Comparative sentence example

comparative
  • For the next seven or eight years he lived in comparative privacy.
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  • trans., Comparative A-natomy of the Vegetative Organs of the Phanerogams and Ferns, Oxford, 1882).
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  • Maas in Results of In its arrangement the muscular tissue the "Albatross " Expedition, forms two s stems: the one composed Museum of Comparative Y P Zoology, Cambridge, Masse, of striated fibres arranged circularly, that U.S.A. is to say, concentrically round the central FIG.
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  • The American engineer is more fortunately situated than his English brother with regard to the possibility of a solution, as will be seen from the comparative diagrams of construction gauges, figs.
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  • That chapter of comparative anatomy (together with other anatomical details, for which see the separate articles) is now dealt with in the article Skull; here only the most avine features are alluded to, and since some of Parker's original illustrations have been retained, the description has been shortened considerably.
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  • A comparative experience drawn from written descriptions and from her teacher's words has kept her free from errors in her use of terms of sound and vision.
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  • Brunn, whose comparative method in art-criticism he much developed.
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  • The plan is a curious one: despite the comparative narrowness of the cella, it had two rows of ten columns in it, in line with the front angles of the inner shrine.
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  • The conception of evolution is being applied more rigidly to the comparative anatomy of organs and systems of organs.
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  • Rafferty in Journal of the Society of Comparative Legislation, New Series, xvii., xx.
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  • In Liguria, on account of the comparative rarity of large estates, agricultural laborers are in a better condition.
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  • He appeared, however, only once at its conferences, owing to his age and to disappointment at the comparative failure of his work.
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  • Winer, Comparative Darstellung (Berlin, 1866; Eng.
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  • Comparative Legislation, xix.
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  • Comparative anatomists have been learning to refrain from basing the diagnosis of a species, or the description of the condition of an organ, on the evidence of a single specimen.
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  • Humboldt's contemporary, Carl Ritter (1779-1859), extended and disseminated the same views, and in his interpretation of " Comparative Geography " he laid stress on the importance of Iditter.
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  • Africa were in close relation with those of Spain, and as early as the beginning of the 9th century Judah ben Quraish of Tahort had composed his Risalah (letter) to the Jews of Fez on grammatical subjects from a comparative point of view, and a dictionary now lost.
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  • Tests of the comparative efficiencies of hydraulic and electric cranes tend to show that, although they do not vary to any very considerable extent with full load, yet the efficiency of the hydraulic crane falls away very much more rapidly than that of the electric crane when working on smaller loads.
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  • cn, N, o.c, x, b, the 1.0¦6 From Gegenbaur's Elements of Comparative Anatomy.
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  • BrodieInnes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland (1903); R.
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  • authority, coinciding as it did with the practical elimination of the empire from Italian affairs, gave a long period of comparative independence to the nation.
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  • It does not judge ministers (Brodie-Innes, Comparative Principles of the Laws of England and Scotland, 1903, p. 144).
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  • Alembert's fame spread rapidly throughout Europe and procured for him more than one opportunity of quitting the comparative retirement in which he lived in Paris for more lucrative and prominent positions.
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  • This Volkerpsychologie (folkor comparative psychology) is one of the chief developments of the Herbartian theory of philosophy; it is a protest not only against the so-called scientific standpoint of natural philosophers, but also against the individualism of the positivists.
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  • The result is a comparative table of likes and dislikes.
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  • The surest way is to follow a comparative table.
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  • - The following works deal generally with the subject of prayer from the comparative standpoint: E.
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  • In his ninth year (1746), during a " lucid interval of comparative health," he was sent to a school at Kingston-uponThames; but his former infirmities soon returned, and his progress, by his own confession, was slow and unsatisfactory.
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  • In the following year he made his first acquaintance with the literature of Spain under the influence of his friend and biographer, Ticknor; and, while its attractiveness proved greater than he had at the outset anticipated, the comparative novelty of the subject as a field for research served as an additional stimulus.
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  • The theory that the medusa is an independent individual, fully equivalent to the polyp in this respect, is now universally accepted as being supported by all the facts of comparative morphology and development.
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  • Naturalists who deal specially with museum collections have been compelled, it is true, for other reasons to attach an increasing importance to what is called the type specimen, but they find that this insistence on the individual, although invaluable from the point of view of recording species, is unsatisfactory from the point of view of scientific zoology; and propositions for the amelioration of this condition of affairs range from a refusal of Linnaean nomenclature in such cases, to the institution of a division between master species for such species as have been properly revised by the comparative morphologist, and provisional species for such species as have been provisionally registered by those working at collections.
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  • Ben Lomond (3192 ft.), the ascent of which is made with comparative ease from Rowardennan, dominates the landscape; but there are other majestic hills, particularly on the west and north-west banks.
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  • On comparative railway legislation and the principles governing it, see Hadley, Railroad Transportation; its History and its Laws (New York, 1885).
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  • The results of some comparative tests published by Ewing (Proc. Inst.
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  • To illustrate the comparative productiveness and relationship of these sources of national wealth and industry, the following official returns of export for the years 1905 and 1906 are arranged in the four general classes previously discussed, the values being in Brazilian gold milreis, worth 2s.
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  • although it was disadvantageous to the Sienese and temptations to break it were frequently urged upon them, they faithfully adhered to its terms. During this period of comparative tranquillity Siena was honoured by the visit of Pope Eugenius IV.
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  • Craigie's article in The Scottish Review (July 1903), a comparative estimate of the Brus and Wallace, in favour of the latter.
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  • As shipping stations, Buccari, Portore, Selce, Novi, Zengg, San Giorgio, Jablanac and Carlopago are of comparative insignificance.
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  • The majority he obtained on this occasion enabled him, however, to carry through the Army Education Bill, which tended to magyarize the Hungarian portion of the joint army; and another period of comparative calm ensued, during which Banffy attempted to adjust various outstanding financial and economical differences with Austria.
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  • This periodical, issued by the academy, has during the last decade (1870-1880) contained also comparative studies, by Arminius Vambery and Gabriel Balint, of the Magyar, TurkishTatar and Mongolian dialects.
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  • Thus comparative anatomy came into existence as a branch of inquiry apart from zoology, and it was only in the latter part of the 19th century that the limitation of the word " zoology " to a knowledge of animals which expressly excludes the consideration of their internal structure was rejected by the general consent of those concerned in the progress of science.
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  • It is now generally recognized that it is mere tautology to speak of zoology and comparative anatomy, and that museum naturalists must give attention as well to the inside as to the outside of animals.
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  • His true greatness can only be estimated by a consideration of the fact that he was a great teacher not only of human and comparative anatomy and zoology but also of physiology, and that nearly all the most distinguished German zoologists and physiologists of the period 1850 to 1870 were his pupils and acknowledged his leadership. The most striking feature about Johann Miller's work, apart from the comprehensiveness of his point of view, in which he added to the anatomical and morphological ideas of Cuvier a consideration of physiology, embryology and microscopic structure, was the extraordinary accuracy, facility and completeness of his recorded observations.
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  • From 1874 to 1890 he was professor of zoology and comparative anatomy at University College, London; and from 1891 to 1898 Linacre professor of comparative anatomy at Oxford.
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  • But in the comparative peace and freedom of the 3rd century B.C. the condition of Jerusalem was greatly ameliorated.
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  • The comparative inactivity of Bayezid in the direction of Europe was partly due to preoccupation elsewhere.
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  • The comparative feebleness of the style has led to the conjecture that, even if the basis of the prophecy be Isaianic, yet in its present form it must have undergone the manipulation of a scribe.
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  • Many of the hypotheses of the past put forward - to explain cancer must be discarded, in view of the facts brought to light by the comparative and experimental research of recent times.
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  • The enormous growth of towns during the second half of the 19th century was thus attended with comparative safety to these great aggregates of mankind; and the death-rates, so far from being increased, relatively decreased in substantial proportions.
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  • After graduating at Strassburg University he spent a year in the counting-house of his father, a banker and merchant, and then in 1851 went to live in Paris with his maternal grandfather, Georges Louis Duvernoy (1777-1855), professor of natural history and, from 1850, of comparative anatomy, at the College de France.
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  • The number of converts was few, but the missionaries exercised a very wholesome influence and to them in measure was due the comparative mildness of Panda's later years.
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  • But the peace of 1810 and the fall of Stadion once more dashed his hopes, and, disillusioned and "hellishly blasé," he once more retired to comparative inactivity at Prague.
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  • The comparative lateness of this period makes it difficult to account for the wall painting at Beni Hasan, which accurately represents the process of glass-blowing, and which is attributed to the period of the XIth dynasty.
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  • It shows the comparative results of working with juice of the degrees of density mentioned above, under the conditions described, for one day of 24 hours, and the real value, as raw material for manufacture, of cane giving juice of 6° B.
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  • The comparative consumption of tobacco in various countries is best appreciated by expressing it in pounds per head, and the following figures are taken from Bartholomew's Atlas of the World's Commerce: Belgium 6.21 lb, United States 5.4 0 lb, Germany 3.44 Ib, Austria 3.02 lb, Australasia 2.20 lb, Canada 2.54 lb, Hungary 2.42 lb, France 2.16 lb, United Kingdom 1.95 lb, Russia 1 10 lb.
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  • The relative weakness of territorial power in the North, after the fall of Henry the Lion of Saxony, diminished without however removing this motive for union, but the comparative immunity from princely aggression on land left the towns freer to combine in a stronger and more permanent union for the defence of their commerce by sea and for the control of the Baltic.
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  • Whether this type is more conveniently designated by the word Iberian, or by some other name (" Eur-african," " Mediterranean," &c.) is a matter of comparative indifference, provided that there is no misunderstanding as to the steps by which the term Iberian attained its meaning in modern anthropology.
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  • If the Phylactolaemata were evolved from the type of structure represented by Phoronis or the Pterobranchia, the Gymnolaen ata should be a further modification of this type, and the comparative study of the embryology of the.two orders would appear to be meaningless.
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  • contribution to the comparative philology of the Semitic languages - Hebrew and Arabic, infi particular.
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  • By his work on language Uber den Ursprung der Sprache (1772), Herder may be said to have laid the first rude foundations of the science of comparative philology and that deeper science of the ultimate nature and origin of language.
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  • Herder's services in laying the foundations of a comparative science of religion and mythology are even of greater value than his somewhat crude philological speculations.
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  • It was a noble art, but unfortunately the rivalry of the Buddhist and later native styles permitted it to fall into comparative neglect, and it was left for a few of the faithful, the most famous of whom was a priest of the I 4th century named Kawo, to preserve it from inanition till the great Chinese renaissance that lent its stamp to the next period.
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  • It is nothing to a Japanese that a vase should be covered with profuse decoration of flowers and foliage: he requires that every blossom and every leaf shall be instinct with vitality, and the comparative costliness of fine workmanship does not influence his choice.
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  • softness of its glaze, the comparative sparseness of its enamelled decoration, and the relegation of blue sous couverte to an entirely secondary place.
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  • Agriculture, however, is not far advanced, yet owing to the linen industry the inhabitants are generally in circumstances of comparative comfort.
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  • promoted him to the bishopric of Auxerre, and here he continued to live in comparative quiet, repairing his cathedral and perfecting his translations, for the rest of his days, though troubled towards the close by the insubordination and revolts of his clergy.
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  • § 3); (2) the comparative success for a time of Angra Mainyu (the evil principle personified); (3) the absence of any recognition of pre-existent matter; (4) the mention of six classes of good creatures.
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  • Perhaps also the Oath may be accepted as genuine; its comparative antiquity is not denied.
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  • But the comparative study of religions has suggested the lines of reconstitution and the careful analysis of survivals embedded in literature and the evidence of monumental remains, and in particular of the old calendars, has enabled modern scholars to make good progress in the task of separating the elements due to different periods and influences.
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  • PAUL GERVAIS (1816-1879), French palaeontologist, was born on the 26th of September 1816 at Paris, where he obtained the diplomas of doctor of science and of medicine, and in 1835 he began palaeontological research as assistant in the laboratory of comparative anatomy at the Museum of Natural History.
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  • In 1841 he obtained the chair of zoology and comparative anatomy at the Faculty of Sciences in Montpellier, of which he was in 1856 appointed dean.
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  • P. Gratiolet; this post he left in 1868 for the chair of comparative anatomy at the Paris museum of natural history, the anatomical collections of which were greatly enriched by his exertions.
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  • But the new study of comparative religion has something to teach us even here.
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  • His commentaries are valuable because of his knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, his varied interests, and his comparative freedom from allegory.
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  • His finances, therefore, remained embarrassed despite the comparative pause in the war, although in 1339 he had repudiated his debt to his Italian creditors, a default that brought about widespread misery in Florence.
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  • Beside that conception the issue of battles and the fate of kings fall into comparative insignificance.
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  • Despite the comparative failure of the Composite Corps the attack had on the whole been a brilliant success, seven Allied divisions having defeated nine enemy divisions ensconced in immensely powerful works, capturing from them 5,300 prisoners and ioo guns and effecting such a wide breach in the last German line of defence that its complete capture in a few days was assured.
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  • It is the startling contrast of the Herati oasis with the vast expanse of comparative sterility that encloses it which has given such a fictitious value to the estimates of the material wealth of the valley of the Hari Rud.
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  • The first of these is a methodical treatise, setting forth Machiavelli's views on military matters, digesting his theories respecting the superiority of national troops, the inefficiency of fortresses, the necessity of relying upon infantry in war, and the comparative insignificance of artillery.
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  • 1542 fol.; printed by Caspar Trechsel at Vienne); on this work Tollin founds his high estimate of Servetus as a comparative geographer; the passage incriminated on his trial as attacking the verity of Moses is from Lorenz Friese; the accounts of the language and character of modern nations show original observation.
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  • This disparity results in some degree at least from the comparative narrowness of the inter-tropical Atlantic, and the absence of a cool northern area in the Indian Ocean.
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  • His biographer attributes the comparative failure of the Clavis to its inferiority in point of style, but the crudeness of his thought had quite as much to do with his failure to gain a hearing.
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  • The fan has eight arms, framed together of wrought iron bars, with diagonal struts, so as to obtain rigidity with comparative lightness, carrying flat close-boarded blades at their extremities.
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  • Though re-elected for Appleby in 1806, he failed to secure a seat in the following year; and the remainder of his life was spent in comparative privacy.
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  • On the 3rd of November he arrived at Constance; shortly afterwards there was put into his hands the famous imperial "safe conduct," the promise of which had been one of his inducements to quit the comparative security he had enjoyed in Bohemia.
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  • He was an excellent compositor and pressman; his workmanship, clear impressions, black ink and comparative freedom from errata did much to get him the public printing in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, and the printing of the paper money a and other public matters in Delaware.
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  • A few insignificant manufactures are carried on in some of the little towns, but both trade and manufactures are much retarded by the comparative isolation of the country from railways.
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  • Henceforth Christian's suspected democratic principles made him persona ingratissima at all the reactionary European courts, his own court included, and he and his second wife, Caroline Amelia of Augustenburg, whom he married in 1815, lived in comparative retirement as the leaders of the literary and scientific society of Copenhagen.
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  • For cities of above 8000 inhabitants (for which alone comparative statistics are annually available), in 1902-1903 the ratio of average attendance to school enrolment, the average number of days' attendance of each pupil enrolled, and the value of school property per capita of pupils in average attendance were higher than in any other state; the average length of the school term was slightly exceeded in eight states; and the total cost of the schools per capita of pupils in average attendance ($39.05) was exceeded in six other states.
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  • In the appended table are given some comparative figures in connexion with commercial petrols and alcohol, taken from H.
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  • The student will find differences among anthropologists in the interpretation of these marks - some averring that comparative anatomy is worthless as a means of subdividing the American subspecies, others that biological variations point to different Old World origins, a third class believing these structural variations to be of the soil.
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  • Otto Stoll's studies in Guatemala, Berendt's in Central America, Ernst's in Venezuela, Im Thurn's in Guiana, those of Ehrenreich, von den Steinen, Meyer in Brazil, or of Bandelier, Bastian, Briihl, Middendorf, von Tschudi in Peru, afford the historian of comparative sociology ample groundwork for a comprehensive grasp of South American tribes.
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  • Wright, Comparative Grammar of the Semitic Languages, p. 16).
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  • For the time being, however, it seemed that the empire might hope for a period of comparative freedom from internal disturbance.
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  • The pleasant climate has certain drawbacks; the coastal farmer finds that blights and insect pests thrive in the comparative absence of hard frosts.
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  • The superiority of this arrangement arises from the comparative facility with which the number of revolutions of the cylinder in a given time may be ascertained.
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  • All theories of religion which give prominence to ancestor worship and the cult of the dead are to a certain extent Euhemeristic. But as the sole explanation of the origin of the idea of gods it is not accepted by students of comparative religion.
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  • (Leipzig, 1891); and works on comparative religion and mythology.
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  • The Italian bourgeoisie of the towns, thanks to the force of attraction exercised by Italy, was all the more conspicuously irredentist, since the country population maintained an attitude of comparative opposition to this movement.
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  • But from this severe fall the Roman Church recovered with comparative readiness, and the upward movement is contemporaneous with the rise of Ultramontanism.
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  • The work is divided into - (1) absolute geography, (2) relative geography and (3) comparative geography.
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  • The first investigates mathematical facts relating to the earth as a whole, its figure, dimensions, motions, their measurement, &c. The second part considers the earth as affected by the sun and stars, climates, seasons, the difference of apparent time at different places, variations in the length of the day, &c. The third part treats briefly of the actual divisions of_the surface of the earth, their relative positions, globe and map-construction, longitude, navigation, &c. Varenius, with the materials at his command, dealt with the subject in a truly philosophic spirit; and his work long held its position as the best treatise in existence on scientific and comparative geography.
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  • Rousseau's reputation was now higher than ever, but the term of the comparative prosperity which he had enjoyed for nearly ten years was at hand.
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  • The comparative humidity of the atmosphere, however, makes the climate trying for Europeans.
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  • One of the early supporters of this natural method was Augustin Pyramus de Candolle (1778-1841), who in 1813 published his Theorie elementaire de la botanique, in which he showed that the affinities of plants are to be sought by the comparative study of the form and development of organs (morphology), not of their functions (physiology).
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  • The development of the compound microscope rendered possible the accurate study of their life-histories; and the publication in 1851 of the results of Wilhelm Hofmeister's researches on the comparative embryology of the higher Cryptogamia shed a flood of light on their relationships to each other and to the higher plants, and supplied the basis for the distinction of the great groups Thallophyta, Bryophyta, Pteridophyta and Phanerogamae, the last named including Gymnospermae and Angiospermae.
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  • de Bary's Comparative Anatomy of the Phanerogams and Ferns (1877) supplied an admirable presentation of the facts so far known.
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  • The comparative weakness of these kingdoms, together with the disorder caused by the matrimonial troubles of Lothair, afforded a suitable opening for the intrigues of Louis and Charles the Bald, whose interest was increased by the fact that both their nephews were without male issue.
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  • Seeley and the Saturday Review, as showing ignorance of the comparative method.
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  • SIR HENRY JAMES SUMNER MAINE (1822-1888), English comparative jurist and historian, son of Dr James Maine, of Kelso, Roxburghshire, was born on the 15th of August 1822.
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  • The Russian government has benefited by their comparative prosperity, and by the incurable hatred they continue to feel for the classes which were once their oppressors.
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  • Their primary object is to gratify the pleasure most persons take in viewing at close range the curious and beautiful living products of nature, but they serve also as means of instruction in natural history, providing material for museums and for investigations in comparative anatomy and pathology, while they may have a commercial value as pleasure resorts, or as show grounds for the display of animals that have been imported or bred for sale.
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  • He was called to the bar (Lincoln's Inn) in 1876, and made himself a thoroughly competent equity lawyer and conveyancer, but finally devoted himself to comparative jurisprudence and especially the history of English law.
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  • After that there was for a time comparative immunity from inundations, but in 1882 fresh outbursts again began.
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  • Rohde; and comparative philology by F.
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  • Rayet; and (in comparative philology) Victor Henry.
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  • Among comparative philologists Max Miller belonged to Germany by birth and to England by adoption, while, in the United States, his ablest counterpart was W.D.
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  • De la Gardie was treated with relative leniency, but he "received permission to retire to his estates for the rest of his life" and died there in comparative poverty, a mere shadow of his former magnificent self.
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  • He lost his father prematurely; and after the battle of Philippi and the return of Octavian to Rome, Propertius, like Virgil and Horace, was deprived of his, estate to provide land for the veterans, but, unlike them, he had no patrons at court, and he was reduced from opulence to comparative indigence.
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  • The psychologist must study mankind from the historical or comparative standpoint, analysing the elements which constitute the fabric of society, with its customs, its conventions and the main tendencies of its evolution.
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  • These attempts, however, to perpetuate the usage were finally discredited by Huxley's important Lectures on Comparative Anatomy (1864), in which the term was finally abolished, and the "radiate mob" finally distributed among the Echinodermata, Polyzoa, Vermes (Platyhelminthes), Coelenterata and Protozoa.
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  • AUTH0RITne5.General and Historical.Berkeley, Vegetable Pathology, Gardeners Chronicle (1854) p. 4; Plowright, British Uredineae and Ustilagineae (1889); Erik,sson and Henning, Die Getreideroste (Stockholm, 1896); De Bary, Comparative Morph.
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  • In recent years classifications in part agreeing with the older schemes but largely original, in accord with researches on the comparative anatomy of the insects, have been put forward.
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  • The guanaco (Auchenia), which ranges from Tierra del Fuego to the Bolivian highlands, finds comparative safety in these uninhabitable solitudes, and is still numerous.
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  • From the nature of the case, this view is not, and could not be, based upon actual observation, nor is it universally accepted; however, it seems to correspond more closely than any other to the facts of comparative morphology.
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  • F.)/n==Authorities== - Selden's Titles of Honor (London, 1672) remains the best comparative account in the English language of the nobility of various countries up to his date.
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  • The following six years were spent in comparative quiet, broken, however, by a visit to Rome in 1565; but in 1570 Granvella, at the call of Philip, resumed public life by accepting another mission to Rome.
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  • In estimating the comparative advantages and disadvantages of this wearisome period of his life, he has summed up with the impartiality of a philosopher and the sagacity of a man of the world.
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  • Finally from a comparative study of several ruins it was established that the plan and construction of Zimbabwe are by no means unique, and that this site only differs from others in Rhodesia in respect of the great dimensions and the massiveness of its individual buildings.
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  • The evidence against this view may be classed under two heads: first, comparative evidence; hydroids very different in their structural characters and widely separate in the systematic classification of these organisms may produce medusae very similar, at least so far as the essential features of medusan organization are concerned; on the other hydroids closely allied, perhaps almost indistinguishable, may produce gonophores in the one case, medusae in the other; for example, Hydractinia (gonophores) and Podocoryne (medusae), Tubularia (gonophores) and Ectopleura (medusae), Coryne (gonophores) and Syncoryne (medusae),-and so on.
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  • If the consolidation took place with comparative uniformity we might then anticipate the formation of a vast multitude of small planets such as those we actually do find in the region between the orbit of Mars and that of Jupiter.
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  • For instance, the swampy character of malarial areas is explained by their breeding in stagnant water; the effect of drainage, and the general immunity of high-lying, dry localities, by the lack of breeding facilities; the danger of the night air, by their nocturnal habits; the comparative immunity of the upper storeys of houses, by the fact that they fly low; the confinement of malaria to well-marked areas and the diminution of danger with distance, by their habit of clinging to the breeding-grounds and not flying far.
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  • Hence it is possible, by a comprehensive comparative study of Eastern peoples, in both ancient and modern times, to supplement and illustrate within certain limits our direct knowledge of the early Jewish people, and thus to understand more clearly those characteristics which were [OLD Testament History peculiar to them, in relation to those which they shared with other Oriental peoples.
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  • Hebrew religious institutions can be understood from the biblical evidence studied in the light of comparative religion; and without going afield to Babylonia, Assyria or Egypt, valuable data are furnished by the cults of Phoenicia, Syria and Arabia, and these in turn can be illustrated from excavation and from modern custom.
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  • They lived in comparative quietude; although Herodotus knows the Palestinian coast he does not mention the Jews.
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  • The comparative evidence afforded by the discovery of Egyptian relics shows that the Great Age of the Cretan palaces covers the close of the third and the first half of the second millennium before our era.
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  • The great highland plateau which tion stretches from the Himalaya northwards to Chinese Turkestan, and from the frontier of Kashmir eastwards to China, has now been defined with comparative geographical exactness.
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  • The weak parts of this story are the sudden and unexplained departure of the Simons; the subsequent useless cruelty of treating the child like a wild beast and keeping him in a dark room practically out of sight (unless any doubt of his identity was possible), while his sister was in comparative comfort; the cause of death, declared to be of long standing, but in fact developed with such rapidity; the insufficient excuse provided for the child's muteness under Gomin's regime (he had answered Barras) and the irregularities in the formalities in attending the death and the funeral, when a simple identification of the body by Marie Therese would have prevented any question of resuscitated dauphins.
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  • He was a member of the Old Testament Revision Company in 1874-1884; deputy professor of comparative philology in Oxford 1876-1890; Hibbert Lecturer 1887; Gifford Lecturer 1900-1902.
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  • Of his numerous publications the following are of special importance: - Assyrian Grammar for Comparative Purposes (1872); Principles of Comparative Philology (1874); Babylonian Literature (1877); Introduction to the Science of Language (1879); Monuments of the Hittites (1881); Herodotus i.-iii.
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  • The comparative insignificance of Ireland in the case of the wheat and barley crops, represented by 2 and 8% respectively, receives some compensation when oats and potatoes are considered, about one-fourth of the area of the former and more than half that of the latter being claimed by Ireland.
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  • This expression was the result, no doubt, of his strenuous training and the comparative lack of congenial friendships.
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  • So, again, it is impossible to make a useful comparative estimate of the advantages and disadvantages of the transport systems of England, the United States and Germany, unless we keep constantly in view the very different geographical, military and political conditions which these systems have to satisfy.
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  • Comparative anatomy and embryology prove that this condition is due, not as formerly supposed to a difference in the relations of the visceral commissure which prevented it from being included in the torsion of the visceral hump, but to an actual detorsion which has taken place in evolution and is repeated to a great extent in individual development.
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  • The book is interesting as an early study in comparative religion, but its publication in 1692 led to Bekker's deposition from the ministry.
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  • But a survey of the Hexapoda as a whole, and especially a comparative study of the tracheal system, can hardly leave room for doubt that this system is primitively adapted for atmospheric breathing, and that the presence of tracheal gills in larvae must be regarded as a special adaptation for temporary aquatic life.
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  • No indications beyond those furnished by comparative anatomy help us to unravel the phylogeny of the Collembola.
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  • Heider, Handbook of the Comparative Embryology of Invertebrates (trans.
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  • But these and many other contributions, 4 made until nearly the close of the 18th century, though highly meritorious, were unconnected as a whole, and it is plain that no conception of what it was in the power, of Comparative Anatomy to set forth had occurred to the most diligent dissectors.
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  • p. 187, note), the skeleton of a fowl to which was attached the head of a hornbill was for a long time exhibited in the Museum of Comparative Anatomy at Paris !
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  • The new doctrine, loudly proclaiming the discovery of a " Natural" System, led away many from the steady practice which should have followed the teaching of Cuvier (though he in ornithology had not been able to act up to the principles he had lain down) and from the extended study of Comparative Anatomy.
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  • 251269) a statement of his general views on ornithological classification which were based on a comparative examination of those bodies in various forms. It seems unnecessary here to occupy space by giving an abstract of his plan, 8 which hardly includes any but European species, because it was subsequently elaborated with no inconsiderable modifications in a way that must presently be mentioned at greater length.
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  • and these descriptions being almost without exception so drawn up as to be comparative are accordingly of great utility to the student of classification, though they have been so greatly neglected.
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  • This thereat German comparative anato- Johannes great p mist did in two communications to the Academy of Sciences of Berlin, one on the 26th June 1845 and the other on the 14th May 1846, which, having been first briefly published in the Academy's Monatsbericht, were afterwards printed in full, and illustrated by numerous figures, in its Abhandlungen, though in this latter and complete form they did not appear in public until 1847.
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  • This very remarkable treatise forms the groundwork of almost all later or recent researches in the comparative anatomy and consequent arrangement of the Passeres, and, though it is certainly not free from inperfections, many of them, it must be said, arise from want of material, notwithstanding that its author had command of a much more abundant supply than was at the disposal of Nitzsch.
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  • The recognition of these, minute and fragmentary as many were, and the referring them to their proper place, rendered necessary an attentive study of the comparative osteology and myology of birds in general, that of the " long bones," whose sole characters were often a few muscular ridges or depressions, being especially obligatory.
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  • On the and of February 1825 the presbytery of Brechin licensed him as a preacher in connexion with the Church of Scotland, and in 1826 he was in Paris studying natural philosophy, chemistry, and comparative anatomy.
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  • a main building with wings; the large amount of window space; the comparative flatness of the façades; the employment of a cornice to each storey; the effect of light and shade given by the balconies; and in churches by the circular pediments on the facades.
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    0
  • The following table, summarized from the Handbook to the Imperial Institute Cotton Exhibition, 1905, giving the length of staple and value on one date (January 16, 1905), will serve to indicate the comparative values of some of the principal commercial cottons.
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  • In comparative valuations of feeding stuffs it has been found that cotton seed meal exceeds corn meal by 62%, wheat by 67%, and raw cotton seed by 26%.
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  • It has been found that variations in barometric pressure affect the flash-point and accordingly corrections have to be made in obtaining strictly comparative results at different pressures.
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    0
  • While the men died, the women, living in comparative indolence, lived longer lives.
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    0
  • As has been said, however, the contention of the common law judges prevailed, and the Admiralty Court (except for a temporary revival under Cromwell) sank into comparative Modern in si insignificance during the r th century.
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  • The sultan entered Athens in the following month; he was greatly struck by its ancient monuments and treated its inhabitants with comparative leniency.
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  • The Annals abound with references to the prices and comparative abundance or scarcity of the two staple products, wool and corn.
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    0
  • The following table gives a comparative view of the specific heats and the ratio for molecules of variable atomic content.
    0
    0
  • This intermediate or wavering position accounts for the comparative neglect into which his works have now fallen.
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    0
  • Nevertheless, he remained in the comparative obscurity of his episcopal see until the death of Cardinal Antonelli; but in 1877, when the important papal office of camerlengo became vacant, Pius IX.
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  • died (7th February 1878) Cardinal Pecci was elected pope at the subsequent conclave with comparative unanimity, obtaining at the third scrutiny (loth February) forty-four out of sixty-one votes, or more than the requisite two-thirds majority.
    0
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  • De Rossi gives a comparative table of these Itineraries and other similar lists.
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  • The economic effect of the railways upon the districts through which they run is apparent from the comparative values of the tithes in the regions traversed by the Anatolian railway in 1889 and 1898 in which years it so happened that prices were almost at exactly the same level, and again in 1908-1909, when they were only slightly higher.
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  • After this there was a period of comparative inaction, though during it the French were driven from the bridges at Urdains and Cambo.
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    0
  • By the time of the ninth edition (1875) precise details are no longer considered worthy of inclusion; and the age of scientific comparative mythology has been reached.
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  • For a comparative study of the occurrence of the ark in the various deluge myths, in the present edition, see Deluge; Cosmogony; Babylonia And Assyria.
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  • During these latter years he was largely engaged on the composition of a valuable book, published in two substantial volumes, in 1921, on Modern Democracies, a comparative study of a certain number of popular governments in their actual working.
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  • Of these Henley Royal Regatta is pre-eminent by the number and importance of the entries, and by its comparative antiquity.
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  • At first, and indeed down to the middle of the 17th century, Jewish traditions and methods in the study of Hebrew dominated Christian scholars; but in the 17th and 18th centuries the study of other Semitic languages opened up that comparative linguistic study which was systematized and brought nearer to perfection in the 19th century (which also witnessed the opening up of the new study of Assyrian) by scholars such as Gesenius, Ewald, Olshausen, Renan, Noldeke, 'Stade and Driver.
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  • The valuable resources of the republic, and its comparative immunity from revolution, formerly attracted the attention of European and American investors, who supplied the capital for internal development.
    0
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  • Continuing his researches, he next gave to the world An Estimate of the Comparative Strength of Britain during the Present and Four Preceding Reigns, London, 1782, which passed through several editions.
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  • 8vo; Comparative Views of the State of Great Britain before and since the War, Lond.
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    0
  • The Black Mountain tribes took no part in the general frontier rising of 1897, and after the disappearance of the Hindostani Fanatics they sank into comparative unimportance.
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    0
  • Progress in these two lines is by no means uniform; while, for example, palaeontology enjoyed a sudden advance early in the 19th century through the discoveries and researches of Cuvier, guided by his genius as a comparative anatomist, it was checked by his failure as a natural philosopher.
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  • I.-First Historic Period The scientific recognition of fossils as connected with the past history of the earth, from Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) to the beginning of the 19th century, in connexion with the rise of comparative anatomy and geology.
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  • Palaeontology connected with comparative anatomy by Cuvier.
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  • Among the pioneers of this period were the vertebrate zoologists and comparative anatomists Peter Simon Pallas, Pieter Camper and Johann Friedrich Blumenbach.
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  • Early trained as a comparative anatomist, the discovery of Upper Eocene mammals in the gypsum quarries of Montmartre found him fully prepared (1798), and in 1812 appeared his Recherches sur les ossemens fossiles, brilliantly written and constituting the foundation of the modern study of the extinct vertebrates.
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  • The reptiles awaited a great classifier, and such a one appeared in England in the person of Sir Richard Owen (1804-1892), the direct successor of Cuvier and a comparative anatomist of the first rank.
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  • The mutual relations of palaeontology and embryology and comparative anatomy as means of determining the ancestry of animals are most interesting.
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  • The most marked case of such inversion in comparative anatomy is that of Carl Gegenbaur (5826-5903), who in arranging the fins of fishes in support of his theory that the fin of the Australian.
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  • The student must therefore resort to what may be called a tripod of evidence, derived from the available facts of embryology, comparative anatomy and palaeontology.
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  • Th6 closing years of his life were passed in comparative tranquillity between Venice and Rome, and in the latter city he died on the 15th of May 1879.
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    0
  • In Yucatan the open plains, rich pasture, and comparative freedom from moist heat, insects and vampire bats, have been particularly favourable to cattle-raising, and the animals are generally rated among the best in Mexico.
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  • To Mitrophanow (1883-1884) and Danilewsky (1885-1889) we owe the first serious attempts to study the comparative anatomy of these haematozoa.
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  • - Comparative shape and size of Chasubles as now in use in various countries.
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  • in 1881, was an instructor at Columbia in 188'- 1885, and professor at Bryn Mawr in 1885-1895, and became professor of Sanskrit and comparative philology in Yale University in 1895.
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  • He accepted,or appeared to accept, the cognomen of Nero conferred upon him by the shouts of the populace, whom his comparative youth and the effeminacy of his appearance reminded of their lost favourite.
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  • Scott's dissertation on fairies in The Border Minstrelsy is rich in lore, though necessarily Scott had not the wide field of comparative study opened by more recent researches.
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  • In Syria it maintained itself in comparative purity.
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  • Nevertheless the mountains are of especial interest to the physiographer who wishes to make a comparative study of land forms as affected by normal and by glacial sculpture, in order to give due attention to process as well as to structure and stage in the analysis and description of mountain topography.
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  • The change, wrote General Walker, which produced this falling off from the traditional rate of increase of about 3% per annum, was that from the simplicity of the early times to comparative luxury; involving a rise in the standard of living, the multiplication of artificial necessities, the extension of a paid domestic service, the introduction of women into factory labor.2 In his opinion the decline in the birth-rate coincidently with the increase of immigration, and chiefly in those regions where immigration was greatest, was no mere coincidence; nor was such immigrant invasion due to a weakening native increase, or economic defence; but the decline of the natives was the effect of the increase of the foreigners, which was a shock to the principle of population among the native element.
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  • The American Political Science Review (Baltimore, 1907 sqq.) is especially useful for a comparative study of the state governments.
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  • The decay of the wooden shipbuilding industry has lessened the comparative importance of the mercantile marine, but there has been a great increase in the tonnage employed in the coasting trade and upon inland waters.
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  • Comparative Anatomy.
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  • In the anterior part of the gland are seen bundles of striped muscle fibres, which are of interest when the comparative ana Ampulla of vas deferens tomy of the gland Cut end of great sacrois studied: they are 1 sciatic ligament Common ejaculatory duct Levator ani than in old prostates.
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  • The Reconstruction period in Georgia is remarkable for its comparative moderation.
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  • Among his writings are Lectures on the Criticism and Interpretation of the Bible (1828), A Comparative View of the Churches of England and Rome (1814), and Horae Pelasgicae (1815).
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  • COMPARATIVE ANATOMY, a term employed to designate the study of the structure of man as compared with that of lower animals, and sometimes the study of lower animals in contradistinction to human anatomy; the term is now falling into desuetude, and lingers practically only in the titles of books or in the designation of university chairs.
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  • From the point of view of structure, man is one of the animals; all investigations into anatomical structure must be comparative, and in this work the subject is so treated throughout.
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  • Six companions to the main lines are found with comparative ease and certainty and these have been carefully measured by Prince Galitzin, 3 H.
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  • Or, again, the memory might be confused by this variety, and the verification of quotations, especially of brief ones, was difficult, not only from the comparative scarcity of the copies of books, but also because ancient books were not provided with ready means of reference to particular passages.
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  • This in all probability arises from their salubrious climate, and the comparative sterility of their soil rendering them dependent upon the cultivation of the ground for the yam, the arum, and the sweet potato, their chief articles of food.
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  • His strong point consists in inferring the fact of evolution of some sort from the consideration of the evidence of comparative anatomy, palaeontology and embryology.
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  • The true order of discovery, however, was as follows: (a) Sir Christo p her Wren made many experiments before the Royal Society, which were afterwards repeated in a corrected form by Sir Isaac Newton in the Principia, experimentally proving that bodies of ascertained comparative weights, when suspended and impelled against one another, forced one another back by impressing on one another opposite changes of velocity inversely as their weights and therefore masses; that is, by impressing on one another equal and opposite changes of momentum.
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  • from the experiments of Wren on bodies of ascertained comparative weights or masses, which are not material points or mass-points.
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  • The Unionists went to the polls with divided counsels, and sustained a crushing defeat, remarkable nevertheless for the comparative success of the tariff reformers.
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  • For ten years a Germany weakened and divided by the rivalry of Philip of Swabia and Otto of Brunswick left his hands free to act in Italy, and his pontificate marks a period of comparative quiet in the ardent Empire* conflict between pope and emperor which continued throughout the middle ages.
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  • But, though illuminated by the rays of art, and loaded with the exuberant panegyrics of humanists and poets, the reign of the first Medicean pontiff, by its unbounded devotion to purely secular tendencies and its comparative neglect of the Church herself proved disastrous for the See of St Peter.
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  • He found their religious life too formal, external and worldly; and they could not sanction his comparative indifference to doctrinal correctness and his incurable tendency to separatism in church life.
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  • The exigencies of competition prompted the discovery that if yarn were sold by weight fresh from the spindle its comparative dryness made such early sale less profitable than if it were allowed to "condition."
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  • e.), apart from what such cities in Mesopotamia as held by its last kings suffered through the invasion, first perhaps of Nabopolassar, who in 609 B.C. claims to be lord of Shubaru, and then of the Medes, would be a matter of comparative indifference; tribute paid to Babylon was just as hard to find as if it were going to Nineveh.
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  • In 1828-1849 the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal published comparative vocabularies of spoken and written Tibetan by Brian H.
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  • Since then the problem has been disentangled; and now minor points only remain to be cleared up. Jaeschke devoted special attention to the dialectical sounds, and showed in several papers and by the comparative table prefixed to his dictionary that in the western and eastern dialects these sounds correspond more or less closely to the written forms.
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  • It was found that substances like mineral salts, which crystallize well from solution, passed such membranes with comparative ease, while the jelly-like substances such as albumen passed with extreme slowness if at all.
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  • Again, the study of comparative religion (e.
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  • Phoenicia now became part of the fifth satrapy of the Persian Empire, and entered upon a spell of comparative peace and growing prosperity.
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  • Many periscopes of considerable length and special design have been used, to enable observations being made in comparative safety from behind large objects, e.g.
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  • Before the rise of comparative philology it was a popular opinion that Hebrew was the original speech of mankind, from which all others were descended.
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  • Schroeder used the comparative method, with great success, relying mainly on Arabic. In Germany there was the meritorious J.
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  • Comparative Grammar.
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  • Strikes are very common, seventy-three having occurred in such a year of comparative quiet as 1903; but the causes of disturbance are almost as often political as economic, and the annals of the city include a long list of revolutionary riots and bomb outrages.
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  • Before it was known that the chronicle ascribed to Ingulf of Croyland is really a fiction of the 13th or 14th century, the knighting of Heward or Hereward by Brand, abbot of Burgh 1 Comparative Politics, p. 74.
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  • 4 Freeman, Comparative Politics, p. 73.
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  • MacCulloch's Comparative Theology, xiv., 1902).
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  • The growing power of Japan, seen in her wars with China and Russia, and the impotence of the Boxers against the European allies, made all classes in China realize their comparative impotence, and the central government began a series of reforms, reorganizing the military, educational, fiscal and political systems on Western lines.
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  • It would require many a volume to tell of what they have done for civilization, freedom, the exploration of unknown regions, the bringing to light of ancient literatures, the founding of the science of comparative religion, the broadening of the horizon of Christian thought in the homelands, and the bringing of distant peoples into the brotherhood of nations.
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  • No lapse of reconciling time, no extent of comparative indulgence, could break her in to resignation, submission, or toleration of even partial restraint.
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  • The importance of the root-fibres, or " feeding roots " justifies the care which is taken by every good gardener to secure their fullest development, and to prevent as far as possible any injury to them in digging, potting and transplanting, such operations being therefore least prejudicial at seasons when the plant is in a state of comparative rest.
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  • As a result convection currents are produced in the air which are sufficient to catch the basidiospores in their fall and carry them, away from the regions of comparative atmospheric stillness near the ground, to the upper air where more powerful air-currents can bring about their wide distribution.
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  • Teil (1892 onwards); Zopf, Die Pilze (Breslau, 1890); De Bary, Comparative Morphology of Fungi, &c. (Oxford, 1887); von Tafel, Vergleichende Morphologie der Pilze (Jena, 1892); Brefeld, Ureters.
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  • But cast iron for the basic open-hearth process can be made from almost any ore, because its requirements, comparative freedom from silicon and sulphur, depend on the management of the blast-furnace rather than on the composition of the ore, whereas the phosphorus-content of the cast iron depends solely on that of the ore, because nearly all the phosphorus of the ore necessarily passes into the cast iron.
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  • Comparative Durability of Various Furs and Weight of Unlined Skins per Square Foot.
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  • Burgess, Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law (New York, 1895), and C. E.
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  • Within a very few years the sale of the History was sufficient to gain for the author a larger revenue than had ever before been known in his country to flow from literature, and to place him in comparative affluence.
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  • Any exactitude attaching to the conclusions of geometrical reasoning arises from the comparative simplicity of the data for the primary judgments.
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  • In his commentaries he also made contributions to the comparative philology of Hebrew and Arabic.
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  • The whole question deserves careful investigation in the light of comparative religion.'
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  • The explanation of the comparative insignificance of Moab, however, is not to be found in purely topographical considerations.
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  • With regard to the languages spoken by the people of Belgium the following comparative table gives the return for the three censuses of 1880, 1890 and 1900: Constitution and Government.
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  • At Merxplas, near the Dutch frontier, is the agricultural criminal colony at which an average number of two thousand prisoners are kept employed in comparative liberty within the radius of the convict settlement.
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  • under seven titles between 1907 and 1915, was an elaborate study of the Greek cults, their origins and their place in the comparative history of religion.
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  • irp€Q/3(TEpos, elder, the comparative of irpEoj3vs, an old man), the title borne from very early times by certain officers or ministers of the Christian Church intermediate between "bishops" and "deacons."
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  • It is the most convenient method, in the case of good conductors, on account of the great facilities which it permits for the measurement of the temperature gradient at different points; but it has the disadvantage that the results depend almost entirely on a knowledge of the external heat loss or emissivity, or, in comparative experiments, on the assumption that it is the same in different cases.
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  • Many of the experiments were made by comparative methods, taking a standard liquid such as water for reference.
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  • Burgess, Political Science and Comparative Constitutional Law (New York, 1895); Woodrow Wilson, The State (new ed., New York, 1903); A.
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  • treating the question of the keys from the point of view of comparative religion.
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  • In general the commune is a body corporate, its assembly consisting either (in small villages) of the whole body of the qualified inhabitants (Gemeindeversammiung), or of a representative See the comparative study in Percy Ashleys Local and Central Government (London, 1906).
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  • The-military expenditure of Germany, according to a comparative table furnished to the House of Commons by the British war office in 1907, varied between 36,000,000 and 44,000,000 per annum in the period 1899-1902, and between 42,000,000 and 5I,o00,00o per annum in that of 1905-1909.
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  • Kayser, Lehrbuch der geologischen Formationskunde (Stuttgart, English edition under the title Text-book of Comparative Geology), and H.
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  • peace, Germany enjoyed a period of comparative quiet.
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  • In these circumstances it was decided to introduce a system of comparative free trade; raw materials were admitted free; a uniform import of 10% was levied on manufactured goods, and 20% on colonial wares, the tax being determined not by the estimated value, but by the weight of the articles.
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  • After another decade of comparative peace war again broke out (1903) and spread from the Hottentots to the Herero.
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  • At the same time the emperor presented to the Reichstag a comparative table, drawn up by his own hand, showing the relative strength of the British and German navies.
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  • The comparative sizes of the animals are indicated by xxi.
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  • He lectured on comparative religion and treated doctrine historically, as being not a fixed product but a growth.
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  • This is one reason for the comparative weakness of Austria as compared with Hungary, where the Delegation is elected by each House as a whole; the Bohemian representatives, e.g., meet and choose 10 delegates, the Galicians 7, those from Trieste 1; the Delegation, is, therefore, not representative of the majority of the chamber of deputies, but includes representatives of all the groups which may be opposing the government there, and they can carry on their opposition even in the Delegation.
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  • Notwithstanding the result of the elections, the first months of the new parliament passed in comparative peace.
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  • No detailed examination of the comparative military and naval resources of the combatants can here be attempted.
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    0
  • These names, all of them foreign, were written in an alphabet of a limited number of characters, and were therefore analysed with comparative ease.
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    0
  • For about a year there was comparative quiet.
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    0
  • Fenwick, with some 40 officers and men, seized an isolated hill and held it through the night, repulsing the dervishes, who were the same nigl~t driven back with such heavy loss in attacking Lloyds zeriba that they retired to the hills, and comparative quiet again reigned at Suakin.
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  • The synapse appears to be a weak spot in the chain of conduction, or rather to be a place which breaks down with comparative ease under stress, e.g.
    0
    0
  • Fifty years later the Danes begin to be mentioned with comparative frequency in continental annals.
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    0
  • But the presence of a second cotyledon in grasses is extremely doubtful, and though there may be ground for reconsidering the position of Nymphaeaceae, their association with the grasses as a distinct class is not warranted by a comparative examination of the members of the two orders.
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  • Ray Lankester (preface to the English edition of C. Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy), and employed by the same writer in the 9th edition of this encyclopaedia (article "Zoology") to denote the eighth phylum, or major division, of coelomate animals.
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  • These concessions procured him a reign of comparative tranquillity.
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  • The most general application of the word is to such a representation when used as an object of religious worship or adoration, or as a decorative or architectural ornament in places of religious worship. The worship of images, or idolatry, from the point of view of comparative religion, is treated in the article Image-Worship, and the history of the attitude of the Christian church, outside the post-Reformation church of England, towards the use of images as objects of worship and religion in the article Iconoclasts.
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  • During the later years of his life he undertook no further literary efforts on behalf of his church, but retired into comparative privacy.
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  • Henry could thus behead ministers and divorce wives with comparative impunity, because the individual appeared to be of little importance compared with the state.
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  • Thenceforward he became a specialist in marine ichthyology, but devoted much time to the investigation, superintendence and exploitation of mines, being superintendent of the Calumet and Hecla copper mines, Lake Superior, from 1866 to 1869, and afterwards, as a stockholder, acquiring a fortune, out of which he gave to Harvard, for the museum of comparative zoology and other purposes, some $500,000.
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  • Of his other writings on marine zoology, most are contained in the bulletins and memoirs of the museum of comparative zoology; but he published in 1865 (with Elizabeth Cary Agassiz, his stepmother) Seaside Studies in Natural History, a work at once exact and stimulating, and in 1871 Marine Animals of Massachusetts Bay.
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  • This crest, attacked on each front and along the summit, is lowered with comparative rapidity, until merely a low col or pass may separate the heads of the two glens.
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  • Buffon, in a cautious, tentative fashion, suggested rather than stated the mutability of species and the influence of the forces of nature in moulding organisms. Immanuel Kant, in his Theory of the Heavens (1755), foreshadowed a theory of the development of unformed matter into the highest types of animals and plants, and suggested that the gradations of structure revealed by comparative anatomy pointed to the existence of blood relationship of all organisms, due to derivation from a common ancestor.
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  • Darwin himself showed that different species in a genus, or varieties in a species, tended to show parallel variations, whilst comparative anatomy has made known a multitude of cases where allied series of animals or plants show successive stages of parallel but independent variations of important organs and functions.
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  • In 1879 he became assistant to the jurist Edouard Laboulaye at the College de France, and succeeded him in 1884 in the chair of comparative legislation.
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  • Since 1877 he had been professor of comparative law at the free school of the political sciences.
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  • He was a teacher at Swanzey, New Hampshire, and at the Leicester Academy, Massachusetts, in 1845-1847, and attempted the philological method of teaching English "like Latin and Greek," later described in his Method of Philological Study of the English Language (1865); at Amherst in 1847-1849; at Fredericksburg, Virginia, in 1852-1855; and in 1855 became a tutor at Lafayette College, where he became adjunct professor of belles-lettres and English literature in 1856, and professor of English language and comparative philology - the first chair of the kind established - in 1857.
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  • At Lafayette he introduced the first carefully scientific study of English in any American college, and in 1870 published A Comparative Grammar of the AngloSaxon Language, in which its Forms are Illustrated by Those of the Sanskrit, Greek, Latin, Gothic, Old Saxon, Old Friesic, Old Norse and Old High German, and An Anglo-Saxon Reader; he was editor of the "Douglass Series of Christian Greek and Latin Classics," to which he contributed Latin Hymns (1874); he was chairman of the Commission of the State of Pennsylvania on Amended Orthography; and was consulting editor of the Standard Dictionary, and in 1879-1882 was director of the American readers for the Philological Society's (New Oxford) Dictionary.
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  • Although the superficial area of glacial ice from which the Ab-iWakhjir derives the greater part of its volume is not equal to that found on the Nicolas range, it is quite impossible to frame any estimate of comparative depth or bulk, or to separate the volume of its contributions at any time from those which, combined, derive their origin from the Nicolas range.
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  • At this point the measurement of the comparative lengths of the chief Pamir tributaries of the Oxus is as follows: To the head of the Aksu at Lake Chakmaktin.
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  • Reference should also be made to separate works of the director of that institution, Dr Joseph de Korosy, known in England for his discovery of the law of marital fertility, published by the Royal Society, and by his labours in the development of comparative international statistics.
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  • His Statistique Internationale des grandes villes and Bulletin annuel des finances des grandes villes give valuable comparative data.
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  • Botta died at Paris in August 1837, in comparative poverty, but in the enjoyment of an extensive and well-earned reputation.
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  • It can only be effected by a close examination of the style and language of the document, which may enable us in some instances to identify with comparative security certain passages which are found in St Luke, but which St Matthew did not regard as suitable for his purpose.
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  • The merit of Hegel is to have indicated and to a large extent displayed the filiation and mutual limitation of our forms of thought; to have arranged them in the order of their comparative capacity to give a satisfactory expression to truth in the totality of its relations; and to have broken down the partition which in Kant separated the formal logic from the transcendental analytic, as well as the general disruption between logic and metaphysic. It must at the same time be admitted that much of the work of weaving the terms of thought, the categories, into a system has a hypothetical and tentative character, and that Hegel has rather pointed out the path which logic must follow, viz.
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  • In 1790 he published his important Versuch, die Metamorphose der Pflanzen zu erkleiren, which was an even more fundamental achievement for the new science of comparative morphology than his discovery some six years earlier of the existence of a formation in the human jaw-bone analogous to the intermaxillary bone in apes; and in 1791 and 1792 appeared two parts of his Beitrage zur Optik.
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  • The appointment, though quite in the normal course of promotion, was subjected to considerable criticism, owing partly to his comparative youth, but chiefly to his vehement partisanship in earlier years.
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  • For twentytwo years he held his office and was to all intents and purposes governor of Syria, Phoenicia and Samaria - " A good man " (Josephus calls him) " and a man of mind, who rescued the people of the Jews from poverty and weakness, and set them on the way to comparative splendour " (Ant.
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  • of comparative quiet in Palestine, with no external political interference.
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  • After the end of the Spanish War of Succession (1713) came a period of comparative prosperity in slave-trading and general commerce.
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  • In 1842 he became an undistinguished but useful successor to Arnold as headmaster of Rugby; and a serious illness in 1848, the first of many, led him to welcome the comparative leisure which followed upon his appointment to the deanery of Carlisle in 1849.
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  • His most valuable works include the Bengal Atlas (1779), the first approximately correct map of India (1783), the Geographical System of Herodotus (1800), the Comparative Geography of Western Asia (1831), and important studies on the geography of northern Africa - in introductions to the Travels of Mungo Park and Hornemann - and the currents of the Atlantic and Indian Oceans.
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  • During this period of comparative rest Hamann was able to indulge in the long correspondence with learned friends which seems to have been his greatest pleasure.
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  • Morphine is a sheet anchor in the later stages of cancer and other painful diseases, rendering the life of the patient one of comparative comfort.
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  • The star-gauges of the Herschels exhibit a similar result; the Herschels counted the number of stars visible with their powerful telescopes in different regions of the sky, and thus formed comparative estimates of the density of the stars extending to a very high magnitude.
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  • The comparative nearness of the stars of the solar type, which we have had occasion to allude to, is confirmed by the fact that their proper motions are on the average much larger than those of the Sirian stars.
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  • After the middle of the 12th century follows another long period of comparative neglect, but with the conquest of Babylonia by the Assyrian Sargon, at the close of the 8th century B.C., we meet again with building inscriptions, and under Assur-bani-pal, about the middle of the 7th century, we find E-kur restored with a splendour greater than ever before, the ziggurat of that period being 190 ft.
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  • As Otto Pfleiderer (Development of Theology, p. 285) observes, "the choice not less than the treatment of these subjects is indicative of the large breadth of view and the insight of the historian into the comparative history of religion."
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  • The former, owing to the development of comparative mythology, is now of little authority, and portions of part ii.
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  • Yet they must have something to develop from, and thereupon Aristotle gives an account of a process in the psychological mechanism which he illustrates by comparative psychology, wherein a Xo yos or meaning emerges, a "first" universal recognized by induction.
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  • It must be observed, however, that the agreement is rather more perfect than the comparative roughness of the method would appear to warrant.
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  • The main objects of the society were thus set out: (1) To establish a nucleus of the universal brotherhood of humanity; (2) to promote the study of comparative religion and philosophy; (3) to make a systematic investigation into the mystic potencies of life and matter, or what is usually termed "occultism."
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  • The second object of the society, the study of comparative religion and philosophy, soon crystallized into an exposition of a more or less definite system of dogmatic teaching.
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  • The period of minority was exceptionally anarchical, even for Castile, but as the cities, always the best supporters of the royal authority, were growing in strength, Henry was able to reduce his kingdom to obedience, and, when he took the government into his own hands after 1393, to compel his nobles with comparative ease to surrender the crown lands they had seized.
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  • After an arduous and anxious term, the president had reached a period that promised to give him comparative repose and freedom from care.
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  • He was the second of a family of four, the eldest of whom, Jean Theodore (1801-1870), travelled a great deal in his youth, and was afterwards professor of comparative anatomy at Liege.
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  • There is ample material for purely comparative purposes and for an estimate both of the general fundamental ideas and of the artificially-developed secondary speculations; but for any scientific research it is necessary to observe the social, religious and historical conditions of the provenance and period of the evidence, and for this the material is often insufficient.
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  • One may also consult the English and foreign journals devoted to folklore, comparative religion or anthropology (especially the volumes of Folklore, Index, s.v.
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  • The Bible is studied like other works, its origins discovered and its place in comparative religion assigned.
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  • His efforts, however, proved vain, and he died in comparative obscurity in Paris on the 3rd of November 1611.4 Perez's earliest publication was a small quarto, dedicated to the earl of Essex, written and apparently printed in England about 1594, entitled Pedazos de historia, and professedly published at Leon.
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  • The earliest alphabetic document which can be dated with comparative certainty is the famous Moabite stone, which was discovered in 1868, and after a controversy between rival claimants which led to its being broken in pieces by the Arabs, ultimately reached the Louvre, where in a restored form it remains.
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  • Similarly, the comparative immunity of Europeans in the East may be explained by their different conditions of life.
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  • They do not prevail now in those " white countries which have been invaded but have repelled the attack with comparative ease and little loss.
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  • With reference to the findings of the Malkowal commission the Institute were asked to report: (1) On the comparative efficacy of the standard and new fluids as a 1898, the mean mortality among the inoculated was 1.3%; among the uninoculated 13.2%.
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  • H.) protection against plague; (2) on the comparative liability of each fluid to contamination; and (3) on the probable origin of tetanus virus in the Malkowal cases.
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  • Taken by surprise, puzzled by the comparative silence of their own guns and blinded by the mist, the troops of the 10th Div.
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  • Such art as continued was almost wholly religious; for in the wilderness of the times the churches formed oases of comparative prosperity and peace, and, even in the darkest times, wherever such oases existed there the seeds of art took root.
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  • Comparative Motion.The comparative motion of two points is the relation which exists between their motions, without having regard to their absolute amounts.
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  • It is obvious that the motions of a pair of points may be varied in any manner, whether by direct or by lateral deviation, and yet that their comparative motion may remain constant, in consequence of the deviations taking place in the same proportions, in the same directions and at the same instants for both points.
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  • Robert Willis (1800-1875) has the merit of having been the first to simplify considerably the theory of puie mechanism, by pointing out that that branch of mechanics relates wholly to comparative motions.
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  • The comparative motion of two points at a given instant is capable of being completely expressed by one of Sir William Hamiltons Quaternions,the tensor expressing the velocity ratio, and the versor the directional relation.
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  • is the p-itch or o4va~1ce per turna length which expreases the comparative motion of the translation and the rotation.
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  • DefinitionsAn elementary combination in mechanism consists of two pieces whose kinds of motion are determined by their connection with the frame, and their comparative motion by their connection with each otherthat connection being effected either by direct contact of the pieces, or by a connecting piece, which is not connected with the frame, and whose motion depends entirely on the motions of the pieces which it connects.
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  • In the investigation, therefore, of the comparative motion, of the driver and follower, in an elementary combination, it is unnecessary to consider relations of angular direction, which are already fixed by the connection of each piece with the frame; so that the inquiry is confined to the determination of the velocity ratio, and of tbe directional relation, so far only as it expresses the connection between forward and backward movements of the driver and follower.
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  • The general principle stated above in different forms serves to solve every problem in whichthe mode of connection of a pair of pieces being givenit is required to find their comparative motion at a given instant, or vice versa.
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  • Then the equal components, along the line of connection, of the velocities of the points where those perpendiculars meet that line are airi cos 0i = afri cos Oi; consequently, the comparative motion of the pieces is given by the equation ai_rieos0i ~I
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  • which equation expresses the comparative motion of the two pieces.
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  • But that classification is founded on the absolute instead of the comparative motions of the pieces, and is, for that reason, defective, as Willis pointed out in his admirable treatise On the Principles of Mechanism.
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  • Williss classification is founded, in the first place, on comparative motion, as expressed by velocity ratio and directional relation, and in the second place, on the mode of connection of the driver and follower.
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  • In the Reiileaux system of analysis of mechanisms the principle of comparative motion is generalized, and mechanisms apparently very diverse in character are shown to be founded on the same sequence of elementary combinations forming a kinematic chain.
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  • The comparative motion of a pair of wheels so ridged and grooved is the same a~ that of a pair of smooth wheels in rolling contact, whose cylindrical or conicai surfaces lie midway between the tops of the ridges and bottoms of the grooves, and those ideal smooth surfaces are called the pitch surfaces of the wheels.
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  • The pitch-surfaces of a pair of toothed wheels are the ideal smooth surfaces which would have the same comparative motion by rolling contact that the actual wheels have by the sliding contact of their teeth.
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  • Sliding Contact: Forms of the Teeth of Spur-wheels am Racks.A line of connection of two pieces in sliding contact is line perpendicular to their surfaces at a point where they touch Bearing this in mind, the principle of the comparative motion of pair of teeth belonging to a pair of spur-wheels, or to a spur-whee and a rack, is found by applying the principles stated generally ii 36 and 37 to the case of parallel axes for a pair of spur-wheels, am to the case of an axis perpendicular to the direction of shifting for wheel and a rack.
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  • fhe line of connection of two pieces connected by a wrapping connector is the centre line of the belt, cord or chain; and the comparative motions of the pieces are determined by the ~principles of 36 if both pieces turn, and of 37 if one turns and the other shifts, in which latter case the motion must be reciprocating.
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  • Comparative Motion of Connected Points.As the link is a rigid body, it is obvious that its action in communicating motion may be determined by finding the comparative motion of the connected points, and this is often the -most convenient method of proceeding.
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  • The comparative motion of the first driver and last follower is obtained by combining the proportions expressing by their terms the velocity ratios and by their signs the directional relations of the several elementary combinations of which the train consists.
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  • The principles of comparative motion in uch converging and diverg.
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  • The comparative motions of the wheels and of the arm, and the aggregate paths traced by points in the wheels, are determined by the principles of the composition of rotations, and of the description of rolling curves, explained in ~ 30, 31.
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  • It is also distinguished from them by the comparative absence of underlying motives or sentiment.
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  • Curtius) that deal with Greek on the comparative method.
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  • In comparative morphology it provides many illustrations of important biological principles (such, for example, as substitution and change of function of organs), and throws new light upon, or at least points the way to new ideas of, the primitive relations of different organic systems in respect of their function and topography.
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  • Herbert Spencer, again, before the decline in question set in, put forward the hypothesis that "the ability to maintain individual life and the ability to multiply vary inversely"; in other words, the strain upon the nervous system involved in the struggle for life under the conditions of modern civilization, by reacting on the reproductive powers, tends towards comparative sterility.
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  • It need not be assumed, however, that because these rates cannot be associated with the comparative degree of prosperity attained by the individual community they are altogether independent of the economic factors mainly contributing to that condition, such as trade, employment and prices.
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  • So far as adult life is concerned this superior vitality is no doubt attributable to comparative immunity from the risks and hardships to which men are exposed, as, also, to the weaker inclination of women towards intemperance of different kinds.
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  • Comparative tranquillity and material comfort had succeeded to discord and rough living.
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  • The lack of printed books in the first period of the Revival, and the comparative rarity of Greek erudition among students, combined with the intense enthusiasm aroused for the new gospel of the classics, gave special value to the personal teaching of these professors.
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  • Heusinger in comparative anatomy.
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  • In 1832 he became full professor of zoology and comparative anatomy there, and held that office until 1840, when he was called to succeed J.
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  • Dr Otto Donner's Comparative Dictionary of the FinnoUgric Languages (Helsingfors and Leipzig) is in German.
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  • isolation and comparative barbarism.
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  • Primitive religions are like so many similar beads on a string; and the concern of the student of comparative religion is at this stage mainly with the nature of the string, to wit, the common conditions of soul and society that make, say, totemism, or taboo, very much the same thing all the savage world over, when we seek to penetrate to its essence.
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  • An important consequence of thus giving the study of primitive religion the wide scope of a comparative hierology is that magic is no longer divorced from religion, since the sacred will now be found to be coextensive with the magicoreligious, that largely undifferentiated plasm out of which religion and magic slowly take separate shape as society comes more and more to contrast legitimate with illicit modes of dealing with the sacred.
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  • Tregear's Maori-Polynesian Comparative Dictionary shows how the word and its derivatives are used to express thought, memory, emotion, desire, will - in short, psychic energy of all kinds.
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  • (Paris, 1900); Maculloch, Comparative Theol.
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  • While this only applied to London, its results are valuable as showing the comparative strength of the Baptist Church.
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  • 72,681 7,454,165 In 1909 the comparative totals were roughly: - 72,988.
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  • In physical structure alpaca is somewhat akin to hair, being very glossy, but its softness and fineness enable the spinner to produce satisfactory yarns with comparative ease.
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  • Two years later, on the death of Cuvier, he obtained the chair of comparative anatomy, which he continued to occupy for the space of eighteen years, proving himself no unworthy successor to his great teacher.
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  • The horns are peculiar for their upright direction and comparative straightness, although they.have the same triangular section as in other buffaloes.
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  • The sultans of Kerman were rarely independent in the full sense, but they enjoyed comparative peace and prosperity till the death of Toghrul Shah (1170), after which their power fell before the Ghuzz tribes; Kermn was finally captured in ii9~ by the Khwarizm shahs.
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  • Not only amongst Iranian languages, but amongst all the languages of the Indo-European group, Zend takes one of the very highest places in importance for the comparative philologist.
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  • A logical system of comparative exegesis, Ze led by constant reference to Sanskrit, its nearest ally, and to the her Iranian dialects, is the best means of recovering the lost of rise of the Zend texts.
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  • Stourm, Le Budget, son histoire et son mecanisme (1889), which gives a comparative study of the budgets of different countries, is the best book upon the subject.
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  • McLennan, that most original student of primitive marriage, had a great influence on Smith's studies, and his attention was always strongly attracted to the comparative study of primitive customs and their meaning.
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  • Such patients are apt to suffer much from cough and laryngeal irritation in the cold, dry air of the Alps, whereas they live in comparative comfort on the Riviera, in the Canary Islands, Madeira or at Capri.
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  • But warm, moist climates rather favour sedentary habits and tend to lessen appetite, so that the nutrition of the patient is apt to suffer; and although phthisical patients may live in comparative comfort in such climates, their tendency to recovery in them is small.
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  • From this time till 1848 he led a life of comparative quiet - not the quiet of inactivity, however, for his incessant labours within the Academy and the Observatory produced a multitude of contributions to all departments of physical science, - but on the fall of Louis Philippe he left his laboratory to join in forming the provisional government.
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  • At first the encroachments on Bechuana territory by Boers from the Transvaal were looked upon with comparative indifference.
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  • This depression was in considerable measure due to, and was largely aggravated by, the comparative inactivity of the Rand mines, and that inactivity was due in turn to the insufficiency of native labour - Kaffirs being employed to do all the unskilled work on the mines.
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  • Bleek, Comparative Grammar of the South African Languages (1862-1869); J.
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  • Torrend, A Comparative Grammar of the South African Bantu Languages (1891); A.
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  • 2c-16, 20 seq., written from Caesarea), to disentangle one or more original notes of Paul from the subsequent additions, but the comparative evenness of the style does not favour such analyses.'
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  • The change in the use of particles and the comparative rarity of the definite article form, together with the startling divergence in vocabulary, the chief ground of our perplexity" (Church Quarterly Review, 1903, pp. 428 seq.).
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  • To a generation that has been moulded by the philosophy of Kant and Hegel, by the historical criticism of modern theology, and by all that has been done in the field of comparative religion, the argument of the Analogy cannot but appear to lie quite outside the field of controversy.
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  • While thus resident in comparative privacy he was sent for to the Hague by Sir Horatio Vere, the English governor of Brill, who appointed him a minister in the army of the states-general, and of the English soldiers in their service, a post held by some�of the greatest of England's exiled Puritans.
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  • The last years of his life were spent in comparative poverty and isolation, as even the Esterhazy-Forchtenstein estates were unequal to the burden of supporting his fabulous extravagance and had to be placed in the hands of curators.
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  • But they rarely prosecuted researches in physics or astronomy, and the newly created sciences of biology and comparative anatomy received no adequate recognition from them.
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  • With the Middle Stoa we enter upon a period at first of comparative inaction, afterwards of internal reform.
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  • While the wooden buildings were little damaged by the shocks, the comparative non-inflammability of redwood proved no safeguard and fire swept the affected area irresistibly.
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  • The heavy losses sustained by the Indians during that outbreak, and their dislike and distrust of the colonial Spaniard, account for the comparative indifference with which they viewed the rise and progress of the 1814 colonial revolt against Spain, which gave the South American states their independence.
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  • From about 1790 to 1822 was a period of peace with the Apaches and of comparative prosperity for church and'state.
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  • Afterwards, Toland discussed, with considerable real learning and much show of candour, the comparative evidence for the canonical and apocryphal Scriptures, and demanded a careful and complete historical examination of the grounds on which our acceptance of the New Testament canon rests.
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  • For various reasons the movement in America did not appear on the surface to any great extent, and after the comparative failure of Elihu Palmer's Principles of Nature it expressed itself chiefly in the spread of Unitarianism.
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  • Of him also nothing is really known except the bare facts of his reign and of his comparative success in consolidating the kingdom known as "of Galicia" or "of Oviedo" during the weakness of the Omayyad princes of Cordova.
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  • Lamaism has acquired a special interest to the student of comparative history through the instructive parallel which its history presents to that of the Church of Rome.
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  • For they grow in length in the later works; and it is often possible by comparing them one with another to fix, not the date, but the comparative age of the books in which they occur.
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  • In the 16th century when Bohemia was in a state of comparative tranquillity, the native literature was largely developed.
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  • It is as matter-of-fact and comparative as Dante, without a touch of Dante's genius.
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  • Petty's Irish survey was based on a collection of social data which entitles him to be considered a real pioneer in the science of comparative statistics.
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  • The earlier tone of Romans shows that he was writing as a comparative stranger to strangers.
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  • Winer, Comparative Darstellung des Lehrbegriffs der verschiedenen Kirchenparteien (Leipzig, 1824, Eng.
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  • In the first place, the comparative indecency of Rabelais has been much exaggerated by persons unfamiliar with early French literature.
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  • Of these the most important, besides the few already mentioned, are Tables of Logarithms (1826); Comparative View of the Various Institutions for the Assurance of Lives (1826); Decline of Science in England (1830); Ninth Bridgewater Treatise (1837); The Exposition of 1851 (1851).
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  • But it suited also the practical bent of the Roman mind, with its comparative indifference to abstract speculation or purely scientific research.
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  • Nevertheless the comparative fidelity with which Fabius seems to have reproduced his materials might have made his annals the starting point of a critical history.
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  • It is urged that Livy, who in the fourth and fifth decades shows himself so sensible of the great merits of Polybius, is not likely to have ignored him in the third, and that his more limited use of him in the latter case is fully accounted for by the closer connexion of the history with Rome and Roman affairs, and the comparative excellence of the available Roman authorities, and, lastly, that the points of agreement with Polybius, not only in matter but in expression, can only be explained on the theory that Livy is directly following the great Greek historian.
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  • Its comparative cheapness, one dollar's worth being equal to three dollars' worth of opium in the effect produced, its portability and the facilities offered in obtaining it, are all in its favour.
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  • (From Gegenbaur.) Much simplified from a coloured plate in Results of the " Albatross" Expedition, Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge, Mass., U.S.A.
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  • on the data afforded by comparative anatomy and embryology in attempting to reconstruct the probable phylogeny of the class.
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  • Flying creatures, however, are less remarkable for their strength, shape and comparative levity than for the size and extraordinarily rapid and complicated movements of their wings.
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  • An insect with wings thus hinged may, as far as steadiness of body is concerned, be not inaptly compared to a compass set upon gimbals, where the universality of motion in one direction ensures comparative fixedness in another."
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  • The atmosphere, because of its great tenuity, mobility and comparative imponderability, presents little resistance to bodies passing through it at low velocities.
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  • 35) The peculiarity of Pettigrew's wings and screws consists in their elasticity, their twisting action, and their great comparative length and narrowness.
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  • The idea was to obtain great sustaining area in comparatively small space with comparative ease of control.
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  • The variations in length of the general slope of the land towards successive natural divisions of the coast may be illustrated by a comparative table of the mileage and drainage areas of the principal English rivers.
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  • The main roads laid out as arteries of intercommunication by the Romans, suffered to fall into neglect, and revived in the coaching days of the beginning of the 19th century, fell into a second period of comparative neglect when the railway system was completed; but they have recovered a very large share of their old importance in consequence of the development of motortraffic. Following the Roman roads, the high roads of the Eastern Division very frequently run along the crests of ridges or escarpments; but in the Western Division they are, as a rule, forced by the more commanding relief of the country to keep to the river valleys and cross the rougher districts through the dales and passes.
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  • Almost every one of the principal geological formations may be studied in England with comparative ease.
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  • The above table, however, based on that in the Statesman's Year-Book for 1908, and giving the comparative statistics of the chief nonconformist churches, may be useful for purposes of comparison.
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  • The view maintained by a distinguished comparative anatomist, Professor St George Mivart, in his Genesis of Species, ch.
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  • The evidence of comparative philology supports the necessity for an enormous time allowance.
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  • The comparative science of civilization thus not only generalizes the data of history, but supplements its information by laying down the lines of development along which the lowest prehistoric culture has gradually risen to the highest modern level.
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  • especially in relation to the origin of the vascular bundles which supply them, favours the view that the scutellum and pileole are highly differentiated parts of a single cotyledon,and this view is in accord with a comparative study of the seedling of grasses and of other monocotyledons.
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  • 42 (1903) of Bulletin of the Harvard Museum of Comparative Zoology; S.
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  • Between 1809 and 1822 there was a period of comparative eclipse, during which he was indeed at times in office, but in lesser places than he would have been prepared to accept between 1804 and 1809, and was regarded with general distrust.
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  • The science of religion gives a purely historical and comparative account of the various manifestations of the religious instinct without pronouncing on their relative truth or value and without, therefore, professing to apply the idea of evolution in the philosophical sense.
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  • He was the head and the spokesman of the deputation of the states to the StatesGeneral of the union; and in the stadholderless period the influence of such grand pensionaries of Holland as John de Witt and Anthony Heinsius enabled the complicated and intricate machinery of government in a confederacy of many sovereign and semi-sovereign authorities without any recognized head of the state, to work with comparative smoothness and a remarkable unity of policy.
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  • This mitigated form of appropriation of human beings by their conquerors may be brought about as well by the paucity or comparative weakness of the victors as by the difficulty for them to draw income from pure slaves.
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  • As Sachs says in his history of botany, " no more important discovery was ever made in the domain of comparative morphology and systematic botany."
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  • (1892); Beissner, Handbuch der Nadelholzkunde (Berlin, 1891); Masters, " Comparative Morphology of the Coniferae," Journ.
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  • C. Jeffrey, " The Comparative Anatomy and Phylogeny of the Coniferales, part i.
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  • On his death, however, the brief period of comparative prosperity which his architectural works attest was tragically interrupted, and it seemed for a time that Walachia was doomed to Turkish sink into a Turkish pashalic. The Turkish commander, Mahmud Bey, became treacherously possessed of Neagoe's young son and successor, and, sending him a prisoner to Stambul, proceeded to nominate Turkish governors in the towns and villages of Walachia.
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  • The reign of the voivode Matthias Bassaraba (1633-54) was an interval of comparative prosperity.
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  • The pastoral industry dates from colonial times and engages the services of a considerable number of people, but its comparative importance is not great.
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  • He was naturally disappointed with the comparative failure of this expedition.
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  • Abbas was an intelligent prince, possessed some literary taste, and is noteworthy on account of the comparative simplicity of his life.
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  • Deep wells owe their comparative immunity from pollution to the circumstances that the larger quantity of water yielded renders it worth while to pump that water and convey it by pipes from comparatively unpolluted areas; and that any impurities in the water must have passed through a considerable depth, and by far the larger part of them through a great length of filtering material, and must have taken so long a time to reach the well that their organic character has disappeared.
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  • This process, in effect, leaves each orifice surrounded by a hemisphere of coarse sand across which the water flows with comparative freedom from a larger hemisphere where the corresponding velocity is very slow, and where the presence of finer and more obstructive particles is therefore unimportant.
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  • Yet it cannot be too constantly urged that such filtration depends for its comparative perfection upon the surface film; that this surface film is not present when the filter is new, or when its materials have been recently washed; that it may be, and very often is, punctured by the actual working of the filters, or for the purpose of increasing their discharge; and that at the best it must be regarded as an exceedingly thin line of defence, not to be depended upon as a safeguard against highly polluted waters, if a purer source of supply can possibly be found.
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  • They are timid, defenceless animals, depending for safety on the comparative inaccessibility of their arboreal haunts, and their protective colouring, which is rendered even more effective by their remaining still on the approach of danger.
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  • Laid waste by the Persians in the 4th century, Nakhichevan sank into comparative insignificance, but by the 10th century had recovered its prosperity.
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  • The power which sulphuric acid exhibits for expelling other acids from their combinations, a power occasioned by its comparative involatility and high degree of avidity, forms the basis of a considerable number of commercial processes.
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  • The comparative sizes of the animals are indicated by the scale ol reproduction.
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  • In 1807 he produced a System of Comparative Surgery, in which surgery is regarded almost wholly from an anatomical and operative point of view, and there is little or no mention of the use of medicinal substances.
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  • His Tabula Quantitatum et Graduum Caloris contains a comparative scale of temperature from that of melting ice to that of a small kitchen fire.
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  • This method is not good for comparative purposes.
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  • In 1843, the year in which the British annexed Natal and with it a part of the country hitherto ruled by the Zulus, the Barabuza, under a chief named Swazi, took advantage of the comparative weakness of the Zulu power, 'achieved independence and founded the present state.
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  • But the scattered details of comparative anatomy are capable of manifold arrangement, while the palimpsest of individual development is not merely fragmentary, but often has the fragments misplaced.
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  • The evidence for the Pelmatozoic theory is supplied by palaeontology, embryology, the comparative anatomy of the classes, and a consideration of other phyla.
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  • from the Ordovician rocks of Esthonia, is in essential structure just the form demanded by comparative palaeontology to make a starting-point.
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  • Lang, TextBook of Comparative Anatomy, transl., part ii.
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  • In 1909 Ibrahim Pasha Milli was defeated and lost his life and comparative order was restored in his district.
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  • The fourteen years of comparative peace which he now enjoyed were devoted to perfecting the military organization of his enlarged kingdom.
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  • There can be no doubt that the first effect of the Conquest was that the upper strata of the agricultural classes lost the comparative independence which they had hitherto enjoyed, and were in many cases depressed to the level of their inferiors.
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  • The time of comparative quiet that followed was utilized by the king in an attempt to win back some of his lost authority.
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  • Educated in comparative seclusion, her character and her person were unfamiliar to her future subjects, who were a little weary of the extravagances and eccentricities of her immediate predecessors.
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  • From the popularity of Max Miller's works on comparative philology this is the use of the word which is most familiar to the general public. The arguments in support of this use are set forth by him in the latter part of lecture vi.
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  • The substitution of the cope for the chasuble in many of the functions for which the latter had been formerly used was primarily due to the comparative convenience of a vestment opened at the front, and so leaving the arms free.
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  • Since that epoch there has been comparative peace between the Druses and the government, largely because the latter, having learned wisdom, leaves the people very much to itself, maintaining only a small garrison of regular troops, and enlisting Druse police for service in Jebel Druz itself.
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  • Of not one do we as yet possess a critical and comparative text, and in the absence of such texts the publication of any definite and detailed theory as to the evolution and relative position of the separate branches of the Arthurian cycle is to be deprecated.
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  • So that from any one or more of these, without all of them together, or from all of them together without attending to their comparative obligation, it is not possible to exhibit any distinct prospect of the English ecclesiastical constitution.'
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  • " Homeric Theology " (a book by Nagelsbach), Old Testament Theology, Comparative Theology, Natural Theology, the word in modern languages means the theology of the Christian Church.
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  • This view stands in connexion with the study of comparative religion.
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  • Marheineke is named as the first writer (1810) on Symbolics, the comparative study of creeds and confessions of faith.
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  • - Unitarianism in the United States followed essentially the same development as in England, and passed through the stages of Arminianism, Arianism, anti-tritheism, to rationalism and a modernism based on a large-minded acceptance of the results of the comparative study of all religions.
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  • 28, pp. 151-285, of the Bulletin of the Museum of Comparative Zoology of Harvard College; E.
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  • He took the blow with composure, and sank easily into a comparative retirement.
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  • The systematic arrangement of the Vascular Cryptogams for the purposes of identification and description necessarily remains unchanged, while the comparative morpho logy is being more fully worked out.
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  • Hence the term Appendiculata was introduced by Lankester (preface to the English edition of Gegenbaur's Comparative Anatomy, 1878) to indicate the group. The relationships of the Arthropoda thus stated are shown in the subjoined table: - (Sub-phylum r.
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  • The comparative study of the development does not support the hypothesis that the Polyzoa (q.v.) are comparable with Phoronis.
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  • In general, oxides are the most important compounds with which the chemist has to deal, a study of their composition and properties permitting a valuable comparative investigation of the elements.
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  • As Proudhon aimed at economic rather than political innovation, he had no special quarrel with the second empire, and he lived in comparative quiet under it till the publication of his work,, De la Justice dans la revolution et dans l'eglise, (1858) in which he attacked the Church and other existing institutions with unusual fury.
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  • Again, the opposition between the natural world and the spiritual order into which the Christian has been born anew led not merely to a contempt equal to that of the Stoic for wealth, fame, power, and other objects of worldly pursuit, but also, for some time at least, to a comparative depreciation of the domestic and civic relations of the natural man.
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  • Sometimes they consider moral intuition as determining the comparative excellence of conflicting motives (James Martineau), or the comparative quality of pleasures chosen (Laurie), which seems to be the same view in a hedonistic garb; others hold that what is intuitively perceived is the rightness or wrongness of individual acts - a view which obviously renders ethical reasoning practically superfluous.
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  • The chief characteristic of English moral philosophy in its previous history has been its comparative isolation from great movements, sometimes contemporary movements, of philosophical or scientific thought.
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  • anthropology or the study of comparative religion, has been incalculable.
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  • Similarly the comparative failure of science to satisfy men's aspirations alike in knowledge and, so far as the happiness of the masses is concerned, in practice has been largely instrumental in producing that revolt against material prosperity as the end of conduct which is characteristic of idealist moral philosophy.
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  • Its simplicity was only comparative; many outstanding anomalies compromised its harmonious working.
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  • in 1547 was also the accession of Diane: she was virtual queen, while Henry's lawful wife, Catherine de' Medici, lived in comparative obscurity.
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  • From the other genera of that group (Cebinae) with prehensile tails capuchins are distinguished by the comparative shortness of that appendage, and the absence of a naked area on the under surface of its extremity.
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  • JOHANNES PETER MULLER (1801-1858), German physiologist and comparative anatomist, was born at Coblenz on the 14th of July 1801.
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  • In it, for the first time, the results of human and comparative anatomy, as well as of chemistry and other departments of physical science, were brought to bear on the investigation of physiological problems. The most important portion of the work was that dealing with nervous action and the mechanism of the senses.
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  • In the later part of his life he chiefly devoted himself to comparative anatomy.
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  • During this time of comparative rest, rhyolites were extruded locally in county Antrim; and there is very strong evidence that the granite of the Mourne Mountains, and that which cuts the Carlingford gabbro, were added at the same time to the crust.
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  • During this period Ireland enjoyed comparative rest notwithstanding the intertribal feuds in which the Norse settlers shared, including the campaigns of Cormac, son of Cuilennan, the scholarly king-bishop of Cashel.
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  • The Malay affinities of Malagasy were noted in the 16th century; indeed, the second and fifth books published upon the country (in 1603 and 1613) were comparative vocabularies of these two languages.
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  • A French translation of the Comparative History was published in 1882.
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  • The system is simply this: the original meaning of the names of gods must be ascertained by comparative philology.
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  • Another method of obtaining evidence is by the comparative study of savage laws and institutions.
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  • 2 The increasing prominence of the old Calebite locality is not the least interesting phase in the comparative study of the patriarchal traditions.
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  • The first of these is the comparative absence of natural barriers in the interior, owing to which intercommunication between tribes, the dissemination of culture and tribal migration have been considerably facilitated.
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  • The dialogue between a Christian, a Jew and a philosopher suggested a comparative estimate of religions, and placed the natural religion of the moral law above all positive revelations.
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  • It was not until-December that his earnest desire of returning to Florence was realized, and the remaining eight years of his life were spent in his villa at Arcetri called "Il Giojello," in the strict seclusion which was the prescribed condition of his comparative freedom.
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  • Experimental Results.-In the following comparative table of the results of different observers the values are referred to lead.
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  • The pecuniary rewards of Bessemer's great invention came to him with comparative quickness; but it was not till 1879 that the Royal Society admitted him as a fellow and the government honoured him with a knighthood.
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