Components sentence example

components
  • Now a class in respect to its components is many.

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  • It has been maintained that this tendency to a severance of the hybrid stock into its components must favour the persistence of a new character of large volume suddenly appearing in a stock, and the observations of Mendel have been held to favour in this way the views of those who hold that the variations upon which natural selection has acted in the production of new species are not small variations but large and " discontinuous."

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  • To find component forces equal to the composite or resultant force, the sum of the components must equal the resultant.

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  • Compounds were denoted by joining the symbols of the components, and by varying the manner of joining compounds of the same elements were distinguished The symbol V was used to denote a liquid, and a vertical line to denote a gas.

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  • From the behaviour of substances on electrolysis he assumed that all substances had two components, one bearing a negative charge, the other a positive charge.

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  • An important distinction separates true mixed crystals and crystallized double salts, for in the latter the properties are not linear functions of the properties of the components; generally there is a contraction in /10.591 volume, while the re fractive indices and other physical properties do not, in general, obey the additive law.

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  • The inactive mixture may be resolved into its active components by fractional crystallization of the cinchonine salt, when the salt of the dextro modification separates first; or the ammonium salt may be fermented by Penicillium glaucum, when the laevo form is destroyed and the dextro form remains untouched; on the other' hand, Saccharomyces ellipsoideus destroys the dextro form, but does not touch the laevo form.

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  • If V denote the potential, F the resultant force, X, Y, Z, its components parallel to the co-ordinate axes and n the line along which the force is directed, then - sn = F, b?= X, - Sy = Y, -s Surfaces for which the potential is constant are called equipotential surfaces.

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  • Georg Ernst Stahl, following in some measure the views held by Johann Joachim Becher, as, for instance, that all combustibles contain a " sulphur " (which notion is itself of older date than Becher's terra pinguis), regarded all substances as capable of resolution into two components,.

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  • Let us now consider the distribution of brightness in the image of a double line whose components are of equal strength, and at such an angular interval that the central line in the image of one coincides with the first zero of brightness in the image of the other.

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  • Uniplanar Motion of a Liquid due to the Passage of a Cylinder through it.-A stream-function 4, must be determined to satisfy the conditions v24 =o, throughout the liquid; (I) I =constant, over any fixed boundary; (2) d,t/ds = normal velocity reversed over a solid boundary, (3) so that, if the solid is moving with velocity U in the direction Ox, d4y1ds=-Udy/ds, or 0 +Uy =constant over the moving cylinder; and 4,+Uy=41' is the stream function of the relative motion of the liquid past the cylinder, and similarly 4,-Vx for the component velocity V along Oy; and generally 1,1'= +Uy -Vx (4) is the relative stream-function, constant over a solid boundary moving with components U and V of velocity.

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  • The components of force, X, Y, and N, acting on the liquid at 0, and reacting on the body, are then X=It.

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  • The angular velocity being constant, the effective force on a particle m at a distance r from Oz is snw2r toward& this axis, and its components are accordingly w2mx, wfmy, 0.

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  • In the case of close double stars he estimated the distance in terms of the disk of the components.

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  • They are not decomposed by boiling alkalis, but on heating with hydriodic acid they split into their components.

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  • In such crystals each component plays its own part in determining the physical properties; in other words, any physical constant of a mixed crystal can be calculated as additively composed of the constants of the two components.

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  • The wave motion due to any element of the surface is called a secondary wave, and in estimating the total effect regard must be paid to the phases as well as the amplitudes of the components.

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  • When the original light is white, the presence of some components and the absence of others will usually give rise to coloured effects, variable with the precise circumstances of the case.

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  • We conclude that a double line cannot be fairly resolved unless its components subtend an angle exceeding that subtended by the wave-length of light at a distance equal to the horizontal aperture.

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  • If the angular interval between the components of a double line be half as great again as that supposed in the figure, the brightness midway between is 1802 as against 1.0450 at the central lines of each image.

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  • Theory and experiment alike prove that a double line, of which the components are equally strong, is better resolved when, for example, one-sixth of the horizontal aperture is blocked off by a central screen; or the rays quite at the centre may be allowed to pass, while others a little farther removed are blocked off.

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  • If the angular interval between the components of a double star were equal to twice that expressed in equation (15) above, the central disks of the diffraction patterns would be just in contact.

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  • Under these conditions there is no doubt that the star would appear to be fairly resolved, since the brightness of its external ring system is too small to produce any material confusion, unless indeed the components are of very unequal magnitude.

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  • For example, when the direction is such that the projection of AB upon it amounts to one wave-length, the elementary components neutralize one another, because their phases are distributed symmetrically, though discontinuously, round the entire period.

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  • Putting (12) a vortex line is defined to be such that the tangent is in the direction of w, the resultant of, n, called the components of molecular rotation.

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  • An angular velocity R, which gives components - Ry, Ix of velocity to a body, can be resolved into two shearing velocities, -R parallel to Ox, and R parallel to Oy; and then ik is resolved into 4'1+1'2, such that 4/ 1 -R-Rx 2 and 1//2+IRy2 is constant over the boundary.

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  • Example 3.-Analysing in this way the rotation of a rectangle filled with liquid into the two components of shear, the stream function 1//1 is to be made to satisfy the conditions v 2 /1 =0, 111+IRx 2 = IRa 2, or /11 =o when x= = a, +b1+IRx 2 = I Ra2, y ' 1 = IR(a 2 -x 2), when y = b Expanded in a Fourier series, 2 232 2 cos(2n+ I)Z?rx/a a -x 7r3 a Lim (2n+I) 3 ' (1) so that '?"

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  • The components of velocity of the moving origin are denoted by U, V, W, and the components of angular velocity of the frame of reference by P, Q, R; and then if u, v, w denote the components of fluid velocity in space, and u', v', w' the components relative to the axes at a point (x, y, z) fixed to the frame of reference, we have u =U +u' - yR +zQ, v =V +v -zP +xR, w=W +w -xQ +yP.

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  • As an application of moving axes, consider the motion of liquid filling the ellipsoidal case 2 y 2 z2 Ti + b1 +- 2 = I; (1) and first suppose the liquid be frozen, and the ellipsoid l3 (4) (I) (6) (9) (I o) (II) (12) (14) = 2 U ¢ 2, (15) rotating about the centre with components of angular velocity, 7 7, f'; then u= - y i +z'i, v = w = -x7 7 +y (2) Now suppose the liquid to be melted, and additional components of angular velocity S21, 522, S23 communicated to the ellipsoidal case; the additional velocity communicated to the liquid will be due to a velocity-function 2224_ - S2 b c 6 a 5 x b2xy, as may be verified by considering one term at a time.

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  • Conversely, if the kinetic energy T is expressed as a quadratic function of x, x x3, y1, y2, y3, the components of momentum, the partial differential coefficient with respect to a momentum component will give the component of velocity to correspond.

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  • Thus if T is expressed as a quadratic function of U, V, W, P, Q, R, the components of momentum corresponding are dT dT dT (I) = dU + x2=dV, x3 =dW, dT dT dT Yi dp' dQ' y3=dR; but when it is expressed as a quadratic function of xi, 'x2, x3, yi, Y2, Y3, U = d, V= dx, ' w= ax dT Q_ dT dT dy 1 dy2 dy The second system of expression was chosen by Clebsch and adopted by Halphen in his Fonctions elliptiques; and thence the dynamical equations follow X = dt x2 dy +x3 d Y = ..., Z ..., (3) = dt1 -y2?y - '2dx3+x3 ' M =..

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  • For the body alone the resultant of the components of momentum W V -cos andW V sin 0 is W V -sec. lb, acting along 00', and so is unaltered.

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  • In the ordinary chemical analyses of the soil determinations are made of the nitrogen and various carbonates present as well as of the amount of phosphoric acid, potash, soda, magnesia and other components soluble in strong hydrochloric acid.

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  • It contains from 48 to 75% of sodium nitrate and from 20 to 40% of common salt, which are associated with various minor saline components, including sodium iodate and more or less insoluble mineral, and also some organic matter, e.g.

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  • The ore, even if it is not blende, must be roasted or calcined in order to remove all volatile components as completely as possible, because these, if allowed to remain, would carry away a large proportion of the zinc vapour during the distillation.

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  • Generally the components of a mixture will be vaporized in the order of their boiling-points; consequently if the condensates or "fractions" corresponding to definite ranges of temperature be separately collected, it is obvious that a more or less partial separation of the components will be effected.

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  • By fractional distillation is meant the separation of a mixture having components which boil at neighbouring temperatures.

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  • For simplicity we confine ourselves to mixtures of two components, in which experience shows that three cases are to be recognized according as the components are (I) completely immiscible, (2) partially miscible, (3) miscible in all proportions.

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  • When the components are completely immiscible, the vapour pressure of the one is not influenced by the presence of the other.

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  • Both components come over in a constant proportion until one disappears; it is then necessary to raise the temperature in order to distil the residue.

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  • The composition of the distillate is determinate (by Avogadro's law) if the molecular weights and vapour pressure of the components at the temperature of distillation be known.

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  • If M 1, M2, and P 1, P 2 be the molecular weights and vapour pressures of the components A and B, then the ratio of A to B in the distillate is M 1 P 1 /M 2 P 2.

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  • When distilling a mixture of partially miscible components a distillate of constant composition is obtained so long as two layers are present, i.e.

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  • On distilling such a mixture under constant pressure, a mixture of the two components (of variable composition) will come over until there remains in the distilling flask the mixture of minimum vapour pressure.

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  • The vapour pressure-composition curve will now be concave to the axis of composition, the minima corresponding to the pure components.

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  • On distilling such a mixture, a mixture of constant composition will distil first, leaving in the distilling flask one or other of the components according to the composition of the mixture.

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  • In Berzelius' system + potassium sulphate is to be regarded as K 2 0.S0 3; electrolysis should simply effect the disruption of the positive and negative components, potash passing with the current, and sulphuric acid against the current.

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  • Similarly, bell-metal is harder, more sonorous and more brittle than either of its components.

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  • The hypothesis that the state was steady, so that interchanges arising from convection and collisions of the molecules produced no aggregate result, enabled him to interpret the new constants involved in this law of distribution, in terms of the temperature and its spacial differential coefficients, and thence to express the components of the kinetic stress at each point in the medium in terms of these quantities.

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  • In 1812 Bessel measured with it the angle between the components of the double star 61 Cygni and observed the great comet of 1811.

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  • There must be considerable dissociation of molecules, and as a first approximation it may be taken that of io molecules of most of the components about 9 (or in the case of magnesium sulphate 5) have been separated into their ions, and that it is only during slow concentration as in a natural saline that the ions combine to produce the various salts in the proportions set out in the above table.

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  • Many double chlorides are known, and may be prepared by mixing solutions of the two components in the requisite proportions.

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  • The moments of the components of these actions and reactions in a plane to which the axis of rotation is at right angles are the two aspects of the torque acting, and therefore the torque acting on B through the shaft is measured by the torque required to hold A still.

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  • The number of molecules of the first kind of gas, whose components of velocity lie within the ranges between u and u+du, v and v+dv, w and w+dw, will, by formula (5), be v?l (h 3 m 3 /7 3)e hm (u2+v2+w2)dudvdw (9) per unit volume.

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  • Bridges may be classed as arched bridges, in which the principal members are in compression; suspension bridges, in which the principal members are in tension; and girder bridges, in which half the components of the principal members are in compression and half in tension.

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  • In 1799 he proved that carbonate of copper, whether natural or artificial, always has the same composition, and later he showed that the two oxides of tin and the two sulphides of iron always contain the same relative weights of their components and that no intermediate indeterminate compounds exist.

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  • In the simplest case, that of uniform translation, these components of the gradient will each be constant throughout the region; at a distant place in free aether where there is no motion, they must thus be equal to -u,-v,-w, as they refer to axes moving with the matter.

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  • The salt volatilizes (mostly in the form of a mixed vapour of the two components, which reunite on cooling), and condenses in the dome in the form of a characteristically fibrous and tough crust.

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  • Sodium carbonates are also widely dispersed in nature, forming constituents of many mineral waters, and occurring as principal saline components in natron or trona lakes, as efflorescences in Lower Egypt, Persia and China, and as urao in Mexico, Colombia and Venezuela.

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  • By advancing crystallization and increased size of their components, slates pass gradually into phyllites, which consist also of quartz, muscovite and chlorite.

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  • Such potassiferous silicates are found in almost all rocks, both as normal and as accessory components; and their disintegration furnishes the soluble potassium salts which are found in all fertile soils.

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  • For the purpose of the manufacturer of this salt these are assorted into a raw material containing approximately, in Ioo parts, 55-65 of carnallite (representing 16 parts of potassium chloride), 20-25 of common salt, 15-20 of kieserite; 2-4 of tachhydrite (CaC12 2MgC12 12H20), and minor components.

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  • The liquors are evaporated to dryness and the residue is ignited to obtain a very impure carbonate, which is purified by methods founded on the different solubilities of the several components.

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  • Hydriodic acid, HI, is formed by the direct union of its components in the presence of a catalytic agent; for this purpose platinum black is used, and the hydrogen and iodine vapour are passed over the heated substance.

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  • When the lines are obtained under circumstances which tend towards sharpness and homogeneity they are often found to possess complicated structures, single lines breaking up into two or more components of varying intensities.

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  • Preston that all the lines of the same series show identical effects when measured on the frequency scale, arfrl the fact recently announced by Runge 3 that even in the more complicated cases mentioned some simple relation between the distances of the components exists.

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  • What is done is to divide the resultant force due to gravitation into two components, one of which corresponds to this acceleration, while the other one is what is called the "weight" of the body.

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  • When a solid such as salt or sugar dissolves in contact with water to form a uniform substance from which the components may be regained by evaporation the substance is called a solution.

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  • Certain solids also consist of two or more components which are united so as to show similar effects.

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  • When a substance contains its components in definite proportions which can only change, if at all, by sudden steps, it may be classed as a chemical compound.

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  • When the relative quantities of the components can vary continuously within certain limits, the substance is either a solution or a mixture.

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  • The distinction between these two classes is not sharp; though when the properties of the resultant are sensibly the sum of those of the pure components, as is nearly the case for a complex gas such as air, it is usual to class it as a mixture.

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  • When the properties of the resultant substance are different from those of the components and it is not a chemical compound we define it as a solution.

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  • This limit depends on the nature of the two components, on the temperature and on the pressure.

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  • If in unit mass of any phase we have n components instead of one we must know the amount of n - I components present in that unit mass before we know the exact composition of it.

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  • To determine these variables we may form equations between the chemical potentials of the different components - quantities which are functions of the variables to be determined.

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  • With r phases we can form r - I equations for each component, and with n components and r phases we obtain n (r - 1) equations.

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  • Thus, when a system possesses two more phases than the number of its components, all the phases will be in equilibrium with each other at one definite composition, one definite temperature and one definite pressure, and in no other conditions.

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  • In a system containing a solution we have to deal with two components at least.

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  • This constancy both in freezing point and composition formerly was considered as a characteristic of a pure chemical compound, and hence these mixtures were described as components and given the name of "cryohydrates."

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  • First a small quantity of one of the pure components begins to crystallize out, and the rate of cooling is thereby diminished owing to the latent heat liberated by the change of state.

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  • When the two components form chemical compounds with each other, the phenomena of mutual solubility become more complex.

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  • We are now ready to study a case where several compounds are formed between the two components.

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  • Crystals of ice may lie side by side with crystals of common salt, but each crystalline individual is either ice or salt; no one crystal contains both components in proportions which can be varied continuously.

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  • But, in other cases, crystals are known in which both components may enter.

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  • The felspathoid minerals, sodalite, haiiyne and nosean, which crystallize in isometric dodecahedra, are very frequent components of the phonolites; their crystals are often corroded or partly dissolved and their outlines may then be very irregular.

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  • This is due to the fact that the components of shorter period are more rapidly propagated.

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  • In treating mathematically the propagation of other kinds of waves, it is necessary to analyse them into their simple-harmonic components, which may be treated as being propagated independently.

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  • Two instruments are set up, and the two components are recorded on one strip.

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  • The complex fat of the myelin becomes altered chemically, while the other components of the sheath break down.

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  • Again, from different points of the cortex the assunIption of the requisite positions of the tongue, lips, cheeks, palate and epiglottis, as components in the act of sucking, can be provoked singly.

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  • Thallous iodide, T11, is obtained as a yellow precipitate, which requires 16,000 parts of cold water for its solution, by the addition of potassium iodide to a solution of a thallous salt, or by the direct union of its components.

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  • When this distance is compared with those prevailing in the solar system, it seems an extraordinarily small separation between two such large bodies; we shall, however, presently come across systems in which the two components revolve almost or actually in contact.

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  • When the orbits are eccentric, the tidal disturbance varying with the distance between the two components will probably cause changes in their absolute brilliancy; the variation due to change in the aspect of the system presented to us may thus be supplemented by a real intrinsic variation, both, however, being regulated by the orbital motion.

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  • In many other double stars the two components have very nearly the same proper motion.

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  • With the best instruments a star can be distinguished as double when the separation of the two components is a little less than 0.1".

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  • Another interesting feature is that, where the two components differ in brightness, the fainter component is often the one possessing the greater mass.

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  • As the simple star radiates heat and contracts, it retains its angular momentum; when this is too great for the spheroidal form to persist, the star may ultimatel y separate into two components, which are driven farther and farther apart by their mutual tides.

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  • From the more complex systems of this kind, we pass to the consideration of starclusters, which are systems of stars in which the components are very numerous.

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  • The two components of double stars often exhibit complementary colours.

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  • That the effect is due to a real difference in the character of the light from the two components has been shown by spectrum analysis, but it is probably exaggerated by contrast.

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  • It may be that these fainter components are still in the stage when the temperature is rising, and the luminosity is as yet comparatively small; but it is not impossible that the massive stars (owing to their greater gravitation) pass through the earlier stages of evolution more rapidly than the smaller stars.

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  • By means of the spectroscope it is possible to determine the relative orbital velocity of the two components, and this when compared with the period fixes the absolute dimensions of the orbit; the apparent dimensions of the orbit being known from visual observations the distance can then be found.

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  • It will be seen that the proper motion of any star may be regarded as made up of two components.

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  • It forms golden cubes which are unattacked by alkalis or by any acid except hydrofluoric. It appears to be a mixture of which the components vary with the materials and methods used in its production (Philipp, Ber., 1882, 15, p. 499).

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  • Just as two or more forces can be combined into a single resultasit, so a single force may be resolved into components acting in assigned directions.

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  • Thus a fdrce can be uniquely resolved into two components acting in two assigned directions in the same plane with it by an inversion of the parallelogram construction of fig.

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  • If, as is usually most convenient, the two assigned directions are at right angles, the two components of a force P will be P cos 0, P sin 0, where 0 is the inclination of P to the direction of the p former component.

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  • Thus if the three lines form a triangle ABC, and if the given force F meet BC in H, then F can be resolved into two components acting in HA, BC, respectively.

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  • And the force in HA can be resolved into two components acting in BC, CA, respectively.

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  • The force at A1 may be replaced by its components Xi, Yi, parallei to the co ordinate axes; that at A1 by V1 its components X2, Yf, and so on.

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  • The two diagrams being supposed constructed, it is seen that each of the given systems of forces can be replaced by two components acting in the sides of the funicular which meet at the corresponding vertex, and that the magnitudes of these components will be given by the corresponding triangle of forces in the force-diagram; thus the force 1 in the figure is equivalent to two forces represented by 01 and 12.

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  • The force corresponding to AB may be replaced by the two components marked x, y; and a force corresponding to BA may be represented by the two components marked x, y.

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  • Each extraneous force W acting on a bar may be replaced (in an infinite number of ways) by two components P, Q in lines through the centres of the pins at the extremities.

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  • In practice the forces W are usually vertical, and the components P, Q are then conveniently taken to be vertical also.

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  • Let (x1, yi, Zi) be the co-ordinates of a point Pi on the line of action of one of the forces, whose components are (say) X1, Yi, Zi.

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  • Dealing in the same way with the forces Yi, Zi at P1, we find that all three components of the force at P1 can be transferred to 0, provided we introduce three couples L1, Mi, Ni about Ox, Oy, Oz respectively, viz.

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  • This product is the same whatever point on the line of action be taken, since the lengthwise components of the dispJacements of any two points A, B on a line AB are equal, to the first order of small quantities.

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  • The first three terms express the work done by the components of a force (X, Y, Z) acting at 0, and the remaining three terms express the work of a couple (L, M, N).

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  • If the equations of motion of each particle be formed separately, each such internal force will appear twice over, with opposite signs for its components, viz, as affecting the motion of each of the two particles between which it acts.

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  • The components of angular momentum about Ox, Qy, 01 will be denoted as usual by X, u, v.

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  • By an obvious analogy, the expressions OTfO4r may be called the generalized components of momentum; they are usually denoted by Pr, thus = OT/aq,.

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  • Velocity Ratio of Components of Motion.As the distance between any two points in a rigid body is invariable, the projections of their velocities upon the line joining them must be equal.

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  • The ratio of the two components of that velocity is = p/2lrr = tan 0.

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  • General Principle.From the definition of a line of conneyfion it follows that the components of the velocities of a pair of connected points along their line of connexson are equal.

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  • And from this, and from the property of a rigid body, already stated in 29, it follows, that the components along a is ne of connection of all the points traversed by that line, whether -in the driver or in the follower, are equal; and consequently, that the velocities of any pair of points traversed by a line of connection are to each other inversely as the cosines, or directly as the secants, of the angles made by the paths of those points with the line of connection.

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  • Also TA represents the equal components of the velocities of the FIG.

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  • Forces applied to Mechanism Classed.If 0 be the obliquity of a force F applied to a piece of a machinethat is, the angle made by the direction of the force with the direction of motion of its point of applicationthen by the principles of statics, F may be resolved into two rectangular components, viz.

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  • It follows at once that any method which may be available for the determination of the velocity ratio is equally available for the determination of the force ratio, it being clearly understood that the forces involved are the components of the actual forces resolved in the direction of motion of the points.

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  • The relation between the effort and the resistance may be found by means of this principle for all kinds of mechanisms, when the friction produced by the components of the forces across the direction of motion of the two points is neglected.

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  • The final outcome of these investigations was the hypothesis that Thomson's corpuscles or particles composing the cathode discharge in a high vacuum tube must be looked upon as the ultimate constituent of what we call negative electricity; in other words, they are atoms of negative electricity, possessing, however, inertia, and these negative electrons are components at any rate of the chemical atom.

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  • Cuprous iodide, Cu 2 l 21 is obtained as a white powder, which suffers little alteration on exposure, by the direct union of its components or by mixing solutions of cuprous chloride in hydrochloric acid and potassium iodide; or, with liberation of iodine, by adding potassium iodide to a cupric salt.

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  • When warmed with acids they split into their components.

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  • This combined condition is exactly fulfilled by holosymmetrical objectives reproducing with the scale 1, and by hemisymmetrical, if the scale of reproduction be equal to the ratio of the sizes of the two components.

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  • If a collective system be corrected for the axis point for a definite wave-length, then, on account of the greater dispersion in the negative components - the flint glasses; - over-correction will arise for the shorter wavelengths (this being the error of the negative components), and under-correction for the longer wave-lengths (the error of crown glass lenses preponderating in the red).

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  • Their constitution follows from their formation from dibromosuccinic acid and from their synthesis from glyoxal cyanhydrin, these two methods producing the inactive racemic form which may then be split into the active components.

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  • These substances are usually prepared by fusing their components together, and are dark powders which are less soluble in water the more antimony they contain.

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  • If a and b are the two fluids and c the solid then the equilibrium of the tensions at the point 0 depends only on that of thin components parallel to the surface, because the surface-tensions normal to the surface are balanced by the resistance of the solid.

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  • Decker (Ber., 9 5, 38, p. 1144) has found that many ortho substituted quinolines will not combine with methyl iodide owing to steric hindrance, but the difficulty can be overcome in most cases by using methyl sulphate and heating the reaction components to ioo C. for half an hour.

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  • Such cells, made up of epithelial and muscular components, are known as epithelio-muscular or myo-epithelial cells.

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  • This would in effect be analysing numbers into components of the form a.

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  • The term "gas analysis" is given to that branch of analytical chemistry which has for its object the quantitative determination of the components of a gaseous mixture.

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  • Ferrous iodide, FeI2, is obtained as a grey crystalline mass by the direct union of its components.

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  • It is to be remembered that criticism has broken up the historical unity of the New Testament collection and placed many of its components side by side with writings which have never been canonized, and which conservative writers had supposed to be distinctly later.

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  • On entry into the crystal the original polarized stream is resolved into components represented by a cos(- a) cos T, a sin (1P - a)cos T, T =27rt/r, and on emergence we may take as the expression of the waves cos (p - a) cos T, sin (4, - a) cos (T - p).

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  • The resultant of these is = 2a cos 2 (k 2 - k i)z cos {nt - 1(k2 -Fk2)z}, = 2a sin 2 (k 2 - ki)z cos {nt - z (k i + k2)z}, which shows that for any fixed value of z the light is plane polarized in a plane making an angle 1(k 2 - ki)z = ir(X i - X7 1)z, with the initial plane of polarization, X 1 and being the wave-lengths of the circular components of the same frequency.

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  • Applying this interpretation to the formulae given above, it follows that when the incident light is polarized at an azimuth a to the plane of incidence and the second medium is the less refracting, the reflected light at angles of incidence exceeding the critical angle is elliptically polarized with a difference of phase A between the components polarized in the principal azimuths that is given by tan (A/2) =cot i l l (1 - µ 2 cosec 2 i).

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  • It consists of a parallelopiped glass so constructed that light falling normally on one end emerges at the other after two internal reflections at such an angle as to introduce a relative retardation of phase of 4r/4 between the components polarized in the principal azimuths.

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  • Wernicke and others have established that in general light polarized in any but the principal azimuths becomes elliptically polarized by reflection, the relative retardation of phase of the components polarized in these azimuths becoming 42 at a certain angle of incidence, called the principal incidence.

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  • One method consists in finding directly the elliptic constants of the vibration by means of a quarterwave plate and an analyser; but the more usual plan is to measure the relative retardation of two rectangular components of the stream by a Babinet's compensator.

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  • The components for any other combination of two are found by taking the algebraic difference of the values with respect to lead.

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  • The individual components required weaker curvatures and permitted of being more correctly manufactured, and, more particularly, the advantage of reduced aberrations was the predominant factor.

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  • Even if a mixture of several oils and fats be present, the iodine value assists greatly in the identification of the components of the mixture, and furnishes the most important key for the attacking and resolving of this not very simple problem.

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  • By combining the various methods which have been outlined here, and by the help of some further additional special methods, and by reasoning in a strictly logical manner, it is possible to resolve a mixture of two oils and fats, and even of three and four, into their components and determine approximately their quantities.

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  • These sediments are fine and tenacious; their principal components, in addition to clay, being small grains of quartz, zircon, tourmaline, hornblende, felspar and iron compounds.

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  • The use of a multiplicative prefix does not affect the alphabetical order of components attached at the same level.

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  • Prefixes denoting components directly fused to the parent component are called first-order fusion prefixes.

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  • Binding to bile acids In vitro binding of bile acids by certain components of dietary fiber has been well documented.

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  • Good interfacial adhesion is the key to the reliable service performance of durable bonded components.

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  • From the air or gas mixture, adsorption media preferentially adsorb components with high boiling points.

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  • We have made a lot of progress with some of the components companies moving over to supplying aerospace for example from motor manufacture.

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  • For an aircraft, for example, such components might include the airframe, engine and avionics systems.

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  • My research is concerned with investigating the noise versus drag relationship of aircraft airframe components.

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  • Components of cooked meat that have been suggested to cause this include heterocyclic amines, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, nitrogenous residues and iron.

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  • The course also prepares students well for more traditional courses that may have analytical, theoretical or technology components.

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  • Users of industrial automation are more likely to specify linear motor systems rather than separate linear components.

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  • Roofstyle is a system of molded components, which can be used in varying combinations to produce highly decorative feature bargeboards.

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  • Whilst solder beading is always associated closely with components, solder balling may occur almost anywhere on the circuit.

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  • They only consist of components that are considered readily biodegradable according to OECD criteria.

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  • The natural citric formula is non toxic & completely biodegradable & is safe to use on all metal, plastic & glass components.

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  • Nucleolar components involved in ribosome biogenesis cycle between the nucleolus and nucleoplasm in interphase cells.

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  • The box set contains 8 models and includes a heavy bolter, plasmagun and Champion components.

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  • In the meantime, if your boat has a bowsprit, could you please check the bobstay, its attachments and its components.

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  • In case of supply difficulties substitute components may be supplied; for instance 100nF capacitors may replace 47nF parts.

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  • Components are carefully chosen and include many polypropylene capacitors and Van den Hul internal wiring.

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  • Components contributing most to the caries process are fermentable carbohydrates including cooked starches, added or naturally occurring sugars.

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  • Our longer term aim to achieve functional characterization of these components.

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  • In my book Capturing Customers ' Hearts I identify 12 components that can build on the foundation of quality to give your business charisma.

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  • Figure 6 suggests which components are most easily reduced by lifestyle choices.

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  • Produce chemically engraved metal plates, chemical milled components and printed circuit boards with the production equipment manufactured by Fortex.

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  • This is caused by dirty hydraulic components or a fault in the sliding member (cone clutch ).

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  • We made various components such as parachute attachments, housing bearings, steering track columns among a few.

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  • The main activity of the company at start up was that of manufacturing timber components for the bed industry.

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  • We asked him to identify the essential components of a great online business.

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  • The key components of our degrees allow us to achieve this.

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  • The colormap specifies red, green, blue, and optional alpha components corresponding to each index.

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  • Color/alpha components are stored in the components array starting at offset even if the array is allocated by this method.

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  • All of the arrays specifying the color components must have at least the specified number of entries.

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  • The purpose of such a system is to ensure optimal use of blood components by blood group.

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  • Just make sure you have someone experienced at your side if your upgrading your internal hardware components for the first time.

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  • We supply a lot of components for ready meals such as chili con carne and beef ribs.

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  • Aggregates used in concrete, incl. artificial components, lightweight concrete etc. Concrete additives.

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  • The use of silicon allows precise micromachining of components with well defined thermal conductance.

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  • This method reshapes the components in the specified target container in order to satisfy the constraints of the GridLayout object.

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  • I also made up a new crankshaft from components made by me in the workshop.

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  • All other mild steel door components degreased and primed with one coat of rust resisting primer paint.

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  • No patient with TA-GVHD had received leucocyte depleted blood components.

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  • The construction of components, on the micron scale, is by silicon micromachining, electro deposition and thin film metal and dielectric deposition.

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  • Proteins which interact with lipid components can be eluted by non-ionic detergents or organic solvents.

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  • Many small, identical components can be assembled to make different rotor diameters.

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  • This mixture was transferred to a glass chromatography column and the non-polar components eluted using diethyl ether.

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  • You should reasonable expect to be given an itemized price list of the components of the funeral, which should include disbursements.

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  • The institutional culture and the relationship between problem-based learning and other components of the curriculum affected the extent to which disabling disjunction occurred.

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  • Using multiple wavelength division with highly dispersive components may allow spatial coverage with a minimum of complexity and specialist components.

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  • A large artists ' palette and five artists ' easels help to analyze the incredible components of color.

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  • However, the search for both new components and the downstream effectors of these signaling pathways continues at a furious pace.

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  • Plasma levels of components of the renin-angiotensin system, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cellular sodium and transmembrane sodium efflux were also estimated.

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  • Components of ERP were recorded from 15 scalp electrodes.

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  • In order to calculate an emissivity we first need to determine the transmitted and reflected components.

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  • It will enhance the capability to predict and enhance the endurance of components and machinery.

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  • All components supplied are suitable for use in harsh marine environments.

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  • This means that we may be able to use more complex components in the IAM than is presently envisaged.

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  • There are six options including erasure, renaming, and assignment of extension components.

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  • Written by one of the world's foremost rigging experts, Arena Rigging presents both the theoretical and the practical components of rigging.

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  • He needs the whole variety of dietary components homemade baby foods can offer, including the calories we would rather forego!

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  • Now by gently freeze-drying fresh garlic it is possible to present a high potency garlic concentrate intact with its active components.

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  • In vowels and voiced fricatives, voicing obscures the aspiration and frication components.

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  • The Ordnance department's first products were highly classified miniature radio components for the proximity fuze.

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  • Some of these metabolites are reactive and bind to various components of cells including glutathione and macro-molecules.

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  • This is because pregnant women and young children are unable to break down one of its components called propylene glycol.

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  • These meal components were served to passengers, however, adding the gravy was a help yourself affair.

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  • The lack of industrially hardened components and connectors has exacerbated this.

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  • These components were airlifted to Weston-super-Mare by an RAF Chinook helicopter.

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  • The research student must provide a signed statement to indicate that he/she understands all components of the ' risk assessment ' .

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  • The RNA polymerase holoenzyme that synthesizes bacterial RNA can be separated into two components.

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  • In some cases the specification may necessitate selection of components of the sample whereas in others it must be made sufficiently homogeneous.

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  • The components of the upstream module are highly homologous in amino acid sequence to their downstream counterparts.

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  • We have had problems with flow cells, plastic components and stainless steel corrosion in the pumps when we used hypochlorite.

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  • This method enables identification of wave modes observed in electric field components.

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  • For example, in Wales, in the automotive components industry, 78 per cent of firms have attained ISO 9000 standards or higher.

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  • As these bacteria contain many pro-inflammatory components the failure to induce inflammation is paradoxical.

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  • Maybe we should put all the computationally intensive components under a mountain.

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  • The matter of " fitness " The word " fitness " has two, inextricably intertwined components.

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  • Invitation anatomy 101 - Typical Components - Part 1 of 3 " What am I supposed to have in my invitation anatomy 101 - Typical Components - Part 1 of 3 " What am I supposed to have in my invitation?

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  • Make no mistake, this is a proper commercial citrus juicer made from quality components in northern Italy.

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  • To health insurance impenetrable jungle of cshcn enrolled at three components the.

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  • All components in a grid layout are given the same size.

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  • These include components of signaling pathways and ubiquitin ligase proteins that regulate signal receptor trafficking.

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  • The essential elements There are three components to a local NHS logotype.

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  • Cadmium coatings also have good lubricity, easy solderability and other properties, which are essential for reliable service life in many engineering components.

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  • Lymph node - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia lymph node - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Lymph nodes are components of the lymphatic system.

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  • Hardware - All the stuff you have physically manifest in front of you, or which sits inside these components.

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  • The pri- Mary components are a stream head, a driver, and zero or more modules between the stream head and driver.

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  • The following components deserve special mention; The generous, sporty looking instruments provide all the information you could possibly need.

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  • Other important components of the plankton meroplankton, picoplankton and megaplankton are also reviewed.

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  • Interest in the technology of titanium powder metallurgy components has been expressed by a number of PowdermatriX member companies.

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  • With recent advances in analytical methodology, soil components can be separated and characterized at an increasing level of detail.

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  • Basically, a microcontroller is a device which integrates a number of the components of a microprocessor system onto a single microchip.

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  • NetNotes works in conjunction with a specific Web domain, deals with a limited number of Web components, and requires minor server-side modifications.

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  • The overall design concept and configuration (with various color schemes on the fairing components and front wheel mudguard) deliberately enhances this image.

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  • Ground-dwelling prey such as centipedes and the dipteran muscid Scatophaga stercoraria appeared to be common dietary components.

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  • Most components within the machine were known by nicknames.

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  • Skills on how to read and interpret the notation on one part of the course will be useful when learning other components.

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  • If the components array is null, a new array is allocated. offset - An offset into the components array.

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  • All are essential components for the smooth operation of the legislative environment which we have in Scotland.

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  • One of the key components required is a high performance voltage-controlled oscillator which generates signals used in mixers (frequency converters ).

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  • Analyzing these components demands patience and highly sensitive equipment, as they are often present in small amounts.

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  • Natural Treatments Feliway, a natural treatment, is cleverly based on the components of feline pheromones.

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  • Many homeworking scams involve piecework from painting cottages to assembling electronic components.

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  • These were intended to put in place the key components of seed supply such as processing plants, stores and quality control facilities.

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  • Compaq Insight Manager uses agent technology to manage and monitor the health of all hardware components within the Compaq hardware platform environment.

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  • Thanks to support of latest components such as Intel Pentium D dual core processors and DDR2 memory, high performance computers can be assembled.

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  • Proteolytic processing by viral proteinases provides the active components of the viral replicase complex.

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  • These mechanisms provide a way of establishing the provenance of any component, and indeed of transformations conducted on these components by others.

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  • From there the phones are either reconditioned or sent to the manufacturer for the components to be recycled.

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  • This specifies how the component would like to be aligned relative to other components.

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  • Doubling up the components makes servers more reliable too.

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  • The precise nature of injection molding allows exact curved shapes with reinforcing diagonal ribbing on the structural components of the pool.

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  • The nucleotide sequence of the infectious cloned DNA components of potato yellow mosaic virus.

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  • The SACHS single rear shock absorber has also been reviewed, with changes made in terms of the internal components.

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  • Other components of the ground flora such as grasses, dwarf shrubs and ferns are common.

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  • An internal thread at their beam exits may be used for installing mechanical shutters or various types of optical components.

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  • The low power components will be -40dB, -50dB, and -60dB below the reference sinusoids.

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  • Space has three dimensions, and time has one, so space-time is four-dimensional, but the four components are discrete.

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  • Always use your common sense to determine the spacing of the components.

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  • All components are TIG welded which reduces the size of the welding bead and minimizes welding spatter.

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  • Dysarthria is a motor speech disorder caused by disturbances in neuromuscular control of components of the speech mechanism.

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  • In addition, careful choice of critical components ensures high thermal stability.

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  • The upside-down forks feature the latest generation of internal components and TiN coated stanchions to achieve minimal sliding friction.

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  • In production, the nation is restoring its capacity to produce nuclear weapons components to replace aging parts in the enduring nuclear stockpile.

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  • Professional and experiential knowledge are necessary components for the care of the person with a newly formed stoma or internal pouch.

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  • Integrated Circuit Electronic components fabricated on a semiconductor substrate.

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  • The soil and the rocks under it form the non-living substratum for all ecosystem components to exist on.

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  • Table 2 summarizes the interaction energies of the side chains of tyrosyl tRNA synthetase with the various reaction components [16] .

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  • Even if they do get thorough, their claim may falter due to a shortage of components.

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  • Long life optical components mean that, for the most part, you only ever need to replace toner.

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  • Space Puzzle molding is an injection mold tooling development process which can make production components during the final tooling of the approved design.

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  • Berger Tools Ltd formed in 1977, is a respected supplier and distributor of high quality precision tooling components and machine tool standard parts.

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  • Since all components are only small-volume components, the storage in re-usable totes is the ideal solution.

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  • There are no series components except the isolation transformer itself.

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  • The plant key components include a conventional boiler, air-cooled turbogenerator, instrumentation and control systems.

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  • All components of what went on to establish the early CPGB were deeply rooted in the culture of militant trade unionism.

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  • Both models share premium suspension components with 43mm upside down forks and single shock rising rate rear suspension.

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  • Dietary components have been implicated to be important in the development and management of struvite and calcium oxalate uroliths in cats.

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  • These are all models that have categorical variables, as it's major components.

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  • The components are moved to the pick-up position using a linear vibrator to assist the slope of the feeder.

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  • In QinetiQâs unique approach, hollow waveguides are used to guide light through a circuit of optical components located in a common substrate.

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  • Landolt's subsequent experiments showed, what was already noticed in the earlier ones, that these minute changes in weight are nearly always losses, the products weigh less than the components, while if they had been purely experimental errors, due to weighing, they might have been expected to be as frequently gains as losses.

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  • The actual calculation follows a similar course to that by which Huygens's conception of the resolution of a wave into components corresponding to the various parts of the wave-front is usually verified (see Diffraction Of Light).

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  • To observe the position-angle of a double star it is only necessary to turn the position-web so that it shall be parallel to the line joining the centres of the components of the double star.

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  • To test this parallelism the single web must be made to bisect the images of both components simultaneously, as in fig.

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  • Reverse curves are compound curves in which the components are of contrary flexure, like the letter S; strictly the term is only applicable when the two portions follow directly one on the other, but it is sometimes used of cases in which they are separated by a " tangent " or portion of straight line.

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  • A great advance was made by Dalton, who, besides introducing simpler symbols, regarded the symbol as representing not only the element or compound but also one atom of that element or compound; in other words, his symbol denoted equivalent weights.4 This system, which permitted the correct representation of molecular composition, was adopted by Berzelius in 1814, who, having replaced the geometric signs of Dalton by the initial letter (or letters) of the Latin names of the elements, represented a compound by placing a plus sign between the symbols of its components, and the number of atoms of each component (except in the case of only one atom) by placing Arabic numerals before the symbols; for example, copper oxide was Cu +0, sulphur trioxide S+30.

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  • Three collinear stars ?', c and 3 Orionis constitute the "belt of Orion"; of these E, the central star, is of the ist magnitude, 3 of the 2nd, while Orionis is a fine double star, its components having magnitudes 2 and 6; there is also a faint companion of magnitude io.

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  • The fact that the other components have phases differing from this by amounts ranging between tam 2 r/(a+d) causes the resultant amplitude to be less than for the central image (where there is complete phase agreement).

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  • Since we have now to integrate for the whole illumination at a particular point 0 due to all the components which have their foci in its neighbourhood, we may conveniently regard 0 as origin.

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  • In the Eulerian notation u, v, w denote the components of the velocity q parallel to the coordinate axes at any point (x, y, z) at the time t; u, v, w are functions of x, y, z, t, the independent variables; and d is used here to denote partial differentiation with respect to any one of these four independent variables, all capable of varying one at a time.

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  • Since the circulation round any triangular area of given aspect is the sum of the circulation round the projections of the area on the coordinate planes, the composition of the components of spin,, 7,, is according to the vector law.

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  • A coordination of the results obtained on the distillation of mixtures of this nature with the introduction of certain theoretical considerations led to the formation of three groups distinguished by the relative solubilities of the vapours in the liquid components.

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  • Let V i and V2 be the potentials at points just outside and inside the surface dS, and let n l and n 2 be the normals to the surface dS drawn outwards and inwards; then - dV i /dn i and - dV 2 dn 2 are the normal components of the force over the ends of the imaginary small cylinder.

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  • The mother-liquor from the 70% chloride is evaporated, the common salt which separates out in the heat removed as it appears, and the sufficiently concentrated liquor allowed to crystallize, when almost pure carnallite separates out, which is easily decomposed into its components '(see' infra).

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  • To obtain a non-variant system, we must assemble four phases - two more than the number of components.

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  • The quantities QT are called the generalized components of force.

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  • By compounding two lenses or lens systems separated by a definite interval, a system is obtained having a focal length considerably less than the focal lengths of the separate systems. If f and f' be the focal lengths of the combination, and f2, f2 the focal lengths of the two components, and A the distance between the inner foci of the components, then f = - f,f2/4, f' =fi f27 0 (see Lens).

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  • The components are rearranged on the arbor to cut the profile or the scribe.

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  • Also, components can easily be repositioned any where in the diagram, allowing better spacing.

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  • The clients and server components can also reside on the same machine.

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  • Dirty, residue rich or resinous oil exerts a harmful effect on pneumatic components.

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  • It is usual at this stage to rhodium plate any white components.

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  • Each of these components has the ability to substantially alter the runoff hydrograph as it is routed through the system.

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  • It has this characteristic shape because the air flows, forces and energies required to fly have to separable components.

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  • Sera from animals infected with D. congolensis were then found to have antibodies against some of the components.

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  • In the meantime, the NBS will continue to provide CMV seronegative components when requested for appropriate recipients.

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  • These components are optional; the format for a given tabulated angle may contain zero, one or two sexagesimal subdivisions.

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  • In an amplitude plot, you see the actual amplitude of sine components.

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  • It 's not a snob thing, they 're just built from better quality components that are tested to work together properly.

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  • At AWE the application of sol gels for the manufacture of thin film coatings for the optical components of the Helen laser is described.

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  • Despite its streamlined styling it used old mechanical components.

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  • Both of these methods are defined by Component, the abstract superclass of all components.

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  • Table 2 summarizes the interaction energies of the side chains of tyrosyl tRNA synthetase with the various reaction components [16 ].

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  • Into action with Delphi Tim Anderson uses TAction components to clean up this code and present a richer user interface.

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  • Space Puzzle Molding is an injection mold tooling development process which can make production components during the final tooling of the approved design.

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  • The PALADIN family enables higher-performance and higher-efficiency base transceiver stations using fewer and less expensive components.

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  • There are no series components except the Isolation transformer itself.

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  • The bottom trawl fishery west of Shetland has two main components.

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  • His speed and trickery on the right wing were crucial components in the success enjoyed by the club during the 80's.

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  • The existing UM aerosol scheme assumes each of the aeroso