Companies sentence example
These, to me, are the most exciting companies to look at.
All big companies fall.
In the early 1800s, fertilizer companies sprang up using bone meal as the principle agent.
By October, when the French were fleeing toward Smolensk, there were hundreds of such companies, of various sizes and characters.
Because investing in new companies is entirely different than knowing when to buy and sell a stock.Advertisement
Those of Buenos Aires, Rosario and La Plata are owned by public companies.
Nearly all the cable companies possess their own steamers, of sufficient dimensions and specially equipped for making ordinary repairs; but for exceptional cases, where a considerable quantity of new cable may have to be inserted, it may be necessary to charter the services of one of the larger vessels owned by a cable-manufacturing company, at a certain sum per day, which may well reach £200 to £300.
Some of the complaints against the companies, however, were exaggerated, and the estimates formed of the possible commercial development of telegraphy were optimistic. The basis for these estimates was the experience of other countries, which, however, did not justify the expectation that a large increase of business consequent on reduction of rates could be obtained without serious diminution of profit.
It cannot justly be said that the companies made large profits while neglecting to develop the services adequately, but it is true that they were not able commercially to comply with many of the demands made upon them by the public. Until speculation took place in anticipation of government purchase, the market prices of the telegraph securities were mostly below par.
Both the Bell and the Edison Companies opened negotiations with the Post Office for the sale of their patents to the government, but without success.Advertisement
It also expressed willingness that the companies should have rights of way in the streets.
The railway system of Sardinia is in the hands of two companies - the Compagnia Reale delle Ferrovie Sarde, and the Compagnia delle Ferrovie Secondarie della Sardegna.
All these lines (and also the minor lines from Golfo degli Aranci to La Maddalena and from Carloforte to Porto Vesme and Calasetta) are in the hands of the Navigazione Generale Italiana, there being no Sardinian steamship companies.
In the spring of 1848 he was in Germany, and on the outbreak of the revolutionary troubles he accepted the invitation of the government of Baden to take the command against the insurgent "free companies" (Freischaaren).
It is divided between some twenty firms. The premises of Bass's brewery extend over Soo acres, while Allsopp's stand next; upwards of 5000 hands are employed in all, and many miles of railways owned by the firms cross the streets in all directions on the level, and connect with the lines of the railway companies.Advertisement
Under it the cost of the necessary land was to be found as to one-third by the state and as to the residue locally, but this arrangement proved unworkable and was abandoned in 1845, when it was settled that the state should provide the land and construct the earthworks and stations, the various companies which obtained concessions being left to make the permanent way, provide rolling stock and work the lines for certain periods.
All the companies, except the Nord, have at one time or another had to take advantage of the guarantee, and the fact that the Ouest had been one of the most persistent and heavy borrowers in this respect was one of the reasons that induced the government to take it over as from the 1st of January 1909.
But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.
Several companies are devoting all their energies to zinc extraction, and the output is now equal to about 5% of the world's production.
The form in general use on the British postal lines is the " Cordeaux screw," but the " Varley double cup " is still employed, especially by the railway companies.Advertisement
The telegraph companies proposed to effect an amalgamation so as to enable the services to be consolidated and extended, and they proposed to submit to various conditions for the protection of the public, such as maximum rates and limitation of dividends, with the provision that new issues of capital should be offered by auction, but public opinion was averse to the proposal.
After much negotiation the basis finally agreed upon between the government and the companies was 20 years' purchase of the profits of the year ended 30th June 1868.
At that date the superintending and managing staffs of the Post Office comprised 590 persons, the staff of the old companies with only about one-third of the traffic having been 534 persons.
A further cause has been competition offered by the telephone service, but against this the Post Office has received royalties from telephone companies and revenue from trunk telephone lines.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.Advertisement
Closely analogous to the action of the state in the cases referred to is the action taken by municipal authorities with the authority of the legislature in competing with or superseding private companies for the supply of electric light, gas, water, tramways and other public services..
Since the early days of international telegraphy, conferences of representatives of government telegraph departments and companies have been held from time to time (Paris 1865, Vienna 1868, Rome 1871 and 1878, St Petersburg 1875, London 1879, Berlin 1885,1885, Paris 1891, Buda Pesth 1896, London 1903).
It was found to be peculiarly adapted for communication between ships at sea and between ship and shore, and a system of regular supermarine communication was put into operation by two limited companies, Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company and the Marconi International Marine Communication Company.
The two companies amalgamated as the United Telephone Company Ltd.
The United Telephone Company confined its operations to London; subsidiary companies were formed to operate in the provinces.
The Post Office at the same time established several telephone exchanges in provincial towns so as to enable the PostmasterGeneral " to negotiate with the telephone companies in a satisfactory manner for licences."
After the withdrawal of the restriction against the companies erecting trunk wires it became evident that the development of the telephone services throughout the country would be facilitated by complete intercommunication and uniformity of systems, and that economies could be effected by concentration of management.
The various companies therefore amalgamated as the National Telephone Company.
It compelled the companies to sell their trunk wires to the Post Office, leaving the local exchanges in the hands of the companies.
At the time of the formation of the various telephone companies the enterprises were regarded as speculative, and much of the capital was raised at a discount.
After the consolidation of the companies in1889-1890the profits declined, patent rights had expired, material reductions were made in the rates for telephone services, and considerable replacements of plant became necessary, the cost of which was charged to revenue.
Much of the work is done by companies of peasants, who come down from the mountainous districts when required, permanent residence not being possible owing to the malaria.
A sign of industrial development is to be found in the growing number of manufacturing companies, both Italian and foreign.
In Italy, people can apply for loans through savings banks, assurance companies and mutual benefit societies.
Apart from the by-products coke, coke-breeze, tar and retort carbon, which are sold direct, gas companies are now in many cases preparing from their spent purifying material pure chemical products which are in great demand.
In July 1905 all the principal lines, which had been constructed by the state, but had been since 1885 let out to three companies (Mediterranean, Adriatic, Sicilian), were taken over by the state; their length amounted in 1901 to 6147 m., and in f 907 to 8422 m.
The minor lines (many of them narrow gauge) remain in the hands of private companies.
They were installed by private companies, but have been taken over by the state.
The garrison artillery consists of 3 coast and 3 fortress regiments, with a total of 72 companies.
Burghers of all denominations are enrolled in one or other of the arts or gilds, and these trading companies furnish the material from which the government or signoria bf the city is composed.
The most marked proof of the change which came over Italy towards the middle of the I4th century is furnished by the companies of adventure.
As the companies grew in size and improved their discipline, it was seen by the Italian nobles that this kind of service offered a good career for men of spirit, who had learned the use of arms. To leave so powerful and profitable a calling in the hands of foreigners seemed both dangerous and uneconomical.
The railway redemption contracts were in fact immediately voted by parliament, with a clause pledging the government to legislate in favor of farming out the railways to private companies.
The next demand was for greater fixity of tenure and more regular promotion, as well as for the recognition by the companies of the railwaymens union.
At the same time it mediated between the companies and the employees, and in June a settlement was formally concluded between the ministers of public works and of the treasury and the directors of the companies concerning the grievances of the employees.
This false position was remedied by the act of 1908, which brings companies into line with individuals.
As travelling companies never visited Guadalcanal, and as ladies took no part in the representations, these three plays were written for men only.
At the same time the interest guaranteed to the railway companies was reduced from 7 to 32%.
At the same time the chief lines of railway which had been built by public companies with a state guarantee, and which represented a loss to the empire of £3,171,250 per annum, as well as a growing indebtedness, were bought by the state.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
The amount of capital which parliament authorized railway companies to raise was about 42 millions on the average of the two years 1842-1843, 174 millions in 1844, 60 millions in 1845, and 132 millions in 1846, though this last sum was less than a quarter of the capital proposed in the schemes submitted to the Board of Trade; and the wild speculation which occurred in railway shares in 1845 contributed largely to the financial crisis of 1847.
In Argentina about 15% of the railways are owned and operated by the government, the balance being in the hands of private companies, largely controlled in England.
This classification is based partly upon special conditions of service, which make some articles more economical to carry than others (with particular reference to the question whether the goods are offered to the companies in car-loads or in small parcels), but chiefly with regard to the commercial value of the article, and its consequent ability to bear a high charge or a low one.
Until 1870 railway companies were almost free from special acts of control; and, in general, any company that could raise or borrow the capital was allowed to build a railway wherever it saw fit.
Operation by private companies, under specific provisions of the government authorities with regard to the method of its exercise, has been the policy consistently carried out in France, and less systematically and consistently in other countries under the domination of the Latin race.
Where the government is bad, they are a fruitful source of corruption; even where it is good, they enable the companies to drive hard bargains with the public, and prevent.
A code of requirements in regard to the opening of new railways has been drawn up by the department for the guidance of railway companies, and as the special circumstances of each line are considered on their merits, it rarely happens that the department finds it necessary to prohibit the opening of a new railway.
The usual mode of publishing such reports is to forward them to railway companies concerned, as well as to the press, and on application to any one else who is interested.
Prior to this some companies had, to a certain extent, done these things, but few, if any, were completely equipped in these respects.
Rules may also be made in respect to other matters besides those mentioned in the schedule, and companies may be called upon to adopt or reject, as the case may be, any appliance, the use or disuse of which may be considered desirable in the interest of the men.
Before, however, the rules so made become binding upon the companies, the latter have the right of appealing against them to the Railway Commissioners.
The final settlement of a rule requiring brake-levers to be fitted on both sides of goods-wagons was, however, deferred, owing to objections raised by certain of the railway companies.
In both states, the Commissions have power over electric railways and local public utilities furnishing heat, light and power, as well as over steam railway transportation, and the Wisconsin Commission also has control over telephone companies.
It increased the jurisdiction of the Commission by placing under the act express companies, sleeping-car companies and pipe lines for the transportation of oil.
On British railways the duty of the companies to provide all practicable safeguards and to educate and caution the servants may be said to have been faithfully performed, and the accident totals must be taken as being somewhat near the " irreducible minimum" - unless some of the infirmities of the human mind can be cured.
As a natural result weak railway companies in the United States have frequently been declared insolvent by the courts, owing to their inability in periods of commercial depression to meet their acknowledged obligations, and in the reorganization which has followed the shareholders have usually had to accept a loss, temporary or permanent.
Although this fact will not in itself make the companies liable to any process of reorganization similar to that following insolvency and foreclosure of the American railway, it is probable that reorganization of some sort must nevertheless take place in Great Britain, and it may well be questioned whether the position of the transportation system of that country would not have been better if it had been built up and projected on the experience gained by actual earlier losses, as in the United States.
But the general tendency to regulate rates by authority of the state has apparently rendered unnecessary the old plan of rate regulation through competition, even if it had not been demonstrated often and again that this form of regulation is costly for all concerned and is effective only during rare periods of direct conflict between companies.
Similarly in Great Britain there is a tendency towards combination by mutual agreement among the companies while they still preserve their independent existence.
Some railway companies, however, having a long mileage in timberless regions, do " treat " their sleepers.
Such cars in the United States are largely owned, not by the railway companies over whose lines they run, but by the Pullman Car Company, which receives the extra fees paid by passengers for their use.
In Great Britain the mineral trucks can ordinarily hold from 8 to io tons (long tons, 2240 lb), and the goods trucks rather less, though there are wagons in use holding 12 or 15 tons, and the specifications agreed to by the railway companies associated in the Railway Clearing House permit private wagon owners (who own about 45% of the wagon stock run on the railways of the United Kingdom) to build also wagons holding 20, 30, 40 and 56 tons.
The principle was patented, but the company owning the patent undertook to permit its free use by railway companies which were members of the Master Car Builders' Association, and thus threw open the underlying principle to competition.
The special quality which distinguished these prophetic gilds or companies was an intense patriotism combined with enthusiastic devotion to the cause of Yahweh.
In 1863 the Territory raised six companies of infantry and six of cavalry (about 1000 men), which saw no actual service against the Confederates but were useful in subduing hostile Indians.
Later he was connected with several mining companies, with offices in London, and there he was when the World War broke out in 1914.
There were, in 1906, 24 national banks and 269 state banks, but no trust companies, private banks or savings banks.
There were in 1908 five deep mines worked by English companies and one by a French company.
Both entered India as commercial companies, but the disorganized condition of the Mogul empire necessitated the use of military force to protect their interests, and allured them to conquest.
The companies gradually undertook the financial control of the districts where they traded and were recognized by the natives as political powers.
They took refuge in Holland, from whence they emigrated to Pennsylvania, in small companies, between 1719 and 1729.
In December 1 774 a copy of the order prohibiting the exportation of military stores to America was brought from Boston to Portsmouth by Paul Revere, whereupon the Portsmouth Committee of Safety organized militia companies, and captured the fort (Dec. 14).
There are no municipal lighting-plants; but the companies upon which the city depends for its service are (with all others) subject to the control of a state commission.
After the spawning the schools break up into smaller companies which are much scattered, and offer for two or three months employment to the hand-line fishermen.
Single individuals or small companies are found, however, on the coast all the year round; they may have become detached from the main bodies, and be seeking for the larger schools which have long left on their return migration.
When the agents of the spinners, that is, the buying brokers, by becoming principals in some transactions, had acquired interests diametrically opposed to those of their customers, the consequent feeling of distrust among spinners gave birth to the Cotton Buying Company, which, constituted originally of twenty to thrity limited cotton-spinning companies, represents to-day nearly 6,000,000 spindles distributed among nearly one hundred firms. Its object was to squeeze out some middlemen and economize for its members on brokerage.
The drilling of petroleum wells is carried on by individuals or companies, either on lands owned by them, or on properties whose owners grant leases, usually on condition that a certain number of wells shall be sunk within a stated period, and that a portion of the oil obtained (usually from one-tenth to one-fourth) shall be appropriated as royalty to the lessor.
With the adoption of carefully fitted screw-joints in 1865 the pipe line gradually came into general use, until in 1891 the lines owned by the various transit companies of Pennsylvania amounted in length to 25,000 m.
Pilgrims who were travelling to Jerusalem joined themselves in companies for security, and marched under arms; the pilgrims of 1064, who were headed by the archbishop of Mainz, numbered some 7000 men.
They resulted too in a number of "chartered companies" - that is to say, the three military orders, which, beginning as charitable socities, developed into military clubs, and developed again from military clubs into chartered companies, possessed of banks, navies and considerable territories.
The low lands of the South are being drained partly by the state and partly by private companies.
Atlanta is the Southern headquarters for a number of fire and life insurance companies, and is the third city of the United States in the amount of insurance business written and reported to resident agents, the annual premium receipts averaging about $10,000,000.
It is served by the railways of the Western and the Orleans Companies and by those of the state, but it has no navigable waterways.
The African trade of England was long in the hands of exclusive companies; but by an act of the first year of William and Mary it became free and open to all subjects of the crown.
Being the great entrepot for the trade of Egypt, the city is the headquarters of the British chamber of commerce and of most of the merchants and companies engaged in the development of the Delta.
Allowing for certain battalions unformed, there are altogether 309 nizam battalions; 20 separate chasseur battalions, of four companies each; 4 special chasseur battalions stationed on the Bulgarian frontier - total, 333 battalions in the first line.
In 1888 it was proposed by the public debt administration to undertake the collection of specified revenues to be set aside for the provision of railway guarantees, the principle to be followed being, generally, that such revenues should consist of the tithes of the districts through which the railways would pass, and that the public debt should hand over to guaranteed railway companies the amounts of their guarantees before transmitting to the imperial government any of the proceeds of the revenue so collected.
The concessionnaire companies have, however, wisely taken the view that it is better to depend upon their own revenues than upon any government guarantee, and have done their best to develop the working value of the lines in their charge.
The tables on p. 440 show the respective lengths of the various Ottoman railways open and worked at the end of 1908 and the amount of kilometric guarantees which they carried - and the lengths, &c., of railways worked by the various companies according to the nationality of the concessionaire groups.
Behind these all Prussia was overrun by newly formed units, (3 rd and 4th battalions) raised from depot companies, conscripts for 1807, and old soldiers rejoining after sickness or wounds.
The railways belong chiefly to the Orleans and Paris-Lyons-Mediterranean companies.
The foreign steamship companies making it a regular port of call are the Pacific Steam Navigation Co.
Employment is furnished for the convicts on the pentitentiary premises by incorporated companies.
The insurance work is done by-foreign companies.
The normal natural flow in ordinary summer weather is about 350,000,000 gallons a day, and of this, after the companies have taken 130,000,000, only 220,000,000 gallons are left to pass over Teddington Weir.
The water-supply of London is considered under that heading; it may be noted here that the Thames forms the chief source of supply for the metropolis, but apart from this the corporation of Oxford and two companies in the Staines district have powers to draw water from the river, though not in any large quantities.
With the State fund are incorporated all large estates, small farms not yet purchased by the occupants and lands acquired by colonization companies, foreign banks and similar bodies.
The series of trunk lines terminating at the port of Santos are owned by private companies and are formed by the Sao Paulo, Paulista and Mogyana lines, the first owned by an English company, and the other two by Brazilian companies.
Under this law companies were organized in England for building the Sao Paulo railway, and the lines running fromBahia and Pernambuco toward the Sao Francisco river.
The government finally determined to take over these guaranteed lines from the foreign companies owning them, and a statement issued in October 1902 showed that 1335 m.
Previous to the creation of the republic, the coastwise service was performed by two national companies (now united), and partially by foreign lines calling at two or more ports.
Parts of this coastwise traffic are covered by other companies, two of which receive subsidies.
Two subsidized companies maintain services on the Sao Francisco river - one below the Paulo Affonso falls, and the other above, the latter covering 854 m.
Besides these there are other companies engaged in the coasting and river traffic, either with subsidies from the state governments, as feeders for railway lines, or as private unsubsidized undertakings.
The telegraph lines, which date from 1852, are owned and operated by the national government, with the exception of the lines constructed by private railway companies, and the cable lines of the Amazon and the coast.
The purchase of guaranteed railways owned by foreign companies likewise added largely to the bonded indebtedness, though the onus was in existence in another form.
Thenceforward affairs went on prosperously; the mining districts continued to be enlarged; the trading companies of the littoral provinces were abolished, but the impulse they had given to agriculture remained.
In consequence of the large influx of tourists every year the North British and Caledonian railway companies give employment to an enormous staff.
The port is served by coasting steamers of the local companies only.
Natal colonists were not merely the first in the field with the transport traffic to the new goldfields; they became some of the earliest proprietors of mines, and for several years many of the largest mining companies had their chief offices at Pietermaritzburg or Durban.
After the Compromise of 1867, the policy of the Hungarian government was to construct its own railways, and to take over the lines constructed and worked by private companies.'
Trained riders, archers and javelin-throwers from infancy, they advanced to the attack in numerous companies following hard upon each other, avoiding close quarters, but wearing out their antagonists by the persistency of their onslaughts.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
In war the nation was divided into three subkingdoms, and these into companies, each with its commander.
The companies had yearly feasts, at which the commander honoured warriors who had slain one or more of the enemy.
The force, disciplined and organized by a permanent staff of officers and non-commissioned officers of the regular army, is about 6500 strong, and consists of a brigade of artillery, four mounted, three composite and four infantry corps, a cyclist corps, &c. There are also cadet companies some 3000 strong.
The police force and fire companies in the larger cities are organized on a military basis, and are sometimes used for military purposes.
The wrongs inflicted by him on companies and individuals of various nationalities, who had invested capital in industrial enterprises in Venezuela, led to a blockade of the Venezuelan ports in 1903 by English, German and Italian warships.
Rubber plantations have also been laid out, principally by American companies, the Castilloa elastica doing well.
Some of the bridges were built by companies, and tolls were levied at their crossing until modern times; thus Southwark Bridge was made toll-free in 1866, and Waterloo Bridge only in 1878, on being acquired by the City Corporation and the Metropolitan Board of Works respectively.
Several of the great livery companies or gilds of the City possess fine halls, containing portraits and other collections of high interest and value.
The Metropolitan railway has a line from Baker Street through north-west London to Harrow, continuing to Uxbridge, while the original main line runs on to Rickmansworth, Aylesbury and Verney Junction, but has been worked by the Metropolitan and Great Central companies jointly since 1906.
The northern, western and eastern outskirts and London south of the Thames are extensively served by trams. On the formation of the London County Council there were thirteen tramway companies in existence.
The two principal omnibus companies are the London General Omnibus and the London Road Car.
The principal existing companies adopted them, and new companies were formed to work them exclusively.
With their advantages of greater speed and carrying capacity over the horsed vehicles, their introduction was a most important development, though their working at first imposed a severe financial strain on many companies.
The mere control of existing traffic, local street improvements and provision of new means of communication between casual points, were felt to miss the root of the problem, and in 1903 a Royal Commission was appointed to consider the whole question of locomotion and transport in London, expert evidence being taken from engineers, representatives of the various railway and other companies, of the County Council, borough councils and police, and others.
This company was bought up by the Citizen and Iron Steamboat Companies in 1865.
A number of sub-offices of large steamship lines are congregated in Cockspur Street, Trafalgar Square, and several of the principal railway companies have local offices throughout the centre of the metropolis for the issue of tickets and the collection and forwarding of luggage and parcels.
For many years proposals to amalgamate the working of the companies and displace them by a central public authority were put forward from time to time.
The construction of large storage reservoirs was recommended, and this work was put in hand jointly by the New River, West Middlesex and Grand Junction companies at Staines on the Thames.
As regards administration,Lord Llandaff's Commission recommended the creation Metro- of a Water Trust, and in 1902 the Metropolis Water Act constituted the Metropolitan Water Board to purchase politan and carry on the undertakings of the eight companies, Water and of certain local authorities.
The 24th of June, 1904, was the date fixed on which control passed to the Board, and in the meantime a Court of Arbitration adjudicated the claims of the companies for compensation for the acquisition of their properties.
During these periods other companies had a surplus of water, and in 1899 an act was passed providing for the interconnexion of systems. The Thames and Lea are the principal sources of supply, but the Kent and (partially) the New River Company draw supplies from springs.
The systems of filtration employed by the different companies varied in efficacy, but both the Royal Commissions decided that water as supplied to the consumer was generally of a very high standard of purity.
The City of London Gas Company followed in 1817, and seven other companies soon after.
Wasteful competition ensued until in 1857 an agreement was made between the companies to restrict their services to separate localities, and the Gas Light & Coke Company, by amalgamating other companies, then gradually acquired all the gas-lighting north of the Thames, while a considerable area in the south was provided for by another great gas company, the South Metropolitan.
The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.
At the close of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th century a large number of electric light companies came into existence, and some of the metropolitan borough councils, and local authorities within Greater London, also undertook the supply.
In 1832 the fire insurance companies united to maintain a small fire brigade, and continued to do so until 1866.
The cost of maintenance exceeds £200,000 annually; contributions towards this are made by the Treasury and the fire insurance companies.
The administrative authorities of cemeteries for the county are the borough councils and the City Corporation and private companies.
Crematoria are provided at certain of the companies' cemeteries, and the Cremation Act 1902 enabled borough councils to provide crematoria.
There are also notable collections of pictures in several of the mansions of the nobility, government buildings, halls of the City Companies and elsewhere.
At these central theatres successful plays are allowed to " run " for protracted periods, but there are numerous fine houses in other parts of London which are generally occupied by a succession of touring companies presenting either revivals of popular plays or plays successful at the moment in the central theatres.
With many this is a practice at all seasons, and the railway companies foster the habit by means of tickets at reduced fares to all parts.
The recommendations of the Commission included the creation of a single controlling authority to take over the powers of the Thames Conservancy Watermen's Company, and Trinity House and the docks of the companies already detailed.
Besides these authorities, the London County Council, the Board of Trade, the Admiralty, the Metropolitan and City Police, police of riparian boroughs, Kent and Essex Fisheries Commissioners, all the dock companies and others played some part in the government and public services of the port.
The undertakings of the three dock companies mentioned above were transferred to and vested in the Port Authority, an equivalent amount of port stock created under the act being issued to each.
The Lord Mayor (q.v.) is elected by the Court of Aldermen from two aldermen nominated in the Court of Common Hall by the Livery, an electorate drawn from the members of the ancient trade gilds or Livery Companies (q.v.), which, through their control over the several trades or manufactures, had formerly an influence over the government of the city which from the time of Edward III.
The first parliament of Edward's reign gave all the lands and possessions of colleges, chantries, &c., to the king, when the different companies of London redeemed those which they had held for the payment of priests' wages, obits and lights at the price of £20,000, and applied the rents arising from them to charitable purposes.
On April 11, 1582, the lords of the council wrote to the lord mayor to the effect that, as " her Majesty sometimes took delight in those pastimes, it had been thought not unfit, having regard to the season of the year and the clearance of the city from infection, to allow of certain companies of players in London, partly that they might thereby xvi.
Violent attacks were made upon the Livery Companies, but of late years, largely owing to the public spirit of the companies in devoting large sums of money towards the improvement of the several industries in connexion with which they were founded, and the establishment of the City and Guilds of London Technical Institute, a complete change has taken place as to the public estimation in which they are held.
The common council were chosen by the wards until 1351, when the appointments were made by certain companies.
In 1376 an ordinance was made by the mayor and aldermen, with the assent of the whole commons, to the effect that the companies should select men with whom they were content, and none other should come to the elections of mayors and sheriffs; that the greater companies should not elect more than six, the lesser four and the least two.
Fortyseven companies nominated 156 members.
In 1383 the right of election reverted to the wards, but was obtained again by the livery companies in 1467.
William Herbert published in 1837 History of the Twelve great Livery Companies of London, and in 1869 Thomas Arundell published Historical Reminiscences of the City and its Livery Companies.
Separate histories have been published of the chief London companies.
The Ghibellines being unable to maintain their supremacy, the city came to be divided into two almost autonomous republics, the comune headed by the podestd, and the popolo headed by the capitano and militarily organized into twenty companies; the central power was represented by twelve anziani or elders.
He was assisted by the consiglio speciale of 9 0 and the consiglio generale e speciale of 300, composed of nobles, while the capitano del popolo had also two councils composed of burghers, heads of the gilds, gonfalonieri of the companies, &c. The anziani had a council of 3 6 burghers, and then there was the parlamento or general assembly of the people, which met only on great occasions.
There was perpetual rioting and anarchy, and interference in the affairs of the government by the working men, while at the same time poverty and unemployment increased owing to the timidity of capital and the disorders, until at last in 1382 a reaction set in, and order was restored by the gild companies.
Two new kinds of craft fraternities appear in the 14th century and become more prominent in the 15th, namely, the merchants' and the journeymen's companies.
The misteries or companies of merchants traded in one or more kinds of wares.
Several fraternities - old gilds or new companies, with their respective cognate or heterogeneous branches of industry and trade - were fused into one body.
Laws were passed, for example in 1503, requiring that new ordinances of "fellowships of crafts or misteries" should be approved by the royal justices or by other crown officers; and the authority of the companies to fix the price of wares was thus restricted.
Thus the companies gradually lost control over the regulation of industry, though they still retained their old monopoly in the i 7th century, and in many cases even in the 18th.
Intent only on promoting their own interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, the old companies had become an unmitigated evil.
The commercial success of some of the companies has been very striking, dividends as high as III% having been paid.
The industry is now in the hands of three large companies, the survivors of some twenty or more which have started at various times.
Several large islands fill the upper bay near the eastern shore; some are used as coal deposits for the great steamship companies, and one (Flores) is used as an immigrants' depot.
The war was now carried on by the free companies with varying fortune, but always more or less to the hurt of the Pisans.
It was adopted by many important British and continental shipping companies, among others by the Peninsular & Oriental, the Inman, the North German Lloyd and the Hamburg American companies.
The chief sources of revenue in the order named are the general property tax, the tax on savings banks, the tax on insurance companies, and liquor licences.
Since 1865 the most notable features have been the rise and decadence of the national banks and the rise of the trust companies.
During the decade from 1890 to 1900 the deposits in the national banks increased only 5%, from $16,700,000 to $17,500,000; those of the trust companies increased 330%, from $12,000,000 to more than $40,000,000.
Thus the expenditure by the state averaged 10,884 per mile, and that by private companies, 763 I.
When the fiscal year1906-1907opened, the number of private companies was no less than, 36, owning and operating 3276 m.
Fifteen other companies with an aggregate capital of 3 millions had also obtained charters.
In these thoroughfares and in several of the streets which intersect them are the offices of the mining companies, the banks, clubs, newspaper offices, hotels and shops, the majority being handsome stone or brick buildings, while the survival of some wooden shanties and corrugated iron buildings recalls the early character of the town.
By 1892 the leading mines had proved their dividend-earning capacity, and in 1895 there was a great "boom" in the shares of the mining companies.
During the first year of their existence, before the breeding season begins, they live in small companies in still pools or gently flowing brooks.
By the Acts of 1882 and 1893 such persons were refused admission to the United States, and, when rejected, the steamship companies that brought them were compelled to take them back.
The hardships incident to touring with travelling companies unfavourably affected her health, but by 1885 she was recognized at home as Italy's greatest actress, and this verdict was confirmed by that of all the leading cities of Europe and America.
A small steamer, the " Good News," was placed on the lake by the London Missionary Society in 1884, but afterwards became the property of the African Lakes Corporation; a larger steamer, the " Hedwig von Wissmann," carrying a quick-firing Krupp gun, was launched in 1900 by a German expedition under Lieutenant Schloifer; and others are owned by the " Tanganyika Concessions " and Katanga companies.
St Hubert was carried by a confused mass of some 49 companies, and von Steinmetz, believing the main French position to have been pierced, ordered the 4th cavalry division to cross the ravine by the chaussee and pursue.
Meanwhile, the material found by Botta and Layard, and other successors, in the ruins of Nineveh, has been constantly augmented through the efforts of companies of other investigators, and not merely Assyrian, but much earlier Babylonian and Chaldaean texts in the greatest profusion have been brought to the various museums of Europe and America.
Two companies provide Bangkok with a complete system of electric tramways, and the streets are lined with shade-trees and lit by electricity.
Of the 750 steamships which cleared the port in 1904, three out of every seven were German, two were Norwegian and one was British, but in 1905 two new companies, one British and the other Japanese, arranged for regular services to Bangkok, thereby altering these proportions.
In order to attract capital to the state, the legislature has reduced the taxes on corporations, has forbidden the repeal of charters, and has given permission for the organization of corporations with both the power and name of trust companies.
Besides the income from interest and dividends on investments, the state revenues are derived from taxes on licences, on commissions to public officers, on railway, telegraph and telephone, express, and banking companies, and to a slight extent from taxes on collateral inheritance.
One of its companies carried a number of gamecocks said to have been the brood of a blue hen; hence the soldiers, and later the people of the state, have been popularly known as the " Blue Hen's Chickens."
The function of such an agency is performed in the United States of America by the express companies (see Express).
The success of the large "catalogue" houses in America has been mainly due to the system as operated by the express companies.
The telegraph cable companies were quick to apply and to extend the oceanographical methods useful in cable-laying, and to their practical acuteness many of the most important improvements in apparatus are due.
The several roads are under the management of twenty-seven companies, but about 75% of the business is done by the Chicago Burlington & Quincy, the Chicago & North-Western, the Chicago Milwaukee & St Paul and the Chicago Rock Island & Pacific. Electric interurban railways are increasing in importance for freight and passenger service.
Numerous companies are engaged in developing the resources of the country by trading, planting and mining.
In addition to the companies a comparatively large number of private individuals have laid out plantations, Usambara and Pare having become favourite districts for agricultural enterprise.
After Colonel Ternan's departure on leave the three companies who had joined Macdonald broke out into revolt in the Nandi district (East Africa) and set off to Uganda, looting the countries they passed through.
The principal passenger steamers sailing from the port are those of the Royal Mail Steam Packet Company for the West Indies and the Pacific (via Panama) and for Brazil and the River Plate, &c., and the Union-Castle line for the Cape of Good Hope, Natal, East Africa, &c., both of which companies have their headquarters here.
From 1874 - methods are used for the taxation of banks, insurance companies, railways, tramways, trust companies and corporations, some of them noteworthy.
To the right were the galleys of the Spinola family, and of four of the eight "companies" into which Genoa was divided - Castello, Piazzalun&a, Macagnana and Son Lorenzo.
To the left were the galleys of the Dorias, and of the other four companies, Porta, Soziglia, Porta Nuova and Il Borgo.
In the same way banks, railway companies and financial institutions employ dragomans for facilitating their business relations with Turkish officials.
He was a director of many of the greatest industrial and mining companies of Westphalia, the Rhineland and Luxemburg.
In the meantime Major Richard Ingoldsby and two companies of soldiers had landed (January 28, 1691) and demanded possession of the fort.
Furthermore, the manufacturing schedule presupposes some uniformity in the method of accounting among different companies or lines of business, and this is often lacking.
The close of the general war, however, had released great numbers of mercenaries (the great companies) from control, and, as they began to play the part of brigands in France, it was necessary to get rid of them.
The regulation and control of such public service corporations as own or operate steam, electric or street railways, gas or electric plants, and express companies were, in 1907, vested in two public service commissions (the first for New York City and the second for all other parts of the state), each of five members appointed by the governor with the approval of the Senate; in 1910 the regulation of telephone and telegraph companies throughout the state was vested in the second commission.
The establishments in 1910 consisted of thirteen regiments and fifty separate companies of infantry, two squadrons and two troops of cavalry, four light batteries, one regiment of engineers, a signal corps of two companies and a naval militia, commanded by a captain and consisting of two battalions and two separate divisions.
State banks must carry from 15% to 25% reserve and trust companies from 10% to 15% reserve, depending upon location.
To correct abuses in the life insurance business which were discovered in 1905 by a committee of the state legislature, laws were passed in the next year regulating the election of the directors of the insurance companies, and the investments of the companies and the distribution of dividends, limiting the amount of business of the larger companies and prohibiting rebates on insurance premiums. A state superintendent of insurance, (since 1860) appointed by the governor, holds office for three years.
Notwithstanding the good claim to their province which the Dutch had established by discovery and occupancy, the government of Great Britain, basing its claim to the same territory on Cabot's discovery (1498), the patent to the London and Plymouth companies (1606), and the patent to the Council for New England (1620), contended that the Dutch were intruders.
When Major Richard Ingoldsby arrived with two companies of the king's soldiers and demanded possession of the fort, Leisler refused although he still professed his willingness to deliver it to Sloughter.
The revenue for state, county and municipal purposes is derived principally from a general property tax, a privilege tax levied on the gross receipts of express companies and private car companies, an inheritance tax and licence fees for the sale of intoxicating liquors.
The story of the struggle of the rival British and American companies to control the fur trade, with the final dominance of the Hudson's Bay Company has been told under Oregon and need not be repeated.
He bought wild lands, took stock in mining companies, desiccated egg companies, patent looms, photo-lithographic companies, gave away profusely, lent to plausible rascals, and was the ready prey of every new inventor who chanced to find him with money or with property that he could readily convert into money.
It is served by most of the Levantine steamship companies, and is the best point of departure for visitors desiring to see Tarsus, the Cilician remains, and the finest scenery of the East Taurus.
The territories governed or administered by chartered companies form a class by themselves.
Nominally such companies are the delegates of some states; in reality they act as if they were true sovereigns.
In the United States few railway companies design or build their own bridges.
General specifications as to span, loading, &c., are furnished to bridge-building companies, which make the design under the direction of engineers who are experts in this kind of work.
The practical result is that a bridge which would be passed by the English Board of Trade would require to be strengthened 5% in some parts and 60% in others, before it would be accepted by the German government, or by any of the leading railway companies in America."
Since the functions of these organizations were commercial, for which the regular Government officials were unsuited, they were established as commercial joint-stock companies under peculiar conditions adapting them to the service of the state.
Corporations are reached through the general property tax, but there is a small levy on fire insurance companies for the support of the local fire departments.
The principal beds are near Whitstable, Faversham, Milton, Queenborough and Rochester, some being worked by ancient companies or gilds of fishermen.
There are no special corporation taxes, but licence-charges are levied upon express and sleeping-car companies, and a tax is laid on the premiums of insurance companies.
David Thompson (1770-1857), an employee at different times of the Hudson's Bay and North-West Fur companies, explored the region of the Missouri river in 1797-1798, and thus anticipated the work of Lewis and Clark, who entered the present limits of the state in 1804 and wintered among the Mandans,constructingFortMandan in what is nowMcLean county.
Insurance is another important business, for here are the headquarters of the Prudential, the Mutual Benefit Life and the American Fire, the Firemen's and the Newark Fire Insurance companies.
Native and European soldiers are generally mixed together in the same battalions, though in separate companies.
The result of their deliberations was the Treaty of Defence, signed on the 2nd of June 1619 and modified on the 24th of January 1620, which arranged for co-operation between the Dutch and British companies, and especially for the maintenance 1 See The Geographical Journal, ix.
A new war between Great Britain and Holland broke out in 1672 and was terminated by the Treaty of Westminster (February 17, 1674), by which the points at issue between the two companies were referred first to commissioners and finally to an arbitrator.
Thus, in the reign of Alexander, the fugitive serfs whom tyranny or idleness had driven into this wilderness (they were subsequently known as Kazaki, or Cossacks, a Tatar word meaning freebooters) were formed into companies (c. 1504) and placed at the disposal of the frontier starostas, or lord marchers, of Kaniev, Kamenets, Czerkask on the Don and other places.
Parrots are gregarious and usually feed and roost in companies, but are at least temporarily monogamous.
Many of the zoological gardens are owned by private companies and derive their income entirely from gate-money, menagerie sales, rent of refreshment rooms, concert-halls and other auxiliary public attractions, any profits being distributed amongst the members of the company.
In 1909 Hartford was the home city of six fire insurance and six life insurance companies, the principal ones being the Aetna (fire), Aetna Life, Phoenix Mutual Life, Phoenix Fire, Travelers (Life and Accident), Hartford Fire, Hartford Life, National Fire, Connecticut Fire, Connecticut General Life and Connecticut Mutual Life.
In 1906 the six fire insurance companies had an aggregate capital of more than $10,000,000; on the 1st January 1906 they reported assets of about $59,000,000 and an aggregate surplus of $30,000,000.
Since the fire insurance business began in Hartford, the companies of that, ,Ity now doing business there have paid about $340,000,000 in losses.
Several large and successful foreign companies have made Hartford their American headquarters.
The life insurance companies have assets to the value of about $225,000,000.
These were appointed governors of the Florentine republic when the Companies of the Arts seized the government in 1282.
There are three families, two of which form companies rather severely limited.
His cavalry consisted of io regiments and 22 companies.
Translations or revisions in scores of languages are still being carried on by companies of scholars and representative missionaries in different parts of the world, organized under the society's auspices and largely at its expense.
He is perhaps scarcely consistent in ap proving the concession of temporary monopolies to joint-stock companies undertaking risky enterprises "of which the public is afterwards to reap the benefit."
These ports are well served by a large number of foreign steamship companies, which give direct communication with the principal ports of the United States, Europe, and the west coast of South America, and the initiation of a Japanese line in 1908 also brings Mexico into direct communication with the far East.
These two last-mentioned weapons have the look of highly developed savage forms, while on the other hand the military organization was in some respects equal to that of an Asiatic nation, with its regular companies commanded each by its captain and provided with its standard.
P the effect " that Convocation should nominate a body of its own members to undertake the work of revision, who shall be at liberty to invite the co-operation of any eminent for scholarship, to whatever nation or religious body they may belong "; and shortly afterwards two companies were formed for the revision of the Authorized Version of the Old and New Testaments.
Negotiations were opened with the leading scholars of the Protestant denominations in America, with the result that similar companies were formed in the United States.
The income of the state, counties and towns is derived mainly from taxes levied on real estate, on male polls between the ages of twenty-one and seventy, on stock in public funds, on stock in corporations that pay a dividend and are not subject to some special form of tax, on surplus capital in banks, on stock in trade, on live-stock, on railways, on telegraph and telephone lines, on savings banks and on the stock of fire insurance companies.
Such a portion of 75% of the tax on fire insurance companies is distributed among the several towns, in proportion to the amount of stock owned in each, as the amount of stock owned within the state bears to the whole amount of stock, and the remainder is reserved as a part of the state tax.
The state also derives an income from fees charged for chartering banks, railways, insurance companies and other corporations.
The docks attached to the canals, and certain other smaller docks, are owned by companies, and tolls are levied on vessels entering these, but not those entering the docks under the Board.
There is only one line of railway, over which several companies, however, have running powers, so that the town may be reached by the Brecon & Merthyr railway from Merthyr, Cardiff and Newport, by the Cambrian from Builth Wells, or by the Midland from Hereford and Swansea respectively.
Other parks are maintained by the street railway companies.
In Penn Common are a monument erected to the "First Defenders," to commemorate the fact that the "Ringgold Light Infantry," the first volunteer company to report at Washington for service in the Civil War, came from this city; a monument to President McKinley, and one to the volunteer fire companies of the city.
On the southern side the ports of San Jose, Champerico and Ocos are visited by the Pacific mail steamers, by the vessels of a Hamburg company and by those of the South American (Chilean) and the Pacific Steam Navigation Companies.
The telephonic systems of Guatemala la Nueva, Quezaltenango and other cities are owned by private companies.
Free grants of uncultivated land are sometimes made to immigrants (including foreign companies), to persons who undertake to build roads or railways through their allotments, to towns, villages and schools.
Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.
Although there usually exist general laws under which corporations or companies (including railway and electric car companies) can be formed, laws which in some states and for some purposes confer a greater freedom of incorporation than the general law allows in the United Kingdom, there is nevertheless a noticeable tendency to come to the legislature for special purposes of this kind.
In New YOrk City, where the council had lost public confidence, and in some other places, the only important power still possessed by the council is that of granting franchises to street railways, gas companies and the like.
About1788-1789small companies began to visit the place every summer to work the salt deposits.
Telephone and express companies are also subject to its jurisdiction.
The Canadian Pacific railway controls large land areas in the two new provinces; and large tracts in these provinces are owned by land companies.
It also arranged with the various railway companies to run refrigerator cars weekly on the main lines leading to Montreal and other export points.
In 1872 two companies had been formed and received charters to build the Canadian Pacific railway.
The government endeavoured to bring about an amalgamation of these rival companies, believing that the united energies and financial ability of the whole country were required for so vast an undertaking.
The chief features of his administration were the fiscal preference of 333% in favour of goods imported into Canada from Great Britain, the despatch of Canadian contingents to South Africa during the Boer war, the contract with the Grand Trunk railway for the construction of a second transcontinental road from ocean to ocean, the assumption by Canada of the imperial fortresses at Halifax and Esquimault, the appointment of a federal railway commission with power to regulate freight charges, express rates and telephone rates, and the relations between competing companies, the reduction of the postal rate to Great Britain from 5 cents to 2 cents and of the domestic rate from 3 cents to 2 cents, a substantial contribution to the Pacific cable, a practical and courageous policy of settlement and development in the Western territories, the division of the North-West territories into the provinces of Alberta and Saskatchewan and the enactment of the legislation necessary to give them provincial status, and finally (1910), a tariff arrangement with the United States, which, if not all that Canada might claim in the way of reciprocity, showed how entirely the course of events had changed the balance of commercial interests in North America.
So much improved is the position of the farmer in North America compared with what it was about 1870, that the transport companies in 1901 carried 174 bushels of his grain to the seaboard in exchange for the value of one bushel, whereas in 1867 he had to give up one bushel in every six in return for the service.
State officials are forbidden to accept railway passes from railway companies, and individuals are forbidden to receive freight rebates.
In reply to a communication of President Adams early in 1827 that the United States would take strong measures to enforce its policy, Governor Troup declared that he felt it his duty to resist to the utmost any military attack which the government of the United States should think proper to make, and ordered the military companies to prepare to resist " any hostile invasion of the territory of this state."
Soon after the conclusion of peace important changes were made in the legislation concerning industry and commerce, and the new freedom thus accorded produced a large number of limited liability companies.
The total area of the docks is about 186 acres, and the owning companies are the North Eastern and the Hull & Barnsley railways.
After bloodshed between the rival fur companies, and their union in 1821, Fort Garry was erected, as a trading post and settlers' depot, and with somewhat elaborate structure, with stone walls, bastions and portholes.
In 1908 five steamship companies were engaged in traffic between island ports and the mainland (including Mexico).
But in the treaty of 1894 between the United States and Japan there is nothing to limit the free immigration of Japanese; and several companies have been formed to promote it.
A Committee of Safety was appointed at a public meeting, which formed a provisional government and reorganized the volunteer military companies, which had been disbanded in 1890.
Meanwhile two companies of volunteer troops arrived and occupied the grounds.
The centre of trade is the Manchester Royal Exchange, and though some companies or firms prefer to do business by means of their own salaried salesmen, managers or directors, most of the yarn is sold by agents.
It must be noted, however, that while most of the spinning concerns are worked by limited companies or individuals with a considerable capital, a good many small manufacturers exist who have little capital and are practically financied by their agents or customers.
Other important manufactures in 1905 were petroleum products ($2,006,484); lumber and planing mill products ($1,604,274); women's clothing ($1,477,648); children's carriages and sleds ($ 1, 4 6 5,599); car-shop construction and repairs, by steam railway companies ($1,366,506); carriages and wagons ($ 1, 22 5,387); structural iron work ($1,102,035); agricultural implements, bicycles, automobiles (a recent and growing industry), plate and cut-glass (made largely from a fine quality of sand found near the city), tobacco, spices and malted liquors.
In 1817 two companies bought from the government a portion of the tract, at the mouth of Swan Creek, including most of the land now occupied by Toledo.
It received a temporary check from the disasters of the Spanish-American War of 1898;1898; but less than a year later it paid about X55 0, 000 in industrial and commercial taxes, or more than r i% of the whole amount thus collected in the kingdom; and within five years it had become a port of regular call for thirty-five important shipping companies.
It was then to be stormed by three companies of bluejackets - A company under Lt.-Comm.
Travelling generally in companies, and carrying a simple outfit, these Celtic pioneers flung themselves on the continent of Europe, and, not content with reproducing at Annegray or Luxeuil the willow or brushwood huts, the chapel and the round tower, which they had left behind in Derry or in the island of Hy (Iona), they braved the dangers of the northern seas, and penetrated as far as the Faroes and even far distant Iceland.
In some of the older streets European shops have replaced the picturesque native cupboards; drinking dens have sprung up at many of the corners, while telephones and electric light have been introduced by private companies, and European machinery is used in many of the corn-mills, &c. The main thoroughfare leads from Bab el Marsa (Gate of the Port) to the Bab el Sok (Gate of the Market-place) known to the English as Port Catherine.
The larger passenger steamers of the Rotterdamsche Lloyd to Netherlands India and of the Holland-American Steamship Company (the two principal passenger and cargo steamship companies at Rotterdam) have their berths on the south side of the river.
The operations of these two great chartered companies occupy a place among memorable events of Frederick Henry's stadholderate; they are therefore mentioned here, but for further details the special articles must be consulted.
But it was in the Portuguese g g colonies that the conquests of the Dutch East and with West India Companies had been made, and the France question of the Indies as between Netherlander and Spaniard assumed henceforth quite a different complexion.
The supply of this demand in earlier times led to such severe competition as to terminate in tribal pillages and even national wars; and in modern times it has led to commercial ventures on the part of individuals and companies, the account of which, told in its plainest form, reads like the pages of romance.
Collective Supplies and Sales.-There are ten large American and Canadian companies with extensive systems for gathering the annual hauls of skins from the far-scattered trappers.
Gold exists in the western districts of the country, and several companies were formed to work the mines in the period 1895-1901.
Revenue is obtained principally from caravan taxes, liquor licences, rents from government land and contributions from the gold-mining companies.
In addition, a force of native scouts, which ultimately reached a total of 860 men, was organized in eighteen companies, and partly armed with Snider rifles, to cover the advance of the main column, which started on the 27th of December, and to improve the road.
The city of Mount Vernon was founded in 1851 by several realty companies.
Bremen is the centre for some of the more important of the German shipping companies, especially of the North German Lloyd (founded in 1856), which, on the 1st of January 1905, possessed a fleet of 382 steamers of 693,892 tons, besides lighters and similar craft.
The aggregate total of capital of the tea-producing companies in India and Ceylon now amounts to about 25,000,000.
The cost ranged from So cents to per acre; or, with incorporated companies, from $1.50 to $2.50 per acre and upwards.
Before the election the Black Hawk Indian War broke out; Lincoln volunteered in one of the Sangamon county companies on the 21st of April and was elected captain by the members of the company.
In Prussia numerous private companies, in the first instance, constructed their systems, and the state contented itself for the most part with laying lines in such districts only as were not likely to attract private capital.
From them great steamship lines, notably the North German Lloyd, the Hamburg-American, the Hambuig South American and the German East African steamship companies, maintain express mail and other services with North and South America, Australia, the Cape of Good Hope and the Far East.
Life Insurance.There were forty-six companies in 1900 for the insurance of life.
Besides these are sixty-one companiesof whic forty-six are comprised in the above life insurance companies-paying subsidies in case of death or of military service, endowments, &c. Some of these companies are industrial.
The transactions of all these companies included in 1900 over 4,179,000 persons, and the amount of insurances effected was 80,000,000.
The battalion has always four companies, each, at war strength, 250 strong.
On the other hand, the pioneers (29 battalions) are assigned to the field army, with duties corresponding roughly to those of field companies R.E.
In Baden, Wurttemberg and Hanover the railways were almost entirely the property of the state, but in all other parts public and private lines existed side by side, an arrangement which seemed to combine the disadvantages of both systems. In 1871 threequarters of the railway lines belonged to private companies, and the existence of these powerful private corporations, while they were defended by many of the Liberals, was, according to the national type of thought, something of an anomaly.
The work was continued by his successors, and by the year 1896 there remained only about 2000 kilometres of private railways in Prussia; of these none except those in East Prussia belonged to companies of any great importance.
He avowedly wished to imitate the older form of British colonization by means of chartered companies, which had been recently revived in the North Borneo Company; the only responsibility of the imperial government was to be their protection from foreign aggression.
In 1885 two new great companies were founded to undertake the government.
The other railways are owned by private companies, but are subject to the decisions of a federal railway commission.
The primary and model schools were consolidated and improved; the provincial university was given increased aid from the succession duties; various public utilities, previously operated by private companies, were taken over by the province, and worked with vigour and success.
The sugar-refining industry has been introduced by two important companies, and most of the capital employed in sugar-refining in other parts of Italy has been subscribed at Genoa, where the administrative offices of the principal companies and individual refiners are situated.
At the same time special privileges were granted to articles imported by sea, so as to foster the trade of Trieste and Fiume; as in Germany a subvention was granted to the great shipping companies, the Austrian Lloyd and Adria; the area of the Customs Union was enlarged so as to include Trieste, Istria and Dalmatia, as well as Bosnia and Herzegovina.