I tell this story to make a comparison between modern times and the past.
The comparison made her breath catch.
But the rich man--not to make any invidious comparison--is always sold to the institution which makes him rich.
But for Leipzig a comparison with the Gewandhaus Band may be sought.
In the morning I bathe my intellect in the stupendous and cosmogonal philosophy of the Bhagvat-Geeta, since whose composition years of the gods have elapsed, and in comparison with which our modern world and its literature seem puny and trivial; and I doubt if that philosophy is not to be referred to a previous state of existence, so remote is its sublimity from our conceptions.
And is it worth tormenting oneself, when one has only a moment of life in comparison with eternity?
But no comparison to Ethel Rosewater need be made.
26 shows the metallic lines of comparison in coincidence whilst the solar and stellar lines are non-coincident.
In comparison with reptiles the cerebellum of birds shows high development.
Encouraged by the comparison, she threw back the covers and swung her feet to the cold hardwood floor.
Thus results obtained for or a_ without the cover are of doubtful value for purposes of comparison with those found elsewhere with it on.
Dean had never sought a comparison between himself and Cynthia's first husband.
Recall my comparison of a nineteenth-century London factory to a factory that makes Volvos today.
This comparison leads to the important conclusion that the wild Bactrian Camelus bactrianus ferus comes much nearer to the fossil species than it does to the domesticated breed, the resemblance being specially noticeable in the absolutely and relatively small size of the last molar.
25 shows the stellar and solar lines of the two spectrographs in coincidence, whilst the metallic lines of comparison are non-coincident.
Most blind people are aided by the sense of sound, so that a fair comparison is hard to make, except with other deaf-blind persons.
In 1840 we have the first safe basis for comparison of strength.
Thanks to the strictness and assiduity of its commander the regiment, in comparison with others that had reached Braunau at the same time, was in splendid condition.
forming conclusions, not from the study of one region by itself, but from the comparison of the phenomena of many plac es.
But these sounds were hardly heard in comparison with the noise of the firing outside the town and attracted little attention from the inhabitants.
Delambre gives 3 the following comparison between the results of Gascoigne's measurements of the sun's semi-diameter and the computed results from modern determinations: Gascoigne.
The humerus with its crests, ridges and processes, presents so many modifications characteristic of the various groups of birds, that its configuration alone is not only of considerable taxonomic value but that almost any genus, excepting, of course, those of Passeres, can be " spotted " by a close examination and comparison of this bone.
By comparison, if a country has 99 percent of the people working in agriculture—if it is barely feeding itself, even with everyone working at that—then it is living at a subsistence level, the very definition of poverty.
So long as the particles are all very small in comparison with the wave-length, there is complete polarization in the perpendicular direction; but when the size is such that obliquity sets in, the degree of obliquity will vary with the size of the particles, and the polarization will be complete only on the very unlikely condition that the size is the same for them all.
The cultivation of potatoes on the sandgrounds in the south and the fen colonies along the Stads-Canal invite general comparison with the industries of Drente (q.v.).
Wagner,' his metric measurements being transposed into British units: Comparison of the Continents.
The latter is, in comparison with mammals, represented by its middle portion only, the vermis; in a sagittal section it shows an extremely well developed arbor vitae, produced by the transverse, repeated folding of the whole organ.
Any comparison between the generalship of these two great commanders would therefore be misleading, for want of a common basis.
A brief comparison with these will indicate its salient features.
an opening to the exterior S From a comparison of the two embryological types there can be no doubt on two points; first, that the pneumatophore and the protocodon are strictly homologous, and, therefore if the nectocalyx is comparable to the umbrella of a medusa, as seems obvious, the pneumatophore must be so too; secondly, that the coenosarcal axis arises from the ex-umbrella of the medusa and cannot be compared to a manubrium, but is strictly comparable to the " bud-spike " of a Narcomedusan.
This view is supported by Neumayr's comparison of Jurassic faunas throughout the world.
9b-25a), which interrupts the comparison of the city to a ship, looks like an insertion whether by the prophet or by some other; but there is no good reason to doubt that the book is substantially the work of Ezekiel.
Sir Frederick Gore Ouseley's comparison of the church and chamber pitches of Orlando Gibbons (vide Ellis's lecture) clearly shows the minor third in Great Britain in the first half of the 17th century.
The birds of Australia in their number and variety of species may be deemed some compensation for its poverty of mammals; yet it will not stand comparison in this respect with regions of Africa and South America in the same latitudes.
The study of the evolution of faunas and the comparison of the faunas of distant regions have furnished a trustworthy instrument of pre-historic geographical research, which enables earlier geographical relations of land and sea to be traced out, and the approximate period, or at least the chronological order of the larger changes, to be estimated.
The archbishop was one of the "undertakers" who controlled the Irish House of Commons, and although he did not regain the almost dictatorial power he had exercised at an earlier period, which had suggested a comparison between him and Cardinal Wolsey, he continued to enjoy a prominent share in the administration of Ireland until his death, which occurred in London on the 19th of December 1764.
" On the Freshwater Medusa liberated by Microhydra ryderi, Potts, and a Comparison with Limnocodium," Quart.
He tried equally to avoid thinking about his wife, and about Natasha and Prince Andrew; and again everything seemed to him insignificant in comparison with eternity; again the question: for what? presented itself; and he forced himself to work day and night at masonic labors, hoping to drive away the evil spirit that threatened him.
3.12, &c.) makes Susiana a part of Persia proper, but a comparison of his account with those of Ptolemy (vi.
Perhaps the best data for a comparison are those afforded by the varying brightness of stars at different altitudes.
The service which the government and the colonies desire is one which neither the Eastern Telegraph Company nor any other private enterprise is prepared to undertake on terms which can be considered in comparison with the terms upon which it can be provided by the associated governments."
What could all that matter in comparison with the will of God, without Whose care not a hair of man's head can fall?
The output is to-day relatively small in comparison with that of many other fields, but there are one or two permanent gold mines of great value working low-grade ore.
The term morphology, which was introduced into science by Goethe (1817), designates, in the first place, the study of the form and composition of the body and of the parts of which the body may consist; secondly, the relations of the parts of the same body; thirdly, the comparison of the bodies or parts of the bodies of plants of different kinds; fourthly, the study of the development of the body and of its parts (ontogeny); fifthly, the investigation of the historical origin and descent of the body and its parts (phylogeny); and, lastly, the consideration of the relation of the parts of the body to their various functions, a study that is known as organography.
All men seemed so pitiful, so poor, in comparison with this feeling of tenderness and love he experienced: in comparison with that softened, grateful, last look she had given him through her tears.
Such a comparison is necessarily illogical, as the existing apes are separated from the common ancestor by at least as large a number of generations as separate it from any of the forms of existing man.
Taking the number of hands engaged in the industry as a basis of comparison, the most important departments as regards iron and steel working in 1901 were:
"I can say in the presence of God, in comparison of whom we are but like poor creeping ants upon the earth, I would have lived under my woodside to have kept a flock of sheep rather than undertook such a government as this."
He pictured the vanity of his diplomatic career in comparison with Pierre's happiness.
Hartmann overcame these and many other difficulties by directly superposing the image of the spectrogram of a star, having iron comparison lines, upon the image of a spectrogram of the sun taken also with iron comparison lines.
For instance, the provisions in Magna Carta concerning the freedom of the church find no place in the Articles, while a comparison between the two documents suggests that in other ways also influences favourable to the church and the clergy were at work while the famous charter was being framed.
Dr Leche also institutes a comparison between the skeletons of the wild and the tame Bactrian camel with the remains of certain fossil Asiatic camels, namely, Camelus knoblochi from Sarepta, Russia, and C. alutensis from the Aluta valley, Rumania.
Those organisms which possess the latter are a little higher in the scale of life than those which remain unclothed by it, but a comparison of the behaviour of the two quickly enables us to say that the membrane is of but secondary importance, and that for those which possess it, it is nothing more than a protective covering for the living substance.
If then the screw-value in kilometres per second is known for the neighbourhood of each of the comparison lines employed, the radial velocity of the star can be independently derived directly from coincidences made in above manner in the neighbourhood of each comparison line.
Great difficulty was experienced in finding a foreign minister willing to challenge comparison with Visconti-Venosta.
Comparison with monstrous forms shows that the pitcher of Cephalotus arises by a calceolate pouching from the upper surface of the ordinary spathulate leaves, the lid here arising from the proximal side of the pitcher-orifice.
The difference in level between the outcrop of the assumed eastern intake and of the wells is often so small, in comparison with their distance apart, that the friction would completely sop up the whole of the available hydrostatic head.
Comparison is effected by the use of particles.
George Eliot by her very name invites and challenges comparison with George Sand.
From the rough comparison of the skeleton of a bird with that of a man by Pierre Delon, in the 16th century (to go no further back), down to the theory of the limbs and the theory of the skull at the present day; or, from the first demonstration of the homologies of the parts of a flower by C. F.
Comparison with Matt.
Enclosures must have been numerous in some counties; and there is a very good comparison between " champion (open fields) country and several," which Blith afterwards transcribed into his Improver Improved.
But their attempts, in comparison with his, are like a schoolboy's essays beside the finished work of a master.
A comparison of the relation of created beings to a number of intersecting circles is as old as the days of Nieremberg, who in 1635 wrote (Historia naturae, lib.
disastrous failure in his attempt to throw light on their arrangement by means of a comparison of their sternum.
Questions of affinity, and the details of geographical distribution, were endowed with a real interest, in comparison with which any interest that had hitherto been taken was a trifling pastime.
Consequently the materials available for the comparison of different forms consisted in great part of heads only.
It is possible that some of the rest may be the composition of the Northumbrian herdsman; but in the absence of any authenticated example of the poet's work to serve as a basis of comparison, the internal evidence can afford no ground for an affirmative conclusion.
She felt sluggish in comparison.
Everything else pales by comparison.
2 After a comparison of Israel to a worthless wild vine (xv.) come two allegories, one portraying idolatrous Jerusalem as the unfaithful spouse of Yahweh (xvi.), the other describing the fate of Zedekiah (xvii.).
The following table shows the operation of the law of 1875, with the figures of 1871 f or comparison:
This claim cannot be sustained on a comparison of dates, but at any rate he introduced the art into upper Italy.
By the comparison, for instance, of a number of boats, the mind abstracts a certain common quality or qualities in virtue of which the mind affirms the general idea of "boat."
There is, however, little travel of this sort on the Euphrates in comparison with the amount on the Tigris.
'' One of the sections of his able and instructive report was devoted to "A Comparison of the Progress of Astronomy in England with that in other Countries," very much to the disadvantage of England.
There is yet one point in which we may profitably go back to our comparison between England and Sicily.
A comparison of Norman buildings in England and in Normandy will show that the Norman style in England really was affected by the earlier style of England; but the modification was very slight, and it in no way affected the general character of the style.
A comparison of the surviving fragments of Basilides, moreover, with the outline of his system in Irenaeus-Hippolytus (Syntagma) shows that the account given by the Fathers of the Church is also in the highest degree untrustworthy.
On the question of the date a comparison of genealogies of Maori chiefs shows that, up to the beginning of the 10th century, about eighteen generations or probably not much more than five centuries had passed since the first Maori arrivals.
Sharp, and the comparison of the species found with those of the nearest continental land, furnish the student of geographical distribution with many valuable and suggestive facts.
On a single-track-mile basis, the following comparison may be made between apparent capital costs in Great Britain and the United States: - Single-Track Paid-up Capital Mileage.
In any comparison between British and American records the first point to be borne in mind is the difference in mileage and traffic. The American railways aggregate approximately ten times the length of the British lines; but in train miles the difference is far less.
- British Railways A similar comparison (Table XIX.) can be made for the United States of America, statistics prior to the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission being taken from Poor's Manual of Railroads as transcribed in government reports.
Wood is the material most widely used, but steel is employed in some countries where timber is scarce or liable to destruction by white ants, though it is still regarded as too expensive in comparison with wood for general adoption.
This question of the standard engine of comparison, and the engine efficiency is considered in § 15 below, and the boiler efficiency in § It below.
Thus a standard of comparison for every individual engine may be obtained with which to compare its actual performance.
The standard of comparison generally adopted for this purpose is obtained by calculating the efficiency of an engine working according to the Rankine cycle.
The initial temperature of the standard engine of comparison must be the temperature of the steam taken in the steam-pipe.
For further information regarding the standard engine of comparison see the article Steam Engine and also the " Report of the Committee on the Thermal Efficiency of Steam Engines," Proc. Inst.
He was the first to foretell with clearness the return of his people from captivity foreshadowed by Jeremiah, and he set himself the task even in 1 Thus in comparison with the " book of the covenant," Deuteronomy adds the stipulation in reference to the release of the slave; that his master was to provide him liberally from his flocks, his corn and his wine (Deut.
His father's library, though large in comparison with that he commanded at Lausanne, contained, he says, " much trash "; but a gradual process of reconstruction transformed it at length into that " numerous and select " library which was " the foundation of his works, and the best comfort of his life both at home and abroad."
In 1903 and 1907 Nevada ranked second among the American states in the production of sulphur, but its output is very small in comparison with that of Louisiana.
Like many Oriental works it is a compilation, as may be illustrated from a comparison of Chronicles with Samuel - Kings, and the representation of the past in the light of the present (as exemplified in Chronicles) is a frequently recurring phenomenon.
Day, Social Life of the Hebrews; and, for some comparison of customary usage in the Semitic field, to S.
Only from an exhaustive comparison of controlling data can the scattered hints be collected and classified.
By comparison with Florus, Albinus was, in the opinion of Josephus, a benefactor.
The Minoan remains at Orchomenus which are traceable to the latest period go far to substantiate the philological comparison between the name of Minyas, the traditional ancestor of this ancient race, and that of Minos.
A comparison of the two records, however, is especially important for its illustration of the later tendency to idealize the figure of David, and the historical critic has to bear in mind the possibility that this tendency had begun long before the Chronicler's time, and that it may be found in the relatively older records preserved in Samuel.
In the middle of the body, where the limits of the somites can be checked by a comparison with the arrangement of the nephridia and the gonads, and where the ganglia are quite distinct and separated by long connectives, each ganglion is seen to consist of six masses of cells enclosed by capsules and to give off three nerves on each side.
The large sacs which have been termed vagina are suggestive of the large coelomic spermathecae in Eudrilids, a comparison which needs, however, embryological data, not at present forthcoming, for its justification.
It is at least clear that in Ozobranchus this comparison is justifiable; but only probable, or perhaps possible, in the case of Philaemon.
No wonder that it stands the comparison badly; but with all its faults the Getica of Jordanes will probably ever retain its place side by side with the De moribus Germanorum of Tacitus as a chief source of information respecting the history, institutions and modes of thought of our Teutonic forefathers.
But all these are insignificant in comparison with the mineral oil industry of Baku, which in normal times yields annually between ten and eleven million tons of crude oil (naphtha).
A similar comparison for the several sections of Great Britain, as set forth in Table VI., shows that to England belong about 95% of the wheat area, over 80% of the barley area, over 60% of the oats area, and over 70% of the potato area, and these proportions do not vary much from year to year.
For purposes of comparison it would be much better if the yields of corn crops were estimated in cwt.
Useful figures for purposes of comparison are obtained by dividing the weight of a fat beast by the number of days in its age, the weight at birth being thrown in.
Firdousi accepted the challenge, and the three poets having previously agreed upon three rhyming words to which a fourth could not be found in the Persian language, 'Ansari began "Thy beauty eclipses the light of the sun"; Farrakhi added "The rose with thy cheek would comparison shun"; 'Asjadi continued "Thy glances pierce through the mailed warrior's johsun"; 1 and Firdousi, without a moment's hesitation, completed the quatrain "Like the lance of fierce Giv in his fight with Poshun."
The general structure of the Molluscan intestine has not been sufficiently investigated to render any comparison of this structure of Patella with that of other Mollusca possible.
For a comparison of various Opisthobranchs, Aplysia will be found to present a convenient starting-point.
The demonstration which it affords of the extreme shortening of the Euthyneurous visceral nerve-loop is most instructive and valuable for comparison with and explanation of the condition of the nervous centres in Cephalopoda, as also of some Opisthobranchia.
On the whole, Aegean art, at its two great periods, in the middle of the 3rd and 2nd millennia respectively, will bear comparison with any contemporary arts.
of birds, and he seems to have been the first to institute a direct comparison of their skeleton with that of man; but in this respect he only anticipated by a few years the more precise researches of Volcher Coiter, a Frisian, who in 1573 and 1575 published at Nuremberg two treatises, in one of which the internal structure of birds in general is very creditably described, while in the other the osteology and myology of certain forms is given in considerable detail, and illustrated by carefully drawn figures.
Moreover, both in drawing and in colouring there is frequently much that is untrue to nature, so that it has not uncommonly happened for them to fail in the chief object of all zoological plates, that of affording sure means of recognizing specimens on comparison.
He then draws a positive demonstration of the truth of his religion from the effects of the new faith, and especially from the excellence of its moral teaching, and concludes with a comparison of Christian and Pagan doctrines, in which the latter are set down with naïve confidence as the work of demons.
A comparison between the exports and imports of the years 1886 and 1905 will give an exact idea of the rate at which the port of Venice developed.
Those who take up such an extreme position regarding his merits have known too little of the state of contemporary science, and have limited their comparison to the works of the scholastic theologians.
The points just noted apply also to the average fluctuation and the standard deviation, but it is probable in these cases that daily or even weekly quotations would be sufficient to yield the information sought for with sufficient exactness for purposes of comparison.
In conclusion it may be stated that the two systems of drilling for petroleum with which by far the largest amount of work has been, and is being done, are the American or rope Comparison system, and the Canadian or rod system.
In Nemertines the everted proboscis is retracted in the same way as the tip of a glove finger would be if it were pulled backwards by a thread situated in the axis and attached to the tip. The comparison may be carried still further.
The comparison with the glove-finger is in so far insufficient as the greater portion of the non-evertible half of the proboscis is also hollow and clothed by glandular walls.
By about the beginning of our era the Jews had given up Hebrew and wrote in Aramaic; the process of expulsion had been going on, doubtless, for some time; but comparison with the later extant literature (Chronicles, the Hebrew Ecclesiasticus or Ben-Sira, Esther) makes it improbable that such Hebrew as that of Koheleth would have been written earlier than the 2nd century B.C. (for details see Driver's Introduction).
Osborn, Skeleton of Phenacodus primaevus; comparison with Euprotogonia, Bull.
Williamson showed how alcohol and ether were to be regarded as derived from water by substituting one or both hydrogen atoms by the ethyl group; he derived acids and the acid anhydrides from the same type; and from a comparison of many inorganic and the simple organic compounds he concluded that this notion of a " water-type " clarified, in no small measure, the conception of the structure of compounds.
In comparison with the isomeric propylene, CH 3 HC:CH 2, it is remarkably inert, being only very slowly attacked by bromine, which readily combines with propylene.
Baeyer supposes that in the formation of carbon, rings " the valencies become deflected from their positions, and that the tension thus introduced may be deduced from a comparison of this angle with the angles at which the strained valencies would meet.
The readiness with which ethylene is acted on in comparison with other types of hydrocarbon, for example, is in harmony, he considers, with the circumstance that the greatest distortion must be involved in its formation, as if deflected into parallelism each valency will be drawn out of its position through 2.109° 28'.
For an experimental comparison of the accuracy of the Dumas, Will-Varrentrapp and Kjeldahl processes see L.
A comparison of the various methods for estimating sulphur has been given by O.
In any attempts to gain an insight into the relations between the physical properties and chemical composition of substances, the fact must never be ignored that a comparison can only be made when the particular property under consideration is determined under strictly comparable conditions, in other words, when the molecular states of the substances experimented upon are identical.
According to the law of Avogadro, equal volumes of different gases under the same conditions of temperature and pressure contain equal numbers of molecules; therefore, since the density depends upon the number of molecules present in unit volume, it follows that for a comparison of the densities of gases, the determinations must be made under coincident conditions, or the observations reduced or re-computed for coincident conditions.
In order to permit a comparison of crystal forms, from which we hope to gain an insight into the prevailing molecular conditions, it is necessary that some unit of crystal dimensions must be chosen.
A comparison of the transformation of polymorphs leads to a twofold classification: (1) polymorphs directly convertible in a reversible manner - termed " enantiotropic " by O.
For a detailed comparison of the isomorphous relations of the elements the reader is referred to P. von Groth, Chemical Crystallography.
Only a comparison in detail will give a true impression of the extraordinary degree of resemblance.
In Mesopotamia more than any other country literary results have been regarded as archaeology, owing to the enormous mass of the written material recovered, which has caused the study of the art and general civilization of different periods to be neglected in comparison with the same subjects in Egypt.
As to Macedonia, whatever may have been the constitution of the court, it is implied that it offered in its externals a sober plainness in comparison with the vain display and ceremonious frivolities of Antioch and Alexandria (Polyb.
But from a comparison of prophetic passages of the Old Testament learned apocalyptic writers came to the conclusion that a distinction must be drawn between the earthly appearance of the Messiah and the appearance of God Himself amongst His people and in the Gentile world for the final judgment.
There were pure evangelical forces at work in it; and many Anabaptists need not shun comparison with the Christians of the apostolic and post-apostolic ages.
His doctrine was rooted in the old Iranian - or Aryan - folk-religion, of which we can only form an approximate representation by comparison with the religion of the Veda.
Since the same plant, owing to peculiarities of climate, soil and situation, degree of exposure to light and other influences may vary greatly according to the locality in which it occurs, it is only by gathering together for comparison and study a large series of examples of each species that the flora of different regions can be satisfactorily represented.
It only needed a comparison of the theory with the visible facts to refute it at once, but nearly three centuries elapsed before the independence of the arenariae and the catacombs was established.
This is perhaps the most satisfactory comparison, for besides the Greco-Roman remains there is an extensive subterranean city of unknown date, which may be of great antiquity, though even this is still sub judice.
In this regard a comparison between them and Daniel, Enoch and Psalms of Solomon is instructive.
In comparison with other French officials, they are well paid (the salary nowadays ranges from 39,000 to 18,000 francs according to the class).
The vascular system does not readily lend itself to morphological comparison between such widely different animals as Balanoglossus and Amphioxus, and the reader is therefore referred to the memoirs cited at the end of this article for further details.
6 of the search for the ark at Jaar (Kirjath-jearim) and Ephratah is not clear; but a comparison with 1 Chron.
With such salts alone is a valid comparison possible.
The freezing point curve usually lies below the electrical one, but approaches it as dilution is increased.2 Returning once more to the consideration of the first relation, which deals with the comparison between the number of ions and the number of pressure-producing particles in dilute solution, one caution is necessary.
A better basis of comparison would be the ratio of the actual to the limiting conductivity, but since the conductivity of acids is chiefly due to the mobility of the hydrogen ions, its limiting value is nearly the same for all, and the general result of the comparison would be unchanged.
As far as purity of diction, fine wit, crushing satire against a debased and ignorant clergy, and a general sympathy with suffering humanity are concerned, Omar certainly reminds us of the great Frenchman; but there the comparison ceases.
b., we obtain by comparison with the middle series the symbolical representation of all symmetric functions in brackets () appertaining to the quantities p i, P2, P3,ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ To obtain particular theorems the quantities a l, a 2, a 3, ...a, n are auxiliaries which are at our entire disposal.
We can solve these, assuming them independent, for the - i ratios yl, y2,...yn-iï¿½ Now a21A11 +a22Al2 ï¿½ ï¿½ ï¿½ = 0 a31A11+a32Al2 +ï¿½ ï¿½ï¿½ +a3nAln = 0 an1Al1+an2Al2 +ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½+annAln =0, and therefore, by comparison with the given equations, x i = pA11, where p is an arbitrary factor which remains constant as i varies.
(J1)11(J2)12(J3)j3ï¿½.ï¿½ jj!j2!j3!..ï¿½ where since(m1 1 m2 2 m3 3 ...) is the specification of (J1)j1(J2)j2(J3)j3..., ï¿½ l +ï¿½2+/23+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ =ii +j2+j3+ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ï¿½ Comparison of the coefficients of x:14243...
But all these ruins fade into insignificance in comparison with the majestic grandeur of those of Timgad which are almost entirely laid bare; they are described in Timgad, une cite africaine sous l'empire romann, by R.
the effect of parallax could be obtained as well as by observing from two different stations; in fact the rotation of the earth carried the observer himself round a parallel of latitude, so that the comparison of his own morning and evening observations could be used as if they had been made at different stations.
For most ordinary purposes the length of the needle may be assumed to be negligible in comparison with the distance between the needle and the rod.
The deflection is indicated by a pointer upon a graduated scale, the readings being interpreted by comparison with two standard specimens supplied with the instrument.
The values assigned to H were calculated from H= 2ni/r, and ranged from 3.9 to 585, but inasmuch as no account was taken of any 2 Since in most practicable experiments H 2 is negligible in comparison with B 2, the force may be taken as B 2 /87r without sensible= error.
Several pieces of apparatus have been invented for comparing the magnetic quality of a sample with that of a standard iron rod by a zero method, such as is employed in the comparison of electrical resistances by the Wheatstone bridge.
If these equations could be assumed to hold when H is indefinitely small, it would follow that has a finite initial value, from which there would be no appreciable deviation in fields so weak that bH was negligibly small in comparison with a.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
The addition of silicon in small quantities considerably diminished permeability and increased coercive force; but when the proportion amounted to 2.5% the maximum permeability (µ =5100 for H =2) was greater than that of the nearly pure iron used for comparison, while the coercive force was only 0.9.
Manganese, though belonging (with chromium) to the iron group of metals, is commonly classed as a paramagnetic, its susceptibility being very small in comparison with that of the recognized ferromagnetics; but it is remarkable that its atomic susceptibility in solutions of its salts is even greater than that of iron.
Certain matters, however, require comment and explanation to render the comparison intelligible.
Lankester some years ago made a special study of the histology (3) of these entosternites for the purpose of comparison, and also ascertained the relations of the very numerous muscles which are inserted into them (4).
The Roman numerals indicate the body somites and the two figures are adjusted for comparison.
- Comparison of the sixth prosomatic limb of a recent scorpion (B), of Palaeophonus (C), and of Limulus (A), showing their agreement in the number of segments; in the existence of a movable spine, Sp, at the distal border of the fifth segment; in the correspondence of the two claws at the free end of the limb of Scorpio with two spines similarly placed in Limulus; and, lastly, in the correspondence of the three talon-like spines carried on the distal margin of segment six of recent scorpions with the four larger but similarly situated spines on the leg of Limulus; s, groove dividing the ankylosed segments 4 and 5 of the Limulus leg into two.
(From Lankester, " Limulus and Arachnid.") Galeodes has been made the means of a comparison between the structure of the Arachnida and Hexapod insects by Haeckel and other writers, and it was at one time suggested that there was a genetic affinity between the two groups - through Galeodes, or extinct forms similar to it.
Extremity of the fifth pair of appendages of the female for comparison with that of the male E in fig.
Through a comparison of the Coptic version with the Pseudo-Cyprian writing " Caena," Rolffs (Hennecke, NT.
The purity of the style is also urged, and a comparison of Amos i.
The capture of Constantinople he rightly regarded as an historical event of far-reaching importance, although the comparison of it to the fall of Troy is hardly appropriate.
Its situation, general plan and literary associations suggested a comparison that gave Edinburgh the name of " the modern Athens "; but it has a homelier nickname of " Auld Reekie," from the cloud of smoke (reek) which often hangs over the low-lying quarters.
The freedom here spoken of is a freedom from the immediacy of impulse - a freedom based upon our possession of reason as a power of comparison, memory and forethought.
It serves for the thatching of roofs, for a papermaking material, for ornamenting small surfaces as a "strawmosaic," for plaiting into door and table mats, mattresses, &c., and for weaving and plaiting into light baskets, artificial flowers, &c. These applications, however, are insignificant in comparison with the place occupied by straw as a raw material for the straw bonnets and hats worn by both sexes.
Jefferson, Madison, John Quincy Adams, Calhoun, and Benton all speak loudly in Monroe's praise; but he suffers by comparison with the greater statesmen of his time.
Among his other papers may be mentioned those dealing with the formation of fairy rings (1807), a synoptic scale of chemical equivalents (1814), sounds inaudible to ordinary ears (1820), the physiology of vision (1824), the apparent direction of the eyes in a portrait (1824) and the comparison of the light of the sun with that of the moon and fixed stars (1829).
The rainfall in Hungary, except in the mountainous regions, is small in comparison with that of Austria.
1900); Janos Majlath, Geschichte der Magyaren (5 vols., 3rd ed., Regensburg, 1852-1853)-somewhat out of date (it first appeared in 1828), but useful for those who like a little more detail; Count Julius Andrassy, The Development of Hungarian Constitutional Liberty, translated by C. Arthur and Ilona Ginever (London, 1908), containing an interesting comparison with English constitutional development; C. M.
In particular, the equality or inequality of values of two functions is more readily grasped by comparison of the lengths of the ordinates of the graphs than by inspection of the relative positions of their bounding lines.
Thus a comparison of numbers occurring in a table of squares 1 2 =1 112=121 2 2= 4 122=144 3 2 =9 132=169 suggests the formula (A+a)2=A2+2Aa+a2.
To apply the method to the calculation of N n, it is necessary that we should be able to express N in the form A+a or Aa, where a is small in comparison with A, A" is easy to calculate and a/A is convenient as a multiplier.
Comparison with the table of binomial coefficients in ï¿½ 43 suggests that, if m is any positive integer, (I +x)-m =Sr+Rr (25), where Sr=I -mx+mx2...+(-)rm[r]xr (26), Rr_(_)r+1xr+11m[r] (1Fx) - 1+(m - I[r](I+x) m) (27).
(vii.) The comparison of the numerical value of I-Fn(1)x +n(242+...+n(r)xr, when n is fractional, with that of (i+x)n, involves advanced methods (ï¿½ 64).
The full title is ilm al jebr wa'l-mugabala, which contains the ideas of restitution and comparison, or opposition and comparison, or resolution and equation, jebr being derived from the verb jabara, to reunite, and mugabala, from gabala, to make equal.
From a measurement of the maximum distance the least angle between consecutive lines consistent with resolution may be deduced, and a comparison made with the rule stated above.
A comparison with the method of a material pointer, attached to the parts whose rotation is under observation, and viewed through a microscope, is of interest.
3 The power of a grating to construct light of nearly definite wavelength is well illustrated by Young's comparison with the production of a musical note by reflection of a sudden sound from a row of palings.
The objection raised by Herschel (Light, § 703) to this comparison depends on a misconception.
Mag., 1887) that the angular measurements present less difficulty than the comparison of the grating interval with the standard metre.
The amount of land under cultivation is very small in comparison with the area of the province.
Primary, secondary and spurious bows were formed, and their radii measured; a comparison of these observations exhibited agreement with Airy's analytical values.
- Let us now briefly sketch the progress of Isaiah's prophesying on the basis of philological exegesis, and a comparison of the sound results of the study of the inscriptions.
Speaking generally, it has been found that the East as opposed to the West has undergone relatively little alteration in the principal constituents of dress among the bulk of the population, and, although it is often difficult to interpret or explain some of the details as represented (one may contrast, for example, worn sculptures or seals with the vivid Egyptian paintings), comparison with later descriptions and even with modern usage is frequently suggestive.
An interesting example of the long plain variety is afforded by the prisoners of Lachish before Sennacherib (701 B.C.); the circumstances and a comparison of the details would point to its being essentially a simple dress indicative of mourning and humiliation.
His restlessness leads us at times to a comparison with Skelton, not in respect of any parallelism of idea or literary craftsmanship, but in his experimental zeal in turning the diction and tuning the rhythms of the chaotic English which only Chaucer's genius had reduced to order.
The comparison must not, however, be pushed too far.
By his almost exhaustive comparison of febrile movements as symptomatic processes Wunderlich dealt the last blow to the expiring doctrine of the "entity" of "fever"; while on the clinical side Bretonneau and Louis, in 1862-1872, by their careful clinical and pathological studies of forms of fever, relieved the new doctrine of the extravagances of Broussais, and prepared the way for the important distinction of enteric from typhus fever by A.
The comparison of observations in various climates and peoples has had some weight; while in the better knowledge of their causes their treatment has found permanent advantage.
Owing to the by-laws of the County Council, the method of raising commercial or residential buildings to an extreme height is not practised in London; the block known as Queen Anne's Mansions, Westminster, is an exception, though it cannot be called high in comparison with American high buildings.
A comparison of the death-rate of London and those of other great towns in England and abroad is given here: - In 1905 the lowest death-rates among the metropolitan boroughs were returned by Hampstead (9.3), Lewisham (11.7), Wandsworth (12.6), Woolwich (12.8), Stoke Newington (12.9), and the highest by Shoreditch (19.7), Finsbury (19.0), Bermondsey (18.7), Bethnal Green (18.6) and Southwark (18.5).
The Covent Garden theatre is the principal home of grand opera; the building, though spacious, suffers by comparison with the magnificence of opera houses in some other capitals, but during the opera season the scene within the theatre is brilliant.
The following figures may be quoted for distinct purposes of comparison at different periods: Value of Exports of Home Produce (1840), £11,586,037; (1874), £60,232,118; (1880), £52,600,929; (1902-1905 average), £60,095,294.
From a comparison of these fragments with the descriptions of Woodward, Maitland and others, who in the early part of the r8th century examined portions of the wall still standing, we learn that the wall was from 9 to 12 ft.
The commerce of Lake Ontario is limited in comparison with that of the lakes above Niagara Falls, and is restricted to vessels 1?
Yet they have some value as confirming the conclusion based on a comparison of the "we" sections of the Acts, with the remainder of the two books.
And this was true in regard to the two which, from a comparison of his Gospel with the other two Synoptics, we know that he did use.
It is admitted by the missionaries themselves that Christianity has progressed very slowly among the Burmese in comparison with the rapid progress made amongst the Karens.
Harlacher (1842-1890) contained valuable measurements of this kind, together with a comparison of the experimental results with the formulae of flow that had been proposed up to the date of its publication, and important data were yielded by the gaugings of the Mississippi made for the United States government by A.
Even the most ancient text, that in 65 chapters, contains passages which a comparison with the later texts shows to be interpolations.
In 1876 Sayce pointed out the resemblance between certain Hittite signs and characters in the lately deciphered Cypriote syllabary, and suggested that the comparison might lead to a beginning of decipherment; but the hope has proved vain.
It has usually been assumed that the incised inscriptions, being the more conventionalized, are all of later date than those in relief; but comparison of Egyptian inscriptions, wherein both incised and cameo characters coexisted back to very early times, suggests that this assumption is not necessarily correct.
If by this process a more perfect defecation and purification of the juice is obtained, it will no doubt be highly beneficial to the cane p lanter, though no great economy in lime can be effected, because but very little is used in a cane factory in comparison with the amount used in a beet factory.
The best of these is the town hall, otherwise known as the basilica, one of the finest works of the Renaissance period, of which Palladio himself said that it might stand comparison with any similar work of antiquity.
A just estimate of the relative value of the historians can only be reached by careful comparison in detail.
The simplest experience - a single note struck upon the piano - would not be what it is to us but for its relation by contrast or comparison with other experiences.
The imports were valued in 1907 at 55,147,870 soles (to soles = £1 stg.) and the exports at 57,477,320 soles - the former showing a considerable increase and the latter a small decrease in comparison with 1906.
Other lines in the red and green have been detected and found by comparison with the lines of marsh gas.
But during the last thirty years of the 19th century the increase in its trade was the lowest in comparison with the increase in the other great European ports.
The statistics given above for 1900 in comparison with 1905 are for factory products.
In architectural merits its monuments, though not so extensive, are worthy of comparison with those of Granada.
While a comparison of his expositions of the Pauline and Johannine Christologies with the earlier Unitarian exegesis in which he had been trained shows how wide is the interval, the work does not represent a mind that had throughout its history lived and worked in the delicate and judicial investigations he here tried to conduct.
A comparison of the force habitually developed by the wind in various parts of the islands shows that at Suttsu in Yezo the average strength is 9 metres per second, while Izuhara in the island Tsu-shima, Kumamoto in KiOshi and Gifu in the east centre of the main island stand at the bottom of the list with an average wind velocity of only 2 metres.
According to a comparison made by A.
These are attributed to a Kamakura sculptor of the 8th or 9th century, and in simple and realistic dignity of pose and grand lines of composition are worthy of comparison with the works of ancient Greece.
He inaugurated the new departure a few years ago by copying a Gobelin, but it may safely be asserted that no Gobelin will bear comparison with the pieces now produced in Japan.
In purity of tone and velvetlike gloss of surface there is distinct inferiority on the side of the Japanese ware, but in thinness of pale it supports comparison, and in profusion and beauty of incised decoration it excels its Chinese original.
The latter were no doubt deliberately exaggerated, and yet a comparison between the head of Fox in Sayer's plate "Carlo Khan's triumphal entry into Leadenhall," and in Abbot's portrait, shows that the caricaturist did not depart from the original.
The quantity of alcohol present in an aqueous solution is determined by a comparison of its specific gravity with standard tables, or directly by the use of an alcoholometer, which is a hydrometer graduated so as to read per cents by weight (degrees according to Richter) or volume per cents (degrees according to Tralles).
For fuller details of these methods of comparison of capacities see J.
One well-known comparison method is that of C. V.
Another comparison method much used in submarine cable work is the method of mixtures, originally due to Lord Kelvin and usually called Thomson and Gott's method.
A simple method for condenser comparison is to charge the two condensers to the same voltage by a battery and then discharge them successively through a ballistic galvanometer and observe the respective " throws " or deflections of the coil or needle.
Soc., 1880, 30, p. 411, showing experiments on residual charge of condensers and a comparison between the behaviour of dielectrics and glass fibres under torsion.
That this latter source is the Targum Jerushalmi is proved, in the majority of cases, by a comparison with the Fragmentary Targum; (3) quotations from Scripture preserved in the Fragmentary Targum point to a completer version than our present Fragmentary Targum.
Though his fame has become dimmed in comparison with that of Shaftesbury, Russell and Sidney, he was not less conspicuous in the parliamentary proceedings of Charles II.'s reign, and he left a more permanent mark than any of them on the constitutional changes of the period.
In comparison with them it was guarded more carefully from change) We have yet to inquire how it received the additions which distinguish the derived form now in use as the baptismal creed of all Western Christendom.
The task of the chronologer was thus simplified and reduced to a study and comparison of dates in a few leading systems.
All true historical perspective is based upon comparison, and where only a single account has been preserved of any event or of any period of history, it is extremely difficult to judge that account with historical accuracy.
Much attention to these particulars is required in the comparison of ancient dates.
The brain-cavity was extremely small, and insignificant in comparison to the bodily bulk, which was equal to that of the largest rhinoceroses.
It may be noted that if comparison be made with water at 4°, the relative density is the same as the absolute density, since the unit of mass in the C.G.S.
In British units, especially in connexion with the statement of relative densities of alcoholic liquors for Inland Revenue purposes, comparison is made with water at 62° F.
That the adjustment was attended with considerable revision of the passages appears from a careful comparison of Neh.
(e) A position-micrometer is attached to the finder to enable the observer to select comparison stars for observation with some unexpected object.
Directing the finder to the comet, he has at once in the field of view all available comparison stars.
In determinations of stellar or solar parallax, comparison stars, symmetrically situated with respect to the object whose parallax is sought, should be employed, in which case the instantaneous scale-value may be regarded as an unknown quantity which can be derived in the process of the computation of the results.
All determinations must accordingly be reduced to a standard temperature for comparison.
The colour of sea-water as it is seen on board ship is most readily determined by comparison with the tints of Forel's xanthometer or colour scale, which consists of a series of glass tubes fixed like the rungs of a ladder in a frame and filled with a mixture of blue and yellow liquids in varying proportions.
Aime showed that on a calm bright day in the Mediterranean the temperature rose o 1° C. between the early morning and noon at a depth of about 12 fathoms. Luksch deduced a much greater penetration of solar warmth from the comparison of observations at different hours at neighbouring stations in the eastern Mediterranean, but his methods were not exact enough to give confidence in the result.
Such current-meters as those used by Aime in 1841 and by Irminger since 1858 only gave the direction of the deeper current by comparison with the surface current at the time of observation.
The sum total amounts to 419 objects, besides hundreds of fragments, cores, spalls and rejects, retained for study and comparison.
See Peace Conference and WAR; also Sir T.Barclay, supplement to Problems of International Practice and Diplomacy, for comparison of texts of 1899 and 1907.
A new turn was given to the controversy by Heinrich Zimmer, who, in his Nennius vindicatus (1893), traced the history of the work and, by a comparison of the manuscripts with the 11th-century translation of the Irish scholar, Gilla Coemgim (d.
In comparison with its other industries it stands also pre-eminently as an agricultural state; for of its 789,404 labourers in 1900, 371,604, or 47%, were engaged in agriculture, 129,006 being engaged in trade and transportation, and 124,803 in manufactures and mechanical pursuits.
The attempt to apply numerical methods to the comparison of geometrical quantities led to the doctrine of incommensurables, and to that of the infinite divisibility of space.
A simple approximate calculation of the pressure exerted by a gas on its containing vessel can be made by supposing that the molecules are so small in comparison with their distances apart that they may be treated as of infinitesimal size.
(21) The comparison of this formula with experiment provides a striking confirmation of the truth of the kinetic theory but at the same time discloses the most formidable difficulty which the theory has so far had to encounter.
Traces remain of paved roads both within the agora and leading out of it; but the whole site is now a deserted and feverish swamp. The site is interesting for comparison with Megalopolis; the nature of its plan seems to imply that its main features must survive from the earlier "synoecism" a century before the time of Epaminondas.
Nor because the pagans regarded the close meetings of the Christians usually held in private houses as mysteries in which incest and cannibalism were rife, does it follow that the Christians themselves accepted the comparison.
The comparison of cranial indexes is rendered difficult by intentional flattening of the forehead and undesigned flattening of the occiput by the hard cradle-board.
A comparison Linguistic ever, occupied the greater part of lands both north and south of Panama; the others were encysted in the territory of the prevailing families, or concealed in cols-de-sac of the mountains.
It lies in a plain bounded, except westward, where it opens on Osaka Bay, by hills of considerable height, on both sides of the Yodogawa, or rather its headwater the Aji (the outlet of Lake Biwa), and is so intersected by riverbranches and canals as to suggest a comparison with a Dutch town.
In the shape and curvature of the horns, which at first incline outwards and forwards, and then bend somewhat upwards and inwards, this breed of cattle resembles the aurochs and the (by comparison) dwarfed park-breeds.
Efforts have been almost unceasingly made since 1872 by statistical experts in periodical conference to bring about a general understanding, first, as to the subjects which may be considered most likely to be ascertained with approximate accuracy at a census, and secondly - a point of scarcely less importance - as to the form in which the results of the inquiry should be compiled in order to render comparison possible between the facts recorded in the different areas.
Previous to that date, the only step towards compilation of the census results of the empire had been a bare statement of area and population, appended without analysis, comparison or comment, to the reports for England and Wales, from the year 1861 onwards.
Each state issues its own report, in which the returns are worked up in the detail required for both local administrative purposes, and for comparison with the corresponding returns for the neighbouring territory.
Efforts to invalidate the census returns by comparison with the registration records of Massachusetts cannot be deemed conclusive, since in the United States, as in Great Britain, the census must be deemed more accurate and less subject to error than registration records.
Still, such a comparison confirms the accuracy of the eleventh census as a whole.
For the sake of comparison it may be stated that the per capita cost of the English census of 1901 was 2.24 cents, or little more than one-tenth that of the American census.
This is the process adopted, for instance, for comparison of the area of a parallelogram with that of a rectangle on the same base and of the same height.
(iii) In dealing with cases where actual measurements are involved, the error (i) due to inaccuracy of the formula will often be negligible in comparison with the error (ii) due to inaccuracy of the data.
But Irenaeus was at most fifteen when thus frequenting Polycarp; writes thirty-five to fifty years later in Lyons, admitting that he noted down nothing at the time; and, since his mistaken description of Papias as " a hearer of John " the Zebedean was certainly reached by mistaking the presbyter for the apostle, his additional words " and a companion of Polycarp " point to this same mistaken identification having also operated in his mind with regard to Polycarp. In any case, the very real and important presbyter is completely unknown to Irenaeus, and his conclusion as to the book's authorship resulted apparently from a comparison of its contents with Polycarp's teaching.
If, at the same time, a tuning-fork of known number of vibrations per second be made to trace its own line close to the other, a comparison of the two lines gives the number corresponding to the sound under consideration.
By comparison with a clock of known rate Glock.
In particular, Chronicles agrees with Kings in those short notes of the moral character of individual monarchs which can hardly be ascribed to an earlier hand than that of the redactor of the latter book.2 For the criticism of the book it is important to institute a careful comparison of Chronicles with the parallel narratives in Samuel-Kings.
3 "A careful comparison of Chronicles with Samuel and Kings is a striking object lesson in ancient historical composition.
The industry in comparison with former times, when the town had so considerable a manufacture in muslin as to give its name to that fabric, is very unimportant; trade also, which is almost exclusively in the hands of native merchants, has fallen off greatly, although the town remains the collecting and distributing centre for the north Mesopotamian desert and Kurdistan.
In ' For results of a comparison of the skulls of wild and domesticated turkeys, see Dr Shufeldt, in Journ.
Thus the late Rabbinical picture of the calf-headed brazen image of Molech within which children were burned alive is pure fable, and with it falls the favourite comparison between Molech and the Carthaginian idol from whose brazen arms children were rolled into an abyss of fire, and whom Diodorus (xux.
The principle of the meter is to make the breaking and driving action so strong that the friction of the train becomes immaterial in comparison.
28, are Kpiva, and the comparison of their beauty with royal robes suggests their identification with the red Syrian lily of Pliny.
A few caustically witty sayings of his, and St Bridget's famous comparison of him to a fowler who could entice the shyest birds with his fluting, are almost all his personalia.
But before we proceed to this it may be well to note one or two things that come out by comparison of the systems already before us.
Nevertheless, the concentration of all ritual at a single point, and the practical exclusion of laymen from active participation in it - for the old sacrificial feast had now shrunk into entire insignificance in comparison with the stated priestly holocausts and atoning rites2 - lent powerful assistance to the growth of a new and higher type of personal religion, the religion which found its social expression not in material acts of oblation, but in the language of the Psalms. In the best times of the old kingdom the priests had shared the place of the prophets as the religious leaders of the nation; under the second Temple they represented the unprogressive traditional side of religion, and the leaders of thought were the psalmists and the scribes, who spoke much more directly to the piety of the nation.
The economic importance of Czechoslovakia is strikingly shown by a comparison with the rest of the former Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.
The results for and 0, as calculated for the range tables above, are also given there for comparison.
For a comparison of the different parallel passages which occur in the Old Testament (e.g.
Origen, in his Hexapla, placed side by side the Hebrew text, the Septuagint, and certain later Greek versions, and drew attention to the variations: he thus brought together for comparison, an indispensable preliminary to criticism, the chief existing evidence to the text of the Old Testament.
For reasons suggested partly by the study of Semitic inscriptions, partly by comparison of passages occurring twice within the Old Testament, and partly by a comparison of the Hebrew text with the Septuagint, it is clear that the authors of the Old Testament (or at least most of them) themselves made some use of these vowel consonants, but that in a great number of cases the vowel consonants that stand in our present text were inserted by transcribers and editors of the texts.
Capellus drew conclusions from such important facts as the occurrence of variations in the two Hebrew texts of passages found twice in the Old Testament itself, and the variations brought to light by a comparison of the Jewish and Samaritan texts of the Pentateuch, the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, the Hebrew text and New Testament quotations from the Old Testament.
More especially since the time of Capellus the value of the Septuagint for correcting the Hebrew text has been recognized; but it has often been used uncritically, and the correctness of the Hebrew text underlying it in comparison with the text of the Hebrew MSS., though still perhaps most generally underestimated, has certainly at times been exaggerated.
By comparison of the Hebrew MSS.
By a comparison of these two lines of evidence we can approximate to a text current about 300 B.C. or later; but for any errors which had entered into the common source of these two forms of the text we possess no documentary means of detection whatsoever.
It is to be noted that the chronological grouping of the epistles by minute comparison of style is apt to be deceptive; resemblances of this kind are due more to similarity of subject than to proximity in date.
A comparison of the Peshito with quotations in Aphraates and Ephraem shows that Rabbula revised the text of the Acts and Pauline epistles, but in the absence of MSS.
The importance of both the Stephanus and Elzevir editions is that they formed a definite text for the purposes of comparison, and so prepared the way for the next stage, in which scholars busied themselves with the investigation and collation of other MSS.
A little later Richard Bentley conceived the idea that it would be possible to reconstruct the original text of the New Testament by a comparison of the earliest Greek and Latin sources; he began to collect material for this purpose, and issued a scheme entitled " Proposals for Printing " in 1720, but though he amassed many notes nothing was ever printed.
Their view of the history of the text is that a comparison of the evidence shows that, while we can distinguish more than one type of text, the most clearly discernible of all the varieties is first recognizable in the quotations of Chrysostom, and is preserved in almost all the later MSS.
Moreover, a comparison with the earlier sources of evidence shows that it was built up out of previously existing texts.
Various useful texts have been issued, among which those of Nestle (Novum Testamentum Graece, Stuttgart, 1904), based on a comparison of the texts of Tischendorf, WH and Weiss, and of Baljon (Novum Testamentum Graece, Groningen, 1898), are the best.
The Old Syriac, if we take the Sinaitic MS. as the purest form, compared in the same way, has a similar double series of interpolations and omissions, but neither the omissions nor the interpolations are the same in the Old Latin as in the Old Syriac. Such a line of research suggests that instead of being able, as WH thought, to set the Western against the Neutral text (the Alexandrian being merely a development of the latter), we must consider the problem as the comparison of at least three texts, a Western (geographically), an Eastern and the Neutral.
The second stage must be the comparison of these results and the attempt to reconstruct from them a Greek text from which they all arose.
A comparison of this distribution with that of atmospheric pressure is of great interest.
At the same time various details (as comparison with the Book of Kings shows) are relatively old and, on a priori grounds, it is extremely unlikely that the unhistorical elements are necessarily due to deliberate imagination or perversion rather than to the development of earlier traditions.
The number of eggs laid is small in comparison with other reptiles, rarely exceeding a score, and some like the anolids and the geckos deposit only one or two.
The Hebrew "shekel of the sanctuary" is familiar; the standard volume of the apet was secured in the dromus of Anubis at Memphis (35); in Athens, besides the standard weight, twelve copies for public comparison were kept in the city; also standard volume measures in several places (2); at Pompeii the block with standard volumes cut in it was found in the portico of the forum (33); other such standards are known in Greek cities (Gythium, Panidum and Trajanopolis) (11, 33); at Rome the standards were kept in the Capitol, and weights also in the temple of Hercules (2); the standard cubit of the Nilometer was before Constantine in the Serapaeum, but was removed by him to the church (2).
Money, however, is in men's actual transactions the measure of value, as well as the vehicle of exchange; and the precious metals are best suited for this function, as varying little in their own value for periods of moderate length; for distant times, corn is a better standard of comparison.
Palaeontology both borrows from and sheds light upon geology and other branches of the physical history of the earth, each of which, such as palaeogeography or palaeometeorology, is the more fascinating because of the large element of the unknown, the need for constructive imagination, the appeal to other branches of biological and physical investigation for supplementary evidence, and the necessity of constant comparison with the present aspects of nature.
Successive observers in Italy, notably Fracastoro (1483-1553), Fabio Colonna (1567-1640 or 1650) and Nicolaus Steno (1638 - c. 1687), a Danish anatomist, professor in Padua, advanced the still embryonic science and set forth the principle of comparison of fossil with living forms. Near the end of the 17th century Martin Lister (1638-1712), examining the Mesozoic shell types of England, recognized the great similarity as well as the differences between these and modern species, and insisted on the need of close comparison of fossil and living shells, yet he clung to the old view that fossils were sports of nature.
Beginning in 1793 he boldly advocated evolution, and further elaborated five great principles--namely, the method of comparison of extinct and existing forms, the broad sequence of formations and succession of epochs, the correlation of geological horizons by means of fossils, the climatic or environmental changes as influencing the development of species, the inheritance of the bodily modifications caused by change of habit and habitat.
Invulnerable in exact anatomical description and comparison, he failed in all his philosophical generalizations, even in those strictly within the domain of anatomy.
It appears from comparison of the work in the two great divisions of vertebrate and invertebrate palaeontology made for the first time in this article that in accuracy of observation and in close philosophical analysis of facts the students of invertebrate palaeontology led the way.
He showed that from each individual shell of an ammonite the entire ancestral series may be reconstructed, and that, while the earlier shell-whorls retain the characters of the adults of preceding members of the series, a shell in its own adult stage adds a new character, which in turn becomes the pre-adult character of the types which will succeed it; finally, that this comparison between the revolutions of the life of an individual and the life of the entire order of ammonites is wonderfully harmonious and precise.
Thus the recapitulation law, which had been built up independently from the observations and speculations on vertebrates by Lorenz Ofen (1779-1851), Johann Friedrich Meckel (1781-1833), St Hilaire, Karl Ernst von Baer (1;92-1876) and others, and had been applied (1842-1843) by Karl Vogt (1817-1895) and Agassiz, in their respective fields of observation, to comparison of individual stages with the adults of the same group in preceding geological periods, furnished the key to the determination of the ancestry of the invertebrates generally.
On the other hand, Huxley's summation of the primitive characters of all the mammals led him to an amphibian stem type, a prophecy which has proved faulty because based on erroneous analysis and comparison.
It should be remembered that palaeontology is the most unfavourable field of all for observation and demonstration of sudden saltations or mutations of character, because of the limited materials available for comparison and the rarity of genetic series.
The number of these select members is small in comparison with the whole Society; the exact proportion varies from time to time, the present tendency being to increase the number.
A comparison with 1888-1889, when 8970 properties were registered, will show how rapidly the mining industries have been developed during that period.
with the five male and female elements - fire, earth, iron, water, wood; as " male-fire-bull " year, &c. This comparison is worked out in Humboldt's Vues des Cordilleres, as evidence of Mexican civilization being borrowed from Asia.
do still in the East, on comparison of the horoscopes of the pair to ascertain if their birth-signs were compatible.
He has moreover elaborated a method for preserving Rotif era for microscopic observation, so that the types of each observer are now as readily available for comparison as the plant-specimens of the botanist's herbarium.
The following specimens of the Early and Late Versions will afford a comparison with preceding renderings: - ' Cf.
For the sake of comparison the following extracts from St Matthew are given, according to the edition of 1539.
In form the jaguar is thick-set; it does not stand high upon its legs; and in comparison with the leopard is heavily built; but its movements are very rapid, and it is fully as agile as its more graceful relative.
This is seen by a comparison of other confessions with the Profession of Catholic Faith in accordance with the council of Trent, in the bull of Pius IV., which runs thus: " I profess that in the Mass is offered to God a true, proper and propitiatory sacrifice, for the living and the dead, and that in the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist there is truly really and in substance the body and blood, together with the soul and divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, and that there does take place a conversion of the entire substance of the bread into the body, and of the entire substance of the wine into the blood, which conversion the Catholic Church doth call Transubstantiation.
A detailed comparison shows the difference between Buddhism and Manichaeism in all their principal doctrines to be very great, while it becomes evident that the points of resemblance are almost everywhere accidental.
The great ice sheets formed terminal moraines around their border at various halting stages; but the morainic belts are of small relief in comparison to the great area of the ice; they rise gently from the till plains to a height of 50, 100 or more feet; they may be one, two or three miles wide; and their hilly surface, dotted over with boulders, contains many small lakes in basins or hollows, instead of streams in valleys.
The ordinary triangular form of deltas, due to the smoothing of the delta front by sea action, is here wanting, because of the weakness of sea action in comparison with the strength of the current in each of the four distributaries or passes into which the river divides near its mouth.
All differences are lessened if the comparison be limited to children, and still further lessened if also limited to cities.
Thus of 512,254 establishments included in the reports of 1900, six-tenths, employing II ~2% of the total number of wage-earners and producing 123% of the total value of all manufactures, must be omitted as neighborhood establishments in order to make the following comparison of the results of the two enumerations of 1900 and 1905.
But exact data for comparison do not exist for other countries than the United States.
Although the data are in general incomplete upon which might be based a comparison of the relative standing of different countries in the production of minerals of lesser importance than those just mentioned, it was estimated by M.
Rivers and canals are relatively much less important to-day than in the middle decades of the I 9th century, before the growth of the railway traffic made small by comparison the movement on the interior watercourses.
For numbers they can be compared only with those of Finland and Scandinavia in Europe, and for size with those of eastern Africa; but for the great extent of lake-filled country there is no comparison.
per quarter (480 lb), a trifle in comparison with the actual fall in the price of wheat during the same years.
His exegesis, which was dominated by his polemics against the Jews, is characterized by a fidelity to the literal sense, the comparison with the Hebrew text, the direct use of Jewish commentators, a very independent attitude towards traditional interpretations, and a remarkable historical and critical sense.
That a text may be improved by the comparison of different MSS.
In particular, rhetoricians appeared to him to have neglected argument in comparison with passion.
The corresponding figures for 1900, if the same standard be taken for purposes of comparison, would be $60,165,904 and $72,109,929.
As a literary critic the shortcomings of Servius, judged by a modern standard, are great, but he shines in comparison with his contemporaries.
In comparison with the battle of Assaye, all fighting that had hitherto taken place in India was child's play.
Under the Ptolemies, the inland cities declined in comparison with the maritime ones, and the Cyrenaica began to feel the commercial competition of Egypt and Carthage, whence easier roads lead into the continent.
3) is hairless, of an ashy grey or cream colour, attains to a length of from 3 to 32 in., and is slender in comparison with many of its allies.
Street in 1860, is remarkable; the richness of the work within increases from west to east, culminating in a choir arcade decorated with work among the finest of its period extant; the period is that of the choir of Westminster Abbey, and from a comparison of building materials, choir arcades and sculpture of foliage, a common architect has been suggested.
There is something arbitrary in this definition, but as the practical importance of the question lies in the comparison between instruments of different types, the exact standard adopted is of minor importance, the chief consideration being simplicity of application.
Halm,' to whom we owe a careful comparison of the above equation with the observed frequencies in a great number of spectra, attached perhaps too much weight to the fact that it is capable of representing both line and band spectra.
We therefore should expect a band in place of the line, which is the case, but our calculation is not able to give the displacement of the most intense portion, which is what we require for comparison with experiment.
the interesting comparison between Socrates and Christ.
But Cousin's psychological method of proceeding from consciousness outwards, and the emphasis laid by him on spirit in comparison with body, prevented a real revival of realism.
In the absence of such a reversible card the index correction must be determined by comparison with a unifilar magnetometer, simultaneous observations being made on shore, and these observations repeated as often as occasion permits.
At the same time we do our Jewish authorities no injustice in imputing to them the patriotic tendency to idealize the society, and thus offer to their readers something in Jewish life that would bear comparison at least with similar manifestations of Gentile life.
The theory he propounds is closely allied to that of Cudworth, but is interesting mainly in comparison with the subsequent theories of Kant.
In some respects he suggests a comparison with Jordanes, but in learning and literary honesty is greatly the superior of the Goth.
There was no comparison between the two from the point of view of the East.
The Italian troubles, which had entailed the exile of Eugenius IV., were still insignificant in comparison with those conjured up by the fanatics of the Council in Basel.
Latimer, on seeing him enter the church, boldly changed his theme to a portrayal of Christ as the pattern priest and bishop. The points of comparison were, of course, deeply distasteful to the prelate, who, though he professed his " obligations for the good admonition he had received," informed the preacher that he " smelt somewhat of the pan."
This definition correctly indicates that the mass of any portion of matter is equal to the sum of the masses of its parts, and that the masses of bodies alike in other respects are equal, but gives no test for comparison of the masses of bodies of different substances; this test is supplied only by a comparison of motions.
It is found that this gives a consistent result; that is to say, if by an experiment with two particles A and B we get the ratio of their masses, and by an experiment with B and a third particle C we get the ratio of the masses of B and C, and thus the ratio of the masses of A and C, we should get the same ratio by a direct experiment with A and C. For the numerical measure of mass that of some standard body is chosen as a unit, and the masses of other bodies are obtained by comparison with this.
The work of translating the law of gravitation into the form of astronomical tables, and the comparison of these with observations, has been in progress ever since.
This is not inconsistent with the law of gravitation, for such estimates as have been made of planetary perturbations due to stars give results which are insignificant in comparison with quantities at present measurable.
Their table of comparison published in 1906 shows the following agreement: - It seems likely that measurements of vapour pressure and compressibility may eventually enable us to determine accurately osmotic pressures in cases where direct measurement is impossible.
By comparison with the first equation we see that RT/F is equal to D, the diffusion constant.
The following figures for the years 1904 and 1905 show that its trade is still rapidly increasing: - The growth of its commerce in recent times may be measured by a comparison of the following figures.
The money they cost her was a small sum in comparison to the f 12,000,000 she lavished on her long series of lovers, who began with Soltykov and Stanislaus Poniatowski before she came to the throne, and ended with the youthful Platon Zubov, who was tenant of the post at her death.
This may be briefly illustrated by a comparison with the greatest of modern pantheists, Spinoza.
Materials for arriving at a decision by comparison with undoubtedly genuine fragments of the Ossianic legend are available in The Book of the Dean of Lismore, Gaelic verses, collected by J.
The extension of this idea to substances in general necessarily led him to the law of combination in multiple proportions, and the comparison with experiment brilliantly confirmed the truth of his deduction" (A New View, &c., pp. 50, 51).
(1st ed., 1863; 2nd, 1873) was a comparison of the Vedic with the later representations of the principal Indian deities, an exhibition of the process by which three gods hardly known to the Vedic hymns became the deities of the former Hindu Trimurti.
Their most important characteristic in comparison with the latter is that they are, both in external and internal structure, bilaterally symmetrical.
The groups of organisms utilized for zoning and correlation by different workers include brachiopods, pelecypods, cephalopods, corals, fishes and plants; and the results of the comparison of the faunas and floras of different areas where Carboniferous rocks occur are generalized in the table below.
5 in unbroken lines, with the iron-cementite diagram reproduced in broken lines for comparison.
In the cold this transformation cannot take place, because of molecular rigidity or some A C VII' B Solid ' Legend' ustenite diagram = Comentite-Austenite diagram show) for comparison ...
Comparison of Steel-making Processes.
But as the North grew stronger and the South in comparison grew weaker, as slavery came to be more and more the dominant political issue, and as the South made demands concerning that "peculiar institution" to which the North was unwilling to accede, less was heard of secession in the North and more in the South.
Hume's explanation of the belief in external things by reference to association is well deserving of careful study and of comparison with the more recent analysis of the same problem by J.
elective); (2) the statement that Solon invented sortition for the office is put as the basis of a comparison (89ev, ern ye ov) and, therefore, may fairly be regarded as a hypothesis; (3) there is no indication that the change made in 487 B.C. was a return to an obsolete method, and on the same argument it is odd that Solon's alleged system should not have been revived at the end of the Tyranny.
This comparison with fusion introduces a second notion, that of the "triple-point," this being in the melting-phenomenon the only temperature at which solid, liquid and vapour are in equilibrium, in other words, where three phases of one substance are co-existent.
Considerable progress in the education of the people is made visible by a comparison of the figures of three decennial censuses.
The River Diggings on the Vaal river are still worked upon a small scale, but the production from this source is so limited that they are of little account in comparison with the mines in the blue ground.
This was nothing less than the complete revision of the planetary theories, followed by a laborious comparison of results with the most authentic observations, and the construction of tables representing the movements thus corrected.
The comparison between the increase of population and food had not, perhaps, been stated with sufficient force and precision," and "few inquiries had been made into the various modes by which the level" between population and the means of subsistence "is effected."
- Observation of the steady distribution of temperature along a bar heated at one end was very early employed by Fourier, Despretz and others for the comparison of conductivities.
p. 503, 1888) applied this method directly to mercury, and determined the conductivity of some other metals by comparison with mercury.
From a comparison of this work with that of Lorenz, it is evident that the values of the conductivity vary widely with the purity of the material, and cannot be safely applied to other specimens than those for which they were found.
It is called - as usual without any authority - the villa of Arrius Diomedes; but its remains are of peculiar interest to us, not only for comparison with the numerous ruins of similar buildings which occur elsewhere - often of greater extent, but in a much less perfect state of preservation - but as assisting us in understanding the description of ancient authors, such as Vitruvius and Pliny, of the numerous appurtenances frequently annexed to houses of this description.
A comparison between the Essenes and the Neopythagoreans shows a parallel so striking as to warrant the theory that the Essenes were profoundly influenced by Neopythagoreanism.
18), and a comparison of the chronological date afforded by Gal.
Adams's Review of Mr Ames's Works (1809), New England Patriot, being a Candid Comparison of the Principles and Conduct of the Washington and Jefferson Administrations (1810), Appeals to the People on the Causes and Consequences of War with Great Britain (1811) and Mr Madison's War (1812).
All trees were long little thought of in comparison with the pine, but of late years poplar and spruce have proved of great value in the making of paper pulp, and hard-wood (oak, beech, ash, elm, certain varieties of maple) is becoming increasingly valuable for use in flooring and the making of furniture.
This being inconvenient for comparison with sun-spots, use was made of his monthly values to obtain corresponding data for years commencing with January.
The quasi-continental character of Sicily causes Syracuse, with its havens and its island, to be looked on, in comparison with Athens, as a land power (inrapcorae, Thuc. vii.
By combining the evidence of Plutarch (in his comparison of Nicias and Crassus), Thuc. v.
Here we have the first attempt at a systematic comparison of ancient religions.
He begins with a statement which, when purged of glosses by a comparison of the three forms in which it survives, reads thus: "Now the Christians reckon their race from the Lord Jesus Christ; and He is confessed to be the Son of God Most High.
In comparison with cotton, all other exports are of minor account.
The innumerable reliefs of the XIXthXXth Dynasty temples are only of historic interest, and are all despicable in comparison with earlier works.
This view is confirmed by (a) a comparison of v.
affords close parallels to all the commandments (except the 7th and the loth), and a comparison of the two leaves no doubt as to which is the more primitive.
The secondary character of these concluding chapters receives considerable confirmation from a comparison of the Septuagint text.
The principal characteristic of the mink in comparison with its congeners is its amphibious mode of life.
From a comparison of those Euchlorophyceae which have been most closely investigated, it appears probable that sexual reproductive cells have in the course of evolution arisen as the result of specialization among asexual reproductive cells, and that in turn oogamous reproduction has arisen as the result of differentiation of the two conjugating cells into the smaller male gamete and the larger male gamete.
In comparison with the higher plants, algae exhibit so much simplicity of structure, while the conditions under which they grow are so much more readily controlled, that they have frequently been the subject of physiological investigation with a view chiefly to the application of the results to the study of the higher plants.
The presence of these fossils indicates that the eruptions were subaerial, and a comparison of them with those elsewhere found among Older Tertiary strata shows that they probably belong to the Oligocene stage of the Tertiary series of formations, and therefore that the basalt eruptions took place in early Tertiary time.
The next table affords a comparison of the numbers of the population as grouped in towns, villages and rural districts, and in the mainland and islands.
Comparison between 1905 and the average for1871-1875clearly demonstrates the change which Scottish agriculture had undergone.
Their status is modified by the movements of shipping, and for purposes of comparison the entrance and clearance tonnage of the trade with British colonies and foreign countries and of the coastwise traffic are exhibited in the second and third sections of the same table.
Co-operation of the two factors appears to supply a causal theory of the occurrence of evolution; the suggestion of their co-operation and the comparison of the possible results with the actual achievements of breeders in producing varieties were the features of Charles Darwin's theoretical work which made it a new beginning in the science of biology, and which reduced to insignificance all earlier work on the theory of evolution.
1 and 2 may be taken as examples of three common forms of series into which the individuals of a race may be arranged with respect to a single character; a comparison of them will show how little can be learnt from a mere statement of racial type, without some knowledge of the way in which deviations from the type are distributed.
On the other hand, the comparison we are now able to make between the canonical books of the older Buddhism and the later texts of the following centuries, shows a continual decline from the old standpoint, a continual approximation of the Buddhist views to those of the other philosophies and religions of India.
In adopting verse instead of prose as a medium of expression, Schiller showed that he was prepared to challenge comparison with the great dramatic poets of other times and other lands; but in seeking a model for this higher type of tragedy he unfortunately turned rather to the classic theatre of France than to the English drama which Lessing, a little earlier, had pronounced more congenial to the German temperament.
According to an interesting and instructive comparison of the growth of twenty-eight European cities made by Dr Joseph de KiirOsy, Berlin in 1890 showed an increase, as compared with the beginning of the century, of 818% and Budapest of 809%.
A comparison of this procedure with the original conception of the patriciate as revealed by the derivation of the word, is significant of the history of the conception of nobility at Rome, and illustrative of the tenacity with which the Romans clung to the name and form of an institution which had long lost its significance.
It should be borne in mind that in census years, when comparison can be made, the two sets of statistics often vary considerably.
From a comparison of Melissus with Zeno of Elea, it appears that the spirit of dialectic was already tentatively at work, though it was not conscious of its own power.
The difficulties of comparison of marks are further complicated when students take different subjects and it is necessary to compare their merit by means of marks allotted by different examiners and added together.
Our knowledge of it to-day is entirely derived from a comparison of the two later evangelists who embodied large portions of it, working it in and out of the general scheiie which they derived from St Mark, according as each of them thought most appropriate.
Comparison of Proverbs with Ecclesiasticus, Ecclesiastes and Wisdom of Solomon shows that it belongs, in its main features, in the same category as these.