These, to me, are the most exciting companies to look at.
All big companies fall.
In 1658 Colonel Edward Doyley, the governor, gained a decisive victory over thirty companies of Spanish foot, and sent ten of their flags to Cromwell.
In the early 1800s, fertilizer companies sprang up using bone meal as the principle agent.
"Hurrah-ah-ah!" reverberated in the forest, and the Cossack companies, trailing their lances and advancing one after another as if poured out of a sack, dashed gaily across the brook toward the camp.
By October, when the French were fleeing toward Smolensk, there were hundreds of such companies, of various sizes and characters.
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
Both the Bell and the Edison Companies opened negotiations with the Post Office for the sale of their patents to the government, but without success.
Because investing in new companies is entirely different than knowing when to buy and sell a stock.
Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
paid to the railway companies for their reversionary rights, the cost of which had been estimated at £700,000.
It also expressed willingness that the companies should have rights of way in the streets.
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
The two companies amalgamated as the United Telephone Company Ltd.
After much negotiation the basis finally agreed upon between the government and the companies was 20 years' purchase of the profits of the year ended 30th June 1868.
Berg took the opportunity to ask, with great politeness, whether, as was rumored, the allowance of forage money to captains of companies would be doubled.
The railway system of Sardinia is in the hands of two companies - the Compagnia Reale delle Ferrovie Sarde, and the Compagnia delle Ferrovie Secondarie della Sardegna.
In the south-western portion of the island are several private railways belonging to various mining companies, of which the lines from Monteponi to Portoscuso, and from S.
All these lines (and also the minor lines from Golfo degli Aranci to La Maddalena and from Carloforte to Porto Vesme and Calasetta) are in the hands of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, there being no Sardinian steamship companies.
In the spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies" (Freischaaren).
It is divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend over Soo acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the railway companies.
Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.
All the companies, except the Nord, have at one time or another had to take advantage of the guarantee, and the fact that the Ouest had been one of the most persistent and heavy borrowers in this respect was one of the reasons that induced the government to take it over as from the 1st of January 1909.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
Several companies are devoting all their energies to zinc extraction, and the output is now equal to about 5% of the world's production.
The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.
At that date the superintending and managing staffs of the Post Office comprised 590 persons, the staff of the old companies with only about one-third of the traffic having been 534 persons.
A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
underground, and the total lengths of submarine cables of the world were 39,072 nautical miles under government administration and 194,751 nautical miles under the administration of private companies.
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
The Post Office at the same time established several telephone exchanges in provincial towns so as to enable the PostmasterGeneral " to negotiate with the telephone companies in a satisfactory manner for licences."
After the withdrawal of the restriction against the companies erecting trunk wires it became evident that the development of the telephone services throughout the country would be facilitated by complete intercommunication and uniformity of systems, and that economies could be effected by concentration of management.
The various companies therefore amalgamated as the National Telephone Company.
The government had the option to buy out the: companies under the licences of 1884, but did not exercise it.
It compelled the companies to sell their trunk wires to the Post Office, leaving the local exchanges in the hands of the companies.
At the time of the formation of the various telephone companies the enterprises were regarded as speculative, and much of the capital was raised at a discount.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
Much of the work is done by companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous districts when required, permanent residence not being possible owing to the malaria.
A sign of industrial development is to be found in the growing number of manufacturing companies, both Italian and foreign.
In Italy, people can apply for loans through savings banks, assurance companies and mutual benefit societies.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
The minor lines (many of them narrow gauge) remain in the hands of private companies.
They were installed by private companies, but have been taken over by the state.
The garrison artillery consists of 3 coast and 3 fortress regiments, with a total of 72 companies.
At that time four limited companies were authorized to issue bank notes, namely, the National Bank, the National Bank of Tuscany, the Roman Bank and the Tuscan Credit Bank; and two banking corporations, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
In 1893 the Roman Bank was put into liquidation, and the other three limited companies were fused, so as to create the Bank of Italy, the privilege of issuing bank notes being thenceforward confined to the Bank of Italy, the Bank of Naples and the Bank of Sicily.
Burghers of all denominations are enrolled in one or other of the arts or gilds, and these trading companies furnish the material from which the government or signoria bf the city is composed.
The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.
As the companies grew in size and improved their discipline, it was seen by the Italian nobles that this kind of service offered a good career for men of spirit, who had learned the use of arms. To leave so powerful and profitable a calling in the hands of foreigners seemed both dangerous and uneconomical.
Yet it must not be forgotten that the new companies of adventure, who decided Italian affairs for the next century, were in no sei~se patriotic. They sold themselves for money, irrespective of tile cause which they upheld; and, while changing masters, they had no care for any interests but their own.
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government to legislate in favor of farming out the railways to private companies.
the line from Bologna to Brindisi belonging to the Societ Meridionale to whom the Adriatic lines were now farmed), but sold rolling stock to the companies, arranged various schedules of state subsidy for lines projected or in.
course of construction, guaranteed interest on the bonds of the companies and arranged for the division of revenue between the companies, the reserve fund and the state.
The next demand was for greater fixity of tenure and more regular promotion, as well as for the recognition by the companies of the railwaymens union.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
This false position was remedied by the act of 1908, which brings companies into line with individuals.
As travelling companies never visited Guadalcanal, and as ladies took no part in the representations, these three plays were written for men only.
At the same time the interest guaranteed to the railway companies was reduced from 7 to 32%.
At the same time the chief lines of railway which had been built by public companies with a state guarantee, and which represented a loss to the empire of £3,171,250 per annum, as well as a growing indebtedness, were bought by the state.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
In Argentina about 15% of the railways are owned and operated by the government, the balance being in the hands of private companies, largely controlled in England.
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.
Until 1870 railway companies were almost free from special acts of control; and, in general, any company that could raise or borrow the capital was allowed to build a railway wherever it saw fit.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
Where the government is bad, they are a fruitful source of corruption; even where it is good, they enable the companies to drive hard bargains with the public, and prevent.
A code of requirements in regard to the opening of new railways has been drawn up by the department for the guidance of railway companies, and as the special circumstances of each line are considered on their merits, it rarely happens that the department finds it necessary to prohibit the opening of a new railway.
The usual mode of publishing such reports is to forward them to railway companies concerned, as well as to the press, and on application to any one else who is interested.
Prior to this some companies had, to a certain extent, done these things, but few, if any, were completely equipped in these respects.
Rules may also be made in respect to other matters besides those mentioned in the schedule, and companies may be called upon to adopt or reject, as the case may be, any appliance, the use or disuse of which may be considered desirable in the interest of the men.
Before, however, the rules so made become binding upon the companies, the latter have the right of appealing against them to the Railway Commissioners.
The final settlement of a rule requiring brake-levers to be fitted on both sides of goods-wagons was, however, deferred, owing to objections raised by certain of the railway companies.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
It increased the jurisdiction of the Commission by placing under the act express companies, sleeping-car companies and pipe lines for the transportation of oil.
On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.
Similarly in Great Britain there is a tendency towards combination by mutual agreement among the companies while they still preserve their independent existence.
Some railway companies, however, having a long mileage in timberless regions, do " treat " their sleepers.
a mile or less, and the money obtained from third-class travellers forms by far the most important item in the revenue from passenger traffic. Since the Midland railway's action in 1875 several other English companies have abandoned second-class carriages either completely or in part, and in Scotland they are entirely unknown.
Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.
The special quality which distinguished these prophetic gilds or companies was an intense patriotism combined with enthusiastic devotion to the cause of Yahweh.
In 1863 the Territory raised six companies of infantry and six of cavalry (about 1000 men), which saw no actual service against the Confederates but were useful in subduing hostile Indians.
Later he was connected with several mining companies, with offices in London, and there he was when the World War broke out in 1914.
There were, in 1906, 24 national banks and 269 state banks, but no trust companies, private banks or savings banks.
It may be divided into three parts: that contracted between 1848 and 1861 for the construction of roads, railways and canals; that contracted during the Civil War for other than war purposes; and that contracted during the Reconstruction era, nominally in the form of loans to railway companies.
There were in 1908 five deep mines worked by English companies and one by a French company.
Both entered India as commercial companies, but the disorganized condition of the Mogul empire necessitated the use of military force to protect their interests, and allured them to conquest.
The companies gradually undertook the financial control of the districts where they traded and were recognized by the natives as political powers.
They took refuge in Holland, from whence they emigrated to Pennsylvania, in small companies, between 1719 and 1729.
In December 1 774 a copy of the order prohibiting the exportation of military stores to America was brought from Boston to Portsmouth by Paul Revere, whereupon the Portsmouth Committee of Safety organized militia companies, and captured the fort (Dec. 14).
There are no municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control of a state commission.
After the spawning the schools break up into smaller companies which are much scattered, and offer for two or three months employment to the hand-line fishermen.
Single individuals or small companies are found, however, on the coast all the year round; they may have become detached from the main bodies, and be seeking for the larger schools which have long left on their return migration.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
With the adoption of carefully fitted screw-joints in 1865 the pipe line gradually came into general use, until in 1891 the lines owned by the various transit companies of Pennsylvania amounted in length to 25,000 m.
Pilgrims who were travelling to Jerusalem joined themselves in companies for security, and marched under arms; the pilgrims of 1064, who were headed by the archbishop of Mainz, numbered some 7000 men.
They resulted too in a number of "chartered companies" - that is to say, the three military orders, which, beginning as charitable socities, developed into military clubs, and developed again from military clubs into chartered companies, possessed of banks, navies and considerable territories.
The low lands of the South are being drained partly by the state and partly by private companies.
In 1920 the assets of the banks and trust companies of St.
Atlanta is the Southern headquarters for a number of fire and life insurance companies, and is the third city of the United States in the amount of insurance business written and reported to resident agents, the annual premium receipts averaging about $10,000,000.
It is served by the railways of the Western and the Orleans Companies and by those of the state, but it has no navigable waterways.
Byllynge, having become embarrassed in his circumstances, placed his interest in the land in the hands of Penn and Bothers as trustees for his creditors; they invited buyers, and companies of Quakers in Yorkshire and London were amongst :the largest purchasers.
The African trade of England was long in the hands of exclusive companies; but by an act of the first year of William and Mary it became free and open to all subjects of the crown.
Being the great entrepot for the trade of Egypt, the city is the headquarters of the British chamber of commerce and of most of the merchants and companies engaged in the development of the Delta.
TALGARTH, a decayed market town in Breconshire, South Wales, situated on the Ennig near its junction with the Llynfi (a tributary of the Wye), with a station on the joint line of the Cambrian and Midland companies from Brecon to Three Cocks Junction (22 m.
The strength of the different arms is given as follows: Infantry.-79 nizam infantry regiments 1 to 80 (4 is missing), each regiment consisting of four battalions of four companies apiece.
Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.
- These are formed into battalions of pioneers, railway troops, telegraph troops, sappers and miners, &c.; in all II battalions (55 companies) numbering 245 officers and 10,470 men.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The concessionnaire companies have, however, wisely taken the view that it is better to depend upon their own revenues than upon any government guarantee, and have done their best to develop the working value of the lines in their charge.
The tables on p. 440 show the respective lengths of the various Ottoman railways open and worked at the end of 1908 and the amount of kilometric guarantees which they carried - and the lengths, &c., of railways worked by the various companies according to the nationality of the concessionaire groups.
Behind these all Prussia was overrun by newly formed units, (3 rd and 4th battalions) raised from depot companies, conscripts for 1807, and old soldiers rejoining after sickness or wounds.
The railways belong chiefly to the Orleans and Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean companies.
The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
Employment is furnished for the convicts on the pentitentiary premises by incorporated companies.
The insurance work is done by-foreign companies.
there are relatively few important naturally-occurring rubber plants, there has been for some years great activity in forming plantations of rubber trees introduced mainly from tropical America, and there are now many millions sterling of British capital invested in companies established to form rubber plantations chiefly in Ceylon and Malaya.
The normal natural flow in ordinary summer weather is about 350,000,000 gallons a day, and of this, after the companies have taken 130,000,000, only 220,000,000 gallons are left to pass over Teddington Weir.
The water-supply of London is considered under that heading; it may be noted here that the Thames forms the chief source of supply for the metropolis, but apart from this the corporation of Oxford and two companies in the Staines district have powers to draw water from the river, though not in any large quantities.
above the intakes of the water companies (at Hampton or in the vicinity), the Thames Conservancy has enforced the requirements of parliament that no sewage or other pollution shall be allowed to pass into the Thames, into its tributary streams, or even into any water communicating with them.
With the State fund are incorporated all large estates, small farms not yet purchased by the occupants and lands acquired by colonization companies, foreign banks and similar bodies.
The series of trunk lines terminating at the port of Santos are owned by private companies and are formed by the Sao Paulo, Paulista and Mogyana lines, the first owned by an English company, and the other two by Brazilian companies.
Under this law companies were organized in England for building the Sao Paulo railway, and the lines running fromBahia and Pernambuco toward the Sao Francisco river.
The government finally determined to take over these guaranteed lines from the foreign companies owning them, and a statement issued in October 1902 showed that 1335 m.
Previous to the creation of the republic, the coastwise service was performed by two national companies (now united), and partially by foreign lines calling at two or more ports.
Parts of this coastwise traffic are covered by other companies, two of which receive subsidies.
Two subsidized companies maintain services on the Sao Francisco river - one below the Paulo Affonso falls, and the other above, the latter covering 854 m.
Besides these there are other companies engaged in the coasting and river traffic, either with subsidies from the state governments, as feeders for railway lines, or as private unsubsidized undertakings.
The telegraph lines, which date from 1852, are owned and operated by the national government, with the exception of the lines constructed by private railway companies, and the cable lines of the Amazon and the coast.
The purchase of guaranteed railways owned by foreign companies likewise added largely to the bonded indebtedness, though the onus was in existence in another form.
Thenceforward affairs went on prosperously; the mining districts continued to be enlarged; the trading companies of the littoral provinces were abolished, but the impulse they had given to agriculture remained.
In consequence of the large influx of tourists every year the North British and Caledonian railway companies give employment to an enormous staff.
The port is served by coasting steamers of the local companies only.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
After the Compromise of 1867, the policy of the Hungarian government was to construct its own railways, and to take over the lines constructed and worked by private companies.'
belonged to private companies but were worked by the state, and 2000 m.
belonged to and were worked by private companies.
Trained riders, archers and javelin-throwers from infancy, they advanced to the attack in numerous companies following hard upon each other, avoiding close quarters, but wearing out their antagonists by the persistency of their onslaughts.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
In war the nation was divided into three subkingdoms, and these into companies, each with its commander.
The companies had yearly feasts, at which the commander honoured warriors who had slain one or more of the enemy.
The force, disciplined and organized by a permanent staff of officers and non-commissioned officers of the regular army, is about 6500 strong, and consists of a brigade of artillery, four mounted, three composite and four infantry corps, a cyclist corps, &c. There are also cadet companies some 3000 strong.
14 suggests that "schools" or companies "of the prophets" existed in the southern kingdom).
The police force and fire companies in the larger cities are organized on a military basis, and are sometimes used for military purposes.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
Rubber plantations have also been laid out, principally by American companies, the Castilloa elastica doing well.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
Several of the great livery companies or gilds of the City possess fine halls, containing portraits and other collections of high interest and value.
The company possesses running powers over the lines of various other companies: thus its trains run as far north as Potter's Bar on the Great Northern line, while it serves Richmond on the west and Poplar on the east.
The Metropolitan railway has a line from Baker Street through north-west London to Harrow, continuing to Uxbridge, while the original main line runs on to Rickmansworth, Aylesbury and Verney Junction, but has been worked by the Metropolitan and Great Central companies jointly since 1906.
The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams. On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.
Outside the county both companies and local authorities own and work tramways.
The two principal omnibus companies are the London General Omnibus and the London Road Car.
The principal existing companies adopted them, and new companies were formed to work them exclusively.
With their advantages of greater speed and carrying capacity over the horsed vehicles, their introduction was a most important development, though their working at first imposed a severe financial strain on many companies.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
This company was bought up by the Citizen and Iron Steamboat Companies in 1865.
A number of sub-offices of large steamship lines are congregated in Cockspur Street, Trafalgar Square, and several of the principal railway companies have local offices throughout the centre of the metropolis for the issue of tickets and the collection and forwarding of luggage and parcels.
For many years proposals to amalgamate the working of the companies and displace them by a central public authority were put forward from time to time.
xix., issued by the L.C.C., 1909) the London County Council has authority over little more than one-third, and therefore when the Council proposed to acquire the eight undertakings concerned its scheme was opposed not only by the companies but by the county councils and local authorities outside the County of London.
The construction of large storage reservoirs was recommended, and this work was put in hand jointly by the New River, West Middlesex and Grand Junction companies at Staines on the Thames.
As regards administration,Lord Llandaff's Commission recommended the creation Metro- of a Water Trust, and in 1902 the Metropolis Water Act constituted the Metropolitan Water Board to purchase politan and carry on the undertakings of the eight companies, Water and of certain local authorities.
The 24th of June, 1904, was the date fixed on which control passed to the Board, and in the meantime a Court of Arbitration adjudicated the claims of the companies for compensation for the acquisition of their properties.
During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems. The Thames and Lea are the principal sources of supply, but the Kent and (partially) the New River Company draw supplies from springs.
The systems of filtration employed by the different companies varied in efficacy, but both the Royal Commissions decided that water as supplied to the consumer was generally of a very high standard of purity.
The City of London Gas Company followed in 1817, and seven other companies soon after.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.
In 1832 the fire insurance companies united to maintain a small fire brigade, and continued to do so until 1866.
The cost of maintenance exceeds £200,000 annually; contributions towards this are made by the Treasury and the fire insurance companies.
The administrative authorities of cemeteries for the county are the borough councils and the City Corporation and private companies.
Crematoria are provided at certain of the companies' cemeteries, and the Cremation Act 1902 enabled borough councils to provide crematoria.
There are also notable collections of pictures in several of the mansions of the nobility, government buildings, halls of the City Companies and elsewhere.
At these central theatres successful plays are allowed to " run " for protracted periods, but there are numerous fine houses in other parts of London which are generally occupied by a succession of touring companies presenting either revivals of popular plays or plays successful at the moment in the central theatres.
With many this is a practice at all seasons, and the railway companies foster the habit by means of tickets at reduced fares to all parts.
The recommendations of the Commission included the creation of a single controlling authority to take over the powers of the Thames Conservancy Watermen's Company, and Trinity House and the docks of the companies already detailed.
shipowners, barge owners, the railway companies interested, &c. Rival schemes, however, were proposed by the London County Council,which proposed to take over the entire control through a committee, by the City Corporation, which suggested that it should appoint instead of 3 members to the new board; and by the London Chamber of Commerce, which proposed a Harbour Trust of ex-officio and elected members.
provided for the establishment of a Port Authority, the constitution of which is detailed below, which took over the entire control of the port, together with the docks and other property of the several existing companies.
The principal dock companies, with the docks owned by them, were as follows :- I.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
The undertakings of the three dock companies mentioned above were transferred to and vested in the Port Authority, an equivalent amount of port stock created under the act being issued to each.
The Lord Mayor (q.v.) is elected by the Court of Aldermen from two aldermen nominated in the Court of Common Hall by the Livery, an electorate drawn from the members of the ancient trade gilds or Livery Companies (q.v.), which, through their control over the several trades or manufactures, had formerly an influence over the government of the city which from the time of Edward III.
The first parliament of Edward's reign gave all the lands and possessions of colleges, chantries, &c., to the king, when the different companies of London redeemed those which they had held for the payment of priests' wages, obits and lights at the price of £20,000, and applied the rents arising from them to charitable purposes.
On April 11, 1582, the lords of the council wrote to the lord mayor to the effect that, as " her Majesty sometimes took delight in those pastimes, it had been thought not unfit, having regard to the season of the year and the clearance of the city from infection, to allow of certain companies of players in London, partly that they might thereby xvi.
Violent attacks were made upon the Livery Companies, but of late years, largely owing to the public spirit of the companies in devoting large sums of money towards the improvement of the several industries in connexion with which they were founded, and the establishment of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, a complete change has taken place as to the public estimation in which they are held.
The common council were chosen by the wards until 1351, when the appointments were made by certain companies.
In 1376 an ordinance was made by the mayor and aldermen, with the assent of the whole commons, to the effect that the companies should select men with whom they were content, and none other should come to the elections of mayors and sheriffs; that the greater companies should not elect more than six, the lesser four and the least two.
Fortyseven companies nominated 156 members.
In 1383 the right of election reverted to the wards, but was obtained again by the livery companies in 1467.
William Herbert published in 1837 History of the Twelve great Livery Companies of London, and in 1869 Thomas Arundell published Historical Reminiscences of the City and its Livery Companies.
Since then have appeared The Livery Companies of the City of London, by W.
Carew Hazlitt (1892); The City Companies of London, by P. H.
Ditchfield (1904); The Gilds and Companies of London, by George Unwin (1908).
Separate histories have been published of the chief London companies.
The Ghibellines being unable to maintain their supremacy, the city came to be divided into two almost autonomous republics, the comune headed by the podestd, and the popolo headed by the capitano and militarily organized into twenty companies; the central power was represented by twelve anziani or elders.
He was assisted by the consiglio speciale of 9 0 and the consiglio generale e speciale of 300, composed of nobles, while the capitano del popolo had also two councils composed of burghers, heads of the gilds, gonfalonieri of the companies, &c. The anziani had a council of 3 6 burghers, and then there was the parlamento or general assembly of the people, which met only on great occasions.
There was perpetual rioting and anarchy, and interference in the affairs of the government by the working men, while at the same time poverty and unemployment increased owing to the timidity of capital and the disorders, until at last in 1382 a reaction set in, and order was restored by the gild companies.
Two new kinds of craft fraternities appear in the 14th century and become more prominent in the 15th, namely, the merchants' and the journeymen's companies.
The misteries or companies of merchants traded in one or more kinds of wares.
Several fraternities - old gilds or new companies, with their respective cognate or heterogeneous branches of industry and trade - were fused into one body.
Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that new ordinances of "fellowships of crafts or misteries" should be approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus restricted.
Thus the companies gradually lost control over the regulation of industry, though they still retained their old monopoly in the i 7th century, and in many cases even in the 18th.
Intent only on promoting their own interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, the old companies had become an unmitigated evil.
The commercial success of some of the companies has been very striking, dividends as high as III% having been paid.
The industry is now in the hands of three large companies, the survivors of some twenty or more which have started at various times.
Several large islands fill the upper bay near the eastern shore; some are used as coal deposits for the great steamship companies, and one (Flores) is used as an immigrants' depot.
The war was now carried on by the free companies with varying fortune, but always more or less to the hurt of the Pisans.
It was adopted by many important British and continental shipping companies, among others by the Peninsular & Oriental, the Inman, the North German Lloyd and the Hamburg American companies.
The chief sources of revenue in the order named are the general property tax, the tax on savings banks, the tax on insurance companies, and liquor licences.
Since 1865 the most notable features have been the rise and decadence of the national banks and the rise of the trust companies.
During the decade from 1890 to 1900 the deposits in the national banks increased only 5%, from $16,700,000 to $17,500,000; those of the trust companies increased 330%, from $12,000,000 to more than $40,000,000.
OHIO COMPANY, a name of two 18th century companies organized for the colonization of the Ohio Valley.
having been built by the state and 3276 by private companies; the former at a cost of 16 millions sterling for construction and equipment, and the latter at a cost of 25 millions.
Thus the expenditure by the state averaged 10,884 per mile, and that by private companies, 763 I.
This difference is explained by the facts that the state lines having been the pioneers, portions of them were built before experience had indicated cheap methods; that a very large and costly foreign staff was employed on these roads in the early days, whereas no such item appeared in the accounts of private lines; that extensive works for the building of locomotives and rolling stock are connected with the governments roads, and that it fell to the lot of the state to undertake lines in districts presenting exceptional engineering difficulties, such districts being naturally avoided by private companies.
When the fiscal year1906-1907opened, the number of private companies was no less than, 36, owning and operating 3276 m.
ThenceRaliwa ~ forth this class of enterprise grew steadily in favor, so that, in 1907, there were 16 companies with an aggregate capital of 8 millions sterling, having 165 m.
Fifteen other companies with an aggregate capital of 3 millions had also obtained charters.
In these thoroughfares and in several of the streets which intersect them are the offices of the mining companies, the banks, clubs, newspaper offices, hotels and shops, the majority being handsome stone or brick buildings, while the survival of some wooden shanties and corrugated iron buildings recalls the early character of the town.
- There is an ample supply of water to the town and mines, under a water board representing all the Rand municipalities and the mining companies.
By 1892 the leading mines had proved their dividend-earning capacity, and in 1895 there was a great "boom" in the shares of the mining companies.
During the first year of their existence, before the breeding season begins, they live in small companies in still pools or gently flowing brooks.
By the Acts of 1882 and 1893 such persons were refused admission to the United States, and, when rejected, the steamship companies that brought them were compelled to take them back.
The hardships incident to touring with travelling companies unfavourably affected her health, but by 1885 she was recognized at home as Italy's greatest actress, and this verdict was confirmed by that of all the leading cities of Europe and America.
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
St Hubert was carried by a confused mass of some 49 companies, and von Steinmetz, believing the main French position to have been pierced, ordered the 4th cavalry division to cross the ravine by the chaussee and pursue.
Meanwhile, the material found by Botta and Layard, and other successors, in the ruins of Nineveh, has been constantly augmented through the efforts of companies of other investigators, and not merely Assyrian, but much earlier Babylonian and Chaldaean texts in the greatest profusion have been brought to the various museums of Europe and America.
Two companies provide Bangkok with a complete system of electric tramways, and the streets are lined with shade-trees and lit by electricity.
Of the 750 steamships which cleared the port in 1904, three out of every seven were German, two were Norwegian and one was British, but in 1905 two new companies, one British and the other Japanese, arranged for regular services to Bangkok, thereby altering these proportions.
In order to attract capital to the state, the legislature has reduced the taxes on corporations, has forbidden the repeal of charters, and has given permission for the organization of corporations with both the power and name of trust companies.
Besides the income from interest and dividends on investments, the state revenues are derived from taxes on licences, on commissions to public officers, on railway, telegraph and telephone, express, and banking companies, and to a slight extent from taxes on collateral inheritance.
One of its companies carried a number of gamecocks said to have been the brood of a blue hen; hence the soldiers, and later the people of the state, have been popularly known as the " Blue Hen's Chickens."
The function of such an agency is performed in the United States of America by the express companies (see Express).
The success of the large "catalogue" houses in America has been mainly due to the system as operated by the express companies.
The telegraph cable companies were quick to apply and to extend the oceanographical methods useful in cable-laying, and to their practical acuteness many of the most important improvements in apparatus are due.
The values of other products in 1905 were as follows: slaughtering and meat packing (wholesale), $15,620,931; lumber and timber products (which employed the largest average number of wage-earners-13,332, or 27.2 per cent.), $16,278,240; cars and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $10,472,742; printing and publishing, $7,782,247; foundry and machine shop products, 1905, $4,952,827; malt liquors, $4,153,938; saddlery and harness, 1905, $3,251,525.
The several roads are under the management of twenty-seven companies, but about 75% of the business is done by the Chicago Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul and the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific. Electric interurban railways are increasing in importance for freight and passenger service.
It supervises and audits the accounts of state departments, directs the taking of the census, transfers cities from one class to another in accordance with census returns, constitutes the board for canvassing election returns, classifies railways, assesses railway and other companies, constitutes the state board of equalization for adjusting property valuations between the several counties for taxing purposes, supervises the incorporation of building and loan associations, appoints the board of examiners of mine inspectors and has many other powers.
Numerous companies are engaged in developing the resources of the country by trading, planting and mining.
In addition to the companies a comparatively large number of private individuals have laid out plantations, Usambara and Pare having become favourite districts for agricultural enterprise.
After Colonel Ternan's departure on leave the three companies who had joined Macdonald broke out into revolt in the Nandi district (East Africa) and set off to Uganda, looting the countries they passed through.
The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
From 1874 - methods are used for the taxation of banks, insurance companies, railways, tramways, trust companies and corporations, some of them noteworthy.
To the right were the galleys of the Spinola family, and of four of the eight "companies" into which Genoa was divided - Castello, Piazzalun&a, Macagnana and Son Lorenzo.
To the left were the galleys of the Dorias, and of the other four companies, Porta, Soziglia, Porta Nuova and Il Borgo.
In the same way banks, railway companies and financial institutions employ dragomans for facilitating their business relations with Turkish officials.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
In the meantime Major Richard Ingoldsby and two companies of soldiers had landed (January 28, 1691) and demanded possession of the fort.
Furthermore, the manufacturing schedule presupposes some uniformity in the method of accounting among different companies or lines of business, and this is often lacking.
The close of the general war, however, had released great numbers of mercenaries (the great companies) from control, and, as they began to play the part of brigands in France, it was necessary to get rid of them.
The regulation and control of such public service corporations as own or operate steam, electric or street railways, gas or electric plants, and express companies were, in 1907, vested in two public service commissions (the first for New York City and the second for all other parts of the state), each of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the Senate; in 1910 the regulation of telephone and telegraph companies throughout the state was vested in the second commission.
The establishments in 1910 consisted of thirteen regiments and fifty separate companies of infantry, two squadrons and two troops of cavalry, four light batteries, one regiment of engineers, a signal corps of two companies and a naval militia, commanded by a captain and consisting of two battalions and two separate divisions.
State banks must carry from 15% to 25% reserve and trust companies from 10% to 15% reserve, depending upon location.
In the same year there were 140 savings-banks, 85 trust companies, 46 safe deposit companies, 255 building and loan associations and other miscellaneous corporations, with total resources of $3,833,500,000 under the supervision of the banking department of the state.
To correct abuses in the life insurance business which were discovered in 1905 by a committee of the state legislature, laws were passed in the next year regulating the election of the directors of the insurance companies, and the investments of the companies and the distribution of dividends, limiting the amount of business of the larger companies and prohibiting rebates on insurance premiums. A state superintendent of insurance, (since 1860) appointed by the governor, holds office for three years.
Notwithstanding the good claim to their province which the Dutch had established by discovery and occupancy, the government of Great Britain, basing its claim to the same territory on Cabot's discovery (1498), the patent to the London and Plymouth companies (1606), and the patent to the Council for New England (1620), contended that the Dutch were intruders.
When Major Richard Ingoldsby arrived with two companies of the king's soldiers and demanded possession of the fort, Leisler refused although he still professed his willingness to deliver it to Sloughter.
The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.
The story of the struggle of the rival British and American companies to control the fur trade, with the final dominance of the Hudson's Bay Company has been told under Oregon and need not be repeated.
28 a subordinate place; it was perhaps only a collective name for the companies of merchants who conducted the SouthArabian export trade (the root saba in the inscriptions meaning to make a trading journey), and in that case would be of such late origin as to hold one of the last places in a list that has genealogical form.
He bought wild lands, took stock in mining companies, desiccated egg companies, patent looms, photo-lithographic companies, gave away profusely, lent to plausible rascals, and was the ready prey of every new inventor who chanced to find him with money or with property that he could readily convert into money.
It is served by most of the Levantine steamship companies, and is the best point of departure for visitors desiring to see Tarsus, the Cilician remains, and the finest scenery of the East Taurus.
The territories governed or administered by chartered companies form a class by themselves.
Nominally such companies are the delegates of some states; in reality they act as if they were true sovereigns.
In the United States few railway companies design or build their own bridges.
General specifications as to span, loading, &c., are furnished to bridge-building companies, which make the design under the direction of engineers who are experts in this kind of work.
The practical result is that a bridge which would be passed by the English Board of Trade would require to be strengthened 5% in some parts and 60% in others, before it would be accepted by the German government, or by any of the leading railway companies in America."
Since the functions of these organizations were commercial, for which the regular Government officials were unsuited, they were established as commercial joint-stock companies under peculiar conditions adapting them to the service of the state.
Corporations are reached through the general property tax, but there is a small levy on fire insurance companies for the support of the local fire departments.
The principal beds are near Whitstable, Faversham, Milton, Queenborough and Rochester, some being worked by ancient companies or gilds of fishermen.
There are no special corporation taxes, but licence-charges are levied upon express and sleeping-car companies, and a tax is laid on the premiums of insurance companies.
David Thompson (1770-1857), an employee at different times of the Hudson's Bay and North-West Fur companies, explored the region of the Missouri river in 1797-1798, and thus anticipated the work of Lewis and Clark, who entered the present limits of the state in 1804 and wintered among the Mandans,constructingFortMandan in what is nowMcLean county.
Insurance is another important business, for here are the headquarters of the Prudential, the Mutual Benefit Life and the American Fire, the Firemen's and the Newark Fire Insurance companies.
Native and European soldiers are generally mixed together in the same battalions, though in separate companies.
The result of their deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619 and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for the maintenance 1 See The Geographical Journal, ix.
A new war between Great Britain and Holland broke out in 1672 and was terminated by the Treaty of Westminster (February 17, 1674), by which the points at issue between the two companies were referred first to commissioners and finally to an arbitrator.
of track are State-owned; the rest are in the hands of private companies, but were gradually to be taken over by the State.
As years went by, the various Carnegie companies represented in this industry prospered to such an extent that in 1901, when they were incorporated in the United States Steel Corporation, a trust organized by Mr J.
Thus, in the reign of Alexander, the fugitive serfs whom tyranny or idleness had driven into this wilderness (they were subsequently known as Kazaki, or Cossacks, a Tatar word meaning freebooters) were formed into companies (c. 1504) and placed at the disposal of the frontier starostas, or lord marchers, of Kaniev, Kamenets, Czerkask on the Don and other places.
Parrots are gregarious and usually feed and roost in companies, but are at least temporarily monogamous.
Many of the zoological gardens are owned by private companies and derive their income entirely from gate-money, menagerie sales, rent of refreshment rooms, concert-halls and other auxiliary public attractions, any profits being distributed amongst the members of the company.
In 1909 Hartford was the home city of six fire insurance and six life insurance companies, the principal ones being the Aetna (fire), Aetna Life, Phoenix Mutual Life, Phoenix Fire, Travelers (Life and Accident), Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, National Fire, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut General Life and Connecticut Mutual Life.
In 1906 the six fire insurance companies had an aggregate capital of more than $10,000,000; on the 1st January 1906 they reported assets of about $59,000,000 and an aggregate surplus of $30,000,000.
Since the fire insurance business began in Hartford, the companies of that, ,Ity now doing business there have paid about $340,000,000 in losses.
Several large and successful foreign companies have made Hartford their American headquarters.
The life insurance companies have assets to the value of about $225,000,000.
These were appointed governors of the Florentine republic when the Companies of the Arts seized the government in 1282.
There are three families, two of which form companies rather severely limited.
His cavalry consisted of io regiments and 22 companies.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
He is perhaps scarcely consistent in ap proving the concession of temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies undertaking risky enterprises "of which the public is afterwards to reap the benefit."
X.) 1 Professor Bastable calls attention to the interesting fact that the proposal of an export duty on wool and the justification of a temporary monopoly to joint-stock companies both appear for the first time in the edition of 1784.
These ports are well served by a large number of foreign steamship companies, which give direct communication with the principal ports of the United States, Europe, and the west coast of South America, and the initiation of a Japanese line in 1908 also brings Mexico into direct communication with the far East.
These two last-mentioned weapons have the look of highly developed savage forms, while on the other hand the military organization was in some respects equal to that of an Asiatic nation, with its regular companies commanded each by its captain and provided with its standard.
P the effect " that Convocation should nominate a body of its own members to undertake the work of revision, who shall be at liberty to invite the co-operation of any eminent for scholarship, to whatever nation or religious body they may belong "; and shortly afterwards two companies were formed for the revision of the Authorized Version of the Old and New Testaments.
These companies consisted of the following :-1.
Negotiations were opened with the leading scholars of the Protestant denominations in America, with the result that similar companies were formed in the United States.
To this is added a " Literary Fund " (designed originally for founding a college) which is derived from the proceeds of a state tax on the deposits, stock, &c. of savings banks, trust companies, loan and trust companies, building and loan associations and other similar corporations not residing in the state, and a portion of the proceeds of a dog tax, both of which are distributed among the several districts in proportion to the number of pupils not less than five years of age who have attended school at least two weeks.
The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies.
Except in the case of railways, telegraph and telephone lines, savings banks, building and loan associations and fire insurance companies, the taxes are assessed and collected by town officers, but every fourth year the county commissioners are required to inspect the taxable property in the towns and report any misappraisal to the state board of equalization whose duty it is to equalize the valuation of property in the several towns.
Savings banks pay to the state treasurer a tax of three-fourths of 1% upon the amount of deposits on which they pay interest; building and loan associations pay to him a tax of three-fourths of 1% upon the whole amount of their capital stock paid in or shares in force, less the value of their real estate and loans secured by mortgages on real estate situated within the state and bearing interest not exceeding 5%; and fire insurance companies pay to the same officer a tax of I% upon the amount of their paid-up capital.
Such a portion of 75% of the tax on fire insurance companies is distributed among the several towns, in proportion to the amount of stock owned in each, as the amount of stock owned within the state bears to the whole amount of stock, and the remainder is reserved as a part of the state tax.
The state also derives an income from fees charged for chartering banks, railways, insurance companies and other corporations.
The docks attached to the canals, and certain other smaller docks, are owned by companies, and tolls are levied on vessels entering these, but not those entering the docks under the Board.
There is only one line of railway, over which several companies, however, have running powers, so that the town may be reached by the Brecon & Merthyr railway from Merthyr, Cardiff and Newport, by the Cambrian from Builth Wells, or by the Midland from Hereford and Swansea respectively.
Other parks are maintained by the street railway companies.
In Penn Common are a monument erected to the "First Defenders," to commemorate the fact that the "Ringgold Light Infantry," the first volunteer company to report at Washington for service in the Civil War, came from this city; a monument to President McKinley, and one to the volunteer fire companies of the city.
On the southern side the ports of San Jose, Champerico and Ocos are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the Pacific Steam Navigation Companies.
The telephonic systems of Guatemala la Nueva, Quezaltenango and other cities are owned by private companies.
Free grants of uncultivated land are sometimes made to immigrants (including foreign companies), to persons who undertake to build roads or railways through their allotments, to towns, villages and schools.
Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.
Although there usually exist general laws under which corporations or companies (including railway and electric car companies) can be formed, laws which in some states and for some purposes confer a greater freedom of incorporation than the general law allows in the United Kingdom, there is nevertheless a noticeable tendency to come to the legislature for special purposes of this kind.
In New YOrk City, where the council had lost public confidence, and in some other places, the only important power still possessed by the council is that of granting franchises to street railways, gas companies and the like.
The full active force of the present organization is as follows: 15 regiments of cavalry, with 765 officers and 13,155 enlisted men; 6 regiments of field artillery, with 236 officers and 5220 enlisted men; 30 regiments of infantry, with 1530 officers and 26,731 enlisted men; 3 battalions of engineers, with 2002 enlisted men, commanded by officers detailed from the corps of engineers; a special regiment of infantry for Porto Rico, with 31 officers and 576 enlisted men; a provisional force of 50 companies of native scouts in the Philippines, with 178 officers and 5731 enlisted men; staff men, service school detachments, the military academy at West Point, Indian scouts, &c, totalling 11,777 enlisted men.
About1788-1789small companies began to visit the place every summer to work the salt deposits.
The numerous loan and trust companies also possess certain banking privileges.
Telephone and express companies are also subject to its jurisdiction.
The Canadian Pacific railway controls large land areas in the two new provinces; and large tracts in these provinces are owned by land companies.
It also arranged with the various railway companies to run refrigerator cars weekly on the main lines leading to Montreal and other export points.
In 1872 two companies had been formed and received charters to build the Canadian Pacific railway.
The government endeavoured to bring about an amalgamation of these rival companies, believing that the united energies and financial ability of the whole country were required for so vast an undertaking.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
So much improved is the position of the farmer in North America compared with what it was about 1870, that the transport companies in 1901 carried 174 bushels of his grain to the seaboard in exchange for the value of one bushel, whereas in 1867 he had to give up one bushel in every six in return for the service.
per quarter; the ocean transport companies carried eight bushels of wheat across the seas in 1901 for the value of one bushel, or exactly at the same ratio as in 1872.
State officials are forbidden to accept railway passes from railway companies, and individuals are forbidden to receive freight rebates.
(almost all of the present state of Mississippi and more than half of the present state of Alabama) to four land companies, but in the following year a new legislature rescinded the contracts on the ground that they had been fraudulently and corruptly made, as was probably the case, and the rescindment was embodied in the Constitution of 1798.
In reply to a communication of President Adams early in 1827 that the United States would take strong measures to enforce its policy, Governor Troup declared that he felt it his duty to resist to the utmost any military attack which the government of the United States should think proper to make, and ordered the military companies to prepare to resist " any hostile invasion of the territory of this state."
Haskins's The Yazoo Land Companies (Washington, 1891); the excellent monograph (mentioned above) by U.
Soon after the conclusion of peace important changes were made in the legislation concerning industry and commerce, and the new freedom thus accorded produced a large number of limited liability companies.
The total area of the docks is about 186 acres, and the owning companies are the North Eastern and the Hull & Barnsley railways.
After bloodshed between the rival fur companies, and their union in 1821, Fort Garry was erected, as a trading post and settlers' depot, and with somewhat elaborate structure, with stone walls, bastions and portholes.
In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged in traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico).
But in the treaty of 1894 between the United States and Japan there is nothing to limit the free immigration of Japanese; and several companies have been formed to promote it.
A Committee of Safety was appointed at a public meeting, which formed a provisional government and reorganized the volunteer military companies, which had been disbanded in 1890.
Meanwhile two companies of volunteer troops arrived and occupied the grounds.
- The yarn trade is mainly in the hands of limited companies, and a private firm is looked upon as something of a survival from the past.
The centre of trade is the Manchester Royal Exchange, and though some companies or firms prefer to do business by means of their own salaried salesmen, managers or directors, most of the yarn is sold by agents.
It must be noted, however, that while most of the spinning concerns are worked by limited companies or individuals with a considerable capital, a good many small manufacturers exist who have little capital and are practically financied by their agents or customers.
In 1905 the twelve leading manufactures, with the value of each, were: steel and malleable iron, $363,773,577; foundry and machineshop products, consisting most largely of steam locomotives, metalworking machinery and pumping machinery, $119,650,913; pigiron, $107,455,267; leather, $69,427,852; railway cars and repairs by steam railway companies, $61,021,374; refined petroleum, $47,459,5 02; silk and silk goods, $39,333,520; tobacco, cigars and cigarettes, $39,079,122; flour and grist-mill products, $38,518,702; refined sugar and molasses, $37,182,504; worsted goods, $35,683,015; and malt liquors, $34,863,823.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1, 4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors.
In 1817 two companies bought from the government a portion of the tract, at the mouth of Swan Creek, including most of the land now occupied by Toledo.
It received a temporary check from the disasters of the Spanish-American War of 1898;1898; but less than a year later it paid about X55 0, 000 in industrial and commercial taxes, or more than r i% of the whole amount thus collected in the kingdom; and within five years it had become a port of regular call for thirty-five important shipping companies.
It was then to be stormed by three companies of bluejackets - A company under Lt.-Comm.
The seamen of A and B companies under Lt.-Comm.
The nest is placed in bushes or high trees, the bird generally building in companies, and in the middle of August von Heuglin (Orn.
Travelling generally in companies, and carrying a simple outfit, these Celtic pioneers flung themselves on the continent of Europe, and, not content with reproducing at Annegray or Luxeuil the willow or brushwood huts, the chapel and the round tower, which they had left behind in Derry or in the island of Hy (Iona), they braved the dangers of the northern seas, and penetrated as far as the Faroes and even far distant Iceland.
In some of the older streets European shops have replaced the picturesque native cupboards; drinking dens have sprung up at many of the corners, while telephones and electric light have been introduced by private companies, and European machinery is used in many of the corn-mills, &c. The main thoroughfare leads from Bab el Marsa (Gate of the Port) to the Bab el Sok (Gate of the Market-place) known to the English as Port Catherine.
The larger passenger steamers of the Rotterdamsche Lloyd to Netherlands India and of the Holland-American Steamship Company (the two principal passenger and cargo steamship companies at Rotterdam) have their berths on the south side of the river.
The operations of these two great chartered companies occupy a place among memorable events of Frederick Henry's stadholderate; they are therefore mentioned here, but for further details the special articles must be consulted.
But it was in the Portuguese g g colonies that the conquests of the Dutch East and with West India Companies had been made, and the France question of the Indies as between Netherlander and Spaniard assumed henceforth quite a different complexion.
The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance.
Collective Supplies and Sales.-There are ten large American and Canadian companies with extensive systems for gathering the annual hauls of skins from the far-scattered trappers.
Gold exists in the western districts of the country, and several companies were formed to work the mines in the period 1895-1901.
Revenue is obtained principally from caravan taxes, liquor licences, rents from government land and contributions from the gold-mining companies.
In addition, a force of native scouts, which ultimately reached a total of 860 men, was organized in eighteen companies, and partly armed with Snider rifles, to cover the advance of the main column, which started on the 27th of December, and to improve the road.
The city of Mount Vernon was founded in 1851 by several realty companies.
Bremen is the centre for some of the more important of the German shipping companies, especially of the North German Lloyd (founded in 1856), which, on the 1st of January 1905, possessed a fleet of 382 steamers of 693,892 tons, besides lighters and similar craft.
The aggregate total of capital of the tea-producing companies in India and Ceylon now amounts to about 25,000,000.
The cost ranged from So cents to per acre; or, with incorporated companies, from $1.50 to $2.50 per acre and upwards.
Before the election the Black Hawk Indian War broke out; Lincoln volunteered in one of the Sangamon county companies on the 21st of April and was elected captain by the members of the company.
In Prussia numerous private companies, in the first instance, constructed their systems, and the state contented itself for the most part with laying lines in such districts only as were not likely to attract private capital.
From them great steamship lines, notably the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg-American, the Hambuig South American and the German East African steamship companies, maintain express mail and other services with North and South America, Australia, the Cape of Good Hope and the Far East.
Life Insurance.There were forty-six companies in 1900 for the insurance of life.
Besides these are sixty-one companiesof whic forty-six are comprised in the above life insurance companies-paying subsidies in case of death or of military service, endowments, &c. Some of these companies are industrial.
The transactions of all these companies included in 1900 over 4,179,000 persons, and the amount of insurances effected was 80,000,000.
regiments or 12 battalions), 2 regiments of field artillery (comprising 9 batteries of field-guns and 3 of field howitzers, 72 pieces in all), 3 squadrons of cavalry, I Or 2 companies of pioneers, a bridge ttain and I or 2 bearer companies; (c) corps troops, 1 battalion rifles, telegraph troops, bridge train, ammunition columns, train (supply) battalion, field bakeries, bearer companies and field hospitals, &c., with, as a rule, one or two batteries of heavy field howitzers or mortars and a machine-gun group. The remainder of the cavalry and horse artillery attached to the army corps in peace goes in war to form the cavalry divisions.
The battalion has always four companies, each, at war strength, 250 strong.
On the other hand, the pioneers (29 battalions) are assigned to the field army, with duties corresponding roughly to those of field companies R.E.
In Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover the railways were almost entirely the property of the state, but in all other parts public and private lines existed side by side, an arrangement which seemed to combine the disadvantages of both systems. In 1871 threequarters of the railway lines belonged to private companies, and the existence of these powerful private corporations, while they were defended by many of the Liberals, was, according to the national type of thought, something of an anomaly.
The work was continued by his successors, and by the year 1896 there remained only about 2000 kilometres of private railways in Prussia; of these none except those in East Prussia belonged to companies of any great importance.
He avowedly wished to imitate the older form of British colonization by means of chartered companies, which had been recently revived in the North Borneo Company; the only responsibility of the imperial government was to be their protection from foreign aggression.
In 1885 two new great companies were founded to undertake the government.
As markets for German products the colonies remained of small importance; in 1907 the whole value of the trade, import and export, between Germany and her colonies was less than ~3,3oo,ooo, and the cost of administration, including the grant to the shipping companies, often exceeded the total trade.
Against this, however, a strong prejudice exists, and in Ontario the only direct taxation takes the form of taxes on corporations (insurance, loan and railway companies), succession duties, liquor licences, &c. These, together with returns from various investments, earnings of provincial buildings, &c., yield about one-third of the revenue.
The other railways are owned by private companies, but are subject to the decisions of a federal railway commission.
The primary and model schools were consolidated and improved; the provincial university was given increased aid from the succession duties; various public utilities, previously operated by private companies, were taken over by the province, and worked with vigour and success.
The sugar-refining industry has been introduced by two important companies, and most of the capital employed in sugar-refining in other parts of Italy has been subscribed at Genoa, where the administrative offices of the principal companies and individual refiners are situated.
At the same time special privileges were granted to articles imported by sea, so as to foster the trade of Trieste and Fiume; as in Germany a subvention was granted to the great shipping companies, the Austrian Lloyd and Adria; the area of the Customs Union was enlarged so as to include Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina.
(8) The securities of the two governments to rank as investments for savings banks, insurance companies and similar institutions in both countries, but not as trust fund investments.
Large reserves are set apart for the natives by government when marking off the land granted to plantation companies.
The best-known of these companies, the St d-Kamerun, holds a concession over a large tract of country by the Sanga river, exporting its rubber, ivory and other produce via the Congo.
The railways are of two kinds: (I) those state-owned and state-worked, (2) agricultural light railways owned and worked by private companies.
The fellahin furnish three squadrons, five batteries, three garrison artillery companies and nine battalions.
The most efficient companies in the Sudanese battalions are apparently those in.
Every battalion receives two additional companies on mobilization and takes the field with six companies.
They were armed in separate companies with bows and arrows, spears, daggers and shields, and the officers carried battle-axes and maces.
The messenger, however, was unable to penetrate to the spot; and the advanced guard, consisting of a detachment of the 31st, two companies of the 78th, one of the 35th, and De Rolls egiment, with a picquet of dragoons, the whole mustering 733 men, was surrounded, and, after a gallant resistance, the hurvivors, who had expended all their ammunition, became prisoners of war.
On the 22nd of March a force, consisting of two British and three Indian battalions, with a naval brigade, a squadron of lancers, two companies of engineers, and a large convoy of camels carrying water and supplies, under Major-General Sir J.
the Egyptian army, incltidrng reserves, consisted of 16 battalions of infantry, of which 6 were Sudanese, 10 squadrons of cavalry, 5 batteries of artillery, 3 companies of garrison artillery, and 8 companies of camel corps, and it possessed 13 gunboats for river work.
A flying column, comprising a squadron of cavalry, a field battery, 6 machine guns, 6 companies of the camel corps, and a brigade of infantry and details, in all 3700 men, under Wingate, left Faki Kohi on the 21st of November.
equipment), 3 battalions of fortress artillery and 6 companies of engineers, with in addition various local troops and details.
Various attempts were also made to improve trade and industry by abolishing the still remaining privileges of the Hanseatic towns, by promoting a wholesale immigration of skilful and well-to-do Dutch traders and handicraftsmen into Denmark under most favourable conditions, by opening up the rich fisheries of the Arctic seas, and by establishing joint-stock chartered companies both in the East and the West Indies.
The effect of these revelations was profound not only politically, but also economically; the important export trade in Danish butter, especially, was adversely affected, as Herr Alberti had been interested in numerous dairy companies.
In 1908 two companies, under the protection of El Roghi, a chieftain then ruling the Riff region, started mining lead and iron some 15 m.
By order of the Government the former were diverted to the Bureau by the Post Office and cable companies.
On the latter date the telegraph lines were placed in charge of the War Department but transferred later to the Post Office Department when the Government took over the telegraph and express companies.
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The chief companies are the Caledonian, formed in 1845; the North British, of the same date; the Glasgow and South-Western, formed by amalgamation in 1850; the Highland, formed by amalgamation in 1865; and the Great North of Scotland, 1846.
The total capital of all the Scots companies in 1888 was £114,120,119 by 1910 it exceeded £185,000,000.
William complained, later, that he had no notice of the terms of that patent till after it was passed (he was fighting under Namur at the time), and the act not unnaturally aroused the jealousy of the rival English companies.
As to civil matters, the country was troubled by riots against the Malt Tax, but the clans submitted to a very superficial disarmament; companies of highlanders were em- The high- toed to preserve order and check cattle-raiding; clans.
The fact is that as English companies for foreign trade had long been in chartered existence, Scotsmen and Scottish capital had no profitable outlets, while agriculture was conducted on slovenly medieval or prehistoric methods; and only the linen trade of the country was really flourishing.
Horses must be fed; the wages of grooms and helpers be paid; saddlery, clothing, shoeing, &c., are items; farmers, innkeepers, railway companies, fly-men and innumerable others benefit more or less directly.
These were handed on, from mouth to mouth, in the small companies of the brethren or sisters.
The increase in the number of joint-stock companies, and the capital thus invested in industrial undertakings, furnish a valuable indication.
In 1873 there were 28 such companies with a total capital of X2,224,900; in 1890, 75 with a capital of 9,352,000; and in 1899 no fewer than 242 with a total capital of X31,378,655.
Gold is found in the province of El Oro, where the great Zaruma and other companies have opened a number of mines.
has stimulated the inventive genius; in many cases blacksmith shops have been transformed into machinery factories; also wellestablished companies of the eastern states have been induced to remove to Illinois by the low prices of iron and wood, due to cheap transportation rates on the Great Lakes.
In the building of railway cars by manufacturing corporations, Illinois also led the states in 1900 and in 1905, the product being valued at $24,845,606 in 1900 and at $30,926,464 (an increase of nearly one-fourth) in 1905; and in construction by railway companies was second in 1900, with a product valued at $16,580,424, which had increased 53.7% in 1905, when the product was valued at $25,491,209.
The constitution declares that the state's rights of eminent domain shall never be so abridged as to prevent the legislature from taking the property and franchises of incorporated companies and subjecting them to the public necessity in a way similar to the treatment of individuals.
From 1897 to 1903 the efforts of the Street Railway Companies of Chicago to extend their franchise, and of the city of Chicago to secure municipal control of its street railway system, resulted in the statute of 1903, which provided for municipal ownership. But the proposed issue under this law of bonds with which Chicago was to purchase or construct railways would have increased the city's bonded indebtedness beyond its constitutional limit, and was therefore declared unconstitutional in April 1907 by the supreme court of the state.
The wonderfully productive halibut fisheries of Hecate Strait, which separates these islands from the mainland and its adjacent islands, have attracted the attention of fishing companies, and great quantities of this fish are taken regularly and shipped across the continent in cold storage.
The mines are still worked at the present day by French and Greek companies, but mainly for lead, manganese and cadmium.
The province furnishes no men for the Spanish peninsular army, but its annual conscription provides men for the local territorial militia, composed of regiments of infantry, squadrons of mounted rifles and companies of garrison artillery - about 5000 men all told.
The coal deposits, which are of somewhat indifferent quality, have been worked with varying degrees of failure by a succession of companies, one of which, the Labuan & Borneo Ltd., liquidated in 1902 after the collapse of a shaft upon which large sums had been expended.
He was appointed in 1900 chairman of a commission to inquire into the various concessions which President Kruger and the Rand had granted to companies and private individuals in the Transvaal, and to report which should be maintained and which annulled.
The magistracy was for two centuries almost exclusively in the hands of the merchant aristocracy, who formed the companies of traders or "nations," such as the Bergen-fahrer, Novgorodfahrer, Riga fahrer and Stockholm-fahrer.
Naturally, there arose much jealousy between the gilds and the aristocratic companies, which exclusively ruled the republic. After an attempt to upset the merchants had been suppressed in 1384, the gilds succeeded, under more favourable circumstances, in 1408.
In the constitution of 1669, under the pressure of a large public debt, the great companies yielded a specified share in the financial administration to the leading gilds of tradesmen.
Nevertheless, the seven great companies continued to choose the magistrates by co-optation among themselves.
The success of these undertakings engendered a wild spirit of speculation in tea companies both in India and at home, which reached its climax in 1865.
In 1905 there were 134 tea-planting companies registered in India, about 80% of the capital being held by shareholders in London.
The total output in1905-1906was 8,417,739 tons; while there were 47 companies engaged in coal-mining, of which 46 were in Bengal.
In the early days of railway enterprise the agency of private companies guaranteed by the state was exclusively employed, and nearly all the great trunk lines were made under this system, but the leases of the last three of these lines, the Great Indian Peninsula, the Bombay Baroda and Central India, and the Madras companies, fell in respectively in 'goo, 1905 and 1907.
Forthwith private companies for trade with the East were formed in many parts of the United Provinces, but in 1602 they were all amalgamated by the statesgeneral into " The United East India Company of the Netherlands."
An expedition was despatched to India consisting of six companies of infantry and ten ships under Captain Nicholson.
As opposed to the Mahrattas, who were at least a nationality bound by some traditions of a united government, the Pindaris were merely irregular soldiers, corresponding most nearly to the free companies of medieval Europe.
To aid the free circulation of money and facilitate trade, the government grants subsidies for the establishment of co-operative warehouse companies with bonded warehouses.
Konakry is a port of call for French, British and German steamship companies, and is in telegraphic communication with Europe.
The popolo itself was divided into twenty armed companies, each under a gonfaloniere.
Under the Carey Act and its amendments Congress had in 1909 given to the state about 2,000,000 acres of desert land on condition that it should be reclaimed, and in that year about 800,000 acres were in process of reclamation, mostly by private companies.
The values of the products of the principal industries of the state in 1905 were: car and general shop construction and repairs by steam railway companies, $1,640,361; lumber and timber products, $426,433 flour and grist mill products, $283,653; butter, $114,354.
The principal sources of revenue are a general property tax, a tax on the gross receipts of express companies, a tax on the gross products of mines, an inheritance tax, a poll tax and the sale of liquor licences.
The growth of the great shipbuilding and engineering companies; now amalgamated, of which the Armstrong firm at Elswick is the most famous, necessitated the dredging of the river so as to form a deep waterway.
The exploitation of the mines suffers in many cases from the difficulties and expense of transport, the high duties payable in Dutch Borneo to the native princes, the competition among the rival companies, and often the limited quantities of the minerals found in the mines.
Meanwhile the Dutch and British East India Companies had been formed, had destroyed the monopoly so long enjoyed by the Portuguese, and to a less extent the Spaniards, in the trade of the Malayan Archipelago, and had gained a footing in Borneo.
The point of the peninsula is occupied by the storehouses of the steamboat companies, while metal wares and corn are discharged on a long island of the Oka, at the iron harbour and in Grebnovskaya harbour.
Though nearly all its ancient abodes have been drained, and for its purposes sterilized these many years past, not a spring comes but it shows itself in small companies in the eastern counties of England, evidently seeking a breedingplace.
In April 1754 he set out with two companies for the Ohio, defeated (28th May) a force of French and Indians at Great Meadows (in the present Fayette county, Pennsylvania), but at Fort Necessity in this vicinity was forced to capitulate (3rd July), though only after a vigorous defence.
When the legislature of Virginia gave him 150 shares of stock in companies formed for the improvement of the Potomac and James rivers, and he was unable to refuse them lest his action should be misinterpreted, he extricated himself by giving them to educational institutions.
From an early date the collection of the taxes had been farmed out to companies of contractors (societates vectigales), who became a by-word for rapacity.
The census as a method of valuation was revived; the important and productive land taxes were placed on a more definite footing; while, above all, the substitution of direct collection by state officials for the letting out by auction of the tax-collection to the companies of publicani was made general.
Irrigation by private companies is of some importance, especially in the San Juan Valley, the Rio Grande Valley and the Pecos Valley.
The leading industries in 1905 were the construction of cars and general railway shop and repair work by steam railway companies (value of product, $2,509,845), the manufacture of lumber and timber products (value $1,315,364) and of flour and grist mill products (value $388,124), and the printing and publishing of newspapers and periodicals (value $279,858).
There are also special corporation taxes on car companies, express companies and foreign corporations producing, refining or selling petroleum or coal oil; and a system of licence-charges or business taxes.
In 1882, numerous electric lighting companies were formed for the conduct of public and private lighting, but an electric lighting act passed in that year greatly hindered commercial progress in Great Britain.
the royal family, and contributors of £50o or more to the funds), of the council of almoners (which administers the endowments), or of certain of the city companies; (2) by competition, on the nomination of a donation governor (for boys only), or from public elementary schools in London, certain city parishes and certain endowed schools elsewhere.
To encourage trade with the Levant, Senegal, Guinea and other places, privileges were granted to companies; but, like the more important East India Company, all were unsuccessful.
These two companies have their posts wide spread over the north country.
On the union of the two companies under the name of the latter, Fort Edmonton sprang into new importance.
Out of this railway grew one of the largest companies, the London & North-Western; while the most extensive system as regards mileage, the Great Western, originated in a line from Paddington, London, to Bristol, for which an act of parliament was obtained in 1835, and which was opened in 1841.
It quintupled in the next five-yearly period, till the end of 1840,;when the total length of miles of railway in the kingdom had come to be 1435, built at a cost of £41,391,634, as represented by the paid-up capital of the various companies.
The construction of railways (especially in England) was undertaken originally by a vast number of small companies, each under separate acts of parliament.
of loo companies (told off to garrisons, siege train and heavy field batteries) and 8 batteries mountain guns; the Corps of Royal Engineers, organized into mounted field troops, field companies, fortress, telegraph, railway, searchlight, balloon, wireless companies and bridging train; the Army Service Corps, divided into transport, supply, mechanical-transport and other companies and sections; the Royal Army Medical Corps of 35 companies; the Army Ordnance Corps; the Army Veterinary Corps; Army Post Office Corps (formed on mobilization only) and Army Pay Corps.
In addition, there are the following colonial troops under the home government :-West India Regiment, 2 battalions; Royal Malta Artillery, 2 garrison companies; West African Frontier Force, 2 batteries, 1 garrison company, 1 battalion M.I., 6 battalions infantry; and King's African Rifles (East Africa), 5 battalions, besides the Indian troops in imperial services.
The war organization of the home establishment, with its general and special reserves, aimed at the mobilization and despatch overseas of 6 army divisions, each of 12 battalions in 3 brigades; 9 field batteries in 3 brigades, a brigade of 3 field howitzer batteries, and a heavy battery, each with the appropriate ammunition columns; 2 field companies and telegraph company R.E.; 2 companies mounted infantry; and ambulances, columns and parks.
In addition to these 6 divisions, there are "army troops" at the disposal of the commander-in-chief, consisting of two mixed "mounted brigades" (cavalry, mounted infantry, and horse artillery) serving as the "protective cavalry," and of various technical troops, such as balloon companies and bridging train.
The army troops, divisions and mounted brigades consist of 56 regiments of yeomanry; 14 batteries and 14 ammunition columns R.H.A., 151 batteries and 55 ammunition columns R.F.A., 3 mountain batteries and ammunition column, and 14 heavy batteries and ammunition columns R.G.A.; 28 field companies, 29 telegraph companies, railway battalion, &c., R.E.; 204 battalions infantry (including to of cyclists, the Honourable Artillery Company, and certain corps of the Officers' Training Corps training as territorials); 60 units A.S.C.; 56 field ambulances, 23 general hospitals and 2 sanitary companies R.A.M.C. Told off to the defended seaports are 16 groups of garrison artillery companies and 58 fortress and electric light companies R.E.
The Indian army consists of 138 battalions of infantry, 10 regiments of cavalry, 16 mountain batteries, i garrison artillery company, 32 sapper and miner companies (2 railways companies included).
The Indian army is recruited from Mahommedans and Hindus of various tribes and sects, and with some exceptions (chiefly in the Madras infantry) companies, sometimes regiments, are composed exclusively of men of one class.
Pocket Book 1908 gives the following particulars: Mahommedans (Pathans of the frontier tribes, Hazaras Baluchis, Moplahs, Punjabi Mahommedans, &c.), 350 infantry companies, 76 squadrons (35% of the army).
Hindus (Sikhs, Gurkhas, Rajputs, Jats, Dogras, Mahrattas, Tamils, Brahmans, Bhils, Garhwalis, &c.), 727 companies, 79 squadrons (6 3.3%).
The postal and telegraph system is efficacious, and the telephone service, maintained partly by the state and partly by companies, is very fully developed.
The Iron Institute (Jdrnkontoret) was established in 1748 as a financial institution, in which the chief iron-mining companies have shares, for the advancement of advantageous loans and the promotion of the industry generally.
The organization of the army in time of peace is as follows: 82 battalions of infantr y (28 regiments), 50 squadrons of cavalry, 71 field artillery and 7 position artillery batteries, Io fortress artillery, 16 engineer, and 18 army service corps companies.
Since then lines have been built by private companies from the coast at several points to inland mining centres.
belonged to private companies.
Three or four foreign companies maintain a regular steamship service to Valparaiso and other Chilean ports.
These mines gave employment to 4 6, 59 2 labourers, of whom 24,445 were employed by the nitrate companies, 13,710 in various metalliferous mines, 6437 in coal mines, and 2000 in other mines.
The latter figure is apparently about the production agreed upon between the Chilean government and the nitrate companies to prevent overproduction and a resulting decline in price.
Nearly all the oficinas, or working plants, are owned and operated by British companies, and the railways of this desolate region are generally owned by the same companies and form a part of the working plant.
In 1904 the permanent force consisted of 12 battalions of infantry, 6 regiments of cavalry, 4 regiments of mountain artillery, 1 regiment of horse artillery, 2 regiments of coast artillery, and 5 companies of engineers - aggregating 915 officers and 4757 men.
Though sometimes assembling in troops of from thirty to fifty, and then generally associating with zebras or with some of the larger antelopes, ostriches commonly, and especially in the breeding season, live in companies of not more than four or five, one of which is a cock and the rest are hens.
But, like the gas and glass companies, it found the cost of the raw material and the incidental expenses too great, and ceased its operations in 1899.
of the Treaty of Turkmanchai of 1828, it was declared that Russia alone should have the right of maintaining vessels of war on the Caspian, and that no other Power should fly the military flag on that sea; and by a crecision of the council of the Russian Empire, published on the 24th of November 1869, the establishment of companies for the navigation of the Caspian, except by Russian subjects, and the purchase of shares of such companies by foreigners were prohibited.
LIVERY COMPANIES, the name given to particular companies or societies in the city of London.
The origin of the city companies is to be found in the craftgilds of the middle ages.
In London the victory of the crafts is decisively marked by the ordinance of the time of Edward II., which required every citizen to be a member of some trade or mystery, and by another ordinance in 1375 which transferred the right of election of corporate officers (including members of parliament) from the ward-representatives to the trading companies.
Henceforward, and for many years, the companies engrossed political and municipal power in the city of London.
From this time they are called livery companies, "from now generally assuming a distinctive dress or livery."
They elect after dinner two persons of the company so assembled - Roger Osekyn and Lawrence de Haliwell - as their first governors or wardens, appointing, at the same time, in conformity with the pious custom of the age, a priest or chaplain to celebrate divine offices for their souls" (Heath's "Account of the Grocers' Company," quoted in Herbert's Twelve Great Livery Companies, 1836, i.
It must be remembered that they flourished at a time when the separate interests of master and servant had not yet been created; and, indeed, when that fundamental division of interests arose, the companies gradually lost their functions in the regulation of industry.
The goldsmiths had the assay of metals, the fishmongers the oversight of fish, the vintners of the tasting of wine, &c. The companies enforced their regulations on their members by force.
Following what appears to be the natural law of their being, the companies gradually lost their industrial character.
The capitalists gradually assumed the lead in the various societies, the richer members engrossed the power and the companies tended to become hereditary and exclusive.
Persons might be members who had nothing to do with the craft, and the rise of great capitalists and the development of competition in trade made the regulation of industry by means of companies no longer possible.
In the last stage of the companies the members have ceased to have any connexion with the trades, and in most cases their regulative functions have disappeared.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.