To her surprise, the condo community was as quiet as the night she left.
Again, Christ has for the religious life of the community the unique value of Founder and Redeemer.
It was a community where I could see Betsy and me raising children and watching grandchildren while four distinct seasons rolled slowly by, marking the years one by one.
Soon the place is swarmed with siren screaming representatives of the law enforcement community, and I hear a gunshot!
There is, however, no proof that anything like community of women or unlimited promiscuity exists anywhere.
Each community along the way was scheduled to provide inexpensive meals for the bikers.
Here was nestled the town site of Ironton, a bustling community in the last-century days when silver and gold ruled the area.
I do not mean that exactly, but I mean something which he might think a good deal like that; I mean that they should not play life, or study it merely, while the community supports them at this expensive game, but earnestly live it from beginning to end.
Plant communities ay be classified as follows: A plant association is a cOmmunity of definite floristic corn)Sition it may be characterized by a single dominant species;, on the other hand, it may be characterized by a number of ~ominent species, one of which is abundant here, another there, hilst elsewhere two or more species may share dominance.
The early Presbyterianism of Switzerland was defective in the following respects: (1) It started from a wrong definition of the Church, which, instead of being conceived as an organized community of believers in the Lord Jesus Christ, was made to depend upon the preaching of the gospel and the administration of the sacraments.
If an incident occurred, why was no one else in the government service housing community awake?
Moonlight spilled over large buildings with triangular roofs into community squares abutting stacked parking lots.
Specifically, a virus or bug passed to a pig is considered a huge threat in the medical community, because pigs can pass their diseases onto humans.
Its true meaning was not lost upon a business community that had had twenty years of almost unchecked prosperity.
David Dean was hanging patriotic bunting by dawn's early light when Cynthia finished setting out the usual assortment of pastries for the guests and joined her husband for the short walk to the Community Center.
Lieutenant Anderson's response sounded more like an apology for being unable to locate two pillars of the community than a proper description of the two as a couple of leg-breaking punks.
Brady pushed her from his mind, focusing on the deer path leading away from the condo community into the forest.
France the pauper, as such, has no legal Tongking claim to help from the community, which Laos.
The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."
Venice, who had not yet entered the Italian community, is conspicuous by her absence.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
I wisely followed with my careful research of recent births in this community until I found mother LeBlanc, lately arrived from a city near Lynn, Massachusetts!
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.
Not to mention Venice, which has not yet entered the Italian community, and remains a Greek free city, Genoa and Pisa were rapidly rising into ill-defined autonomy.
Lana gazed at her, unable to shake her surprise that those in this small community were the opposite of what she expected.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
Ritschl is so faithful to the standpoint of the religious community, that he has nothing definite to say on many inevitable questions, such as the relation of God to pagan races.
In Milan the archbishop organizes the hitherto voiceless, defenceless population into a community capable of expressing its needs, and an army ready to maintain its rights.
Podébrad's persecution of the newly-founded community of the Bohemian brethren is certainly a blemish on his career.
The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
Such limitations of the powers and properties of the individuals have for their object the well-being of the community of which those individuals are constituents.
The original land-holding aristocracy, which had probably initiated and for a time monopolized commerce, was partly supplanted by prosperous upstarts, and with the general increase of prosperity began to lose its hold upon the community of artisans.
In 648 or 649 Hilda was recalled to Northumbria by Aidan, and lived for a year in a small monastic community north of the Wear.
Her father (the Congregational minister of the town) and her mother were both descended from members of the company that, under John Davenport, founded New Haven in 1638; and the community in which she spent her childhood was one of the most intellectual in New England.
Wiping away angry tears, Lana trotted to the entrance to her community then slowed to a walk when she became breathless too fast.
Any community containing thirty or more houses may, with the approval of the selectmen of the town, receive a separate village organization.
Forbes drew attention to a certain community amongst birds and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and amongst plants, on all the lands stretching towards the south pole.
is unhistorical, and that the community addressed by Haggai consisted of the remnant that had been left in Jerusalem and its neighbourhood after the majority had gone into exile or fled to Egypt (Jer.
Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.
The qualifications for the office were fixed in each town by a special law for that community (lex municipalis).
The population of the different parts of Italy differs in character and dialect; and there is little community of sentiment between them.
No sooner had President Juarez Celman come into power towards the close of 1886, than the respectable portion of the community began to feel alarmed at the methods practised by the new president in his conduct of public affairs.
The three great islands of Sicily, Sardinia and Corsica are closely connected with Italy, both by geographical position and community of language, but they are considered at length in separate articles.
I look forward to our annual block party every summer. It really helps to engender a sense of pride and community in our neighborhood.
Everyone here has a role to support our little community.
includes a large Armenian community.
It was here that the new community was founded (1457 or 1458).
But the restored community which was still making a.
While Parkside was officially beyond the limits of sensible commuting, enough hardy souls made the long daily trek into Philadelphia to label the town an outlying bedroom community.
Thence, when the opportunity came under Cyrus, some 50,000 Jews, the spiritual heirs of the best elements of the old Israel, returned to found the new community.
A river only separated Ohio from a slave-holding community.
Education is available to every person in the community.
The business community is largely British.
There it was that the community formed by Yahya b.
Sovereignty is with them a term descriptive of the real will of the community, which is not necessarily that of the majority.
The church forms the nucleus, as the centre of the religious life of the community.
The expenses connected with elections, such as the renting and preparing of the polling-places, the payment of the clerks and other officers who conduct the elections and count the vote, are borne by the community.
The wide range of the American census, and the publication of uncertain figures, find a justification in the fact that the development of accurate census work requires a long educational process in the office, and, above all, in the community.
The restaurtant's chef-owner is known for her involvement in the local community, catering fundraisers for local organizations and promoting locally grown foods.
After a day of hiking, the city offers many options for entertainment, including music, drinks, dancing and a welcoming community for gays and lesbians.
into the primitive arctic community.
Boulder is an excellent place to take in the sights, sounds, tastes and smells of a fresh, outdoor-oriented community.
The small red building has a cozy atmosphere inside and visiting here you feel like you're contributing to the well-being of yourself and the entire community.
The area is flourishing with a burgeoning artists community, and a plethora of cultural attractions that is constantly drawing in new residents.
This down-home diner takes pride in its relationship with the farming community, as the menu explains.
The association hosts several dances, parties, barbecues and other community events throughout the year.
At two in the morning, she was the only one to stir in the crowded condo community.
Yet she couldn't shake the thought that these weren't any feds; these were the feds from her condo community.
The destruction disappeared by mile marker five, only a few hundred meters from the turnoff to her condo community.
She paused to look around again, caught in the surreal sense that everything that happened the past few months hadn't touched the condo community.
She started towards the forest hedging the road adjacent to the condo community.
The objective ground on which he bases his system is the religious experience of the Christian community.
In the book of Zechariah Zerubbabel has already fallen into the background and the high priest is the leading figure of the Judean community.
But now the moment had arrived when this vast group of provinces, forming the future kingdom of the Two Sicilies, was about to enter definitely and decisively within the bounds of the Italian community.
The Italians learn through their discords at this epoch that they form one community.
In the attempt that has been made to map out the land surface of the earth, probable community of origin has been relied upon more than the possession of obvious characters.
In a few weeks he collected thousands of so-called Kuruczok (a corruption of Cruciati), consisting for the most part of small yeomen, peasants, wandering students, friars and parish priests, the humblest and most oppressed portion of the community, to whom alone a crusade against the Turk could have the slightest attraction.
In its public rites the community becomes conscious of common ends and a common edification.
The Norman settlers in England felt no community with the earlier Danish settlers in England.
A certain Conrad Schmidt placed himself at the head of a community of Thuringian flagellants, who took the name of Brethren of the Cross.
This may be explained by a variety of causes, of which the chief is the maintenance by the Slays down to a very late period of gentile or tribal organization and gentile marriages, a fact vouched for, not only in the pages of the Russian chronicler Nestor, but still more by visible social evidences, the gens later developing into the village community, and the colonization being carried on by large co-ordinated bodies of people.
He speaks Finnish with Finns, Mongolian with Buriats, Ostiak with Ostiaks; he shows remarkable facility in adapting his agricultural practices to new conditions, without, however, abandoning the village community; he becomes hunter, cattle-breeder or fisherman, and carries on these occupations according to local usage; he modifies his dress and adapts his religious beliefs to the locality he inhabits.
Organized as they are into a kind of community for mutual protection and mutual help, they soon become masters of the trade wherever they penetrate.
Protected as they were by the right of self-government, exempted from military service, and endowed with considerable allotments of good land, these colonies are much wealthier than the neighbouring Russian peasants, from whom they have adopted the slowly modified village community.
Each community is presided over by an "angel," or prophet, and a prophetess, whose word is law.
Europe, with this difference that it makes its appearance without See Collection of Materials on the Village Community, vol.
He inaugurated new missionary enterprises from Hormuz to Japan and the Malay Archipelago, leaving an organized Christian community wherever he preached; he directed by correspondence the ecclesiastical policy of John III.
On the Congo, if a man commits a murder, the community votes whether he shall die or be expelled; if the latter, a victim is killed, of which all must partake; but this is not, as might be imagined, a case of Robertson Smith's piaculum for the re-establishment of the tribal bond; for the criminal is driven out of the community.
A charge of heresy was brought against him, but he escaped to France, and established himself as a merchant at Rouen or Dieppe, where he lived un - molested until his death in 1553, although attempts were made by the Scottish community there to bring further charges against him.
Plato advocated them, and perhaps the later Jews imitated the Spartan community.
The latter regards Ezekiel as the organizer of the Jewish community and the originator of the sanctity of the Sabbath as a seventh day (Ezek.
This is not the place to enter into the prolonged controversy as to the real significance of this term, whether it signifies the nation Israel or the righteous community only, or finally an idealized prophetic individual who, like the prophet Jeremiah, was destined to suffer for the well-being of his people.
(d) Lastly, the old genial life of the high places, in which the " new moon " or Sabbath or the annual festival was a sacrificial feast of communion, in which the members of the local community or clan enjoyed fellowship with one another - all this picturesque life ceased to be.
In 1859 the discovery of the famous Comstock Lode in Western Nevada led to the building of Virginia City, a prosperous community on the side of a mountain where human beings under ordinary conditions would not have lived, and eventually brought a new state into existence.
In classical times it was a community of perioeci, politically dependent on Sparta, though doubtless with a municipal life of its own.
Those who had fled to Philadelphia in Pennsylvania (1734) formed a small community under the name of Schwenkfelders; and Zinzendorf and Spangenberg, when they visited the United States, endeavoured, but with little success, to convert them to their views.
This community still exists in Pennsylvania,1 and their views appear to be substantially those of the Quakers.
The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the north-west corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that from the beginning of the 3rd century the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli (298 B.C.) farther west.
It is one thing to protect individuals from mosquito bites, another to prevent the propagation of the parasite in a whole community.
His family had been distinguished for piety and exegetical skill, but though he was known in the Jewish community by commentaries on certain books of the Bible, he never seems to have accepted any rabbinical post.
The bishop induced his canons to follow the Rule of St Augustine and thus make themselves Augustinian Canons; and so Dominic became a canon regular and soon the prior or provost of the cathedral community.
At Horeb, the mount of God, was located the dramatic theophany which heralded to Elijah the advent of the sword, and Jehu's supporter in his sanguinary measures belongs to the Rechabites, a sect which felt itself to be the true worshipping community of Yahweh and is closely associated with the Kenites, the kin of Moses.
Settled in and around Jerusalem, they look upon themselves as the sole community, the true Israel, even as it was believed that once before Israel entered and developed independently in the land of its ancestors.
His main object is to make the new Israel, the post-exilic community at Jerusalem, continuous, as a society, with the old Israel.'
seq.) and the description of Ezra's horror at the prevalence of intermarriage, which J, threatened to destroy the distinctive character of the community, sufficiently indicates the attitude of the stricter party.
Jerusalem had suffered some serious catastrophe before Nehemiah's return; a body of exiles returned, and in spite of interference the work of rebuilding was completed; through their influence the Judaean community underwent reorganization, and separated itself from its so-called heathen neighbours.
prior or posterior to the formation of the exclusive Judaean community, &c.).
Bibilical history ends with the triumph of the Judaean community, the true " Israel," the right to which title is found in the distant past.
Judah was now a religious community whose representative was the high priest of Jerusalem.
Again, although some may have desired a self-contained community opposed to the heathen neighbours of Jerusalem, the story of Jonah implicitly contends against the attempt of Judaism to close its doors.
They could be, and indeed had been made more edifying; but the very noteworthy conservatism of even the last compiler or editor, in contrast to the re-shaping and re-writing of the material in the book of Jubilees, indicates that the Priestly spirit was not that of the whole community.
This is especially true of the history of the exilic and post-exilic periods, where the effort is made to preserve the continuity of Israel and the Israelite community (Chronicles - Ezra - Nehemiah).
The insignificance of the Jewish community in Palestine was their salvation.
The reforms of Nehemiah were directed towards the establishment of a religious community at Jerusalem, in which the rigour of the law should be observed.
As a part of the Persian Empire the community was obscure and unimportant.
So far as this influence extended, the Jewish community was threatened with the danger of suicide, and the distinction drawn by Josephus between the Pharisees and the Zealots is a valid one.
But Pilate so conducted affairs as to attract the attention not only of Josephus but also of Philo, who represents for us the Jewish community of Alexandria.
So we learn something of the Palestinian Jews and more of the Jewish community in Alexandria.
Little more than half a century after the overthrow of the Jewish nationality, the Mishnah was practically completed, and by this code of rabbinic law - and law is here a term which includes the social, moral and religious as well as the ritual and legal phases of human activity - the Jewish people were organized into a community, living more or less autonomously under the Sanhedrin or Synedrium and its officials.
The Jews were thrust into a position of isolation, and the Code of Theodosius and other authorities characterize the Jews as a lower order of depraved beings (inferiores and perversi), their community as a godless, dangerous sect (secta nefaria, feralis), their religion a superstition, their assemblies for religious worship a blasphemy (sacrilegi coetus) and a contagion (Scherer, op. cit.
The Babylonian Jews were practically independent, and the exilarch (reshgalutha) or prince of the captivity was an official who ruled the community as a vassal of the Persian throne.
In that same year the Amsterdam community was faced by a serious problem in connexion with Spinoza.
No community living in full accordance with that code could fail to reach a high moral and intellectual level.
Though the decisions of this body had no binding force on the Jews generally, yet in some important particulars its decrees represent principles widely adopted by the Jewish community.
The most petty limitations of Jewish commercial activity continued; thus at about this period the community of Prague, in a petition, " complain that they are not permitted to buy victuals in the market before a certain hour, vegetables not before 9 and cattle not before II o'clock; to buy fish is sometimes altogether prohibited; Jewish druggists are not permitted to buy victuals at the same time with Christians " (op. cit.).
A Jew can avoid the communal tax only by formally declaring himself as outside the Jewish community.
Belgium granted full freedom to the Jews in 1815, and the community has since 1808 been organized on the state consistorial system, which till recently also prevailed in France.
Recently a mission has been sent to the Falashas of Abyssinia, and much interest has been felt in such outlying branches of the Jewish people as the Black Jews of Cochin and the Bene Israel community of Bombay.
In Australia the Jews from the first were welcomed on perfectly equal terms. The oldest congregation is that of Sydney (1817); the Melbourne community dates from 1844.
In 1908 an organization, inclusive of various religious sections, was founded under the description " the Jewish community of New York."
The most important addition to the educational and artistic life of the community was the Museum of Art, located in Wade park.
In 1919 and 1920 Community Chests were organized, and sums aggregating $4,000,000 and $4,500,000 were subscribed in " drives," to meet the needs of all community activities, not only charities, but also Red Cross, Y.M.C.A.
Under its auspices were conducted in 1916 an educational survey at a cost of $50,000, a survey for a community recreation programme in 1920, and a survey of the administration of justice in 1921.
Towards the end of Ruysbroeck's life, in 1378, he was visited by the fervid lay-preacher Gerhard Groot (1340-1384), who was so impressed by the life of the community at Groenendal that he conceived the idea of founding a Christian brotherhood, bound by no monastic vows, but living together in simplicity and piety with all things in common, after the apostolic pattern.
Such " workers " are essential to the formation of a social community of Hymenoptera, and their wingless condition among the ants shows that their specialization has been carried further in this family than among the wasps and bees.
The island, having been at first the property of Neapolis, and later of the emperors, never had upon it any community with civic rights.
of Harrodsburg is Pleasant Hill, or Union Village, a summer resort and the home, since early in the 19th century, of a Shaker community.
The city is divided into fourteen quarters, each presided over by a headman, and inhabited by separate sections of the community.
Their founder was Johann Conrad Beissel (1690-1768), a native of Eberbach and one of the first emigrants, who, after living as a hermit for several years on Mill Creek, Lancaster county, Pennsylvania, founded the sect (1725), then again lived as a hermit in a cave (formerly occupied by another hermit, one Elimelech) on the Cocalico Creek in Pennsylvania, and in 1732-1735 established a semi-monastic community (the "Order of the Solitary") with a convent (the "Sister House") and a monastery (the "Brother House") at Ephrata, in what is now Lancaster county, about 55 m.
The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.
imparted a self-reliant enthusiasm to his countrymen, formed them into an army, and organized them as a political community; his mountaineer infantry, though limited in numbers, proved desperately courageous; his cavalry was daring and ubiquitous.
south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."
Its report, published in 1882, testified to " the great extent and intensity of the distress which has fallen upon the agricultural community.
The low price of agriculturalproduce, beneficial though it might be to the general community, had lessened the ability of the land to bear the proportion of taxation which had heretofore been imposed upon it.
Nearly every state in America has its official economic entomologists, and nearly every one of the British crown colonies is provided with one or more able men who help the agricultural community to battle against the insect pests.
At the root of all economic investigation lies the conception of the standard of life of the community.
By this expression we do not mean an ideal mode of living, but the habits and requirements of life generally current in a community or grade of society at a given period.
In a modern industrial community it is possible to express this standard fairly accurately for the purposes of economic investigation in terms of money.
He must be in touch with the actual life of the community he is studying, and cultivate " that openness and alertness of the mind, that sensitiveness of the judgment, which can rapidly grasp the significance of at first sight unrelated discoveries or events."
The different departments of human activity are organically connected, and all facts relating to the life of a community have a near or remote economic significance.
The community we are studying must have reached such a stage of development that its economic functions and those immediately cognate to them form a well-defined group, and adequate means must be available so that we can, as it were, watch the performance of these functions and test our hypotheses and conclusions by observation and experience.
In all branches of economics, even in what is called the pure theory, there is an implied reference to certain historical or existing conditions of a more or less definite character; to the established order of an organized state or other community, at a stage of development which in its main features can be recognized.
In the case of many subjects this would matter very little, but in that of economics, which touches the ordinary life of the community at so many points, it is of great importance, especially at a time like the present, when economic questions determine the policy of great nations.
Human self-perfection cannot be gained in isolation; it is attainable only in inter-relation with fellow-citizens in the social community.
It would be difficult to imagine a site less adapted for the foundation and growth of a great community.
The rivalries of the mainland cities were continued at closer quarters inside the narrow circuit of the lagoons, and there was, moreover, the initial schism between the indigenous fisher population and the town-bred refugees, and these facts constitute the first of the problems which now affronted the growing community: the internal problem of fusion and development.
It was from Byzantium that the Venetian people received the first recognition of their existence as a separate community.
The terms of this pact resulted in the first diploma conferred on Venice as a separate community (584).
But the Tribuni Majores were equally powerless to allay the jealousies of the growing townships which formed the lagoon community.
The aristocratic party was captained by the township of Heraclea, which had given the first doge, Anafesto, to the newly formed community.
To achieve their object, a double line of conduct was imposed upon them: they had to absorb the powers of the doge, and also to deprive the people of the voice they possessed in the management of state affairs by their presence in the concione or general assembly of the whole community, which was still the fountain of all authority.
But the tenacity with which it was clung to, proved that it was suited to the community; and whether helpful or harmful to, it was not inconsistent with, the continuance of growth and prosperity.
The commonwealth has four times recognized a community of metropolitan interests in creating state commissions since 1882 for the union of such interests, beginning with a metropolitan health district in that year.
The church of St James, belonging to a small community of Jacobite Christians, and a few pillars and blocks of masonry are the only remains of the former greatness of the town.
These results would prove to be beneficial to the community.
BROTHERS OF COMMON LIFE, a religious community formerly existing in the Catholic Church.
With the assistance of Florentius Radewyn, who resigned for the purpose a canonry at Utrecht, he was able to carry out a long-cherished idea of establishing a house wherein devout men might live in community without the monastic vows.
The rector was chosen by the community and was not necessarily a priest, though in each house there were a few priests and clerics.
This feature seemed a reflection on the mendicant orders, and the idea of a community life without vows and not in isolation from everyday life, was looked upon as something new and strange, and even as bearing affinities to the Beghards and other sects, at that time causing trouble to both Church and state.
For a century of ter this the Modern Devotion flourished exceedingly, and its influence on the revival of religion in the Netherlands and north Germany in the 15th century was wide and deep. It has been the fashion to treat Groot and the Brothers of Common Life as "Reformers before the Reformation"; but Schulze, in the Protestant Realencyklopddie, is surely right in pronouncing this view quite unhistorical - except on the theory that all interior spiritual religion is Protestant: he shows that at the Reformation hardly any of the Brothers embraced Lutheranism, only a single community going over as a body to the new religion.
We only know that as long ago as the 1st century B.C. true Hebrew blood was becoming rare, and that a vast proportion of the Jews of Roman times were Hebraized Aramaeans, whose assimilation into the Jewish community did not date much further back than the Maccabaean age.
The completion in October 1905 of a railway putting Maseru in connexion with the South African railway system proved a great boon to the community.
THE PRIMITIVE METHODIST CHURCH, a community of nonconformists, which owes its origin to the fact that Methodism as founded by the Wesleys tended, after the first generation, to depart from the enthusiasm that had marked its inception and to settle down to the task of self-organization.
The community at Alexandria lived in mean and scattered houses, near enough to afford protection, without depriving the members of the solitude which they prized.
Each community could speak of its own baal, although a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated.
The natural situation of Athens was such as to favour the growth of a powerful community.
When the monarchy was supplanted in the usual Greek fashion by a hereditary nobility - a process accomplished, according to tradition, between about l000 and 683 B.C. - all power was appropriated by a privileged class of Eupatridae; the Geomori and Demiurgi, who formed the bulk of the community, enjoyed no political rights.
The Carnegie Institute in the decade increased the extent of its service to the community; its central library, with 464,313 volumes, had 8 branches, 16 stations, 128 school stations, 10 club stations and 8 playground stations, with a circulation of 1,363,365 books; both the scientific museum and the art department added greatly to their collections; in the school of technology the enrolment grew from 2,102 students in 1909 to 4,982 students in 1920, including those in the departments of science and engineering, arts, industries and the Margaret Morrison school for women.
In 1633 the first buildings were erected, and for more than a century the Hook was occupied by a small agricultural and trading community.
They are the protecting deities of the community.
The community is in the main composed of simple working people, who, apart from their peculiarity, have a good reputation; but their avoidance of professional medical attendance has led to severe criticism at inquests on children who have died for want of it.
Such worship might be the spontaneous homage of a particular Greek community, like that offered to Antigonus by Scepsis in 311 (fount.
The condemnation of the " heretics " by the Patriarch led to their repudiation by the community of Vatopedi, and at the instance of the Russian ambassador at Constantinople the refractory monasteries were subjected to a rigorous blockade.
It appears that they had community of wives and lived on funds provided by the richer members.
When, however, his preaching attracted followers, a community began to be formed, and traces of organization and discipline may be noted in very early times.
In 1652 a number of people in Westmorland and north Lancashire who had separated from the common national worship,' came under the influence of Fox, and it was this community (if it can be so called) at Preston Patrick which formed the nucleus of the Quaker church.
It was only gradually that the Quaker community clothed itself with an organization.
During the 19th century the interests of Friends became widened and they are no longer a close community.
(1) A community of friars at Cambridge, in 1257, whose habit was distinguished from that of the ordinary Dominicans by a five-rayed red star (in reference to Matt.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
From the former point of view the freeman, then essentially a warrior, and the slave were mutual auxiliaries, simultaneously exercising different and complementary functions - each necessary to the community.
movement, the childhood of a new community of faith, are reflected so naturally in them all, that it is impossible for a moment to think of a later period of composition by a priesthood whom we know to, have been devoid of any historical sense, and incapable of reconstructing the spiritual conditions under which Zoroaster lived.
Every young believer in Mazda, after having been received into the religious community by being girt with the holy lace, had to choose a confessor and a spiritual guide (ratu).
In 1738 he went to Halle to finish his theological studies; he was a devoted worker in the Franckesche Stiftung, which later served as a partial model for his great-grandson's community at St Johnland, Long Island.
There would, therefore, be nothing extraordinary in the fact that a community, always identified in the popular heathen mind with the Jewish faith, should adopt the mode of interment belonging to that religion.
When adjacent burial areas belonged to members of the same Christian confraternity, or by gift or purchase fell into the same hands, communications were opened between the respective cemeteries, which thus spread laterally, and gradually acquired that enormous extent which, " even when their fabulous dimensions are reduced to their right measure, form an immense work."' This could only be executed by a large and powerful Christian community unimpeded by legal enactments or police regulations, " a living witness of its immense development corresponding to the importance of the capital."
It may be that a single temple was the resort of several small associations of worshippers which were subdivisions of the whole community.
The first settlement made under this new system was that of Caramuru, and thus a European community was established in the district.
Having worked first as a mason and then as a compositor, he joined P. Dubois in the foundation of Le Globe which became in 1831 the official organ of the Saint-Simonian community, of which he became a prominent member.
After his death those members of the Anglican community who objected to the constitution of the provincial church maintained their organization while the temporalities were placed in the hands of curators.
The Jewish community in 1904 numbered 1496.
At this time, had the affairs of the Boer community been managed with prudence and sagacity they might have established an enduring state.
Public opinion of the hour in each section of the community was the only force in the land" (History of South Africa 1834 - 1854, chap. xliv.).
In April 1842 Lord Stanley (afterwards 14th earl of Derby), then secretary for the colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted.
This led to a division among the Anglican community in the colony and the consecration in 186 9 of a rival bishop, who took the title of bishop of Maritzburg.
His ancestors had been members of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, and had secretly maintained their Protestant belief throughout the period of religious persecution, eventually giving their adherence to the Augsburg confession as approximate to their original faith.
He saw that the amount of money in circulation did not constitute the wealth of the community, and that the prohibition of the export of the precious metals was rendered inoperative by the necessities of trade.
episcopatus, the office of a bishop, episcopus), the general term technically applied to that system of church organization in which the chief ecclesiastical authority within a defined district, or diocese, is vested in a bishop. As such it is distinguished on the one hand from Presbyterianism, government by elders, and Congregationalism, in which the individual church or community of worshippers is autonomous, and on the other from Papalism.
In the view of the Church of England the ultimate governance of the Christian community, in things spiritual and temporal, was vested not in the clergy but in the "Christian prince" as the vicegerent of God.
His homologous structures are now spoken of as " homogenetic " structures, the idea of community of representation in an archetype giving place to community of derivation from a single representative structure present in a common ancestor.
1870) to express that close agreement in form which may be attained in the course of evolutional changes by organs or parts in two animals which have been subjected to similar moulding conditions of the environment, but have not a close genetic community of origin, to account for their similarity in form and structure, although they have a certain identity in primitive quality which is accountable for the agreement of their response to similar moulding conditions.
Its first beginnings are seen in the imitative tendencies of animals by which the young of one generation acquire some of the habits of their parents, and by which gregarious and social animals acquire a community of procedure ensuring the advantage of the group. " Taboo," the systematic imposition by the community of restrictions upon the conduct of the individual, is one of its earliest manifestations in primitive man and can be observed even in animal communities.
Such considerations have the very greatest importance for the guidance of the action of civilized man in seeking the health and happiness of the community.
That increase, it has been shown, is due to the early marriage and excessive reproduction of the reckless and hopeless, the poorest, least capable, least desirable members of the community.
By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.
For the impression which we get from Nehemiah's memoirs is that in his days the community at Jerusalem was in the main poverty-stricken, while Malachi's exhortations to the people to pay their dues to the priests implies that in the middle of the fifth century B.C. the Temple was by no means wealthy.
Now, both the Korahite and Asaphic groups of psalms are remarkable that they hardly contain any recognition of present sin on the part of the community of Jewish faith - though they do confess the sin of Israel in the past - but are exercised with the observation that prosperity does not follow righteousness either in the case of the individual (xlix., lxxiii.) or in that of the nation, which suffers notwithstanding its loyalty to God, or even on account thereof (xliv., lxxix.).
There is nothing even to connect these Jews with Palestine; they may have formed a part of the very considerable Jewish community which we know to have been settled in Egypt as early as the 5th century B.C. On the other hand, it is extremely improbable that the Jews of Judaea, whom Nehemiah had entirely detached from their immediate neighbours, would have taken part in any general rising against Persia.
On the other hand, the first collection of " Davidic " psalms taken as a whole would be perfectly appropriate in the worship of a Judaean community of Hasidim in the Maccabaean period.
In thus assigning the first collection of psalms to some Judaean community of Hasidim in the earlier Maccabaean period we need not conclude that all the psalms contained in this collection were first composed at this time.
the speaker, who is not an individual but speaks in the name of a community, bears a remarkable resemblance to the " suffering servant " of Isaiah lii.
(In 1906 members of the Dutch community established a " Christian National Education " organization and opened a number of denominational schools.) Secondary education is provided in the towns and high schools are maintained at Pretoria, Johannesburg and Potchefstroom.
Nearly half of the white community, 142,540 persons, belong to one or other of the Dutch Churches in the Transvaal, but they have only 4305 native members.
At the head of the community is the bishop of Pretoria.
The Protestant European community amounts altogether to 35% of the white population.
In his History of South Africa Theal says: " The community of Lydenburg was accused of attempting to domineer over the whole country, without any other right to pre-eminence than that of being composed of the earliest inhabitants, a right which it had forfeited by its opposi tion to the general weal."
In this matter the Boer and British sections of the community were in agreement, and they had the support of the Transvaal government and of the other South African colonies.
1397), a prominent member of the Beghard community, who travelled widely as a missionary and propagated the teachings of his sect.
We are still among the exiles at the close of the captivity, or, as others think, amidst a poor community in Jerusalem, whose members have now been dispersed among the Gentiles.
The essential form of the cult of the martyrs was that of the honours paid to the illustrious dead; and these honours were officially paid by the community.
He belonged to the circle of Peisistratus at Athens, and was the founder of an Orphic community.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
Modern research seems to show that living protoplasm, wherever it exists, is subject to certain laws and manifests itself by certain phenomena, and that there is no hard and fast line between what prevails in the two kingdoms. So it is with the diseased conditions to which it is a prey: there is a wonderful community of design, if the term may be used in such a sense, between the diseases of animals and plants, which becomes singularly striking and instructive the more they are inquired into.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
This, however, soon died out through the opposition it received from the Hindu community.
A small community (about 130) in Bombay, known as the Prarthna (Prayer) Samaj, was founded in 1867 through Keshub Chunder's influence; they have a similar creed to that of the Brahma Samaj, but have broken less decisively with orthodox and ceremonial Hinduism.
Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.
After reading with Dean Vaughan at Llandaff he took orders, and in 1898 became a member of the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305.
With the towns of St Johann, immediately opposite on the right bank of the river, and Malstatt-Burbach, Saarbrucken forms a single community, the three places having been united in 1909.
Seebohm; The English Village Community; Ibid.
The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer easily to the dates of former business transactions.
But this connexion was not found to obtain as a rule in life, and the difficulties arising from this conflict between promise and experience centred round the lot of the righteous as a community and the lot of the righteous man as an individual.
The righteous as a nation should yet possess the earth, even in this world the faithful community should attain its rights in an eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, or else in temporary blessedness here and eternal blessedness hereafter.
So far as regards the righteous community.
After 1282 the signoria was composed of the 3 (afterwards 6) priori of the gilds, who ended by ousting the buoni uomini, while a defensor artificum et artium takes the place of the capitano; thus the republic became an essentially trading community, governed by the popolani grassi or rich merchants.
The system of the catasto, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive income-tax (decima scalata) was introduced with the object of lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole community came to be oppressed by it in the end.
It is usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first attempt to establish a monarchy in Israel, but the story is mainly that of the rivalries of a half-developed petty state, and of the ingratitude of a community towards the descendants of its deliverer.
The cannibalism and community of wives which he attributes to certain races of that island do certainly belong to it, or to islands closely adjoining.
Carvajal may be termed the founder of the Anglo-Jewish community.
1-3) he is spoken of as the author of certain legal ordinances affecting the welfare of the community (the expression in the original is "tiqqun ha-`olam," i.e.
The schools include the Gymnasium (founded in 1592 by the Protestant community as a Latin school), the Realgymnasium (founded in 1830, for "modern" subjects and Latin), the Oberrealschule and Realschule (founded 1893, the latter wholly "modern"), two girls' high schools, a girls' middle-class school, a large number of popular schools, a mechanics' and polytechnic school, a school of mechanics, an industrial drawing school, a commercial school, and a school for the deaf and dumb.
Berthelsdorf, a village about a mile distant, has been the seat of the directorate of the community since about 1789.
Intent only on promoting their own interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, the old companies had become an unmitigated evil.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.
Seebohm, The English Village Community (1883).
Here the traveller ascending from the coast sees the first example of the jebel or highland towns, with their high three-storeyed houses, built of quarried stone, their narrow façades pierced with small windows with whitewashed borders and ornamented with varied arabesque patterns; each dar has the appearance of a small castle complete in itself, and the general effect is rather that of a cluster of separate forts than of a town occupied by a united community.
All matters affecting the community are discussed in the majlis or assembly, to which any tribesman has access; here, too, are brought the tribesmen's causes; both sides plead and judgment is given impartially, the loser is fined so many head of small cattle or camels, which he must pay or go into exile.
Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.
Those who escaped capture by Timur fled to the mountains of Kurdistan, and the community that had played so large a part in Mesopotamian history for a thousand years was thus shattered.
The renunciation was not quite thorough, one party adhering to the Roman Church as Romo-Syrians, the others reverting wholly to Syrian usages and forming to-day about three-fourths of the whole community.
The original aim was to influence the old Nestorian Church rather than to set up a new religious body, but the wide difference between Presbyterians and an Oriental Church rendered the attempt abortive, and the result of the labours of the Americans has been the establishment since 1862 of a Syrian Protestant community in Persia, with some adherents in Turkey.
This street contains a fine stone church built in 1895 for the use of the Anglican community, a branch of the Bank of British West Africa, telegraph offices and the establishments of the principal trading firms. In Victoriaborg, a suburb of Ussher Town, are the residences of the principal officials, and here a racecourse has been laid out.
The necessity of seeking protection from the sea-rovers and pirates who infested these waters during the whole period of Hanseatic supremacy, the legal customs, substantially alike in the towns of North Germany, which governed the groups of traders in the outlying trading posts, the establishment of common factories, or "counters"(Komtors) at these points, with aldermen to administer justice and to secure trading privileges for the community of German merchants - such were some of the unifying influences which preceded the gradual formation of the League.
According to the "Skra," the by-laws of the Novgorod branch, the four aldermen of the community of Germans, who among other duties held the keys of the common chest, deposited in Wisby, were to be chosen from the merchants of the Gothland association and of the towns of Lubeck, Soest and Dortmund.
But the bulk of its inhabitants being packed into a comparatively small portion of this area, the working classes suffer greatly from overcrowding, and all sections of the community from high rents.
Gesch., 3rd ed., p. 160) rejects the earlier foundation; on the other hand, he insists, with the majority of scholars and against Kosters, on the actual return of exiles in 537 to form the nucleus of the post-exilic community (loc. cit., p. 157 n.).
2 Zerubbabel and Joshua, the prince and the priest, are the leaders of the community.
The former prophecy is closely linked to the situation and wants of the community of Jerusalem in the second year of Darius I., and relates to the restoration of the temple and, perhaps, the elevation of Zerubbabel to the throne of David.
They formed an independent community and in 1854 obtained, in exchange for a hundred head of cattle, formal cession of the territory from Panda, the Zulu king.
Of these, three are appointed by the governor (of whom one must be, and two at present are, members of the Chinese community); one is elected from the chamber of commerce, and one from the justices of the peace.
°Emporia, the rule of God, from Oe6s, god, and -Kparca, Kpam7v, to rule), a term applied to a form of government or to a state ruled by such a form of government, in which God or the divine power is looked to as the source of all civil power, and the divine commandments regarded as the laws of the community.
He was rapturously welcomed by the community of St Mark's, and at once proceeded to re-establish the discipline of the order and to sweep away abuses.
There was an Indian church in Natick, at what is now called South Natick or " Oldtown," from 1660 to 1716; and for some years the community was governed, in accordance with the eighteenth chapter of Exodus, by " rulers of tens," " rulers of fifties," and " rulers of hundreds."
The Kru-men form a distinct section of the community, living in a separate quarter and preserving their tribal customs.
17), to anoint the young David, and, as head of a small community of prophets, to protect him from the hostility of Saul (xvi.
In 1865, in a debate on the condition of the Irish Church Establishment, he declared that the Irish Church, as it then stood, was in a false position, inasmuch as it ministered only to one-eighth or oneninth of the whole community.
A Dutch periodical called Elpis, algemeen tijdschrift voor Zuid Afrika (1857 -1861) appealed to the farming community.
The Imperial Review, apparently the work of one pen, has been published since 1879; the Pastoralists' Review appeals more especially to the agricultural community.
The college meets with strong support from the enlightened portion of the Mussulman community, whose aim is to raise it to the status of a university, with the power of conferring degrees.
In Geneva under Calvin, while the Consistoire, or ecclesiastical court, could inflict only spiritual penalties, yet the medieval idea of the duty of the state to co-operate with the church to maintain the religious purity of the community in matters of belief as well as of conduct so far survived that the civil authority was sure to punish those whom the ecclesiastical had censured.
In regard to the fetishism of the Gold Coast NoII' of Africa, Jevons (Introduction to the History of J (y f Religion, pp. 165-166) maintains that" public opinion does not approve of the worship by an individual of a suhman, or private tutelary deity, and that his dealings with it are regarded in the nature of ` black art ' as it is not a god of the community."In China there is a" classical or canonical, primitive and therefore alone orthodox (tsching) and true XIII.
the Sunnites, who held by the Koran and tradition) maintained that this should be determined by the choice of the community.
to the wants of a virtually monotheistic community is in the highest degree remarkable.
It was restored to use in 1882 by a French Benedictine community, the fine Perpendicular abbot's tower remaining, while other parts have been rebuilt on the original lines.
CHRISTADELPHIANS (X purrou t,S€X ot, " brothers of Christ "), sometimes also called Thomasites, a community founded in 1848 by John Thomas (1805-1871), who, after studying medicine in London, migrated to Brooklyn, N.Y., U.S.A. There he at first joined the " Campbellites," but afterwards struck out independently, preaching largely upon the application of Hebrew prophecy and of the Book of Revelation to current and future events.
Both in America and in Great Britain he gathered a number of adherents, and formed a community which has extended to several English-speaking countries.
No statistics of the community are published.
The prophecy affords an interesting and valuable glimpse of the post-exilic community, with its various currents of thought and life.
The "soldiers" or members are drawn from all classes of the community.
In tracing the history of the religion of the Roman people we are not, as in the case of Greece, dealing with separate, though interacting, developments in a number of independent communities, but with a single community which won its way to the headship first of Latium, then of Italy and finally of a European empire.
The original settlement on the Palatine, like its neighbour on the Quirinal, was an agricultural community, whose unit both from the legal and religious point of view was not the individual but the household.
The loose aggregation of agricultural households gives place t o the organized community with new needs and new g y ideals, and at the same time in religious thought the old vague notion of the numen is almost universally superseded by the more definite conception of the dens - not even now quite anthropomorphic, but with a much more clearly realized personality.
We find then two prominent notes of the state influence, firstly, the adaptation of the old ideas of the household and agricultural cults to the broader needs of the community, especially to the new necessities of internal justice between citizens and war against external enemies, and secondly the organization of more or less casual worship into something like a consistent system.
As Janus is in the household the numen of the door, so in the state he is the god associated with the great gate near the corner of the forum: the Penates have their analogy in the Di Penates populi Romani Quiritium by whom the magistrates take their oath on entering office, the Lar familiaris in the Lares Praestites of the community, and the Genius in the new notion of the Genius populi Romani or Genius urbis Romae.
Finally, we must notice, as the sign of the synoecismus of the two settlements, the inclusion of the Colline deity, Quirinus, apparently the Mars of the originally rival community.
(I) By the end of the regal period Rome had ceased to be a mere agricultural community and had developed into a city-state.
In this period, then, we find first a legitimate extension of cults corresponding to the needs of the growing community, and secondly a religious restlessness and a consequent tendency to more dramatic forms of worship.
They occupy, in fact, an intermediate stage of de gradation between the comparatively well-to-do tribes in the tributary states (the stronghold and home of the race), and the Pans, Bauris, Kandras and other semi-aboriginal peoples on the lowlands, who rank as the basest castes of the Hindu community.
He wished to organize a special community of true Christians to wait for the coming of their Lord.
Of such character have been the state-aided emigration from Ireland, and the assisted emigration of paupers, criminals and other persons in the effort to relieve a congested population, or simply from the desire to get rid of undesirable members of the community.
Finally, we have the expulsion of the Jews from Russia as an example of the effort of a community to get rid of an element which has made itself obnoxious to the local sentiment.
If he is diseased, crippled, dishonest or indolent, he may be a direct loss to the community instead of a gain.
So, too, the immigrant is worth his future net earnings to the community only if there is a demand for his labour.
Social and Political Effects of Immigration.-The influx of millions of persons of different nationality, often of a foreign language and generally of the lower classes, would seem to be a danger to the homogeneity of a community.
At the same time improvements in agriculture and the opening up of new countries have enabled the modern community to gain its food and raw material with a less expenditure of labour force, and the surplus agricultural population has gone to the city.
In 18J7 the pope, proprio motu, appointed him provost (or head of the chapter) of Westminster, and the same year he took up his residence in Bayswater as superior of a community known as the "Oblates of St Charles," an association of secular priests on the same lines as the institute of the Oratory, but with this difference, that they are by their constitution at the beck and call of the bishop in whose diocese they live.
The community was thus of the greatest service to Cardinal Wiseman, whose right-hand man Manning thenceforward became.
The Church is defined as "a divinely-instituted community of men, united by the orthodox faith, the law of God, the hierarchy and the sacraments."
2); and these were to be found primarily (until the complete destruction of that church during the revolt of Barcochebas and its suppression by Hadrian) in the mother community in Jerusalem (cf.
When it began to be seen, various epochs were selected by various writers; and at first each small separate community had its own epoch and method of time-reckoning.
Shrewd, wily, adroit, unfailingly tactful, an adept in all the arts of the politician, he is considered to have done more than any other one man, in the years immediately preceding the War of Independence, to mould and direct public opinion in his community.
In the hive-bee and among ants, on the other hand, there are constant structural distinctions between queen and worker, and the function of the queen bee in a hive is confined to egg-laying, the labour, of the community being entirely done by the workers.
In the south-eastern part of the city is the headquarters of the Oneida Community, which controls important industries here, at Niagara Falls, and elsewhere.
In the vicinity the Oneida Community manufactures chains and animal traps.
In Indian River Hundred, Sussex county, there formerly lived a community of people, - many of whom are of the fair Caucasian type, - called " Indians " or " Moors "; they are now quite generally dispersed throughout the state, especially in Kent and Sussex counties.
Ezra, a scribe of repute, well versed in the laws of Moses, returns with a band of exiles in order to reorganize the religious community.
15 obscurely worded) the reform was accepted, and the foundations of a new community were laid.
His wife Maria Theresa bore him children but there was no community of.
Finally, even if "the woman" who is the mother of Christ be taken to be the ideal Israel in the beginning of the chapter, at its close she is clearly the Christian community founded by Him.
community, is also the common speech on the French and Belgian frontiers.
It was a dangerous triumph for Huss; for his popularity at court and in the general community had been secured only at the price of clerical antipathy everywhere and of much German ill-will.
It emphasizes more particularly the position of the Hebrews as a religious community, bound together by common aims and by their covenant-relation with the national God, Yahweh.
ex, out of, away from; communis, common), the judicial exclusion of offenders from the rights and privileges of the religious community to which they belong.
Impious sinners, or enemies of the community and its god, might be devoted to utter destruction.
The general principles which govern the exclusion of members from a religious community may be gathered from the New Testament writings.
The power of excommunication was transferred from the community to the bishop, and was liable to abuse from personal motives: Gregory the Great rebukes a bishop for using for private ends power conferred for the public good (Epist.
Even in the later schools of philosophy proper there is found a community rather of tendency than of definite result or of fixed.
In Strabo's time they appear to have been ruled by a single king, though previously there were twenty-six, each one ruling over a community distinct only in point of language.
Mantineia is mentioned in the Homeric catalogue of ships, but in early Greek times existed only as a cluster of villages inhabited by a purely agricultural community.
In 1476 a poor young shepherd drew thousands to Nicklashausen to hear him denounce the emperor as a rascal and the pope as a worthless fellow, and urge the division of the Church's property among the members of the community.
The peasants demanded that the gospel should be taught them as a guide in life, and that each community should be permitted to choose its pastor and depose him if he conducted himself improperly.
The articles of Heilbronn demanded that the property of the Church should be confiscated and used for the community; clergy and nobility alike were to be deprived of all their privileges, so that they could no longer oppress the poor man.
While the Roman Catholic religion was declared to be that accepted by the majority of Frenchmen, the state subsidized the Reformed Church, those adhering to the Augsburg Confession and the Jewish community.
The " transcendental movement," which sprang out of German affiliations and produced as one of its results the well-known community of Brook Farm (1841-1847), under the leadership of Dr George Ripley, was a Massachusetts growth, and in passing away it left, instead of traces of an organization, a sentiment and an aspiration for higher thinking which gave Emerson his following.
In Utrecht, however, power was henceforth concentrated in the gilds, which became not only trade but political associations, which together constituted the sovereign community.
From this time, until the French Revolution, the ancient democratic institutions of the city remained nothing but a name; the rights of the community were exercised by a municipal aristocracy, who held all power in their own hands.
About 580-590 Monte Cassino was sacked by the Lombards, and the community came to Rome and was established in a monastery attached to the Lateran Basilica, in the centre of the ecclesiastical world.
As a result there is a remarkable community of resemblance of plant and animal life in the high northern latitudes of North America and Eurasia.
The significance of these great events in the general history of America is that from 1783 onwards there was, in the New World, an autonomous community not wholly unified at once, nor without strife, but self-governing and self-subsisting, in entire separation from European control.
The attempt to prevent all trade on the river Plate was given up, and a vigorous commercial community arose.
But all that we can safely say as to locality is that the community here represented seems to have been isolated, and out of touch with the larger centres of Christian life.
For such an isolated community may have preserved primitive customs for some time after they had generally disappeared.
Loofs, has called it; 9 the doctrine enforced within any one church community is dogma.
As this money was drawn from the channels of business and locked up in the public vaults, the president looked upon the condition as fraught with danger to the commercial community and he addressed himself to the task of reducing taxation.
They regard Christ as an angel in human form and recognize 1 In 1879 the Zoroastrian community of Yezd numbered 6483, 1242 residing in the city, 5241 in the villages; in 1892 the community numbered 6908, and as many have emigrated, it is computed that it now numbers not more than 7000.
He founded a religious community at Birmingham, called Wilfridians, which was ultimately merged in the oratory of St Philip Neri, with John Henry Newman as Superior.
The medieval church set forth Christ as present in the orderly community of the faithful; Protestantism aimed at setting the individual in immediate communion with Christ, without the mechanical intervention of the officers of the community; the 1 D'Argentre, Collectio judiciorum de novis erroribus, i.
It was a rude way of expressing a desire for a more spiritual community.
The census unwillingly carried out by Joab at the behest of David related exclusively to the fighting men of the community, and the dire consequences ascribed to it were quoted in reprobation of such inquiries as late as the middle of the 18th century.
The reports for New South Wales and Victoria are especially valuable in their statistical aspect from the analysis they contain of the vital conditions of a comparatively young community under modern conditions of progress.
Enumerators' returns in this field are so incomplete that hardly two-thirds of the deaths which have occurred in any community during the preceding year are obtained by an enumerator visiting the families, no satisfactory basis for the computation of death-rates is afforded, and the returns have comparatively little scientific value.
So says Dr Hort (p. 229), adding that " the very origin and fundamental nature of the Ecclesia as a community of disciples renders it impossible that the principle should rightly become obsolete."
The relation between membership of the church and membership of the civic community has been mentioned.
But as early as 1865, Arminians were welcomed to Congregational fellowship. In the last few decades, with the spread in the community of innovations in doctrinal and critical opinions, a wider diversity of belief has come to prevail, so that " Evangelical," in the popular sense of the term, rather than " Calvinistic," is the epithet more suit able to American Congregational preachers and churches.
From 1851 to 1880 there was a communistic settlement, a branch of the Oneida Community, here; its property was bought by the Masonic Order and made into the Masonic Home.
He was the author of The Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885); California (1886, in the American Commonwealth Series) The Feud of Oakfield Creek (1887, a novel); The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (1892); The Conception of God (1895); Studies of Good and Evil (1898); The World and the Individual (2 vols., 1900-1, Gifford Lectures at the university of Aberdeen); The Conception of Immortality (1900); Outlines of Psychology (1903); Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review (1904); The Philosophy of Loyalty (1908); Race Questions, Provincialism and Other American Problems (1908);' William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life (1911); Bross Lectures on the Sources of Religious Insight (1912); The Problem of Christianity (2 vols., 1913, lectures before Manchester College, Oxford); War and Insurance (1914); The Hope of the Great Community (1916, war addresses) and the posthumously published Lectures on Modern Idealism (1919).
They resembled the monks in so far as they lived in community and took religious vows; but their state of life remained essentially clerical, and as clerics their duty was to undertake the pastoral care and serve the parish churches in their patronage.
Though it has resisted all attempts to reduce it to an ordered scheme, and probably was not written on any set plan, still it is possible roughly to indicate its contents: after the prologue and introductory chapter setting forth St Benedict's intention, follow instructions to the abbot on the manner in which he should govern his monastery (2, 3); next comes the ascetical portion of the Rule, on the chief monastic virtues (4-7); then the regulations for the celebration of the canonical office, which St Benedict calls "the Work of God" or "the divine work," his monks' first duty, "of which nothing is to take precedence" (8-20); faults and punishments (23-30); the cellarer and property of the monastery (31,32); community of goods (33, 34); various officials and daily life (21, 22, 35-57); reception of monks (58-61); miscellaneous (62-73).
The most remarkable chapters, in which St Benedict's wisdom stands out most conspicuously, are those on the abbot (2, 3, 2 7, 64) The abbot is to govern the monastery with full and unquestioned patriarchal authority; on important matters he must consult the whole community and hear what each one, even the youngest, thinks; on matters of less weight he should consult a few of the elder monks; but in either case the decision rests entirely with him, and all are to acquiesce.
in Alexandria there would be fifty or sixty thousand, but their power in a community was out of all proportion to their mere numbers.
Thus also the " woman " at the wedding and beneath the cross stands primarily for the faithful Old Testament community, corresponding to the beloved disciple, the typical New Testament follower of her Son, the Messiah: in each case the devotional accommodation to His earthly mother is equally ancient and legitimate.
44, 24); it is the Jews generally who appear throughout as such; nowhere is there a word as to forgiving our enemies; and the commandment of love is designated by Jesus as His, as new, and as binding the disciples to " love one another " within the community to which He gives His " example " (xv.
This universalism is not simply spiritual; the external element, presupposed in the Synoptists as that of the Jewish church within which Jesus' earthly life was spent, is here that of the now separate Christian community: He has other sheep not of this fold - them also He must bring, there will be one fold, one shepherd; and His seamless tunic, and Peter's net which, holding every kind of fish, is not rent, are symbols of this visible unity.
When a community has a population between 300 and 1500 within an area of 1 sq.
One-half of the community property goes to the survivor in any case, and the whole of it if there is no will and neither children nor the issue of children.
If the owner is a married man the homestead may be selected from the community property but not the wife's separate property without her consent, and when it has been selected, even if from the husband's separate property, it cannot be encumbered or conveyed without the wife's consent.
Other South Arabs, and especially the Sabaeans, doubtless also planted settlers on the northern trade routes, who in process of time united into one community with their North-Arab kinsmen and neighbours.
The distinction between the terms " religion " and " magic " is, in a similar way, often due merely to rivalry between the adherents of two or more mutually exclusive religions brought together in the same community.
The Roman Catholics number 2 30% of the whites, the head of their church in the province being a vicar apostolic. At the head of the Anglican community, which is in full communion with the Church of England, is the bishop of Bloemfontein, whose diocese, founded in 1863, includes not only the Orange Free State, but Basutoland, Griqualand West and British Bechuanaland.
The Jewish community numbered 1616.
In his successive offices Mr Roosevelt not merely exerted a strong influence upon the immediate community, whose official representative he was at the time being, but by reason both of his forceful personality and of the often unconventional, although always effective, methods of work which he employed he achieved a national prominence out of ordinary proportion to the importance of his official position.
In his Nobel address he said: "In any community of any size the authority of the courts rests upon actual potential force; on the existence of a police or on the knowledge that the able-bodied men of the country are both ready and willing to see that the decrees of judicial and legislative bodies are put into effect;" and he expressed the opinion that until a recognized international supreme court was firmly established, every nation must be prepared to defend itself, and when it was established all the nations must be prepared to maintain its decrees against any recalcitrant nation.
Near the city is a communistic religious community, the Israelite House of David, founded in 1903; the members believe that they are a part of the 144,000 elect (Revelation, viii, xiv) ultimately to be redeemed.
Jerusalem and the Temple have not that central place in the book of Kings which they occupied in the minds of the Jewish community after the Exile.
Of the Christians the community of the Chaldaeans, i.e.
There were times and countries in the middle ages in which the collective power of the community was small: many of the great corporations were virtually autonomous; the central authority was weak; the matters as to which it could count upon universal obedience were few.
By many writers sovereignty is regarded as resident not in any one organ, but in the Gesammtperson of the community (Maitland, Political Theories of the Middle Ages, xliii.).
Sometimes sovereignty is defined as the organized or general will of the community (Combothecra, Conception juridique de l'etat, p. 96).
"Sovereignty resides in the community" (Woodrow Wilson, p. 1448).
The same theory is often expressed by saying that the majority in a community, or a particular group, in fact, rules (Guizot, Representative Government, i.
Some of the definitions would apply to the authority of powerful religious bodies in certain periods of history, or of illegal associations, such as the Mafia, which have terrorized the community.
At the time when the London chamber of arbitration was established, there was considerable dissatisfaction among the mercantile community with the delays that occurred in the disposal of commercial cases before the ordinary tribunals.
In Hungary a strong majority, which the Government could not afford to ignore, insisted on the formation of an independent Hungarian bank; on the other hand the advantages accruing to Hungary through the community of the financial and banking organization were quite obvious.
Its object was to exhibit by means of certain formulas the way in which the products of agriculture, which is the only source of wealth, would in a state of perfect liberty be distributed among the several classes of the community (namely, the productive classes of the proprietors and cultivators of land, and the unproductive class composed of manufacturers and merchants), and to represent by other formulas the modes of distribution which take place under systems of Governmental restraint and regulation, with the evil results arising to the whole society from different degrees of such violations of the natural order.
Each family occupied its own home, but property was held in common, all ate at the common table, and the children were taught in the community school.
There too in 1879 the community split into two factions, the Young Party and the Old Party.
Some time before this separation a few members of the colony removed to the vicinity of Cloverdale, Sonoma county, California, and here most of the members of the Young Party joined them early in 1884 in forming the Icaria-Speranza Community.
In 1838 the Society of Friends founded a nursing organization in Philadelphia, and in 1840 Mrs Fry, a member of the same community, started the Institution of Nursing Sisters in London.
The confinement of the colonies between an ocean and a mountain wall led to the fullest occupation of the coastal border of the continent, which was possible under existing conditions of agriculture, conducing to a community of purpose, a political and commercial solidarity, which would not otherwise have been developed.
On the ground that the aim of every prosperous community should be to have a large proportion of hardy country yeomen, and that horticulture and agriculture demand such a high ratio of labour, as compared with feeding and breeding cattle, that the country population would be greatly increased by the substitution of a fruit and vegetable for an animal dietary.
The foundation provided for seven to thirteen canons, with a number of lay brothers and a community of nuns.
A Hindu strain is evident in Java and others of the western islands; Moors and Arabs (that is, as the names are used in the archipelago, Mahommedans from various countries between Arabia and India) are found more or less amalgamated with many of the Malay peoples; and the Chinese form, from an economical point of view, one of the most important sections of the community in many of the more civilized districts.
1099) the city was part of the possessions of the Countess Matilda of Tuscany; but when, in 1184, the edifice was consecrated by Lucius III., it was a free community.
Harsnett was no favourite with the Puritan community, and Charles I.
The Radical government enacted severe laws as to the Romanists in Geneva, and gave privileges to the Christian Catholic Church, which, organized in 1874 in Switzerland, had absorbed the community founded at Geneva by Pere Hyacinthe, an ex-Carmelite friar.
In the early days the Church was thought of as a community of saints, all of whose members were holy, and as a consequence discipline was strict, and offenders excluded from the Church were commonly not readmitted to membership but left to the mercy of God.
Starting from Augustine's conception of the Church as the community of the elect, he protested against a church of wealth and power, a church that had become a political institution instead of a school of salvation, and against its head, the bishop of Rome.
The believer may pass from one community to another without imperilling his spiritual life, or even establish a new church without necessarily incurring the reproach of schism.
Kohen, iEpEbs, sacerdos, are, in fact, fair translations of one another; they all denote a minister whose stated business was to perform, on behalf of the community, certain public ritual acts, particularly sacrifices, directed godwards.
The close inter-relation which existed in primitive society between magic, priesthood and kingship has been indicated by Frazer in his Early History of the Kingship. His remarks throw some light on the early character of priesthood as well as kingship. " When once a special class of sorcerers has been segregated from the community and entrusted by it with the discharge of duties on which the public safety and welfare are believed to depend, these men gradually rise to wealth and power till their leaders blossom out into sacred kings."
These powerfully-organized priesthoods, as well as the elaborate nature of their ritual and apparatus of worship, must have deeply and permanently impressed the exiled Jewish community.
Priestly acts - that is, acts done by one and accepted by the gods on behalf of many - are common to all antique religions, and cannot be lacking where the primary subject of religion is not the individual but the natural community.
But the origin of a separate priestly class, distinct from the natural heads of the community, cannot be explained by any such broad general principle; in some cases, as in Greece, it is little more than a matter of convenience that part of the religious duties of the state should be confided to special ministers charged with the care of particular temples, while in others the intervention of a special priesthood is indispensable to the validity of every religious act, so that the priest ultimately becomes a mediator and the vehicle of all divine grace.
Now among the Arabs, as we have seen, ritual service is the affair of the individual, or of a mass of individuals gathered in a great feast, but still doing worship each for himself and his own private circle; the only public aspect of religion is found in connexion with divination and the oracle to which the affairs of the community are submitted.
The Evangelical Lutheran Community in Baden has a membership of about 1 ioo with 2 ordained pastors.
In 1848 this pyramid was pulled down at the instance of the Christian community, and the bones were buried in the Catholic cemetery.
Mieszko had been content to be received on almost any terms into the Christian community, Boleslaus aimed at securing the independence of the Polish Church as an additional guarantee of the independence of the Polish nation.
The only portion of the community which had no privileges were the Jews, first introduced into Poland by Boleslaus the Pious, duke of Great Poland, in 1264, when bitter persecutions had driven them northwards from the shores of the Adriatic. Casimir the Great extended their liberty of domicile over the whole kingdom (1334).
There is only one answer; the principal cause of this complete and irretrievable collapse is to be sought for in the folly, egotism and selfishness of the Polish gentry, whose insane dislike of all discipline, including even the salutary discipline of regular government, converted Poland into something very like a primitive tribal community at the very time when every European statesman, including the more enlightened of the Poles themselves, clearly recognized that the political future belonged to the strongly centralized monarchies, which were everywhere rising on the ruins of feudalism.
But in the meantime the Cossacks themselves had become a semi-independent community.
Ultimately the island of Hortica, just below the falls of the Dnieper, was fixed upon as their headquarters; and on the numerous islands of that broad river there gradually arose the famous Cossack community known as the Zaporozhskaya Syech, or Settlement behind the Falls, whence the Dnieperian Cossacks were known, generally, as Zaporozhians, or Backfallsmen.
But the relations between a community of freebooters, mostly composed of fugitive serfs and refugees, and a government of small squires who regarded the Cossacks as a mere rabble were bound to be difficult at the best of times, and political and religious differences presently supervened.
Parsimony prevailed, as usual, over prudence, and when the Cossacks showed unmistakable signs of restiveness, the Poles irritated them still further by ordering the construction of the strong fortress of Kudak at the confluence of the Dnieper and the Samara, to overawe the Zaporozhian community.
The existence of so many ecclesiastical writers was a natural feature in Polish literature; they formed the only really cultured class in the community, which consisted besides of a haughty ignorant nobility living among their serfs, and (at a vast distance) those serfs themselves, in a brutalized condition.
After that all trace of him is lost for six years, when he reappears as the leader of a robber community established at Panshinskoe, among the marshes between the rivers Tishina and Ilovlya, from whence he levied blackmail on all vessels passing up and down the Volga.
Dollinger's attitude to the new community was not very clearly defined.
It may be difficult to reconcile the two declarations made by him at different times: "I do not wish to join a schismatic society; I am isolated," and "As for myself, I consider that I belong by conviction to the Old Catholic community."
the rural community; (b) taxpayers, being citizens other than " colonists," i.e.
the urban community; (c) the Mahommedan population.
Such an agreement in the structure of so complicated and specialized an apparatus can only be the result of a community of descent of the families possessing it.