I flipped to the final pages of the composition book, hoping for the latest entries.
In my excitement, I dropped the composition book.
Her eyes widened with the realization that he wrote this beautiful composition for her.
He was so tuned in to Elisabeth's voice, that just by scanning a piece of music, he knew where to change the composition to compliment her, and where to back off to let her shine.
Similarly the substance we call wine is undeniably variable in composition.
Here again, apart from this theory, there is no obvious reason why the composition of different substances should be related in so simple a way.
Similarly, if we know by experiment the composition of water and of ammonia, we can predict the probable composition of the oxides of nitrogen.
Stas carried out such experiments on the composition of silver chloride and of ammonium chloride, but he never found a variation of one part in 10,000 in the composition of the substances.
Dumas' on the composition of the two oxides of carbon.
Three characteristic oxides of cobalt are known, the monoxide, CoO, the sesquioxide, C0203, and tricobalt tetroxide, C0304; besides these there are probably oxides of composition Co02, Co 8 0 9, C0607 and C0405.
This solution, on standing, deposits octahedra of the composition CoC1 2.6NH 3.
Sulphides of cobalt of composition C04S3, CoS, C03S4, C02S3 and CoS 2 are known.
A large number of cobalt compounds are known, of which the empirical composition represents them as salts of cobalt to which one or more molecules of ammonia have been added.
From that time he resided in Italy; he refused to follow the other Hungarian patriots, who, under the lead of Deak, accepted the composition of 1867; for him there could be no reconciliation with the house of Habsburg, nor would he accept less than full independence and a republic. He would not avail himself of the amnesty, and, though elected to the Diet of 1867, never took his seat.
He devoted himself particularly to the study of the classical languages, and became unusually proficient in Latin composition.
The elementary composition of sugar and alcohol was fixed in 1815 by analyses made by GayLussac, Thenard and de Saussure.
If such is the case, there is reason to think that the composition of Gammer Gurton's Needle should be referred to the earlier period.
From this time onward he occupied himself with the composition of his chief work, The Light of Nature Pursued, of which in 1763 he published a specimen under the title of "Free Will."
The Chateau of the duc de Luynes, the translator of the Meditations, was the home of a Cartesian club, that discussed the questions of automatism and of the composition of the sun from filings and parings, and rivalled Port Royal in its vivisections.
The views of Becher on the composition of substances mark little essential advance on those of the two preceding centuries, and the three elements or principles of salt, mercury and sulphur reappear as the vitrifiable, the mercurial and the combustible earths.
On the death of the amir Avicenna ceased to be vizier, and hid himself in the house of an apothecary, where, with intense assiduity, he continued the composition of his works.
It includes five books; of which the first and second treat of physiology, pathology and hygiene, the third and fourth deal with the methods of treating disease, and the fifth describes the composition and preparation of remedies.
Its composition is somewhat complex.
Cylinders, tanks and independent boilers should be encased in a non-conducting material such as silicate cotton, thick felt or asbestos composition.
As the result the bulk of his composition is wholly or comparatively rough-hewn.
He carried out a number of magnetic investigations which resulted in the discovery of many interesting phenomena, some of which have been rediscovered by others; they related among other things to the effect of mechanical strain on the magnetic properties of the magnetic metals, to the relation between the chemical composition of compound bodies and their magnetic properties, and to a curious parallelism between the laws of torsion and of magnetism.
That according to which they were set up at Munich was in the main suggested by Cockerell; in the middle of each pediment was a figure of Athena, set well back, and a fallen warrior at her feet; on each side were standing spearmen, kneeling spearmen and bowmen, all facing towards the centre of the composition; the corners were filled with fallen warriors.
On each side of this, in the western pediment, is a group of two combatants over a fallen warrior; in the eastern pediment, a warrior whose opponent is falling into the arms of a supporting figure; other figures also - the bowmen especially - face towards the angles, and so give more variety to the composition.
Hatfield obtained from it a gas of composition B3H3.
Boron fluoride also combines with ammonia gas, equal volumes of the two gases giving a white crystalline solid of composition BF 3 NH 3 i with excess of ammonia gas, colourless liquids BF 3.2NH 3 and BF 3.3NH 3 are produced, which on heating lose ammonia and are converted into the solid form.
It unites readily with ammonia gas forming a white crystalline solid of composition 2BC13.3NH3.
It is decomposed by water, and with a solution of yellow phosphorus in carbon bisulphide it gives a red powder of composition PBI 2, which sublimes in vacuo at 210° C. to red crystals, and when heated in a current of hydrogen loses its iodine and leaves a residue of boron phosphide PB.
The re-erection of a wayside cross in Annemasse, at the gates of Geneva, amid an enormous concourse of converts, an event which closed the three years of his apostolate, led to the composition of the Defense ...
He died on the 2nd of July 1816, having occupied his latter years in the composition and revision of an autobiography (published in 1817), which, with all its egotism and partiality, is a valuable work, and the chief authority for his life.
This could be fixed, within certain limits, at whatever pitch suited the composition; but on the horn it could be only very partially filled out by notes of a muffled quality produced by inserting the hand into the bell of the instrument, a device impossible on the trumpet.
The tithe seems to have been the composition for the rent due to the god for his land.
Cadmium sulphate, CdSO 4, is known in several hydrated forms; being deposited, on spontaneous evaporation of a concentrated aqueous solution, in the form of large monosymmetric crystals of composition 3CdSO 4.8H 2 O, whilst a boiling saturated solution, to which concentrated sulphuric acid has been added, deposits crystals of composition CdSO 4 4H 2 0.
Normal cadmium carbonates are unknown, a white precipitate of variable composition being obtained on the addition of solutions of the alkaline carbonates to soluble cadmium salts.
This history, in the composition of which Pollio received assistance from the grammarian Ateius Praetextatus, was used as an authority by Plutarch and Appian (Horace, Odes, ii.
Reduced in number to less than one hundred, and radically changed in spirit and composition, the Right gave way, if not to despair, at least to a despondency unsuited to an opposition party.
The younger generation, in view of the requirements and criticism of a reading public, cultivated the art of composition and rhetorical embellishment.
Porcius Cato historical composition He is not to be confused with L.
From the archaic style in which these mythological tales are usually composed, as well as from the fact that not a few of them are found in Brahmanas of different schools and Vedas, though often with considerable variations, it seems pretty evident that the groundwork of them must go back to times preceding the composition or final redaction of the existing Brahmanas.
He was the first to discover uranium, zirconium and titanium, and to characterize them as distinct elements, though he did not obtain any of them in the pure metallic state; and he elucidated the composition of numerous substances till then imperfectly known, including compounds of the then newly recognized elements: tellurium, strontium, cerium and chromium.
About a century before this the Dipa-vamsa, or Island Chronicle, had been composed in Pali verse so indifferent that it is apparently the work of a beginner in Pali composition.
The subject of patent medicines is but little understood by the general public. Any medicine, the composition of which is kept secret, but which is advertised on the label for the cure of diseases, must in Great Britain bear a patent medicine stamp equal to about one-ninth of its face value.
Berthollet's theoretical views regarding the composition of the metallic oxides, and he also showed Berthollet's "zoonic acid" to be impure acetic acid (1802); but Berthollet (q.v.), so far from resenting these corrections from a younger man, invited him to become a member of the Societe d'Arcueil.
The ordinary ammonium molybdate, used as a test reagent for phosphates, is a salt of composition (NH4)10M012041; it has been examined physicochemically by J.
Nagel (Ber., 1898, 31, p. 2009) show the salt to possess the composition Mo 3 C1 6.
These vary considerably in completeness with its age; in its younger parts the outer cells wall undergoes the change known as cuticularization, the material being changed both in chemical composition and in physical properties.
This system of intercellular spaces, extending throughout the plant, constitutes a reservoir, charged with an atmosphere which differs somewhat in its composition from the external air, its gaseous constituents varying from time to time and from place to place, in consequence of the interchanges between itself and the protoplaste.
Whether the leaf is brightly or only moderately illuminated, the same relative proportions of the total energy absorbed are devoted to the purposes of composition and construction respectively.
There are many possibilities, but no definite body of simpler composition than a sugar has so far been detected.
The protoplasm is in a condition of instability and is continually breaking down to a certain extent, giving rise to various substances of different degrees of complexity, some of which are again built up by it into its own substances, and others, more simple in composition, are given off.
It is not ~certain how far substances in the protoplasm are directly oxidized without entering into the composition of the living substance, though this appears to take place.
The root is continually growing and so the sensitive part is continually changing its composition, cells being formed, growing and becoming permanent tissue.
Many maladies of plants are traceable to the chemical composition of soilse.g.
But it is worthy of special attention that the mere chemical composition of agricultural and garden soils is, as a rule, the least important feature about them, popular opinion to the contrary notwithstanding.
For the composition of the numerous liquids and powders special works must be consulted, but the following principles apply generally.
ristic composition, especially by different dominant species, for d by minor differences of the common habitat.
For vei Lmple, the sand dunes of North America and those of western am rope are widely separated in geographical position and there- ge~ e in floristic composition, yet they are related by common rai:
However, until more is known of the exact chemical composition of naturalas contrasted with agriculturalsoils, and until more is known of the physiological effects of lime, it is impossible to decide the vexed question of the relation of limeloving and lime-shunning plants to the presence or absence of calcium carbonate in the soil.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
To this it may be replied that pure morphology and organography are not alternatives, but are two complementary and equally necessary modes of considering the composition of the plant-body.
Exceptions to this attitude are Lamarck, who speaks with regard to animals (but not to plants!) of f la composition croissante de lorganisation (Philoso p/lie zoologique, t.
Sachs was the first to formulate the theory that morphological differences are the expression of differences in material composition.
If we study a population and sort it into soldiers, sailors, ecclesiastics, lawyers and artisans, we may obtain facts of sociological value but learn nothing as to its racial origin and composition.
The rules for composition there laid down are, perhaps, somewhat pedantic. His philosophical writings were La Morale d'Epicure tiree de ses propres ecrits (1758), and the Histoire des causes premieres (1769).
The geological structure and the mineral composition of the rocks are often the chief causes determining the character of the land forms of a region.
This is not by the supply of food alone, but also by the withdrawal of carbonic acid from the atmosphere, by which vegetation maintains the composition of the air in a state fit for the support of animal life.
There are only two or three vertebrae which are equivalent to those of the reptiles; these true sacrals are situated in a level just behind the acetabulum; as a rule between these two primary sacral vertebrae issues the last of the spinal nerves which contributes to the composition of the sciadic plexus.
Between them arises a median crest, which varies much in extent and composition, and is of considerable taxonomic value.
The composition of the plexus varies much, not only in different species, but even individually.
It forms a hydrate of composition H 2 S 7H 2 0.
Hofmann, who obtained it by saturating an alcoholic solution of ammonium sulphide with sulphur and mixing the product with an alcoholic solution of strychnine, considered the resulting product to be H2S3; while P. Sabatier by fractionating the crude product in vacuo obtained an oi l which boiled between 60° and 85° C. and possessed the composition H4S5.
News, 1902, 86, p. 5) obtained a substance of composition S312 (which in all probability is a chemical individual) as a reddish-coloured powder by the action of sulphuretted hydrogen on a solution of iodine trichloride.
Priestley in 1775 and its composition determined somewhat later by A.
Walden (ibid.) has shown that certain salts dissolve in liquid sulphur dioxide forming additive compounds, two of which have been prepared in the case of potassium iodide: a yellow crystalline solid of composition, KI 14 S0 2, and a red solid of composition, KI 4S0 2.
An oxychloride of composition S 2 0 3 C1 4 has been described.
chim., 1906, 2 5, p. 2 53) considers to be a hydrate of sulphur of composition S $ H 2 0), sulphuric acid, traces of trithionic acid, tetraand pentathionic acids and probably hexathionic acid.
The verse shows great facility of metrical composition, but a considerable portion of it is transferred from the tragedies of Seneca.
There was a waste of metal in these early rails owing to the excessive thickness of the vertical web, and subsequent improvements have consisted in adjusting the dimensions so as to combine strength with economy of metal, as well as in the substitution of steel for wrought iron (after the introduction of the Bessemer process) and in minute attention to the composition of the steel employed.
The peat is different in character from that of northern Europe: cellular plants enter but little into its composition, and it is formed almost entirely of the roots and stems of Empetrum rubrum, a variety of the common crowberry of the Scottish hills with red berries, called by the Falklanders the " diddle-dee " berry; of Myrtus nummularia, a little creeping myrtle whose leaves are used by the shepherds as a substitute for tea; of Caltha appendiculata, a dwarf species of marsh-marigold; and of some sedges and sedge-like plants, such as Astelia pumila, Gaimardia australis and Bostkovia grandif ora.
After washing our hands and lighting the lamps, each is invited to sing a hymn before all to God, either taken from holy writ or of his own composition.
The documents underlying the Pentateuch and book of Joshua, represented by the ciphers J, E, D and P, are assumed to have been drawn up in the chronological order in which those ciphers are here set down, and the period of their composition extends from the 9th century B.C., in which the earlier portions of J were written, to the 5th century B.C., in which P finally took shape.
On the 6th of October 1829 he began the actual work of composition, which was continued without more serious interruptions than those occasioned by the essays on Asylums for the Blind (1830), Poetry and Romance of the Italians (1831), and English Literature of the 19th Century (1832), until the 25th of June 1836, when the concluding note was written.
The work was completed in August 1843, the five years' labour having been broken by the composition of reviews of Lockhart's Life of Scott (1838), Kenyon's Poems (1839), Chateaubriand (1839), Bancroft's United States (1841), Mariotti's Italy (1842), and Madame Calderon's Life in Mexico (1843), and by the preparation of an abridgment of his Ferdinand and Isabella in anticipation of its threatened abridgment by another hand.
Although during the composition of the Ferdinand and Isabella it had been of very intermittent service to him, it had so far improved that he could read with a certain amount of regularity during the writing of the Conquest of Mexico, and also, though in a less degree, during the years devoted to the Conquest of Peru.
In the great majority of cases the chronology of their composition, as far as the year is concerned, presents no difficulties; more precise assignments are mainly conjectural.
" Unprovided with original learning, unformed in the habits of thinking, unskilled in the arts of composition, I resolved to write a book "; but the discovery of his own weakness, he adds, was the first symptom of taste.
It was not, indeed, until October 1772 that he found himself at last independent, and fairly settled in his house and library, with full leisure and opportunity to set about the composition of the first volume of his history.
Henry Cavendish, from which it appeared that Cavendish, already famous by many other researches (such as the mean density of the earth, the composition of water, &c.), must be looked on as, in his day, a man of Maxwell's own stamp as a theorist and an experimenter of the very first rank.
We know little of its composition.
His most important treatise, that by which he has a place in the history of philosophy, is entitled Milhamoth 'Adonai (The Wars of God), and occupied twelve years in composition (1317-1329).
Like Berthelot, he writes the chemical equation of the reaction, but in addition he considers the chemical formula of each substance to express not only its material composition, but also the (unknown) value of its intrinsic energy.
With the splendour of the whole, the beauty of the composition is marvellous, and it may rank as the highest achievement of Italian Gothic. It was begun in 1310, but the upper part was not completed till the 16th century.
in thickness, of very varied composition.
It soon became evident, however, that the Porte was endeavouring to obstruct the execution of the new reforms. Several months passed without any step being taken towards this realization; difficulties were raised with regard to the composition of the international commissions charged with the reorganization of the gendarmery and judicial system; intrigues were set on foot against the Christian governorgeneral; and the presence of a special imperial commissioner, who had no place under the constitution, proved so injurious to the restoration of tranquillity that the powers demanded his immediate recall.
barcaruola, a boat-song), properly a musical term for the songs sung by the Venetian gondoliers, and hence for an instrumental or vocal composition, generally in 6-8 time, written in imitation of their characteristic rhythm.
No historical record has been preserved of these latter, but they appear to have profoundly affected the population of Bengal, which is believed to be MongoloDravidian in composition.
Here we must distinguish between the Lancelot proper and the LancelotGuenevere versions; so far as the latter are concerned, we cannot get behind the version of Chretien, - nowhere, prior to the composition of the Chevalier de la Charrette is there any evidence of the existence of such a story.
Some other glycerides isolated from natural sources are analogous in composition to tristearin, but with this difference, that the three radicals which replace hydrogen in glycerin are not all identical; thus kephalin, myelin and lecithin are glycerides in which two hydrogens are replaced by fatty acid radicals, and the third by a complex phosphoric acid derivative.
In the van Ruymbeke process the spent lyes are allowed to settle, and then treated with "persulphate of iron," the exact composition of which is a trade secret, but it is possibly a mixture of ferric and ferrous sulphates.
Apart from these missions, his activities were devoted to the composition of history, a pursuit for which the monks of St Albans had long been famous.
In the eighteen years which elapsed between 533 and the composition of the Getica of Jordanes, great events, most disastrous for the Romano-Gothic monarchy of Theodoric, had taken place.
Perhaps the most remarkable discovery of modern chemistry is the existence of compounds, which, whilst possessing an identical composition, are absolutely different bodies, judged of by their properties.
He is even credited, on fairly probable testimony, with a share at least in the composition of several comedies.
So much, indeed, does the character of the herbage vary from plot to plot that the effect may fairly be described as kaleidoscopic. Repeated analyses have shown how greatly both the botanical constitution and the chemical composition of the mixed herbage vary according to the description of manure applied.
Its members signed the charters by which the king conveyed grants of land to churches and to individuals, and it is from the extant charters that we mainly derive our knowledge about the composition of the witan.
When the diet closed he withdrew to Bruckberg and occupied himself partly with scientific study, partly with the composition of his Theogonie (1857).
part by the yolk, and in part by those anterior and posterior rudiments Its composition has been the subject of prolonged difference of which usually form the mesenteron, but that in some Hexapoda opinion.
The principal theory which he hence conceived himself justified in propounding was that instead of five being (as had been stated) the maximum number of centres of ossification in the sternum, there are no fewer than nine entering into the composition of the perfect sternum of birds in general, though in every species some of these nine are wanting, whatever be the condition of development at the time of examination.
Nothing whatever is to be said against the composition of his first and second " tribes"; but the third is an assemblage still more heterogeneous than that which Nitzsch brought together under a name so like that of Muller - for the fact must never be allowed to go out of sight that the extent of the Picarii of the latter is not at all that of the Picariae of the former.'
part of the state, the soil is largely a decomposition of the underlying rocks, and its fertility varies according to their composition; there is considerable limestone in the E.
Here he continued his labours in experimental science and also in the composition of complete treatises.
In 1292, as appears from what is probably his latest composition, the Compendium Studii Theologiae, he was again at liberty.
The smaller works, chiefly on alchemy, are unimportant, and the dates of their composition cannot be ascertained.
His chief books on chemistry were six volumes of Experiments and Observations on different Kinds of Air, published between 1774 and 1786; Experiments on the Generation of Air from Water (1793) Experiments and Observations relating to the Analysis of Atmospheric Air, and Considerations on the Doctrine of Phlogiston established and that of the Composition of Water refuted (1800).
These facts indicate that we have here an agricultural product the market price of which is still far below its value as compared, on the basis of its chemical composition, either with other feeding stuffs or with other fertilizers.
The acid is thus obtained in colourless rhombic prisms of the composition C 6 H 8 0 7 +H 2 0.
Although our information respecting the chemical composition of petroleum has been almost entirely gained since the middle of the 18th century, a considerable amount of empirical knowledge of the substance was possessed by chemists at an earlier date, and there was much speculation as to its origin.
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
(1) The high court was the supreme source of justice for the military class; and in its composition and procedure the same limitation of the crown, which appears in regard to military service, is again evident.
His declining days were spent in the discharge of his honourable Florentine office and in the composition of his history.
They also contributed to sacred literature themselves in the composition of new psalms. Attendance to the ordinary needs of nature was entirely relegated to the hours of darkness.
But in all countries a mixture of several oils enters into the composition of curd soaps and the proportions used have no fixity.
are all of similar composition, and in Berthelot's opinion represent a collection of treatises made at Constantinople in the 8th or 9th century.
Other works by him were Reponse au livre de P. Nouet sur l'eucharistie (1668); CEuvres posthumes (Amsterdam, 1688), containing the Traite de la composition d'un sermon, translated into English in 1778.
All these are strikingly alike in appearance and general characters, differing essentially only in chemical composition, and it would seem better to reserve the name cerargyrite for the whole group, using the names chlorargyrite (AgC1), embolite (Ag(Cl, Bl)), bromargyrite (AgBr) and iodembolite (Ag(C1, Br, I)) for the different isomorphous members of the group. They are cubic in crystallization, with the cube and the octahedron as prominent forms, but crystals are small and usually indistinct; there is no cleavage.
The colour varies somewhat with the chemical composition, being grey or colourless in chlorargyrite, greenish-grey in embolite and bromargyrite, and greenish-yellow to orange-yellow in iodembolite.
The specific gravity also varies with the composition: for the pure chloride it is 5.55, and the highest recorded for an iodembolite is 6.3.
throws new light on all questions relating to their date and composition.
An oxide of composition Ru 4 0 9 is obtained as a black hydrated powder when the peroxide is heated with water for some time.
xvueia; for derivation see Alchemy), the natural science which has for its province the study of the composition of substances.
For example, the physicist determines the density, elasticity, hardness, electrical and thermal conductivity, thermal expansion, &c.; the chemist, on the other hand, investigates changes in composition, such as may be effected by an electric current, by heat, or when two or more substances are mixed.
To the physicist matter is presented in three leading forms - solids, liquids and gases; and although further subdivisions have been rendered necessary with the growth of knowledge the same principle is retained, namely, a classification based on properties having no relation to composition.
Chemistry and physics, however, meet on common ground in a well-defined branch of science, named physical chemistry, which is primarily concerned with the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition, and, more generally, with the elucidation of natural phenomena on the molecular theory.
This section is restricted to an account of the relations existing between physical properties and chemical composition.
From the mazy and incoherent alchemical and iatrochemical doctrines, the former based on false conceptions of matter, the latter on erroneous views of life processes and physiology, a new science arose - the study of the composition of substances.
The problem could obviously be completely solved only when the composition of the air, and the parts played by its components, had been determined.
The beginning of the i 9th century was attended by far-reaching discoveries in the nature of the composition of compounds.
Lavoisier appears to have assumed that the composition of every chemical compound was constant, and the same opinion was the basis of much experimental inquiry at the hands of Joseph Louis Proust during 1801 to 1809, who vigorously combated the doctrine of Claude Louis Berthollet (Essai de statique chimique, 1803), viz.
that fixed proportions of elements and compounds combine only under exceptional conditions, the general rule being that the composition of a compound may vary continuously between certain limits.2
We may here notice the important chemical symbolism or notation introduced by Berzelius, which greatly contributed to the definite and convenient representation of chemical composition and the tracing of chemical reactions.
mercury calx was LJ .3 Bergman's symbolism was obviously cumbrous, and the system used in 1782 by Lavoisier was equally abstruse, since the forms gave no clue as to composition; for instance water, oxygen, and nitric acid werev 4), and e-f.
The theory of valency as a means of showing similarity of properties and relative composition became a dominant feature of chemical theory, the older hypotheses of types, radicals, &c.
This spirit gave way to the physicians, who regarded " chemistry as the art of preparing medicines," a denotation which in turn succumbed to the arguments of Boyle, who regarded it as the " science of the composition of substances," a definition which adequately fits the science to-day.
When nitric peroxide, N204, is converted into gas, it decomposes, and at about 180° C. its vapour entirely consists of molecules of the composition N02; while at temperatures between this and o C. it consists of a mixture in different proportions of the two kinds of molecules, N 2 O 4 and N02.
- Chemical change or chemical action may be said to take place whenever changes occur which involve an alteration in the composition of molecules, and may be the result of the action of agents such as heat, electricity or light, or of two or more elements or compounds upon each other.
The chemical analogy of this substance to chlorine was quickly perceived, especially after its investigation by Davy and Gay Lussac. Cyanogen, a compound which in combination behaved very similarly to chlorine and iodine, was isolated in 1815 by Gay Lussac. This discovery of the first of the then-styled " compound radicals " exerted great influence on the prevailing views of chemical composition.
Hydrochloric acid was carefully investigated at about this time by Davy, Faraday and Gay Lussac, its composition and the elementary nature of chlorine being thereby established.
The term allotropy has also been applied to inorganic compounds, identical in composition, but assuming different crystallographic forms. Mercuric oxide, sulphide and iodide; arsenic trioxide; titanium dioxide and silicon dioxide may be cited as examples.
It is true that by the distillation of many herbs, resins and similar substances, several organic compounds had been prepared, and in a few cases employed as medicines; but the prevailing classification of substances by physical and; superficial properties led to the correlation of organic and inorganic compounds, without any attention being paid to their chemical composition.
This view was accepted in 1817 by Leopold Gmelin, who, in his Handbuch der Chemie, regarded inorganic compounds as being of binary composition (the simplest being oxides, both acid and basic, which by combination form salts also of binary form), and organic compounds as ternary, i.e.
2 Compound radicals came to be regarded as the immediate constituents of organic compounds; and, at first, a determination of their empirical composition was supposed to be sufficient to characterize them.
The composition of this substance was determined by A.
The importance of ascertaining the proximate composition of bodies was clearly realized by Otto Tachenius; but the first systematic investigator was Robert Boyle, to whom we owe the introduction of the term analysis.
Rubidium, caesium, thallium, indium and gallium were first discovered by means of this instrument; the study of the rare earths is greatly facilitated, and the composition of the heavenly bodies alone determinable by it.
Richter contributed to the knowledge of the quantitative composition of salts.
He realized that the composition by weight of chemical compounds was of the greatest moment if chemistry were to advance.
If the substance to be weighed changes in composition on strong heating, it is necessary to employ a tared filter, i.e.
Where a solution is likely to change in composition on keeping, such as potassium permanganate, iodine, sodium hydrate, &c., it is necessary to check or re-standardize it periodically.
Physical Chemistry We have seen how chemistry may be regarded as having for its province the investigation of the composition of matter, and the changes in composition which matter or energy may effect on matter, while physics is concerned with the general properties of matter.
A physicist, however, does more than merely quantitatively determine specific properties of matter; he endeavours to establish mathematical laws which co-ordinate his observations, and in many cases the equations expressing such laws contain functions or terms which pertain solely to the chemical composition of matter.
The limiting law expressing the behaviour of gases under varying temperature and pressure assumes the form pv= RT; so stated, this law is independent of chemical composition and may be regarded as a true physical law, just as much as the law of universal gravitation is a true law of physics.
In the investigation of these relations, the physicist and chemist meet on common ground; this union has been attended by fruitful and far-reaching results, and the correlation of physical properties and chemical composition is one of the most important ramifications of physical chemistry.
Physical Properties and Composition.
For the complete determination of the chemical structure of any compound, three sets of data are necessary: (I) the empirical chemical composition of the molecule; (2) the constitution, i.e.
Identity in composition, but difference in constitution, is generally known as " isomerism " (q.v.), and compounds satisfying this relation differ in many of their physical properties.
Three sets of physical properties may therefore be looked for: (I) depending on composition, (2) depending on constitution, and (3) depending on configuration.
In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be made when the particular property under consideration is determined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon are identical.
Refraction and Composition.
it must remain constant for the same substance at any temperature and in any form) that quantitative relations between refractivity and chemical composition can be derived.
Although establishing certain general relations between atomic and molecular refractions, the results were somewhat vitiated by the inadequacy of the empirical function which he employed, since it was by no means a constant which depended only on the actual composition of the substance and was independent of its physical condition.
Briihl, have investigated the relations existing between the refractive power and composition.
compounds having the same composition, have equal molecular refractions, and that equal differences in composition are associated with equal differences in refractive power.
Since molecular refractions are independent of temperature and of the state of aggregation, it follows that molecular dispersions must be also independent of these conditions; and hence quantitative measurements should give an indication as to the chemical composition of substances.
Crystalline Form and Composition.
More useful is the property of isomorphous substances of forming mixed crystals, which are strictly isomorphous with their constituents, for all variations in composition.
7 represents the specific volumes of mixtures of ammonium and potassium sulphates; the ordinates re presenting specific volumes, and the abscissae the per centage composition of the mixture.
8 shows the variation of refractive index of mixed crystals of potash alum and thallium alum with variation in composition.
Two cases then arise: (I) the properties may be expressed as linear functions of the composition, the terminal values being identical with those obtained for the individual components, and there being a break in the curve corresponding to the absence of mixed crystals; or (2) similar to (I) except that different values must be assigned to the terminal values in order to preserve collinearity.
9 illustrates the first case: the ordinates represent specific volumes, and the abscissae denote the composition of isomorphous mixtures of ammonium and potassium dihydrogen phosphates, which mutually take one another up to the extent of 20% to form homogeneous crystals.
Reference may also be made to Ida Freund, The Study of Chemical Composition; and to the Annual Reports of the Chemical Society for 1908, p. 258.
Pattison Muir, History of Chemical Theories and Laws (1907); Ida Freund, Study of Chemical Composition (1904); E.
In that year he matriculated at the university, and took lessons in composition from Theodor Weinlig, cantor at the Thomasschule.
In this combination resides the doubtless unconscious but nevertheless real literary art of the composition.
The composition of the pigment is quite similar to that of lapis lazuli; but the constitution of both is uncertain.
A monument was erected by the inhabitants of Phlius in honour of Pratinas's son Aristias, who, with his father, enjoyed the reputation of excelling all, with the exception of Aeschylus, in the composition of satyric dramas, one of which was called Cyclops.
Briggs, The Messiah of the Apostles, p. 284 seq.; Sabatier, Les Origines litteraires et la composition de l'Apocalypse de St Jean (1887); Spitta, Die Offenbarung des Johannes untersucht (1889).
At the same time he made it more dependent upon the emperor, by exercising an influence upon its composition.
As it was written by a Pharisee, it could not have been composed after the breach arose between John Hyrcanus and the Pharisees towards the close of the 2nd century B.C. Thus the period of composition lies between 153, when Jonathan the Maccabee assumed the high-priesthood, and the year of the breach of John Hyrcanus with the Pharisees; some time, therefore, between 153 and 107.
But the limits of the date of composition be fixed still more definitely.
With the intention of taking up pharmacy he entered Heidelberg University about 1835, and after graduating went to Giessen as preparateur to Liebig, with whom he elucidated the composition of paraldehyde and metaldehyde.
So indispensable did it The charta Claudia was made from a composition of the first and second qualities, the Augusta and the Livia, a layer of the former being backed with one of the latter; and the sheet was increased to nearly a foot in width.
movement, the childhood of a new community of faith, are reflected so naturally in them all, that it is impossible for a moment to think of a later period of composition by a priesthood whom we know to, have been devoid of any historical sense, and incapable of reconstructing the spiritual conditions under which Zoroaster lived.
front, consisting of a centre and two divisions corresponding with the nave and aisles, has been described as "more architecturally perfect as a composition and in its details than that of any other English cathedral," the great window above the door being considered by some superior to the famous E.
The formula is Fe n, Sn+, where n may vary from 5 to 16; usually it is Fe, S8 or Fe l s S12, the latter being also the composition of the artificially prepared compound.
One of Leon's most effective works was his attack on the Kabbala ('Ari Nohem, first published in 1840), for in it he demonstrated that the "Bible of the Kabbalists" (the Zoltar) was a modern composition.
But in such passages it remains fundamentally human; no attempt is made to define the limits of the human and the divine in its composition - it is all human and all divine.
A dark blue liquid is produced, and the first portions of gas boiling off from the mixture correspond fairly closely in composition with nitrogen trioxide.
The composition of the army, however, was excellent.
This view claims to determine the respective ages and relative chronological position of the various passages in which the Passover is referred to in the Pentateuch, and assumes that each successive stratum represents the practice in ancient Israel at the time of composition, laying great stress upon omissions as implying non-existence.
Courtois etched with skill twelve battle-subjects of his own composition.
His draughtsmanship is better than that of Jacques, whom he did not, however, rival in spirit, colour or composition.
While still practising medicine he entered into relations with another master of Paris, the philosopher John of Jandun, who collaborated with him in the composition of the famous Defensor pacis (1324), one of the most extraordinary political and religious works which appeared during the 14th century.
Detailed study of the cod shoals also showed that their composition was continually changing: in some years the shoal is composed of younger or older fish than the average and with this latter variation there are changes in the quantities of oil yielded per t,000 fish.
albus, white), an organic substance typical of a group of bodies (albumins or albuminates) of very complicated chemical composition.
The albumins contain in all cases the elements carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur and oxygen; their composition, however, varies within certain limits: C= 50-55%, H = 6.9-7'.3%,N = 15-19%,S =0.32.4%7 0=1 92 4%, General char- crystallized albumin is C = 51.48%, H = 6.76%, N= acters.
The complexity of composition militates in a great measure against a rational classification of albumins by purely chemical considerations.
Halliburton) is the chief albumin of milk; its composition varies with the animal.
The primary products of the dissociation of albumins are the albumoses, characterized by not being coagulable by heat, more soluble than the albumins, having a far less complex composition, and capable of being " salted (7) out " by certain salts, and the peptones, similar to albumoses but not capable of being " salted out "; moreover, peptones are less complex than albumoses.
Mucins occur in most of the slimy fluids of the body; they vary in composition with their source.
Mucoids resemble mucins in their composition and reactions, but differ, in general, in their physical properties.
paas, black), substances which differ very considerably in composition, the sulphur and iron content being by no means constant; they do not give the reactions of albumins.
OBSIDIAN, a glassy volcanic rock of acid composition.
Rhyolitic lavas frequently are more or less vitreous, and when the glassy matter greatly predominates and the; crystals are few and inconspicuous the rock becomes an obsidian; the chemical composition is essentially the same as that of granite; the difference in the physical condition of the two rocks is due to the fact that one consolidated at the surface, rapidly and under low pressures, while the other cooled slowly at great depths and under such pressures that the escape of the steam and other gases it contained was greatly impeded.
Yet among the older rocks there are many which, though finely crystalline, have the chemical composition of modern obsidians and possess structures, such as the perlitic and spherulitic, which are very characteristic of vitreous rocks.
The chemical composition of typical obsidians is shown by the following analyses Obsidian, when broken, shows a conchoidal fracture, like that of glass, and yields sharp-edged fragments, which have been used in many localities as arrow-points, spear-heads, knives and razors.
Hence experiments without separating diaphragms are to be preferred, and the apparatus may be considered effective when a consideraable bulk of intervening solution is left unaltered in composition.
The globules in the latex are liquid, and the phenomenon of coagulation would seem to consist in the passage of this liquid into solid caoutchouc through the kind of change known as polymerization or condensation, in which a liquid passes into solid without alteration of composition or by condensation with the elimination of the elements of water.
The probabilities are that in the end the production of a rubber as nearly as possible free from water and impurities and of constant composition will be realized as best meeting the requirements of the modern manufacturer.
As soon as the output of plantation rubber of constant composition has reached much larger dimensions it is probable that the manufacturer will be able to dispense with washing.
Under certain conditions, as when latex is allowed to stand or is centrifugalized, a cream is obtained consisting of the liquid globules, which may be washed free from proteid without change, but, either by mechanical agitation or by the addition of acid or other chemical agent, the liquid gradually solidifies to a mass of solid caoutchouc. The phenomenon therefore resembles the change known to the chemist as polymerization, by which through molecular aggregation a liquid may pass into a solid without change in its empirical composition.
The composition of latex and of typical rubbers is given below:
The development of the rubber industry has now reached a stage at which more exact methods of determining the chemical composition and physical properties (strength and elasticity) of rubber are required.
It thus possesses the same composition as the hydrocarbon of gutta-percha and as that of oil of turpentine and other terpenes which are the chief components of essential oils.
When solid caoutchouc is strongly heated it breaks down, without change in its ultimate composition, into a number of simpler liquid hydrocarbons of the terpene class (dipentene, di-isoprene, isoprene, &c.), of which one, isoprene (C5H8), is of simpler structure than oil of turpentine (C 10 H 16), from which it can also be obtained by the action of an intense heat.
If ozone is passed into a solution of rubber in chloroform the caoutchouc combines with a molecule of ozone forming a compound of the empirical composition C 5 H 8 O 8.
4 The Sea of Okhotsk is very interesting, owing to its local species and the general composition of its fauna (70 species of Molluscs and 21 of Gasteropods).
von Wrangel); the various coloration of many animals according to the composition of the forests they inhabit (the sable and the squirrel are well-known instances); the intermingling northern and southern faunas in the Amur region and the remarkable consequences of that intermixture in the struggle for existence; - all these render the study of the Siberian fauna most interesting.
The micas are extremely complex and variable in composition.
The composition of the several species of mica is given by the following formulae, some of which are only approximate.
Various attempts have been made to explain the variations in composition of the micas.
During these latter years he was largely engaged on the composition of a valuable book, published in two substantial volumes, in 1921, on Modern Democracies, a comparative study of a certain number of popular governments in their actual working.
Bergman proved its composition.
By fusing litharge with boron trioxide, glasses of a composition varying with the proportions of the mixture are obtained; some of these are used in the manufacture of glass.
Nevertheless, on many occasions, fashion has led the preachers of a particular epoch to develop rules for the composition of sermons, the value of which is more than doubtful.
xiii.); and he is sometimes credited with the composition of the Latin hymns Veni Sancte Spiritus, Salve Regina, and Alma Redemptoris.
The following table gives the exact composition of some alloys which were found to be non-magnetizable, or nearly so, in a field of 320.
For additional information regarding the composition and qualities of permanent magnet steels reference may be made 6 The marked effect of silicon in increasing the permeability of cast iron has also been noticed by F.
The popular indignation at such scandalous miscarriages of justice rendered a change in the composition of the courts imperative.
The Composition of the Head (that is to say, of the anterior part of the prosoma) with especial Reference to the Region in Front of the Mouth.
In any case the classification must be to some extent provisional, since scholars are still divided as to the original language, date and place of composition of some of the books which must come under our classification.'
Harnack, who was the first to show that these Acts were Catholic in character and not Gnostic as had previously been alleged, assigns their composition to this period mainly on the ground that Hippolytus was not acquainted with them; but even were this assumption true, it would not prove the non-existence of the Acts in question.
Photius ascribes their composition to Leucius Charinus therefore to the 2nd century, but Lipsius assigns it to the early decades of the 3rd.
The mother liquors are concentrated, and the double salt of composition 2KF CbOF 3 H 2 O, which separates, is decomposed by sulphuric acid, or by continued boiling with water (C. Marignac; see also G.
But he had neither the generous temperament nor the breadth of view which is required in the composition of even a mediocre statesman.
John Major in his Latin History speaks of "one Henry, blind from his birth, who, in the time of my childhood, fashioned a whole book about William Wallace, and therein wrote down in our popular verse - and this was a kind of composition in which he had much skill - all that passed current among the people in his day.
Nevertheless Hugo, by the composition of his Summa sententiarum, endeavoured to give a methodical or rational presentation of the content of faith, and was thus the first of the so-called Summists.