierapolis-Mabog).

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  • For instance, the names which they give to certain fruits, such as the duri-an, the rambut-an and the pulas-an, which are indigenous in the Malayan countries, and are not found elsewhere, are all compound words meaning respectively the thorny, the hairy and the twisted fruit.

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  • SOAP, a chemical compound or mixture of chemical compounds resulting from the interaction of fatty oils and fats with alkalis.

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  • Previous to Chevreul's researches on the fats (1811-1823) it was believed that soap consisted simply of a binary compound of fat and alkali.

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  • Almost without exception potash soaps, even if made from the solid fatty acids, are " soft," and soda soaps, although made with fluid olein, are " hard "; but there are considerable variations according to the prevailing fatty acid in the compound.

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  • Their formation is not due to a true process of saponification; but they occupy an important place in compound soaps.

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  • Yellow Soap consists of a mixture of any hard fatty soap with a variable proportion - up to 40% or more - of resin soap. That substance by itself has a tenacious gluey consistence, and its intermixture in excess renders the resulting compound soft and greasy.

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  • The ordinary method of adding resin consists in stirring it in small fragments into the fatty soap in the stage of clear-boiling; but a better result is obtained by separately preparing a fatty soap and the resin soap, and combining the two in the pan after the underlye has been salted out and removed from the fatty soap. The compound then receives its strengthening boil, after which it is fitted by boiling with added water or weak lye, continuing the boil till by examination of a sample the proper consistency has been reached.

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  • Coconut soap also forms a principal ingredient in compound soaps meant to imitate curd and yellow soaps.

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  • Two principal methods of preparing such compound soaps are employed.

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  • XANTHONE (dibenzo-y-pyrone, or diphenylene ketone oxide), C H 0 in organic chemistry, a heterocyclic compound containing the ring system shown below.

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  • Meyer, Ber., 1900, 33, p. 2580), and this latter compound condenses with hydroxylamine to form xanthone oxime.

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  • The name is a compound of two divine names; the first part is a form of the Himyaritic `Athtar, the equivalent of the Old Testament Ashtoreth, the Phoenician Astarte, with the feminine ending omitted (Assyr.

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  • A diagnosis covering all the Ratitae (struthio, rhea, casuarius, dromaeus, apteryx and the allied fossils dinornis and aepyornis) would be as follows - (i) terrestrial birds without keel to the sternum, absolutely flightless; (ii) quadrate bone with a single proximal articulating knob; (iii) coracoid and scapula fused together and forming an open angle; (iv) normally without a pygostyle; (v) with an incisura ischiadica; (vi) rhamphotheca compound; (vii) without apteria or bare spaces in the plumage; (viii) with a complete copulatory organ, moved by skeletal muscles.

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  • At the same time he clarified the conception of elements and compounds, rejecting the older notions, the four elements of the " vulgar Peripateticks " and the three principles of the " vulgar Stagyrists," and defining an element as a substance incapable of decomposition, and a compound as composed of two or more elements.

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  • Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.

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  • that fixed proportions of elements and compounds combine only under exceptional conditions, the general rule being that the composition of a compound may vary continuously between certain limits.2

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  • Berzelius, who, fired with enthusiasm by the original theory of Dalton and the law of multiple proportions, determined the equivalents of combining ratios of many elements in an enormous number of compounds.2 He prosecuted his labours in this field for thirty years; as proof of his industry it may be mentioned that as early as 1818 he had determined the combining ratios of about two thousand simple and compound substances.

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  • Hassenfratz and Adet, who assigned to each element a symbol, and to each compound a sign which should record the elements present and their relative quantities.

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  • The " compound acidifiable bases," i.e.

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  • If two compounds combined, the + signs of the free compounds were discarded, and the number of atoms denoted by an Arabic index placed after the elements, and from these modified symbols the symbol of the new compound was derived in the same manner as simple compounds were built up from their elements.

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  • Berzelius objected to the hypothesis that if two elements form only one compound, then the atoms combine one and one; and although he agreed theory.

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  • with the adoption of simple rules as a first attempt at representing a compound, he availed himself of other data in order to gain further information as to the structure of compounds.

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  • He denied that gaseous atoms could have parts, although compound gases could.

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  • Combination was associated with the coalescence of these charges, and the nature of the resulting compound showed the nature of the residual electricity.

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  • Gerhardt found that reactions could be best followed if one assumed the molecular weight of an element or compound to be that weight which occupied the same volume as two unit weights of hydrogen, and this assumption led him to double the equivalents accepted by Gmelin, making H= 1, 0 =16, and C = 12, thereby agreeing with Berzelius, and also to halve the values given by Berzelius to many metals.

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  • According to this theory, an element in a compound had a definite saturation capacity, an idea very old in itself, being framed in the law of multiple proportions.

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  • He regarded the chemical properties of a substance as due to (1) the chemical atoms composing it, and (2) the structure, and he asserted that while different compounds might have the same components (isomerism), yet only one compound could have a particular structure.

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  • Com pounds .-A chemical compound contains two or more elements; consequently it should be possible to analyse it, i.e.

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  • In general, a compound has properties markedly different from those of the elements of which it is composed.

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  • The molecule of every compound must obviously contain at least two atoms, and generally the molecules of the elements are also polyatomic, the elements with monatomic molecules (at moderate temperatures) being mercury and the gases of the argon group. The laws of chemical combination are as follows: I.

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  • - The same compound always contains the same elements combined together in the same mass proportion.

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  • When the same two elements combine together to form more than one compound, the different masses of one of the elements which unite with a constant mass of the other, bear a simple ratio to one another.

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  • Again, in nitrous oxide we have a compound of 8 parts by weight of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric oxide a compound of 16 or 8 X 2 parts of oxygen and 1 4 of nitrogen; in nitrous anhydride a compound of 24 or 8 X 3 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; in nitric peroxide a compound of 3 2 or 8 X 4 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen; and lastly, in nitric anhydride a compound of 4 o or 8 X 5 parts of oxygen and 14 of nitrogen.

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  • If a compound contains two atoms it is termed a binary compound, if three a ternary, if four a quaternary, and so on.

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  • If more than one compound be formed from the same two elements,, the difference is shown by prefixing such words as mono-, di-, tri-, sesqui-, per-, sub-, &c., to the last part of the name, or the suffixes -ous and -ic may be appended to the name of the first element.

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  • An acid (q.v.) is a compound of hydrogen, which element can be replaced by metals, the hydrogen being liberated, giving substances named salts.

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  • Thus, the equation 2112+02 =2H20 not only represents that certain definite weights of hydrogen and oxygen furnish a certain definite weight of the compound which we term water, but that if the water in the state of gas, the hydrogen and the oxygen are all measured at the same temperature and pressure, the volume occupied by the oxygen is only half that occupied by the hydrogen, whilst the resulting water-gas will only occupy the same volume as the hydrogen.

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  • The molecular formula of a compound, however, is always a simple multiple of the empirical formula, if not identical with it; thus, the empirical formula of acetic acid is CH 2 O, and its molecular formula is C2H402, or twiceTCH 2 O.

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  • Again, when tungsten hexachloride is converted into vapour it is decomposed into chlorine and a pentachloride, having a normal vapour density, but as in the majority of its compounds tungsten acts as a hexad, we apparently must regard its pentachloride as a compound in which an odd number of free affinities are disengaged.

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  • that the sum of the units of affinity of all the atoms in a compound is an even number.

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  • For instance, sulphuric acid is usually represented by the formula S0 2 (OH) 2, which indicates that it may be regarded as a compound of the group SO 2 with twice the group OH.

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  • Groups of two or more atoms like SO 2 and OH, which are capable of playing the part of elementary atoms (that is to say, which can be transferred from compound to compound), are termed compound radicals, the elementary atoms being simple radicals.

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  • It is often convenient to regard compounds as formed upon certain types; alcohol, for example, may be said to be a compound formed upon the water type, that is to say, a compound formed from water by displacing one of the atoms of hydrogen by the group of elements C 2 H 5, thus - H C2H5 O H O H Water Alcohol.

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  • If this be the case, however, it is evident that there is no real distinction between the reactions which take place when two elements combine together and when an element in a compound is displaced by another.

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  • But if there be no tendency to form an insoluble compound, or one which is not liable to react upon any of the other substances present, this is no longer the case.

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  • 1 The metals of the alkaline-earths were somewhat neglected; we find Georg Agricola considering gypsum (calcium sulphate) as a compound of lime, while calcium nitrate and chloride became known at about the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • The chemical analogy of this substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a compound which in combination behaved very similarly to chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 1815 by Gay Lussac. This discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical composition.

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  • Balard discovered chlorine monoxide in 1834, investigating its properties and reactions; and his observations on hypochlorous acid and hypochlorites led him to conclude that " bleaching-powder " or " chloride of lime " was a compound or mixture in equimolecular proportions of calcium chloride and hypochlorite, with a little calcium hydrate.

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  • The oxychloride, bromides, and other compounds were subsequently discovered; here we need only notice Moissan's preparation of the trifluoride and Thorpe's discovery of the pentafluoride, a compound of especial note, for it volatilizes unchanged, giving a vapour of normal density and so demonstrating the stability of a pentavalent phosphorus compound (the pentachloride and pentabromide dissociate into a molecule of the halogen element and phosphorus trichoride).

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  • Berzelius, in 1813 and 1814, by improved methods of analysis, established that the Daltonian laws of combination held in both the inorganic and organic kingdoms; and he adopted the view of Lavoisier that organic compounds were oxides of compound radicals, and therefore necessarily contained at least three elements - carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.

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  • The binary conception of compounds held by Berzelius received apparent support from the observations of Gay Lussac, in 1815, on the vapour densities of alcohol and ether, which pointed to the conclusion that these substances consisted of one molecule of water and one and two of ethylene respectively; and from Pierre Jean Robiquet and Jean Jacques Colin, showing, in 1816, that ethyl chloride (hydrochloric ether) could be regarded as a compound of ethylene and hydrochloric acid.

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  • 2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.

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  • that he was compelled to reject the theory that oxygen could not play any part in a compound radical - a view which he previously considered as axiomatic; and he suggested the names " proin " or " orthrin " (from the Gr.

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  • Notwithstanding these errors, the value of the " ethyl theory " was perceived; other radicals - formyl, methyl, amyl, acetyl, &c. - were characterized; Dumas, in 1837, admitted the failure of the etherin theory; and, in company with Liebig, he defined organic chemistry as the " chemistry of compound radicals."

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  • The knowledge of compound radicals received further increment at the hands of Robert W.

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  • His unitary conceptions may be summarized: every chemical compound forms a complete whole, and cannot therefore consist of two parts; and its chemical character depends primarily upon the arrangement and number of the atoms, and, in a lesser degree, upon their chemical nature.

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  • According to Gerhardt, the process of substitution consisted of the union of two residues to fo- m a unitary whole; these residues, previously termed " compound radicals," are atomic complexes which remain over from the interaction of two compounds.

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  • isomerism, or the existence of two or more chemically different substances having identical molecular weights, is adequately shown; and, most important of all, once the structure is determined, the synthesis of the compound is but a matter of time.

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  • Three such compounds are possible according to the number of valencies acting directly between the carbon atoms. Thus, if they are connected by one valency, and the remaining valencies saturated by hydrogen, we obtain the compound H 3 C CH 3, ethane.

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  • This compound may be considered as derived from methane, CH 4, by replacing a hydrogen atom by the monovalent group CH 3, known as methyl; hence ethane may be named " methylmethane."

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  • If the carbon atoms are connected by two valencies, we obtain a compound H2C:CH2, ethylene; if by three valencies, HC: CH, acetylene.

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  • A more complete idea of the notion of a compound radical follows from a consideration of the compound propane.

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  • In methane and ethane the hydrogen atoms are of equal value, and no matter which one may be substituted by another element or group the same compound will result.

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  • It will be seen that each type depends upon a specific radical or atom, and the copulation of this character with any hydrocarbon radical (open or cyclic) gives origin to a compound of the same class.

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  • Here we meet with a great diversity of types: oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur and other elements may, in addition to carbon, combine together in a great number of arrangements to form cyclic nuclei, which exhibit characters closely resembling open-chain compounds in so far as they yield substitution derivatives, and behave as compound radicals.

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  • compounds derived by substituting aliphatic radicals in the benzene nucleus; such a compound is methylbenzene or toluene, C 6 H 5 CH 3.

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  • This compound is readily oxidized to benzoic acid, C 6 H 5 000H, the aromatic residue being unattacked; nitric and sulphuric acids produce nitro-toluenes, C6H4 CH3 N02j and toluene sulphonic acids, C 6 H 4 CH 3 SO 3 H; chlorination may result in the formation of derivatives substituted either in the aromatic nucleus or in the side chain; the former substitution occurs most readily, chlor-toluenes, C 6 H 4 CH 3 Cl, being formed, while the latter, which needs an elevation in temperature or other auxiliary, yields benzyl chloride, C 6 H 5 CH 2 C1, and benzal chloride, C 6 11 5 CHC1 2.

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  • These results may be graphically represented as follows: numbering the hydrogen atoms in cyclical order from i to 6, then the first thesis demands that whichever atom is substituted the same compound results, while the second thesis points out that the pairs 2 and 6, and 3 and 5 are symmetrical with respect to 1, or in other words, the di-substitution derivatives 1.2 and 1.6, and also 1.3 and 1.5 are identical.

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  • Generally if any group be replaced by another group, then the second group enters the nucleus in the position occupied by the displaced group; this means that if we can definitely orientate three di-derivatives of benzene, then any other compound, which can be obtained from or converted into one of our typical derivatives, may be definitely orientated.

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  • Soc. 61, p. 367): If the hydrogen compound of the substituent already in the benzene nucleus can be directly oxidized to the' corresponding hydroxyl compound, then meta-derivatives predominate on further substitution, if not, then orthoand paraderivatives.

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  • von Liebig discovered, in 1834, an interesting aromatic compound, potassium carbon monoxide or potassium hexaoxybenzene, the nature of which was satisfactorily cleared up by R.

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  • Another hexa-substituted benzene compound capable of direct synthesis is mellitic acid or benzene carboxylic acid, C6(000H)6.

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  • The heptachlor compound when treated with chlorine water gives trichloraceto-pentachlorbutyric acid (6), which is hydrolysed by alkalis to chloroform and pentachlorglutaric acid (7), and is converted by boiling water into tetrachlor-diketo-Rpentene (8).

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  • This latter compound may be chlorinated to perchloracetoacrylic chloride (9), from which the corresponding acid (to) is obtained by treatment with water; alkalis hydrolyse the acid to chloroform and dichlormaleic acid (I I).

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  • This substance, and also the preceding compound, is converted by aqueous caustic soda into dichlormaleic acid, trichlorethylene, and hydrochloric acid (5) (Th.

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  • This compound is converted by chlorine water into octachloracetylacetone (3) by methyl alcohol into the ester of dichlormalonic acid and tetrachioracetone (4); whilst ammonia gives dichloracetamide (5) (Th.

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  • CC13+C02 O?OIi O / O / (4) Cl2HC CO CHCl2+CH302C CCl2C02CH3 (5) Cl2HC CONH2 Cl (z) (2) When phenol is oxidized in acid solution by chlorine, tetrachlorquinone is obtained, a compound also obtainable from hydroquinone.

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  • The transformation is not one of the oxidation of a hexamethylene compound to a benzenoid compound, for only two hydrogen atoms are removed.

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  • Thelfirst four substances are readily formed from, and converted into, the corresponding dihydroxy open-chain compound; these substances are truly aliphatic in character.

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  • The fifth compound, on the other hand, does not behave as an unsaturated aliphatic compound, but its deportment is that of a nucleus, many substitution derivatives being capable of synthesis.

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  • Reduction, however, converts it into an aliphatic compound.

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  • Analytical Chemistry This branch of chemistry has for its province the determination of the constituents of a chemical compound or of a mixture of compounds.

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  • In quantitative analysis the methods can be subdivided into: (a) gravimetric, in which the constituent is precipitated either as a definite insoluble compound by the addition of certain reagents, or electrolytically, by the passage of an electric current; (b) volumetric, in which the volume of a reagent of a known strength which produces a certain definite reaction is measured; (c) colorimetric, in which the solution has a particular tint, which can be compared with solutions of known strengths.

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  • In the second group, we may notice the application of litmus, methyl orange or phenolphthalein in alkalimetry, when the acid or alkaline character of the solution commands the colour which it exhibits; starch paste, which forms a blue compound with free iodine in iodometry; potassium chromate, which forms red silver chromate after all the hydrochloric acid is precipitated in solutions of chlorides; and in the estimation of ferric compounds by potassium bichromate, the indicator, potassium ferricyanide, is placed in drops on a porcelain plate, and the end of the reaction is shown by the absence of a blue coloration when a drop of the test solution is brought into contact with it.

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  • The magnesite (a) serves for the generation of carbon dioxide which clears the tube of air before the compound (mixed with fine copper oxide (b)) is burned, and afterwards sweeps the liberated nitrogen into the receiving vessel (e), which contains a strong potash solution; c is coarse copper oxide; and d a reduced copper gauze spiral, heated in order to decompose any nitrogen oxides.

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  • For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.

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  • Recent researches have shown that the law originally proposed by Kopp - " That the specific volume of a liquid compound (molecular volume) at its boiling-point is equal to the sum of the specific volumes of its constituents (atomic volumes), and that every element has a definite atomic value in its compounds " - is by no means exact, for isomers have different specific volumes, and the volume for an increment of CH 2 in different homologous series is by no means constant; for example, the difference among the esters of the fatty acids is about 57, whereas for the aliphatic aldehydes it is 49.

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  • The specific heat of a compound may, in general, be calculated from the specific heats of its constituent elements.

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  • Conversely, if the specific heats of a compound and its constituent elements, except one, be known, then the unknown atomic heat is readily deducible.

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  • 81° 123° 112° 83° 42° - II° - 29° The replacement of one negative group by another is accompanied by a change in the boiling-point, which is independent of the compound in which the substitution is effected, and solely conditioned by the nature of the replaced and replacing groups.

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  • An acetylenic or triple linkage is associated with a rise in the boiling-point; for example, propargyl compounds boil about 19.5° higher than the corresponding propyl compound.

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  • In the article Thermo Chemistry a general account of heats of formation of chemical compounds is given, and it is there shown that this constant measures the stability of the compound.

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  • (3) If a colourless compound gives a coloured one on solution or by salt-formation, the production of colour may be explained as a particular form of ionization (Baeyer), or by a molecular rearrangement (Hantzsch).

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  • We may notice that ethyl oxalosuccinonitrile is the first case of a fluorescent aliphatic compound.

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  • Ammonium iodide assumes cubic forms with perfect cubic cleavage; tetramethyl ammonium iodide is tetragonal with perfect cleavages parallel to {100} and {o01} - a difference due to the lengthening of the a axes; tetraethyl ammonium iodide also assumes tetragonal forms, but does not exhibit the cleavage of the tetramethyl compound; while tetrapropyl ammonium iodide crystallizes in rhombic form.

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  • It has been shown that certain elements and groups exercise morphotropic effects when substituted in a compound; it may happen that the effects due to two or more groups are nearly equivalent, and consequently the resulting crystal forms are nearly identical.

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  • By listening to the revelations of the "Holy Maid of Kent," the nun Elizabeth Barton, he was charged with misprision of treason, and was condemned to the loss of his goods and to imprisonment at the king's will, penalties he was allowed to compound by a fine of X300 (25th of March 1534).

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  • The chlorine atom in this compound is replaced by the cyano-group, which is then reduced to the CH 2 NH 2.

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  • group and coupled up with benzene sulphochloride to form the compound C6H5S02NH(CH2)3 CH(0C2H5)2.

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  • This substance easily splits out alcohol, and the ring compound then formed yields pyrrolidine on reduction by sodium in amyl alcohol solution.

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  • In 1814 Tassaert observed the spontaneous formation of a blue compound, very similar to ultramarine, if not identical with it, in a soda-furnace at St Gobain, which caused the Societe pour l'Encouragement d'Industrie to offer, in 1824, a prize for the artificial production of the precious colour.

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  • This compound gives a blue potassiumand lithium-ultramarine when treated with the corresponding chloride, and an ethyl-ultramarine when treated with ethyl icdide.

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  • It has been suggested that ultramarine is a compound of a sodium aluminium silicate and sodium sulphide.

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  • The leaves are opposite, simple as in honeysuckle, or compound as in elder; they have usually no stipules.

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  • The formula is Fe n, Sn+, where n may vary from 5 to 16; usually it is Fe, S8 or Fe l s S12, the latter being also the composition of the artificially prepared compound.

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  • The two parts are distinguished by difference of style; the Hebrew principle of parallelism of clauses is employed far more in the first than in the second, which has a number of plain prose passages, and is also rich in uncommon compound terms. In view of these differences there is ground for holding that the second part is a separate production which has been united with the first by an editor, an historical haggadic sketch, a midrash, full of imaginative additions to the Biblical narrative, and enlivened by many striking ethical reflections.

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  • The acetyl compound on reduction yields two of its nitrogen atoms in the form of ammonia and the third in the form of methylamine.

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  • The pentose is then obtained from the acetylated compound by successive treatment with ammonia and dilute acids: CH 2 OH ([[Choh) 3 Choh Ch: Noh -)Ch20h (Choh)3 Choh Cn - Ch 2 Oh (Choh) 3 Cho]].

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  • Hantzsch (Ann., 1896, 2 9 2, pp. 34 0 et seq.) hyponitrous acid and nitramide are to be regarded as stereoisomers, being the anti-and synforms of the same compound.

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  • The Liber abaci, which fills 459 printed pages, contains the most perfect methods of calculating with whole numbers and with fractions, practice, extraction of the square and cube roots, proportion, chain rule, finding of proportional parts, averages, progressions, even compound interest, just as in the completest mercantile arithmetics of our days.

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  • The electrochemical equivalent of any other substance, whether element or compound, may be found by multiplying its chemical equivalent by I 036X Io-5.

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  • It is possible to distinguish between double salts and salts of compound acids.

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  • It is not unlikely, therefore, that even a compound as stable in the solid form as potassium chloride should be thus dissociated when dissolved.

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  • If an element be present in a compound otherwise than as an ion, it is not interchangeable, and cannot be recognized by the usual tests.

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  • The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.

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  • This product melts at 86° C., and becomes anhydrous when heated to 110° C. The anhydrous compound can also be prepared, as hard crusts melting at 146°, by crystallizing concentrated aqueous solutions at 30 to 35°.

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  • If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.

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  • When this compound is acted on by water, hydrogen peroxide and levulinic aldehyde are formed, the aldehyde being subsequently oxidized by the hydrogen peroxide, forming levulinic acid.

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  • Most articles made of cut sheet rubber would, however, be of very limited utility were they not hardened or vulcanized by the action of sulphur or some compound of that element.

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  • This result he considered to be due, not to any removal of impurities, but to an actual splitting-up of the yttrium molecule into its constituents, and he ventured to draw the provisional conclusion that the so-called simple bodies are in reality compound molecules, at the same time suggesting that all the elements have been produced by a process of evolution from one primordial stuff or "protyle."

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  • It is a very stable compound, chlorine, concentrated nitric acid and hydriodic acid having no action upon it.

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  • It combines with alkaline chlorides - potassium, rubidium and caesium - to form crystalline plumbichlorides; it also forms a crystalline compound with quinoline.

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  • Sulphurous acid reduces it to the corresponding dihydroxy compound.

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  • On the surface of the carapace there are in both animals a pair of central eyes with simple lens and a pair of lateral eyetracts, which in Limulus consist of closely-aggregated simple eyes, forming a " compound" eye, whilst in Scorpio they present several AC separate small eyes.

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  • oc, Lateral compound eyes.

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  • The lateral eyes are in Limulus " compound eyes," that is to say, consist of many lenses placed close together; beneath each lens is a complex of protoplasmic cells, in which the optic nerve terminates.

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  • The lateral eyes of Scorpio consist of groups of separate small lenses each with its ommatidium, but they do not form a continuous compound eye as in Limulus.

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  • The ommatidium (soft structure beneath the lens-unit of a compound eye) is very simple in both Scorpio and Limulus.

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  • Watase has shown, in a very convincing way, how by deepening the pit-like set of cells beneath a simple lens the more complex ommatidia of the compound eyes of Crustacea and Hexapoda may be derived from such a condition as that presented in the lateral eyes of Limulus and Scorpio.

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  • In the specialized ommatidia of the compound eyes of Crustacea and Hexapods the rhabdom is an important structure.'

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  • Compound lateral eyes present; median eyes wanting.

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  • Lateral eyes consisting of a densely packed group of eye-units (" compound " eyes).

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  • The dorsal aspect is presented showing the prosomatic shield with paired compound eyes and the prosomatic appendages II.

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  • oc, The compound eyes.

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  • Watase, " On the Morphology of the Compound Eyes of Arthropods," Studies from the Biolog.

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  • In the German Patent 1 57573 (1904) it is shown that by the action of at least two molecular proportions of an alkyl formate on two molecular proportions of a magnesium alkyl or aryl haloid, a complex addition compound is formed, which readily decomposes into a basic magnesium salt and an aldehyde, C H MgBr-f-H000R-RO�CH�C H.

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  • The silver salt, obtained by shaking an ether solution of nitroform with freshly prepared, slightly moist silver oxide, reacts with methyl iodide to form trinitroethane, a crystalline solid which melts at 56° C. Concentrated caustic potash decomposes the latter compound, forming the potassium salt of dinitroethane, CH3 C(N02)2K.

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  • (vi.) Any compound operation not coming under the above descriptions is to have its meaning made clear by brackets, the use of a pair of brackets indicating that the expression between them is to be treated as a whole.

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  • The advantage of approximate bisection lies in the superior brilliancy of the surviving spectra; but in any case the compound grating may be considered to be perfect in the longer interval, and the definition is as good as if the bisection were accurate.

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  • Rosell, Ber., 1890, 23, p. 487), or from the aminoazo compound and a mustard oil, the resulting thiocarbanilido derivative being heated with acetic acid (M.

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  • the sodium salt H8Na2Sn501E) is the white compound produced from the metal by means of nitric acid.

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  • It is insoluble in water and in nitric acid and apparently so in hydrochloric acid; but if heated with this last for some time it passes into a compound, which, after the acid mother liquor has been decanted off, dissolves in water.

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  • HADAD, the name of a Syrian deity, is met with in the Old Testament as the name of several human persons; it also occurs in compound forms like Benhadad and Hadadezer.

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  • It was considered to be a sulphur compound, hence its name sulphur ether; this idea was proved to be erroneous by Valentine Rose in about 1800.

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  • In the transitional period, when the Arabian school began to influence European medicine, but before the Salernitans were superseded, comes Nicolaus Praepositus, who wrote the Antidotarium, a collection of formulae for compound medicines, which became the standard work on the subject, and the foundation of many later compilations.

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  • Lockhart Clarke (1817-1880), one of the earliest investigators of nervous pathology, the improvement of the compound microscope had not attained the achromatism, the penetration and the magnification which have since enabled J.

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  • - Plan of direct-acting hoisting engines, compound Corliss engines and conical drums. Wellman-Seaver-Morgan Co., Cleveland, Ohio, makers.

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  • The cylinders are generally single-expansion, though compound engines are occasionally used for heavy work.

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  • Typically they are steam pumps, the steam and water cylinders being set tandem on the same bed frame, generally without fly-wheel or other rotary parts; they may be single cylinder or duplex, simple, compound or triple expansion, and having a higher speed of stroke are smaller in all their parts than Cornish pumps.

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  • ACRIDINE, C13H9N, in chemistry, a heterocyclic ring compound found in crude coal-tar anthracene.

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  • Koerner (Ber., 1884, 17, p. 203) by condensing ortho-nitrobenzaldehyde with aniline, the resulting ortho-nitro-para-diamino-triphenylmethane being reduced to the corresponding orthoamino compound, which on oxidation yields chrysaniline.

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  • It decomposes ammonia at a red heat, liberating hydrogen and yielding a compound containing silicon and nitrogen.

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  • It combines directly with ammonia to form the compound SiF 4 2NH,, and is absorbed by dry boric acid and by many metallic oxides.

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  • It unites directly with ammonia gas yielding a compound of variable composition.

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  • But in regard to their power of retaining their magnetism none of them comes at all up to the compound metal steel.

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  • Passed through a red-hot tube, benzene vapour yields hydrogen, diphenyl, diphenylbenzenes and acetylene; the formation of the last compound is an instance of a reversible reaction, since Berthelot found that acetylene passed through a red-hot tube gave some benzene.

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  • With uniform temperature, taking h constant in the gas-equation, dp / dz= =p / k, p=poet/ k, (9) so that in ascending in the atmosphere of thermal equilibrium the pressure and density diminish at compound discount, and for pressures p 1 and 1, 2 at heights z 1 and z2 (z1-z2)11?

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  • At times too a doubt may exist in regard to a name whose bearer was a Semite, whether the signs composing his name represent a phonetic reading or an ideographic compound.

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  • high, and large compound leaves with broad sheathing stalks, and broad, cut or lobed segments.

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  • The small yellow flowers are borne in compound umbels.

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  • It has large compound leaves composed of four or five pairs, with a terminal odd one, of short-stalked, oblong, blunt, leathery leaflets, and inconspicuous green flowers.

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  • These reactions permit the transformation of an aldose into a ketose; the reverse change can only be brought about by reducing the ketose to an alcohol, and oxidizing this compound to an aldehyde.

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  • The ketone, dihydroxyacetone, CH 2 OH CO CH 2 OH, was obtained by Piloty by condensing formaldehyde with nitromethane, reducing to a hydroxylamino compound, which is oxidized to the oxime of dihydroxyacetone; the ketone is liberated by oxidation with bromine water: 3H CHO + CH 3 NO 2 -- (CH 2 OH) 3 C NO 2 - (CH 2 OH) 3 C NH OH -- (CH 2 OH) 2 C: NOH - > (CH20H)2CO.

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  • As a matter of fact, only arabinose gives an active product on oxidation; it is therefore to be supposed that arabinose is the - - - compound, and consequently CH 2 (OH) - - - + COH = /-glucose CH 2 (OH) + - - - COH = l-gulose.

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  • The co-chlor compound results when, (3-phenyl-a-chlorlactic acid (from hypochlorous acid and cinnamic acid) is heated with water; it has a hyacinthine odour and yields phenylacetaldehyde when heated with water.

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  • The latter on reduction yields a diamino compound, the disulphonic acid of which on diazotization and coupling with a phenol, &c., gives valuable substantive cotton dyes after the type yielded by Benzidine.

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  • The lime causes the minute separate particles of clay to flocculate or group themselves together into larger compound grains between which air and water can percolate more freely.

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  • Stahl, as late as 1702, quoted the formation of brass as a case of the union of a metal with an earth into a metallic compound; but he subsequently adopted the view propounded by Kunckel in 1677, that "cadmia" is a metallic calx, and that it dyes the copper yellow by giving its metal up to it.

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  • Some brassfounders break from a single ingot the quantity of zinc required to produce the amount of brass they wish to compound in one crucible, but when perfect uniformity is desired the importance of remelting the zinc on a large scale cannot be too strongly emphasized.

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  • The cause of the spongy deposit is variously explained, some (Siemens and Halske) ascribing it to the existence of a compound of zinc and hydrogen, and others, among whom are G.

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  • A green pigment known as Rinmann's green is prepared by mixing I oo parts of zinc vitriol with 2.5 parts of cobalt nitrate and heating the mixture to redness, to produce a compound of the two oxides.

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  • This view had currency until 1849, when Wohler showed that the crystals are a compound, Ti(CN)2.3T13N2, of a cyanide and a nitride of the metal.

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  • Various writers on optics in the 17th century discussed the principle of the simple dark chamber alone and with single or compound lenses, among them Jean Tarde (Les Astres de Borbon, 1623); Descartes, the pupil of Kepler (Dioptrique, 1637); Bettinus (Apiaria, 1645); A.

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  • 4, beside the compound names Jehovah-jireh, Jehovah-nissi, Jehovah-shalom; elsewhere, in accordance with the usage of the ancient versions, Jhvh is represented by Lord (distinguished by capitals from the title " Lord," Heb.

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  • The compound organism now develops two sets of inter-connected genitalia and becomes a Diplozoon.

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  • It is a ~ copper-lead-tin compound, the proportions of its constituents varying from 72 to 88% of copper, from 4

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  • It is a golden yellow bronze, called seniokuthis being the Japanese pronunciation of Suen-t, the era of the Ming dynasty of China when this compound was invented.

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  • Graham's work was developed by Liebig, who called into service many organic acids - citric, tartaric, cyanuric, comenic and meconic - and showed that these resembled phosphoric acid; and he established as the criterion of polybasicity the existence of compound salts with different metallic oxides.

    0
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  • Compound salts.

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  • monticola, with compound body, in S.E.

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  • But it is not permissible to call brass a chemical compound, for we can largely alter its percentage composition without the substance losing the properties characteristic of brass; the properties change more or less continuously, the colour, for example, becoming redder with decrease in the percentage of zinc, and a paler yellow when there is more zinc. The possibility of continuously varying the percentage composition suggests analogy between an alloy and a solution, and A.

    0
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  • We can sometimes obtain definite compounds in a pure state by the action of appropriate solvents which dissolve the rest of the alloy and do not attack the crystals of the compound.

    0
    0
  • Thus, a number of copper-tin alloys when digested with hydrochloric acid leave the same crystalline residue, which on analysis proves to be the compound Cu 3 Sn.

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    0
  • It is probable that all the alloys of compositions between B and D, when they begin to solidify, deposit crystals of the compound; the lower eutectic B probably corresponds to a solid complex of mercury and the compound.

    0
    0
  • The higher eutectic D may correspond to a complex of solid thallium and the compound; but the possible existence of solid solutions makes further investigation necessary here.

    0
    0
  • Sometimes a freezing-point curve contains more than one intermediate summit, so that more than one compound is indicated.

    0
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  • The substance AuAl 2 is the most remarkable compound of two metals that has so far been discovered; although it contains so much aluminium its melting-point is as high as that of gold.

    0
    0
  • This compound melts at 350° C., a temperature far above the melting-point of either sodium or mercury.

    0
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  • In the system potassium-mercury, the compound KHg 2 is similarly indicated.

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    0
  • In the curve for sodium-cadmium, the compound NaCd 2 is plainly shown.

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  • The intermediate summits occurring in the freezing-point curves of alloys are usually rounded; this feature is believed to be due to the partial decomposition of the compound which takes place when it melts.

    0
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  • We must not take it for granted, when the freezing-point curve gives no indication of the compound, that the compound does not exist in the solid alloy.

    0
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  • For example, the compound Cu3Sn is not indicated in the freezing-point curve, and indeed a liquid alloy of this percentage does not begin to solidify by the formation of crystals of Cu 3 Sn; the liquid solidifies completely to a uniform solid solution, and only at a lower temperature does this change into crystals of the compound, the transformation being accompanied by a considerable evolution of heat.

    0
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  • If the alloy were a true chemical compound the counteracting electromotive force should not occur; experiments in this direction are much needed.

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  • Calcium chloride must not be used, since it forms a crystalline compound with alcohol.

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    0
  • His compound title is explained by the fact that he inherited the title of count of Olivares, but was created duke of San: Lucar by the favour of Philip IV.

    0
    0
  • With concentrated ammonia auric oxide forms a black, highly explosive compound of the composition AuN2H3.3H20, named " fulminating gold "; this substance is generally considered to be Au(NH 2)NH.

    0
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  • Since it does not form an addition product with bromine, reduction must have taken place in one of the nuclei only, and on account of the aromatic character of the compound it must be in that nucleus which does not contain the amino group. This tetrahydro compound yields adipic acid, (CH 2) 4 (CO 2 H) 2, when oxidized by potassium permanganate.

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  • It is precipitated as the metal from solutions of its salts by the metals of the alkalis and alkaline earths, zinc, iron, copper, &c. In its chemical affinities it resembles arsenic and antimony; an important distinction is that it forms no hydrogen compound analogous to arsine and stibine.

    0
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  • This compound occurs in nature as bismuth ochre, and may be prepared artificially by oxidizing the metal at a red heat, or by heating the carbonate, nitrate or hydrate.

    0
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  • Bismuth combines directly with sulphur to form a disulphide, B12S2, and a trisulphide, B12S3, the latter compound being formed when the sulphur is in excess.

    0
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  • 98) gives the translation, u yas ap7)tos, and considers the name as a compound of Xerxes, showing thereby that he knew nothing of the Persian language; the later Persian form is Ardashir, which occurs in the form Artaxias (Artaxes) as the name of some kings of Armenia.

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  • all units of thought) are (1) analysable only by abstraction, and (2) are compound of deduction and induction, i.e.

    0
    0
  • The head of a hymenopterous insect bears three simple eyes (ocelli) on the front and vertex in addition to the large compound FIG.

    0
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  • This subject owes its importance in modern chemistry to the fact that the vapour density, when hydrogen is taken as the standard, gives perfectly definite information as to the molecular condition of the compound, since twice the vapour density equals the molecular weight of the compound.

    0
    0
  • The broad head carries, in addition to the prominent compound eyes, three simple eyes (ocelli) on the crown, while the feeler consists of a stout basal segment, followed by five slender segments.

    0
    0
  • It is obtained from potassium tantalofluoride by heating with sulphuric acid to 400°, boiling out with water, and decomposing the residual compound of the oxide and sulphuric acid by ignition, preferably with the addition of ammonium carbonate.

    0
    0
  • Compound gulfs are formed seawards by fracture and landwards by the overflowing of depressed land, e.g.

    0
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  • Coal is never definitely crystalline, the nearest approach to such a structure being a compound fibrous grouping resembling that of gypsum or arragonite, which occurs in some of the steam coals of South Wales, and is locally known as " cone in cone," but no definite form or arrangement can be made out of the fibres.

    0
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  • Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.

    0
    0
  • Godeffroy, Ber., 1874, 7, p. 375; Ann., 1876, 181, p. 176) has been used, the corresponding compound not being formed by rubidium.

    0
    0
  • In the Sheep and the Camel the long compound bone, supporting the two main (or only) toes is the cannon-bone.

    0
    0
  • ACETYLENE, klumene or ethine, a gaseous compound of carbon and hydrogen, represented by the formula C 2 H 2.

    0
    0
  • Edmund Davy first made acetylene in 1836 from a compound produced during the manufacture of potassium from potassium tartrate and charcoal, which under certain conditions yielded a black compound decomposed by water with considerable violence and the evolution of acetylene.

    0
    0
  • This compound was afterwards fully investigated by J.

    0
    0
  • He also made the corresponding sodium compound and showed that it evolved the same gas, whilst in 1862 F.

    0
    0
  • In the early samples of carbide this compound used to be present in considerable quantity, but now rarely more than% is to be found.

    0
    0
  • There are three substances which can be relied on more or less to remove this compound, and the gas to be purified may be passed either through acid copper salts, through bleaching powder or through chromic acid.

    0
    0
  • Dr P. Wolff has found that when this is used on the large scale there is a risk of the ammonia present in the acetylene forming traces of chloride of nitrogen in the purifying-boxes, and as this is a compound which detonates with considerable local force, it occasionally gives rise to explosions in the purifying apparatus.

    0
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  • He appears soon to have found that single lenses of very short focus were preferable to the compound microscopes then in use; and it is clear from the discoveries he made with these that they must have been of very excellent quality.

    0
    0
  • This compound on heating with phosphoric anhydride loses water and yields anthraquinone, CsH4 O 15 CsH <% CsH4.

    0
    0
  • With zinc dust in presence of caustic soda it yields the secondary alcohol oxanthranol, C 6 H 4: CO Choh: C 6 H 4, with tin and hydrochloric acid, the phenolic compound anthranol, C5H4: CO.

    0
    0
  • The distillate is treated with anhydrous calcium chloride, the crystalline compound formed with the alcohol being separated and decomposed by redistilling with water.

    0
    0
  • Its compound with calcium chloride has the formula CaC1 2.4CH 3.

    0
    0
  • The constancy of composition shown by repeated analyses of atmospheric air led to the view that it was a chemical compound of nitrogen and oxygen; but there was no experimental confirmation of this idea, and all observations tended to the view that it is simply a mechanical mixture.

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  • p. 307) calls him an "inextricable compound parthenogenetic deity"; and finds, in the fact that his chief festival (when his paste idol was shot through with an arrow, and afterwards eaten) was at the winter solstice, ground for believing that he was at first a nature-god, whose life and death were connected with the year's.

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    0
  • If corporeal, he must be simple or compound; if a simple and elementary substance, he is incapable of life and thought; if compound, he contains in himself the elements of dissolution.

    0
    0
  • Owing, however, to its poverty in that form of nitrogenous compound called gluten, so abundant in wheat, barley-flour cannot be baked into vesiculated bread; still it is a highlynutritious substance, the salts it contains having a high proportion of phosphoric acid.

    0
    0
  • But the waves on the surface of a liquid, which are not of the sound kind, are both longitudinal and transverse, the compound nature being easily seen in watching the motion of a floating particle.

    0
    0
  • In some cases of echo, when the original sound is a compound musical note, the octave of the fundamental tone is reflected much more strongly than that tone itself.

    0
    0
  • or in ratio 4: 5, the note produced is a compound one, such as would be obtained by striking on the piano two notes separated by the interval of a major third (i).

    0
    0
  • The law that, caeteris paribus, n varies inversely as the thickness may be tested by forming a string of four lengths of the single thread used before, and consequently of double the thickness of the latter, when, for the same length and tension, the compound thread will exhibit double the number of ventral segments presented by the single thread.

    0
    0
  • States which have, by treaty or otherwise, parted with some portion of their sovereignty and formed new political units: what Herbert Spencer calls "compound political heads," or, to use Austin's expression, "composite states."

    0
    0
  • Compound trusses consist of simple trusses used as primary, secondary and tertiary trusses, the secondary supported on the primary, and the tertiary on the secondary.

    0
    0
  • When intercourse with the West began, and more especially when Western methods of government and education were first adopted in Siam, the tendency to utilize European words was very marked, but recently there has been an effort to avoid this by the coining of Siamese or Bali compound words.

    0
    0
  • In compound sentences the verbs are placed together as in English, not separated by the object as in German.

    0
    0
  • Proust, on the other hand, maintained that compounds always contain definite quantities of their constituent elements, and that in cases where two or more elements unite to form more than one compound, the proportions in which they are present vary per sallum, not gradually.

    0
    0
  • Calcium carbide, CaC2, a compound of great industrial importance as a source of acetylene, was first prepared by F.

    0
    0
  • The development of the compound microscope rendered possible the accurate study of their life-histories; and the publication in 1851 of the results of Wilhelm Hofmeister's researches on the comparative embryology of the higher Cryptogamia shed a flood of light on their relationships to each other and to the higher plants, and supplied the basis for the distinction of the great groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Phanerogamae, the last named including Gymnospermae and Angiospermae.

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    0
  • Ammonia gas has the power of combining with many substances, particularly with metallic halides; thus with calcium chloride it forms the compound CaCl 2.8NH 3, and consequently calcium chloride cannot be used for drying the gas.

    0
    0
  • It can be shown by Isambert's results that the compound AgC1.3NH 3 cannot be formed above 20° C., by the action of ammonia on silver chloride at atmospheric pressure; whilst 2AgC1.3NH 3, under similar conditions, cannot be formed above about 68° C. Liquid ammonia is used for the artificial preparation of ice.

    0
    0
  • This compound was discovered in 1812 by Bernard Courtois, and was originally supposed to contain nitrogen and iodine only, but in 1840 R.F.Marchand showed that it contained hydrogen, whilst R.

    0
    0
  • Silberrad assigns the formula NH 3 �NI 3 to the compound, and explains the decomposition as taking place, 2NH3�N13+ 6Zn (C2H5)2 = 6ZnC 2 H 5 �I+2NH 3 +2N(C 2 H 5) 3.

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    0
  • The salts produced by the action of ammonia on acids are known as the ammonium salts and all contain the compound radical ammonium (NH 4).

    0
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  • Ammonia gas passed into a strong aqueous solution of the sesquicarbonate converts it into normal ammonium carbonate, (NH 4) 2 CO 3, which can be obtained in the crystalline condition from a solution prepared at about 30° C. This compound on exposure to air gives off ammonia and passes back to ammonium bicarbonate.

    0
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  • Ammonium bicarbonate, NH 4 �HCO 3, is formed as shown above and also by passing carbon dioxide through a solution of the normal compound, when it is deposited as a white powder, which has no smell and is only slightly soluble in water.

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  • p. 283), if sulphuretted hydrogen is passed into strong aqueous ammonia at ordinary temperature, the compound (NH 4) 2 S�2NH 4 HS is obtained, which, on cooling to o C. and passing more sulphuretted hydrogen, forms the compound (NH4)2S� i 2NH 4 HS.

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  • p. 943.) Amidosulphonic acid crystallizes in prisms, slightly soluble in water, and is a stable compound.

    0
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  • Only one compound of hydrogen and fluorine is known, namely hydrofluoric acid, HF or H 2 F 2, which was first obtained by C. Scheele in 1771 by decomposing fluor-spar with concentrated sulphuric acid, a method still used for the commercial preparation of the aqueous solution of the acid, the mixture being distilled from leaden retorts and the acid stored in leaden or gutta-percha bottles.

    0
    0
  • Simple galls are those that arise when only one member of a plant is involved; compound galls 1 For figure and description see Zoology of the " Erebus " and " Terror," ii.

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    0
  • above), also known as diethylene diamine, may be prepared by reducing pyrazine, or, better, by combining aniline and ethylene bromide to form diphenyl diethylene diamine, the dinitroso compound of which hydrolyses to para-dinitrosophenol and pipera zine.

    0
    0
  • For sodii arsenas and cacodylate see Arsenic. Sapo durus (hard soap) is a compound of sodium with olive oil, and sago animalis (curd soap) is chiefly sodium stearate.

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    0
  • His speculum metal is composed of four atoms of copper (126.4 parts) and one of tin (58.9 parts), a brilliant alloy, which resists tarnish better than any other compound tried.

    0
    0
  • These consist of galactin and lactochrome, substances peculiar to milk, discovered by Winter Blyth, with certain animal principles such as leucin, pepton, kreatin, tyrosin, &c. The salts in milk consist, according to the average of numerous analyses by Fleischmann, of the following Milk thus is not to be regarded as a definite chemical compound nor even as a mixture of bodies in fixed and invariable proportions.

    0
    0
  • It liquefies at 7° C. It is an exceedingly reactive compound, combining with water to form malonic acid, with hydrogen chloride to form malonyl chloride, and with ammonia to form malonamide.

    0
    0
  • Jour., 1901, 26, p. to) attempted to prepare this compound by the action of iodine on the lead salt of pyrocatechin suspended in chloroform.

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    0
  • In a vacuum or in sufficiently dilute hydrogen the compound from 200° upwards loses hydrogen, until the tension of the free gas has arrived at the maximum value characteristic of that temperature (Troost and Hautefeuille).

    0
    0
  • Their lateral, compound, feebly movable eyes agree with those of the Phyllopoda.

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    0
  • The Halocypridae are destitute of compound lateral eyes, and have the sexual orifice unsymmetrically placed.

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    0
  • Considering the imprisonment of the ostracod body within the valves, it is more surprising that the Asteropidae and Cypridinidae should have a pair of compound and sometimes large eyes, in addition to the e median organ at the base of I the " frontal tentacle," than 6 that other members of the group should be limited to P that median organ of sight, or have no eyes at all.

    0
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  • Giesbrecht (1900) considers Canu quite right in grouping together in this single family those parasites of ascidians, simple and compound, which had been previously distributed among families with the more or less significant names Notodelphyidae, Doropygidae, Buproridae, Schizoproctidae, Kossmechtridae, Enterocolidae, Enteropsidae.

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  • This had been seized by the parliament, but Evelyn was able to compound with the occupiers for 350o, and after the Restoration his possession was secured.

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    0
  • He left nothing in doubt if experiment would decide it, and he evidently did not consider that he had fully investigated any compound until he could both unmake and remake it.

    0
    0
  • The religious ethics of Philo - a compound of Stoic, Platonic and Neopythagorean elements - already bear the peculiar stamp which we recognize in Neoplatonism.

    0
    0
  • glandulosa, Chinese sumach or tree of heaven, is a handsome, quick-growing tree with spreading branches and large compound leaves, resembling those of the ash, and bearing numerous pairs of long pointed leaflets.

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    0
  • On either side is attached a dorsolateral and ventro-lateral appendage, each with a fan-like plumose termination consisting of compound hairs or setae, found elsewhere only among arthropods (q.v.); each of these is moved by muscles running upwards towards the neck and arising immediately under the trochal disk, the inferior ventro-lateral pair also presenting muscles which form a girdle in the hind region of the body.

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  • Fittig and his pupils (Annalen, 1883, 216, pp. loo, 115; 1885, 227, pp. 55, 119), in which it was shown that the aldehyde forms an addition compound with the sodium salt of the fatty acid, and that the acetic anhydride plays the part of a dehydrating agent.

    0
    0
  • However different in structure Trilobites may be, they all agree in possessing a head-shield usually semi-circular in shape, which results from the fusion of apparently five segments, and bears, except in some blind forms, a pair of large reniform compound eyes like those of the king-crab (Xiphosura).

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    0
  • It is a white crystalline solid, easily soluble in water, the solution showing a strongly acid reaction with litmus; the colour, however, is ultimately discharged by the bleaching power of the compound.

    0
    0
  • Gautier (Ann., 1869, 151, p. 239) by the action of alkyl iodides on silver cyanide, and the distillation of the resulting compound with potassium cyanide in concentrated aqueous solution: RIR Ag(NC) 2 -)R NC+KAg(NC)2.

    0
    0
  • On the other hand, when there is but little electro-chemical difference between the radical of the cyanide and that of the reacting compound then the nitrogen atom is the more unsaturated element and.

    0
    0
  • It is an unsaturated compound, and on oxidation with potassium permanganate gives succinic acid.

    0
    0
  • In the Arcidae the pallial eyes are compound or faceted somewhat like those of Arthropods.

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    0
  • Arcidae.-Borders of the mantle bear compound pallial eyes.

    0
    0
  • 2, 1356 a 33); and, since rhetorical arguments are examples and enthymemes analysed in the Analytics, rhetoric is finally regarded as a compound of analytic science and of morals, while it is like dialectical and sophistic arguments (i.

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    0
  • a seed becoming wood, wood becoming coal, &c. A natural substance or body, therefore, is not a heterogeneous compound of essence and matter, but is essence as what it is, matter as able passively to be changed, force as able actively to change.

    0
    0
  • Theoretically it was a compound of contradictory elements.

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  • To obtain a good reducing flame (in which the combustible matter, very hot, but not yet burned, is disposed to take oxygen from any compound containing it), the nozzle, with smaller orifice, should just touch the flame at a point higher above the wick, and a somewhat weaker current of air should be blown.

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  • Towards the end of his life he adopted the view that the elements have been formed by some process of condensation from one primordial substance of extremely small atomic weight, and he expressed the conviction that atomic weights within narrow limits are variable and modified according to the physical conditions in which a compound is formed.

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    0
  • The plant is an annual herb with flexuose branches, and alternately arranged pinnately compound leaves, with small, oval, serrated leaflets and small eared stipules.

    0
    0
  • It forms red octahedra and is less soluble in water than the corresponding potassium compound.

    0
    0
  • Their configuration was determined by their relationship to their oxalo-derivatives; the cis-dichloro chloride, [CrC 2 H 4 (NH 2) 2 C1 2 ]Cl-H 2 0, compound with potassium oxalate gave a carmine red crystalline complex salt, [Cr{C2H4(NH2)2}C204][CrC2H4(NH2)2-(C204)2]12H20, while from the trans-chloride a red complex salt is obtained containing the unaltered trans-dichloro group [CrC2H4(NH2)2 C12]

    0
    0
  • It may be coloured blue by haemocyanin, a respiratory compound containing copper.

    0
    0
  • They may be prepared by the reduction of nitro compounds in alkaline solution (using zinc dust and alkali, or a solution of an alkaline stannite as a reducing agent); by oxidation of hydrazo compounds; or by the coupling of a diazotized amine and any compound of a phenolic or aminic type, provided that there is a free para position in the amine or phenol.

    0
    0
  • Hewitt has also attacked the problem by brominating the oxyazobenzenes, and has shown that when the hydrobromic acid produced in the reaction is allowed to remain in the system, a brombenzene-azo-phenol is formed, whilst if it be removed (by the addition of sodium acetate) bromination takes place in the phenolic nucleus; consequently the presence of the mineral acid gives the azo compound a pseudo-quinonoid character, which it does not possess if the mineral acid be removed from the sphere of the reaction.

    0
    0
  • It is an orange-red crystalline compound which melts at 154° C. Ortho-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N (1) C6H4.

    0
    0
  • Bamberger (Ber., 1900, 33, p. 3189) simultaneously with the para compound, from which it may be separated by distillation in a current of steam, the ortho compound passing over with the steam.

    0
    0
  • Meta-oxyazobenzene, C 6 H 5 N: N(1)C 6 H 4 OH(3), was obtained in 1903 by P. Jacobson (Ber., 1903, 36, p. 4 0 93) by condensing ortho-anisidine with diazo benzene, the resulting compound being then diazotized and reduced by alcohol to benzene-azometa-anisole, from which meta-oxyazobenzene was obtained by hydrolysis with aluminium chloride.

    0
    0
  • It melts at 112-114° C. and is easily reduced to the corresponding hydrazo compound.

    0
    0
  • Many compound resins, however, from their admixture with essential oils, are possessed of distinct and characteristic odours.

    0
    0
  • These bobbins are then in general taken to the first spinning frame, and there the single strands receive their first twist, which rounds them, and prevents the compound fibre from splitting up and separating when, by the subsequent scouring operations, the gum is removed which presently binds them into one.

    0
    0
  • In his " Report on English Silk Industry " to the Royal Commission on Technical Instruction (1885) Sir Thomas Wardle of Leek says: " Colours and white of all possible shades can very easily be imparted to this compound of silk and tin, and this method is becoming extensively used in Lyons.

    0
    0
  • The spikelets are borne on a compound or branched spike, erect at first but afterwards bent downwards.

    0
    0
  • Compound bodies, we now know, have their own spectra, and only when dissociation occurs can the compound show the rays characteristic of the element: this perhaps was to be expected, but it came as a surprise and was not readily believed, that elements, as a rule, possess more than one spectrum according to the physical conditions under which they become luminous.

    0
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  • When compound prisms are used in which, 1 Monthly Notices R.A.S.

    0
    0
  • for the purpose of obtaining smaller deviation, one part of the compound acts in opposition to the other, the resolving power of the opposing portion must be deducted in calculating the power of the whole.

    0
    0
  • When we now speak of the identification of spectra we like to include, wherever possible, the identification of the particular compound which is luminous and even - though we have only begun to make any progress in that direction - the differentiation between the molecular or electronic states which yield the different spectra of the same element.

    0
    0
  • In many cases there is a considerable difficulty in deciding whether a particular spectrum belongs to a compound body or to one of the elements composing the compound.

    0
    0
  • - In the present state of our knowledge we cannot trace any definite relationship between the spectrum of a compound body and that of its elements, and it does not even seem certain that such a relationship exists, but there is often a similarity between different compounds of the same element.

    0
    0
  • In many of these cases the observed facts might perhaps be explained by dissociation, the undissociated compound producing no marked effect on the spectra.

    0
    0
  • The detection of the presence of chlorine or bromine or iodine in a compound is at present undecided, and it may be well that we may have to look for its effects in a different part of the spectrum.

    0
    0
  • Compound prisms are also employed.

    0
    0
  • The prisms are necessarily compound, and usually consist of flint glass with compensating prisms of crown.

    0
    0
  • In all cases where compound prisms are used, the angles must be accurately calculated.

    0
    0
  • The oxidation of benzaldehyde to benzoic acid when exposed to air is not one of ordinary oxidation, for it has been observed in the case of many compounds that during such oxidation, as much oxygen is rendered " active " as is used up by the substance undergoing oxidation; thus if benzaldehyde is left for some time in contact with air, water and indigosulphonic acid, just as much oxygen is used up in oxidizing the indigo compound as in oxidizing the aldehyde.

    0
    0
  • Villiger (Berichte, 1900, 33, pp. 858, 2480) have shown that benzoyl hydrogen peroxide C 6 H 5 CO O OH is formed as an intermediate product and that this oxidizes the indigo compound, being itself reduced to benzoic acid; they have also shown that this peroxide is soluble in benzaldehyde with production of benzoic acid, and it must be assumed that the oxidation of benzaldehyde proceeds as shown in the equations: C 6 H 5 CHO+0 2 = C6H5CO.O.OH, C 6 H 5 CO.

    0
    0
  • Heated with sulphur it forms benzoic acid and stilbene: 2C 7 H 6 0+S = C6HS000H+C6H5CHS, 2C 6 H 5 CHS =2S +C14H12 Its addition compound with hydrocyanic acid gives mandelic acid C 6 H 5 CH(OH) COOH on hydrolysis; when heated with sodium succinate and acetic anhydride, phenyl-iso-crotonic acid C 6 H 5 CH: CH CH 2 000H is produced, which on boiling is converted into a-naphthol C 10 H 7 0H.

    0
    0
  • H 3 C CO NH 3 CO CH 3 H3C C - NH - C CH3 On nitration it yields chiefly meta-nitro-benzaldehyde, crystallizing in needles which melt at 58° C. The ortho-compound may be obtained by oxidizing ortho-nitrocinnamic acid with alkaline potassium permanganate in the presence of benzene; or from ortho - nitrobenzyl chloride by condensing it with aniline, oxidizing the product so obtained to ortho-nitrobenzylidine aniline, and then hydrolysing this compound with an acid (Farben fabrik d.

    0
    0
  • This compound condenses in alkaline solution with compounds containing the grouping - CH 2 - CO - to form quinoline or its derivatives; thus, with acetaldehyde it forms quinoline, and with acetone, a-methyl quinoline.

    0
    0
  • With unsaturated alkyl halides the products are only slightly soluble in ether, and two molecules of the alkyl compound are brought into the reaction.

    0
    0
  • On passing a current of dry carbon dioxide over the reagent,- the gas is absorbed and the resulting compound, when decomposed by dilute acids, yields an organic acid, and similarly with carbon oxysulphide a thio-acid is obtained: RMgX-R CO 2 MgX?R CO 2 H; COS-CS(OMgX) R--R Csoh.

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  • (I) first antenna; (6) tergum; (2) compound (7) biramous eye; feet; (3) liver; (8) carina; (4) simple eye; (9) cement (5) scutum; gland.

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  • So far as this main point of transfigured realism is steadily maintained, it is a compound of idealism and realism, but not materialism.

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  • On the one hand, essentially a mathematician, he supposed that] unity is indivisibility, whereas everything known to be one is merely undivided or individual, and that there must be simple because there are compound substances, although composition only requires simpler or relatively simple elements.

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  • According to the other alternative, however, he suggested that at least organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, which are not phenomena; but something realizing or rather substantializing phenomena, and not mere aggregates of monads, but something substantial beyond their monads, because an organic body, though composed of monads, has a real unity (unio realis).

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  • According to this alternative, these organic bodies are compound or corporeal substances, between monads and phenomena; and Leibnitz is a metaphysical realist.

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  • Further, on his own account, he identifies apperception with the process of attention, and regards it as an act necessary to the general formation of compound ideas, to all association of ideas, to all imagination and understanding.

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  • Further, Wundt declares that the psychical compound of sensations, with which, according to him, we actually start, is not a complex sensation, but a compound idea; so that I am expected to believe that, when I hear the chord of D, I am not conscious of single sensations of D, F, A, and have only a compound idea of the chord - as if the hearing of music were merely a series of ideas!

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  • Wundt, however, has a reason for substituting compound idea for sensation: he accepts Lotze's hypothesis of local signs, and adds a hypothesis of temporal signs.

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  • It follows that every psychical compound into which temporal and spatial ideas enter must itself be an idea; and, as time at any rate accompanies all our sensations, it follows that every psychical compound of sensations, containing as it does, always temporal, if not also spatial, ideas, must be a compound idea, and not, as nativists suppose, Schuppe for instance, a compound sensation.

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  • Wundt's answer is that inner impulsive will, in the form of passive apperception, forms compound ideas by association; so that all these operations are necessary to the starting-point.

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  • Thirdly, on the grounds that logical thinking adds the notion of substance, as substrate, to experience of the physical, but not of the psychical, and that the most proper being of mind is will, he concludes that wills are not active substances, but substance-generating activities (" nicht thatige Substanzen sondern substanzerzeugende Thdtigkeiten," System, 429) What kind of metaphysics, then, follows from this compound of psychology and epistemology?

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  • HYDRATE, in chemistry, a compound containing the elements of water in combination; more specifically, a compound containing the monovalent hydroxyl or OH group. The first and more general definition includes substances containing water of crystallization; such salts are said to be hydrated, and when deprived of their water to be dehydrated or anhydrous.

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  • When a substance contains its components in definite proportions which can only change, if at all, by sudden steps, it may be classed as a chemical compound.

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  • When the properties of the resultant substance are different from those of the components and it is not a chemical compound we define it as a solution.

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  • This constancy both in freezing point and composition formerly was considered as a characteristic of a pure chemical compound, and hence these mixtures were described as components and given the name of "cryohydrates."

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  • Copper and antimony form a single compound SbCu2.

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  • coo If either copper or anti mony be added to this Sb compound, the freezing coo C point is lowered just as it would be if a new sub stance were added to a 400 A solvent.

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  • Thus on each side of the point B repre o oo 100 renting this compound, the FIG.

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  • In one case (represented by the point A in the figure) the solid which freezes out is a conglomerate of crystals of the compound with those of antimony, in the other case C with those of copper.

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  • At B we have the non-variant cryohydric point at which ice, the hydrate Fe2C16 12H20, the saturated solution and the vapour are in equilibrium at 55° C. As the proportion 26 of salt is increased, the melting point of the con glomerate rises, till, at the -40 maximum point C, we have the pure compound the hydrate with twelve molecules ¦¦ 0.b, E, ?

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  • This indicates the appearance of a new compound, which should exist pure at E, the next maximum, and, led by these considerations, Roozeboom discovered and isolated a previously unknown hydrate, Fe 2 C1 6 7 H 2 0.

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  • It is often very difficult to distinguish between a chemical compound, for example, and the case of solid solution represented by fig.

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  • Nor does it appear that any well-defined compound of argon has yet been prepared.

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  • They have the property of entering into chemical combination with the lime, forming a hard setting compound, and increasing the hardness of the resulting concrete.

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  • Cuenot, in order to explain certain features in the hereditary transmission of coat colour in mice, postulated the hypothesis that the grey colour of the wild mouse (which is known to be a compound of black, chocolate and yellow pigments) may be due either to the interaction of a single ferment and three chromogens, or vice versa, to one chromogenic substance and three ferments.

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  • LICHENS, in botany, compound or dual organisms each consisting of an association of a higher fungus, with a usually unicellular, sometimes filamentous, alga.

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  • The objection to the case of these colour reactions is due to the indefinite nature of the reaction and the doubt as to the constant presence of a definite chemical compound in a given species.

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  • Although it contains a higher percentage of metal (5 2.9%) than any other natural compound, it is not at present employed as an ore, not only because it is so hard as to be crushed with difficulty, but also because its very hardness makes it valuable as an abrasive.

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  • This preparation of a chlorine compound suited for electrolysis becomes more costly and more troublesome than that of the oxide, and in addition four times as much raw material must be handled.

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  • This compound possesses a heat of formation so much lower that electrically it needs but a voltage of 0.9 to decomplose it, and it is easily soluble in the fused sulphides of the alkali metals.

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  • As it is easier to reduce than any other compound, so it is more difficult to produce.

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  • If it be exposed to damp, to sea-water or to corrosive influences of any kind in contact with another metal, or if it be mixed with another metal so as to form an alloy which is not a true chemical compound, the other metal being highly negative to it, powerful galvanic action will be set up and the structure will quickly deteriorate.

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  • Both these soluble hydrates are readily coagulated by traces of a salt, acid or alkali; Crum's hydrate does not combine with dye-stuffs, neither is it soluble in excess of acid, while Graham's compound readily forms lakes, and readily dissolves when coagulated in acids.

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  • Mussinii, i ft., is a compactly spreading greyishleaved labiate, with lavender-blue flowers, and is sometimes used for bedding or for marginal lines in large compound beds.

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  • Hence, however small may be the initial charges of the Leyden jars, by a principle of accumulation resembling that of compound interest, they can be increased as above shown to any degree.

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  • It combines with acetoacetic ester to form the aromatic compound meta-oxyuvitic acid, C 6 11 2 CH 3 OH (Cooh) 2.

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  • The compound FeS 2 is dimorphous, and the modern practice is to distinguish the cubic forms as pyrites and the orthorhombic as marcasite (q.v.).

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  • Pararosaniline was reduced to the corresponding leuco compound (paraleucaniline), from which by diazotization and boiling with alcohol, the parent hydrocarbon was obtained (H 2 N C 5 H 4) 2 C:C 6 H 4 :NH 2 Cl - HC(C6H4NH2 HCl)3 - >HC(C6H4N2C13) Pararosaniline hydrochloride.

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  • The reverse series of operations was also carried out by the Fischers, triphenylmethane being nitrated, and the nitro compound then reduced to triaminotriphenylmethane or paraleucaniline, which on careful oxidation is converted into the dyestuff.

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  • As the hydroxyl groups in aurin correspond to the amino groups in pararosaniline, two of these in the latter compound must be in the para position.

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  • The third is also in the para position; for if benzaldehyde be condensed with aniline, condensation occurs in the para position, for the compound formed may be converted into para-dioxybenzophenone, C6H5CHO -)C6H5CH(C6H4NH2)2 - >C6H5CH(C6H40H)2 -->CO(C6H40H)2 but if para-nitrobenzaldehyde be used in the above reaction and the resulting nitro compound N02 C6H4 CH(C6H4NH2)2 be reduced, then pararosaniline is the final product, and consequently the third amino group occupies the para position.

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  • Its springs of soda and iron belong to the class of weak compound carbonated soda waters.

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  • The sporophore is obsolete when the spore-bearing hyphae are not sharply distinct from the mycelium, simple when the constituent hyphae are isolated, and compound when the latter are conjoined.

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  • Compound sporophores arise when any of the branched or unbranched types of spore-bearing hyphae described above ascend into the air in consort, and are more or less crowded into definite layers, cushions, columns or other complex masses.

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  • The same laws apply to the individual hyphae and their branches as to simple sporophores, and as long as the conidia, sporangia, gametes, &c., are borne on their external surfaces, it is quite consistent to speak of these as compound sporophores, &c., in the sense described, however complex they may become.

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  • Here we have the cushion-like type (stroma) of Nectria and many Pyrenomycetes, the clavate "receptacle" of Clavaria, &c., passing into the complex forms met with in Sparassis, Xylaria, Polyporei, and Agaricini, &c. In these cases the compound sporophore is often termed the hymenophore, and its various parts demand special names (pileus, stipes, gills, po--es, &c.) to denote peculiarities of distribution of the hymenium owlthe surface.

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  • (1900); Stevens, "The Compound Oosphere of Albugo Bliti," Bot.

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  • It forms a crystalline compound with picric acid.

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  • phenanthrenequinone).Alizarin black,C l oH 4 (OH) 2 0 2 NaHS03, the sodium bisulphite compound of 7.8 dioxy-anaphthoquinone, is a dyestuff used for printing on cotton in the presence of a chromium mordant The naphthoquinone is prepared by the action of zinc and concentrated sulphuric acid on a-dinitronaphthalene.

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  • Beside this their chief and easy work of oxidizing carbon, silicon and phosphorus, the conversion processes have the harder task of removing sulphur, chiefly by converting it into calcium sulphide, CaS, or manganous sulphide, MnS, which rise to the top of the molten metal and there enter the overlying slag, from which the sulphur may escape by oxidizing to the gaseous compound, sulphurous acid, S02.

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  • Briinnow, A Classified List of all Simple and Compound Ideographs (1889).

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  • The free acid is not known; by the addition of the potassium salt to 50% acetic acid at - 20° C., the acid anhydride, benzene diazo oxide, (C6H5N2)20, is obtained as a very unstable, yellow, insoluble compound, exploding spontaneously at o° C. Strong acids convert it into a diazonium salt, and potash converts it into the diazotate.

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  • Hantzsch explains the characteristic reactions of the diazonium compounds ky the assumption that an addition compound is first formed, which breaks down with the elimination of the hydride of the acid radical, and the formation of an unstable syn-diazo compound, which, in its turn, decomposes with evolution of nitrogen (Ber., 18 97, 30, p. 2 54 8; 1898, 31, p. 2053).

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  • The first aliphatic diazo compound to be isolated was diazoacetic ester, CH N2 CO 2 C 2 H 5 i which is prepared by the action of potassium nitrite on the ethyl ester of glycocoll hydrochloride,HCl NH2 CH2 C02C2H 5 -1-KNO 2 =CHN 2 CO 2 C 2 H 5+ KCI+2H 2 O.

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  • It is sought to explain these oxidation processes by assuming that the hydrogen peroxide unites with the compound undergoing oxidation to form an addition compound, which subsequently decomposes (J.

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  • These phenomena were quite in accordance with the atomic conception of matter, since a compound containing the same number of atoms of carbon, nitrogen, oxygen and hydrogen as another in the same weight might differ in internal structure by different arrangements of those atoms. Even in the time of Berzelius the newly introduced conception proved to include two different groups of facts.

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  • The cases of mutual transformation are generally characterized by the fact that in the compound of higher molecular weight no new links of carbon with carbon are introduced, the trioxymethylene being O CH2-0 CH 2 whereas honey-sugar correg probably C C H 2 -0% sponds to CH 2 0H [[Choh Choh Choh Choh Cho]], each point representing a linking of the carbon atom to the next.

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  • Considering the hydrocarbons given by the general formula C x H y, the internal linkages of the carbon atoms need at least xi bonds, using up 2(xI) valencies of the 4x to be accounted for, and thus leaving no more than 2(x-11) for binding hydrogen: a compound C 3 H 9 is therefore impossible, and indeed has never been met.

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  • in the difference between C - C - C - C C-C-C and With this compound C 4 H 10, named butane, C isomerism is actually observed, being limited to a pair, whereas the former members ethane, C 2 H 6, and propane, C 3 H 8, showed no isomerism.

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  • The first compound, containing a group COH, or more explicitly 0 = CH, is an aldehyde, having a pronounced reducing power, producing silver from the oxide, and is therefore called propylaldehyde; the second compound containing the group - C CO C - behaves differently but just as characteristically, and is a ketone, it is therefore denominated propylketone (also acetone or dimethyl ketone).

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  • 6.1 Simple Leaves 6.2 Compound Leaves

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  • In this way two marked forms of leaf are produced - (I) Simple form, in which the segmentation, however deeply it extends into the lamina, does not separate portions of the lamina which become articulated with the midrib or petiole; and (2) Compound form, where portions of the lamina are separated as detached leaflets, which become articulated with the midrib or petiole.

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  • In both simple and compound leaves, according to the amount of segmentation and the mode of development of the parenchyma and direction of the fibro-vascular bundles, many forms are produced.

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  • Compound leaves are those in which the divisions extend to the midrib or petiole, and the sepa rated portions become each arti culated with it, and receive the name of leaflets.

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  • When the division is carried into the second degree, and the pinnae of a compound leaf are themselves pinnately compound, a bipinnate leaf is formed.

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  • Some petioles are long, slender and sensitive to contact, and function as tendrils by means of which the plant climbs; as in the l,' nasturtiums (Tropaeolum), clematis and c in others; and in compound leaves the midrib and some of the leaflets may similarly be transformed into tendrils, as in the pea and vetch.

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  • - Palmately compound leaf of the Horse-chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum).

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  • At the base of the leaflets of a compound leaf, small stipules (stipels) are occasionally produced.

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  • If Y and Z are groups which behave very differently, then there is apparently no tautomerism and a definite formula can be given to the compound.

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  • In his researches on the bleaching compounds of chlorine he was the first to advance the view that bleaching-powder is a double compound of calcium chloride and hypochlorite; and he devoted much time to the problem of economically obtaining soda and potash from seawater, though here his efforts were nullified by the discovery of the much richer sources of supply afforded by the Stassfurt deposits.

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  • There also existed in Germany a curious compound of jealousy and contempt, natural in a nation the whole institutions of which centred round the army and compulsory service, for a nation whose institutions were based not on military, but on parliamentary and legal institutions.

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