How to use Community in a sentence
To her surprise, the condo community was as quiet as the night she left.
Again, Christ has for the religious life of the community the unique value of Founder and Redeemer.
Everyone here has a role to support our little community.
It was a community where I could see Betsy and me raising children and watching grandchildren while four distinct seasons rolled slowly by, marking the years one by one.
Soon the place is swarmed with siren screaming representatives of the law enforcement community, and I hear a gunshot!Advertisement
There is, however, no proof that anything like community of women or unlimited promiscuity exists anywhere.
Each community along the way was scheduled to provide inexpensive meals for the bikers.
I do not mean that exactly, but I mean something which he might think a good deal like that; I mean that they should not play life, or study it merely, while the community supports them at this expensive game, but earnestly live it from beginning to end.
Here was nestled the town site of Ironton, a bustling community in the last-century days when silver and gold ruled the area.
Education is available to every person in the community.Advertisement
Brady pushed her from his mind, focusing on the deer path leading away from the condo community into the forest.
Lieutenant Anderson's response sounded more like an apology for being unable to locate two pillars of the community than a proper description of the two as a couple of leg-breaking punks.
Its true meaning was not lost upon a business community that had had twenty years of almost unchecked prosperity.
If an incident occurred, why was no one else in the government service housing community awake?
There is a superior council for the whole of Indo-China on which the natives and the European commercial community are represented, while in Cochin-China a privy council, and in the protectorates a council of the protectorate, assists in the work of administration.Advertisement
Venice, who had not yet entered the Italian community, is conspicuous by her absence.
Lombardy was, roughly speaking, divided between two parties, the one headed by Pavia professing loyalty to the empire, the other headed by Milan ready to oppose its claims. The municipal animosities of the last quarter of a century gave substance to these factions; yet neither the imperial nor, the anti-imperial party had any real community of interest with Frederick.
Podébrad's persecution of the newly-founded community of the Bohemian brethren is certainly a blemish on his career.
The "immediate object of theological knowledge is the faith of the community," and from this positive religious datum theology constructs a "total view of the world and human life."
France the pauper, as such, has no legal Tongking claim to help from the community, which Laos.Advertisement
Any community containing thirty or more houses may, with the approval of the selectmen of the town, receive a separate village organization.
The population of the different parts of Italy differs in character and dialect; and there is little community of sentiment between them.
In 648 or 649 Hilda was recalled to Northumbria by Aidan, and lived for a year in a small monastic community north of the Wear.
Her father (the Congregational minister of the town) and her mother were both descended from members of the company that, under John Davenport, founded New Haven in 1638; and the community in which she spent her childhood was one of the most intellectual in New England.
The original land-holding aristocracy, which had probably initiated and for a time monopolized commerce, was partly supplanted by prosperous upstarts, and with the general increase of prosperity began to lose its hold upon the community of artisans.Advertisement
The precepts of the law were valuable in the eyes of the Scribes because they were the seal of Jewish particularism, the barrier erected between the world at large and the exclusive community of Yahweh's grace.
Lana gazed at her, unable to shake her surprise that those in this small community were the opposite of what she expected.
What the modern empiricist needs is a rational bond uniting the individual with the community or with the aggregate of individuals - a rational principle distinguishing high pleasures from low, sanctioning benevolence, and giving authority to moral generalizations drawn from conditions that are past and done with.
Thus the histological differentiation of the sporogonium of the higher mosses is one of considerable complexity; but there is here even less reason to suppose that these tissues have any homology (phylogenetic community of origin) with the similar ones met with in the higher plants.
David Dean was hanging patriotic bunting by dawn's early light when Cynthia finished setting out the usual assortment of pastries for the guests and joined her husband for the short walk to the Community Center.
Rulers of this name are found at Rhodes as late as the 1st century B.C. The Prytaneum was regarded as the religious and political centre of the community and was thus the nucleus of all government, and the official "home" of the whole people.
In Milan the archbishop organizes the hitherto voiceless, defenceless population into a community capable of expressing its needs, and an army ready to maintain its rights.
Moonlight spilled over large buildings with triangular roofs into community squares abutting stacked parking lots.
Forbes drew attention to a certain community amongst birds and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and amongst plants, on all the lands stretching towards the south pole.
In all branches of economics, even in what is called the pure theory, there is an implied reference to certain historical or existing conditions of a more or less definite character; to the established order of an organized state or other community, at a stage of development which in its main features can be recognized.
But it is not so well understood that slavery discharged important offices in the later social evolution - first, by enabling military action to prevail with the degree of intensity and continuity requisite for the system of incorporation by conquest which was its final destination; and, secondly, by forcing the captives, who with their descendants came to form the majority of the population in the conquering community, to an industrial life, in spite of the antipathy to regular and sustained labour which is deeply rooted in human nature.
From the former point of view the freeman, then essentially a warrior, and the slave were mutual auxiliaries, simultaneously exercising different and complementary functions - each necessary to the community.
But the restored community which was still making a.
The Jain portion of this community is very wealthy.
It has its council of notables, forming a sort of oligarchy which, through the medium of a mayor and two subordinates, directs the interior affairs of the community - policing, recruiting, the assignment and collection of taxes, &c. - and has judicial power in less important suits and crimes.
We have already compared the body to a social community, each constituent element of which - the cell - lives its own life but subordinates its individuality to the good of the whole organism.
This, however, soon died out through the opposition it received from the Hindu community.
A small community (about 130) in Bombay, known as the Prarthna (Prayer) Samaj, was founded in 1867 through Keshub Chunder's influence; they have a similar creed to that of the Brahma Samaj, but have broken less decisively with orthodox and ceremonial Hinduism.
Treatment of disease was directed not to any special organ, nor to producing the crises and critical discharges of the Hippocratic school, but to correcting the morbid common condition or "community," relaxing the body if it was constricted, causing contraction if it was too lax, and in the "mixed state" acting according to the predominant condition.
After reading with Dean Vaughan at Llandaff he took orders, and in 1898 became a member of the Community of the Resurrection at Mirfield.
Ben Adret, with the approval of other prominent Spanish rabbis, sent a letter to the community at Montpellier proposing to forbid the study of philosophy to those who were less than thirty years of age, and, in spite of keen opposition from the liberal section, a decree in this sense was issued by ben Adret in 1305.
With the towns of St Johann, immediately opposite on the right bank of the river, and Malstatt-Burbach, Saarbrucken forms a single community, the three places having been united in 1909.
The early existence of an accurate system of dating is not surprising; it was necessitated by the fact that Babylonia was a great trading community, in which it was not only needful that commercial and legal documents should be dated, but also that it should be possible to refer easily to the dates of former business transactions.
But this connexion was not found to obtain as a rule in life, and the difficulties arising from this conflict between promise and experience centred round the lot of the righteous as a community and the lot of the righteous man as an individual.
The righteous as a nation should yet possess the earth, even in this world the faithful community should attain its rights in an eternal Messianic kingdom on earth, or else in temporary blessedness here and eternal blessedness hereafter.
After 1282 the signoria was composed of the 3 (afterwards 6) priori of the gilds, who ended by ousting the buoni uomini, while a defensor artificum et artium takes the place of the capitano; thus the republic became an essentially trading community, governed by the popolani grassi or rich merchants.
The system of the catasto, which led to abuses, was abolished, and a progressive income-tax (decima scalata) was introduced with the object of lightening the burdens of the poor, who were as a rule Medicean, at the expense of the rich; but as it was frequently increased the whole community came to be oppressed by it in the end.
It is usual to regard Abimelech's reign as the first attempt to establish a monarchy in Israel, but the story is mainly that of the rivalries of a half-developed petty state, and of the ingratitude of a community towards the descendants of its deliverer.
The cannibalism and community of wives which he attributes to certain races of that island do certainly belong to it, or to islands closely adjoining.
Carvajal may be termed the founder of the Anglo-Jewish community.
The schools include the Gymnasium (founded in 1592 by the Protestant community as a Latin school), the Realgymnasium (founded in 1830, for "modern" subjects and Latin), the Oberrealschule and Realschule (founded 1893, the latter wholly "modern"), two girls' high schools, a girls' middle-class school, a large number of popular schools, a mechanics' and polytechnic school, a school of mechanics, an industrial drawing school, a commercial school, and a school for the deaf and dumb.
Berthelsdorf, a village about a mile distant, has been the seat of the directorate of the community since about 1789.
Intent only on promoting their own interests and disregarding the welfare of the community, the old companies had become an unmitigated evil.
The early German governments whose chief functions, military, judicial, financial, legislative, were carried on by the freemen of the nation because they were members of the body politic, and were performed as duties owed to the community for its defence and sustenance, no longer existed.
But the members of the feudal court met, not to fulfil a duty owed to the community, but a private obligation which they had assumed in return for the fiefs they held, and in the history of institutions it is differences of this sort which are the determining principles.
Here the traveller ascending from the coast sees the first example of the jebel or highland towns, with their high three-storeyed houses, built of quarried stone, their narrow façades pierced with small windows with whitewashed borders and ornamented with varied arabesque patterns; each dar has the appearance of a small castle complete in itself, and the general effect is rather that of a cluster of separate forts than of a town occupied by a united community.
All matters affecting the community are discussed in the majlis or assembly, to which any tribesman has access; here, too, are brought the tribesmen's causes; both sides plead and judgment is given impartially, the loser is fined so many head of small cattle or camels, which he must pay or go into exile.
Manzoni estimated their number in Sana in 1878 at 1700 out of a total population of 20,000; at Aden they are a numerous and wealthy community, with agents in most of the towns of Yemen.
Those who escaped capture by Timur fled to the mountains of Kurdistan, and the community that had played so large a part in Mesopotamian history for a thousand years was thus shattered.
Speaking in 1886, he referred to his "standing by the side of John Bright against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the West, as I now stand against the dismemberment of the great Anglo-Saxon community of the East."
In Persian Armenia he organized and energized the Christian community at Urmi (Urumiah), and even visited Britain on an imperial expedition.
Under his leadership a considerable section of the old Netherland Reformed Church seceded in 1886 and founded the strictly orthodox Calvinistic Reformed Church Community.
He also published a book describing the Dutch community in London in 1570-1.
Two years later Manning was appointed provost of Westminster and he established in Bayswater his community of the " Oblates of St Charles."
Neither the community nor the Government was intimidated; and Mr. Thomas used his power for peace, and for a settlement, after ten days, on terms not materially different from what the men might have had at first.
This little treatise stands almost alone in Proverbs; the great mass of its aphorisms relate to vices and faults which, though possible in any tolerably well-organized community, were specially prominent in the cities in which the Jews dwelt after the conquests of Alexander.
The stage of Geist reveals the consciousness no longer as critical and antagonistic but as the indwelling spirit of a community, as no longer isolated from its surroundings but the union of the single and real consciousness with the vital feeling that animates the community.
With the death of Christ this union, ceasing to be a mere fact, becomes a vital idea - the Spirit of God which dwells in the Christian community.
One of this community was Dr C. Schick, who lived over 50 years in Jerusalem, and made many valuable contributions to its archaeology.
In 1849 came the first of several examples that have appeared in Palestine from time to time of that curious product of American religious life - a community of dupes or visionaries led by a prophet or prophetess with claims to divine guidance.
Verhoeff has discussed the rise of the "social" from the "solitary" condition, and points, out that for the formation of an insect community three conditions are necessary - a nest large enough for a number of individuals, a close grouping of the cells, and an association between mother and daughters in the winged state.
If any mishap befall the queen, the workers can sometimes keep the community from dying out.
The community is broken up on the approach of winter, the males and workers perish, and the young queens after hibernation start fresh nests in the succeeding year.
The differentiation of queen and workers is correlated with the habit of storing food supplies, and the consequent permanence of the community, which finds relief for its surplus population by sending off a swarm, consisting of a queen and a number of workers, so that the new community is already specialized both for reproduction and for labour.
On the approach of winter the males, having no further function to perform for the community, are refused food-supplies by the workers, and are either excluded or banished from the hive to perish.
The Arab has built his social structure on the Koran, which inculcates absolutism, aristocracy, theocracy; the Berber, despite his nominal Mahommedanism, is a democrat, with his Jemda or " Witangemot " and his Kanum or unwritten code, the Magna Carta of the individual's liberty as opposed to the community's good.
Provision for the poor is often made by the community.
The bond of affinity between the various peoples who compose the Pathan community is simply the bond of a common language.
The clannish attachment of the Afghans is rather to the community than to the chief.
He issued the first charter to the citizens, and constituted them a free Saxon community having their own magistrate, an advantage over all other towns of his dominions.
The Parsees, though influential and wealthy, are a very small community, numbering only 94,000, of whom all but 7000 are found in Bombay.
The Christian community numbers 2,923,241, of whom, 2,664,313 are natives and the remainder Europeans and Eurasians.
The adherents of the Syrian church, known as " Christians of St Thomas," in Malabar, Travancore and Cochin are the most ancient Christian community in the south.
The germs of rival systems can be traced in the old military and other service tenures of Assam, and in the poll tax of Burma, &c. The exclusive development of the land system is due to two conditions, - a comparatively high state of agriculture and an organized plan of administration, - both of which are supplied by the primitive village community.
The land was not held by private owners but by occupiers under the petty corporation; the revenue was not due from individuals, but from the community represented by its head-man.
The zamindar was conspicuous and useful; the village community and the cultivating ryot did not force themselves into notice.
The organized village community contains many other members besides the cultivators; but they all exist for his benefit, and all alike are directly maintained from the produce of the village fields.
Restrictions necessary for the proper conservancy of the forests are, however, imposed, and the system of shifting cultivation, which denudes a large area of forest growth in order to place a small area under crops, is held to cost more to the community than it is worth, and is only permitted, under due regulation, where forest tribes depend on it for their sustenance.
In these even more than in the third class the interests of the local community stand first.
The measure aroused a storm of indignation amongst the European community which finally resulted in the bill being shorn of its most objectionable features.
This first formal appearance as a critic and historian of literature at once gave him a new standing in the community, and was the occasion of his election to the Smith Professorship of Modern Languages in Harvard College, then vacant by the retirement of Longfellow.
The average birth-rate in the Indian community is 37 per moo; in the non-Indian community 34 per moo.
At the head of the Anglican community is the bishop of Mauritius; the chief Romanist dignitary is styled bishop of Port Louis.
St Saviour's is the cathedral church of the Anglican community.
Pop. (1900) 37,108, mostly Slovaks and Lutherans, who form the largest Lutheran community in Hungary.
It belongs to the Roman Catholic community, who possess also the church of St Martin and the church of Our Lady (Liebfrauenkirche), a handsome Gothic edifice outside the town, finished in 1467.
The Jewish community of Worms (about 1300 in number) claims to be the most ancient in Germany and to have existed continuously since the Christian era, though the earliest authentic mention of it occurs in 588.
In 1892 he founded the clerical fraternity known as the Community of the Resurrection.
In 1898 the House of the Resurrection at Mirfield, near Huddersfield, became the centre of the community; in 1903 a college for training candidates for orders was established there, and in the same year a branch house, for missionary work, was set up in Johannesburg in South Africa.
There can occasionally be traced a certain community of motion over a much larger area.
The choice lay with the community of Medina; so much was understood; but whom were they to choose?
Islam suddenly found itself once more limited to the community of Medina; only Mecca and Taff (Tayef) remained true.
He himself did not take the field, but remained in Medina with the exception of his visit to Syria in 638; he never, however, suffered the reins to slip from his grasp, so powerful was the influence of his personality and the Moslem community of feeling.
Wellhausen, in his excellent book Das arabische Reich and sein Stiirz, has made it very probable that the decision of the umpires was that the choice of Ali as caliph should be cancelled, and that the task of nominating a successor to Othman should be referred to the council of notable men (shura), as representing the whole community.
But this appointment must be sanctioned by the principal men, as representing the community.
Metz died in 1864 and was, succeeded by Barbara Landmann, since whose death in 1884 the community has lacked an inspired leader.
A few new members have joined the community from Switzerland and Germany in recent years.
In 1905 the community won a suit brought against it for its dissolution on the ground that, having been incorporated solely as a benevolent and religious body, it was illegally carrying on a general business.
Scholasticism embodied what the Christian community had saved from the wreckage of Greek dialectic. Yet with all its effective manipulation of the formal technique of its translated and mutilated Aristotle, Scholasticism would have gone under long before it did through the weakness intrinsic to its divorce of the form and the matter of knowledge, but for two reasons.
The'Brooklyn Daily Eagle, which occupies an attractive building near the borough hall, has been a newspaper of strong influence in the community.
In good citizenship morality is practised out of regard to certain preconceived notions of the needs, the health and happiness of ourselves, our fellows and the community at large.
One law of the panchayat is singular in its difference from the custom of any other native community in Asia; nobody who has a wife living shall marry another, except under peculiar circumstances, such as the barrenness of the living wife, or her immoral conduct.
The economic evolution of the state since Reconstruction has been in the main that common to all the old slave states developing from the plantation system of ante-bellum days, somewhat diversified and complicated by the special features of a young and border community.
Rapid settlement, excessive prices, reckless waste of money, and wild commercial ventures that glutted San Francisco with all objects usable and unusable made the following years astounding from an economic point of view; but not less bizarre was the social development, nor less extraordinary the problems of state-building in a society " morally and socially tried as no other American community ever has been tried " (Royce).
The necessary land was placed at the disposal of new settlers, either by the members of the older agricultural community, or by the various churches.
Thus the official inspection of markets, community of interests on the part of the craftsmen, and co-operation for social and religious ends, worked together in the formation of craft-gilds.
Those cities, on the other hand, where the mercantile community remained in power, like Nuremberg and the seaboard towns, on the whole followed a more enlightened policy, although even they could not quite keep clear of the ever-growing.
While in all prominent Italian cities the leading classes of the community were largely made up of merchants, in Venice the nobility was entirely commercial.
A strict line of demarcation, however, remains in the mutual oath which forms the basis of the civic community in both varieties of the latter, and in the fact that the ville libre stands to its lord in the relation of vassal and not in that of an immediate possession.
It is not implied that in the formation of the " natural " religions individuals were not of great importance, nor, on the other hand, that in individual religions the founder formed his faith independently of the community of which he was a part; but only that as undoubted historic facts certain religions, in tracing their lines to individuals, thereby acquired a distinctive character, and retain the impress of their founder.
The people of the country are by no means heavily taxed, a large number of the natives of the interior escaping all payment of dues to the company, the revenue being for the most part contributed by the more civilized members of the community residing in the neighbourhood of the company's stations.
The polity of the new community, often founded in defiance of the home authorities, might either be a copy of that just left behind or be its direct political antithesis.
Each community is usually composed (but there are local differences) of - (i) an upper class of chiefs, from among whom the head (tamol or iros) is chosen; (2) a lower but still noble class; and (3) common people, mostly without rights of property.
The purpose of the company was to build up a profitable commercial and agricultural community; but the hostility of the natives, unfavourable climatic conditions and the character of the colonists delayed the growth of the new community.
The community had now become self-supporting, and the year that witnessed these changes witnessed also the first representative assembly in North America, the Virginia House of Burgesses, a meeting of planters sent from the plantations to assist the governor in reforming and remaking the laws of the colony.
They did not at first succeed, but when the Seven Years' War came on they proved their worth by fighting the battles of the community against the Indians and the French.
Schofield was put in charge, and under his authority a constitutional Convention was summoned which bestowed the suffrage upon the former slaves, who, led by a small group of whites, who had come into the state with the invading armies, ratified the 14th and 15th amendments to the Federal Constitution and governed the community until 1869.
In 1764 he published (at first anonymously) his famous Administration of the Colonies (other editions appeared in 1765, 1766, 1768 and 1774), in which he advocated a union of all British possessions upon the basis of community of commercial interests.
The former community was, he says, sorely oppressed by the covetous Cistercians.
The actual proportion of the total population of India (294 millions) included under the name of "Hindus" has been computed in the census report for 1901 at something like 70% (206 millions); the remaining 30% being made up partly of the followers of foreign creeds, such as Mahommedans, Parsees, Christians and Jews, partly of the votaries of indigenous forms of belief which have at various times separated from the main stock, and developed into independent systems, such as Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism; and partly of isolated hill and jungle tribes, such as the Santals, Bhils (Bhilla) and Kols, whose crude animistic tendencies have hitherto kept them, either wholly or for the most part, outside the pale of the Brahmanical community.
As yet, however, the tribal community would still feel one in race and traditional usage.
So far from attempting to raise their standard of spiritual life, or even leaving it to ordinary intercourse to gradually bring about a certain community of intellectual culture and religious sentiment, they deliberately set up artificial barriers in order to prevent their own traditional modes of worship from being contaminated with the obnoxious practices of the servile race.
Though the Brahman, who by this time had firmly secured his supremacy over the kshatriya, or noble, in matters spiritual as well as in legislative and administrative functions, would naturally be the prime mover in this regulation of the social 4 Thus, in Berar," there is a strong non-Aryan leaven in the dregs of the agricultural class, derived from the primitive races which have gradually melted down into settled life, and thus become fused with the general community, while these same races are still distinct tribes in the wild tracts of hill and jungle."Sir Alfred C. Lyall, As.
Whilst community of occupation was an important factor in the original formation of non-tribal castes, the practical exigencies of life have led to considerable laxity in this respect - not least so in the case of Brahmans who have often had to take to callings which would seem altogether incompatible with the proper spiritual functions of their caste.
Under these conditions the religious practices of the lower race could hardly have failed in the long run to tell seriously upon the spiritual life of the lay body of the Brahmanical community.
In the Veda no tendency shows itself as yet towards rendering divine honour to the cow; and though the importance assigned her in an agricultural community is easily understood, still the exact process of her deification and her identification with the mother earth in the time of Manu and the epics requires further elucidation.
It has also necessarily maintained amongst the laity a sense of the righteous claims of the poor upon the charity of the more affluent members of the community.
His doctrine, which may be said to constitute a kind of reaction against the severe sacerdotalism of Sankara, has spread over all classes of the southern community, most of the priests of Saiva temples there being adherents of it; whilst in northern India its votaries are only occasionally met with, and then mostly as mendicants, leading about a neatly caparisoned bull as representing Siva's sacred bull Nandi.
He subsequently made over to his principal disciples the task of consolidating his community, and passed the last twelve years of his life at Puri in Orissa, the great centre of the worship of Vishnu as Jagannatha, or "lord of the world," which he remodelled in accordance with his doctrine, causing the mystic songs of Jayadeva to be recited before the images in the morning and evening as part of the daily service; and, in fact, as in the other Vaishnava creeds, seeking to humanize divine adoration by bringing it into accord with the experience of human love.
From the more accurate statistics available it appears that the excess of male births varies amongst different races and also at different times in the same community.
In old age, again, their vitality rises superior to that of the men, and they continue to form the majority of the community.
The age-constitution of a community does indeed vary, and to a considerable extent, in course of time, but the changes are usually gradual, and often spread over a generation or more.
The possible causes of this widespread tendency of the mean age of a western community to increase appertain to the subject of the movement of the population, which is dealt with below.
The factors upon which the growth of a population depend are internal, operating within the community, or external, arising out of the relations of the community with other countries.
In every country a small and generally diminishing proportion of the children is born out of wedlock, but the primary regulator of the native growth of a community is the institution of marriage.
The tendency of a community towards matrimony, or its "nuptiality," as it is sometimes termed, is usually indicated by the ratio to the total population of the persons married each year.
For the purpose of comparing the circumstances of the same community at successive periods this method is fairly trustworthy, assuming that there has been no material shifting of the age-proportions during the intervals.
Births.-Apart from the information which the statistics of birth furnish as to the growth of population, they have, like those of marriage, and perhaps to even a greater extent, a special social interest from their bearings upon the moral conditions of the community to which they relate.
The internal variations of the rate in a single community, however, can be fairly indicated in this way, as is done in Table VI., which, it is to be noted, refers to those born alive only and excludes the still-born, statistics regarding whom are incomplete.
The decline has been greatest where the standard of comfort is notoriously high, as in the United States, England and Australasia; also in France, where the general wellbeing reaches probably a lower depth in the community than in any other part of Europe.
It need not be assumed, however, that because these rates cannot be associated with the comparative degree of prosperity attained by the individual community they are altogether independent of the economic factors mainly contributing to that condition, such as trade, employment and prices.
It is generally held that the practice of thus limiting families usually prevails, in the first instance, among the betteroff classes, and in time filters down, as "the gospel of comfort" is accepted by those of less resources, until the prolificity of the whole community is more or less affected by it.
Thus, though the generally higher proportion of females in the community may seldom be enough to depress more than slightly the death-rate as a whole, it has a substantial effect upon it at the ages where women are in more marked numerical predominance, as in later life, and in places where the number of domestic servants is unusually great.
The standard mortality of each community is deduced from a life-table, representing a "generation" of people assumed to be born at the same moment and followed throughout their hypothetical life, in the light of the distribution by age ascertained.
The death-rate, however, is often taken by itself as the measure of the relatively favourable conditions or otherwise of the different countries; but it indicates at best the maintaining power of the community, whereas the increasing power, as manifested in the birth-rate, has also to be taken into account.
Here, again, it is not sufficient to rely upon the mere rate of natural growth, or the difference between the two rates, since this may be the same in a community where both the rates are very high as in one where they are relatively low, a distinction of considerable importance.
The net results of such exchange can be roughly estimated by comparing the rate of natural growth with that of the total increase of the community between one census and another, as set forth in Table VIII., in the last section of which the approximate loss by emigration, as calculated by Dr Sundbarg, is given.
The origin of the English Roman Catholics as a community separated from the National Church is generally held to date from the accession of Queen Elizabeth in 1558.
It was enacted by the act of 1829 that " every Jesuit and every member of any other religious order, community or society of the Church of Rome bound by monastic or religious vows " was, within six months after the commencement of the act, to deliver to the clerk of the peace of the county in which he should reside a notice or statement in the form given to the schedule to the act, and that every Jesuit or member of such religious order coming into the realm after the commencement of the act should be guilty of a misdemeanour and should be banished from the United Kingdom for life (with an exception in favour of natural-born subjects duly registered).
Although a bishop was appointed by the pope for the vaguely defined territory of Florida so early as 1528, the oldest Catholic community in what is now the United States dates from 1565, when the Spanish colony of St Augustine was founded.
To say that it displaced the centre of gravity in politics and commerce, substituting the ocean for the Mediterranean, dethroning Italy from her seat of central importance in traffic, depressing the eastern and elevating the western powers of Europe, opening a path for Anglo-Saxon expansiveness, forcing philosophers and statesmen to regard the Occidental nations as a single group in counterpoise to other groups of nations, the European community as one unit correlated to other units of humanity upon this planet, is truth enough to vindicate the vast significance of these discoveries.
After the Dorian invasion the community was divided anew into the ordinary three Dorian tribes and an equally privileged tribe of Ionians, besides which a class of rcopvvrtcao,00e or Karwvauochopoe lived on the land as serfs., For some centuries Sicyon remained subject to Argos, whence its Dorian conquerors had come; as late as 50o B.C. it acknowledged a certain suzerainty.
Anne Hutchinson was, in fact, voicing a protest against the legalism of the Massachusetts Puritans, and was also striking at the authority of the clergy in an intensely theocratic community.
In such a community a theological controversy inevitably was carried into secular politics, and the entire colony was divided into factions.
Land, cattle and slaves are the principal kinds of wealth, and they are all constituents of the king's revenue; enforced work contributed by members of the community, and the furnishing commodities on requisition, further aid in the maintenance of the primitive state.
The high cost of carriage, and the need of encouraging commerce in a community relying on external sources for its food supply, help to explain the comparatively low rates adopted.
Some alleviation was indeed obtained by the apportionment of contributions amongst the districts 'liable, leaving to the community to decide as it thought best between its members.
It could, therefore, hold no prominent place in a condition of society which hardly recognized the state, as distinct from the members of the community, united by feudal ties.
In this dispute, which made a great sensation in the country, the popular party successfully defended Leslie, and thus obtained the sympathy of the enlightened portion of the community.
He journeyed to Jerusalem, and there was the instrument for conferring unexpected services on the community.
Although a strong opponent of Laud's and Charles's ecclesiastical policy, Prichard lived unmolested, and even rose to be chancellor of St Davids; but the indiscreet Wroth, " the founder and father of nonconformity in Wales," being suspended in 1638 by Bishop Murray of Llandaff, founded a small community.
The Talmud outlived the reactionary tendencies of the Qaraites (q.v.) and of the Kabbalah, and fortunately, since these movements, important though they undoubtedly were for the evolution of thought, had not within them the power to be of lasting benefit to the rank and file of the community.
We may define, then, the religious object as the sacred, and the corresponding religious attitude as consisting in such manifestation of feeling, thought and action in regard to the sacred as is held to conduce to the welfare of the community or to that of individuals considered as members of the community.
Meanwhile, tradition strictly prescribes the ways and means of such reinforcement, so that religion becomes largely a matter of sacred lore; and the expert director of rites, who is likewise usually at this stage the leader of society, comes more and more to be needed as an intermediary between the lay portion of the community and the sacred powers.
The primitive community is not so custom-bound that personality has no chance to make itself felt, and the leader of men possessed of an inner fund of inspiration is the wonderworker who encourages all forms of social advance.
On the other hand, if those in authority perpetrate in the name of what their society holds sacred, and therefore with its full approval, acts that to the modern mind are cruel, silly or revolting, it is bad science and bad ethics to speak of vice and degradation, unless it can be shown that the community in which these things occur is thereby brought nearer to elimination in the struggle for existence.
It formed a new religious community, which sought to fashion itself on the model of primitive Christianity, rejecting all tradition and accretions later than New Testament records.
First, the development of a self-contained and homogeneous community was made impossible.
Reference has already been made to the reason why a common Anabaptist confession was never made public. Probably, however, the earliest confession of faith of any Baptist community is that given by Zwingli in the second part of his Elenchus contra Catabaptistas, published in 1527.
Of the commercial community the Chinese are a very important portion, and there is also a considerable number of Arabs.
Some of her followers left her before 1800, and then the community gradually broke up. The name of the village is said to have been derived from the first syllables of "Pennsylvania" and "Yankee," as most of the early settlers were Pennsylvanians and New Englanders.
Three well planned and commodious hospital buildings represent the benevolent work of the community.
His parents belonged to the community of Jewish emigrants from Portugal and Spain who, fleeing from Catholic persecution in the Peninsula, had sought refuge in the nearly emancipated Netherlands.
The philosopher's grandfather appears to have been the recognized head of the Jewish community in Amsterdam in 1628, and his father, Michael Espinoza, was repeatedly warden of the synagogue between 1630 and 1650.
Anxious to retain so promising an adherent, and probably desirous at the same time to avoid public scandal, the chiefs of the community offered him a yearly pension of r000 florins if he would outwardly conform and appear now and then in the synagogue.
The pure morality and simple-minded piety of this community seem early to have attracted Spinoza, and to have won his unfeigned respect.
Several of his friends were Collegiants, or belonged to the similarly minded community of the Mennonites, in which the Collegiants were afterwards merged.
The community which sprang up around it was diversely called Esseveldoburg, Eselsfleth and Ezeho.
The Zoutpansberg Boers formed a semi-independent community, and in 1857 Stephanus Schoeman, their commandant-general, sided against Marthinus Pretorius and Paul Kruger when they invaded the Orange Free State.
Rude and ignorant as they were, they possessed a rough military organization; each community was led by its ulmen (chief), and in war the tribes fought together under an elected leader (toqui).
Constitution and Government.Up to the year 1906 the government of Persia was an absolute monarchy, and resembled in its principal features that of the Ottoman Empire, with the exception, however, that the monarch was not the religious head of the community.
The educated community who had embraced the pure doctrine in its completeness scarcely recognized them, and the inscriptions of Darius ignore them.
Another feature of his programme was the community of wives.
He encouraged commerce and agriculture, gave much attention to the shores of the Persian Gulf, and carefully studied the welfare of the Armenian community settled in his dominions.
Of ecclesiastical organizations the most important, next to Catholicism, was the Marcionite community.
It was no mere school for the learned, disclosed no mysteries for the privileged, but sought to lay the foundation of the Christian community on the pure gospel, the authentic institutes of Christ.
But he now encountered such determined opposition from the majority of the congregation that he found it necessary to withdraw from the great church and establish in Rome a community of his own.
In other parishes there was no police whatever, no defence, no protection afforded to the community but the voluntary exertions of individuals and "the honesty of the thieves."
The police have become the ministers of a social despotism resolute in its watchful care and control of the whole community, well-meaning and paternal, although when carried to extreme length the tendency is to diminish self-reliance and independence in the individual.
Each monastic community, also, had one of its own.
Levantines, Maltese, Greeks and Jews form the trading community, but since 1895, when a branch of the Agenzia Italiana Commerciale was established at Bengazi, Italians have exercised an increasing influence on Cyrenaic commerce.
At a time when Ralph Waldo Emerson could write to Thomas Carlyle, "We are all a little wild here with numberless projects of social reform; not a reading man but has a draft of a new community in his waistcoat pocket," - the Brook Farm project certainly did not appear as impossible a scheme as many others that were in the air.
C. Fourier's doctrines, as modified by Albert Brisbane (1809-1890), had gained in the minds of Ripley and many of his associates, combined to change the whole plan of the community.
In 353, however, Caere took up arms against Rome out of friendship for Tarquinii, but was defeated, and it is probably at this time that it became partially incorporated with the Roman state, as a community whose members enjoyed only a restricted form of Roman citizenship, without the right to a vote, and which was, further, without internal autonomy.
On the banks of the Susquehanna was to be founded a brotherly community, where selfishness was to be extinguished, and the virtues were to reign supreme.
In the year following, 1788, Nembana, a Timni chief, sold a strip of land to Captain John Taylor, R.N., for the use of the "free community of settlers, their heirs and successors, lately arrived from England, and under the protection of the British government."
Whilst the governors found great difficulty in building up an industrious and agricultural community out of the medley of Africans brought to Sierra Leone, they had also to contend with the illicit slave trade which flourished in places close to the colony.
Various streets have been laid out, a large hotel erected for the reception of the visitors who resort to the place as a sanatorium in summer, and the religious wants of the community are supplied by a Roman Catholic and a Protestant church.
This was, especially in Natal, the cause of prolonged controversy among the members of the Anglican community.
The Jews form a small but influential community.
The effect of marriage upon the property of the spouses is, by the Roman-Dutch law and in the absence of any ante-nuptial contract to the contrary, to bring about a complete community of property, virtually a universal partnership between husband and wife, subject to the sole and absolute control of the husband while the marriage lasts.
Upon the dissolution of a marriage in community of property, or in the event of a judicial separation a communione bonorum, the property of the spouses is divided as upon the liquidation of a partnership. It is not necessary here to refer particularly to certain exceptions to this general rule in cases of divorce.
They were largely influenced by an important section of the Dutch community in western Cape Colony, which carried on a campaign against annexation, seeing in it a blow to the ideal they had begun to entertain of a united South Africa of a Dutch republican type.
This could not be regarded as a redemption of the promise of a liberal constitution, and it had an injurious, though limited, effect on the Boer community.'
These provisions - subsequently adopted in the electoral law of the Union of South Africa - were made to secure equal rights for the British and Dutch sections of the community.
It is clear, therefore, that from this point of view the sum of practical morals might be given in Butler's own words - "that mankind is a community, that we all stand in a relation to each other, that there is a public end and interest of society, which each particular is obliged to promote."
Furthermore, since community of action presupposes homogeneity, it follows that the world and all its parts have a spiritual nature.
In political philosophy (the Civitas Solis) he sketches an ideal communism, obviously derived from the Platonic, based on community of wives and property with statecontrol of population and universal military training.
Papias uses the term "the Elders," or Fathers of the Christian community, to describe the original witnesses to Christ's teaching, i.e.
Equally scattered through the whole country, and almost everywhere recognizable, is the underlying Persian population (Tajik), which is sometimes represented by a locally dominant tribe, but more frequently by the agricultural slave and bondsman of the general community.
The Baluch character is influenced by its environment as much as by its origin, so that it is impossible to select any one section of the general community as affording a satisfactory sample of popular Baluch idiosyncrasies.
It is the community of which murdered and murderer were members which has the right to exact revenge and retribution, an idea which found expression in the foundation of the Areopagus.
The aim of the science as laid down by Galton is to bring as many influences as can reasonably be employed, to cause the useful classes in the community to contribute more than their proportion to the next generation.
Portugal, like every great maritime trading community from Carthage to Venice, discovered that the ideal of " sea power and commerce " led directly to empire.
He is greatly indebted to oral tradition and to the testimony of eye-witnesses, especially of members of the Novatian community in Constantinople; some things also he has set down from personal knowledge.
Neither the military nor municipal organization was competent to give adequate law and peace to the community; and therefore in February 1849 the citizens elected a " Legislative Assembly," which they empowered to make laws not in " conflict with the Constitution of the United States nor the common laws thereof."
In 1837 he became pastor in Neuendettelsau, a small and unattractive place, where his life's work was done, and which he transformed into a busy and influential community.
The Committee of 1903 was appointed to inquire, inter alia, whether the limits of age-25 to 50 - for candidates should be altered, and whether service as a vice-consul for a certain period should be required to qualify for promotion to the rank of consul; whether means could not be adopted to give consular officers opportunities of increasing their practical knowledge of commercial matters and to bring them more into personal contact with the commercial community.
The Jewish community in London was refounded by Maranos in the first half of the 17th century.
The, city lies at the base of the eastern slope of the first Watchung, or Orange, Mountain, and is primarily a residential suburb of New York and Newark; with East Orange, West Orange and South Orange it constitutes virtually a single community, popularly known as " the Oranges."
The deists were, as usually happens with the leaders of English thought, no class of professional men, but represented every rank in the community.
Ferdinand fixed the town of Kaaden on the Saxon frontier as the spot where the troops were to meet, but on his arrival there he found that many cities and nobles - particularly those who belonged to the community of the Bohemian Brethren - had sent no men.
Budovec of Budova, a nobleman belonging to the community of the Bohemian Brethren, became the leader of all those who were opposed to the Church of Rome.
Such are the books entitled Of the Great Torment of the Holy Church and the Lives of the Priests of Tabor, written in a sense violently hostile to that community.
Besides the writers of the community of the Bohemian Brethren, we meet at this period with three historians of merit.
Though the life of Chelcicky, who has already been mentioned, was an isolated one, he is undoubtedly the indirect founder of the community of the " Bohemian Brethren," who greatly influenced Bohemian literature.
Before referring to some of the writings of members of the community we should mention the famed translation of the Scriptures known as the Bible of Kralice.
After the death of Brother Gregory in 1480 discord broke out in the community, and it resulted in very great literary activity.
Brothers Lucas, Blahoslav and Jaffet, as well as Augusta, a bishop of the community, have left us numerous controversial works.
The circumstance in which a fourth sister who joined the community was abducted by her brothers led to an inquiry in lunacy and to her final settlement at Spaxton.
Pigott retired to the headquarters of the sect, the "Abode of Love" in Somerset, and all efforts to interview him or to obtain details of the life of the community were abortive.
One outcome of the disclosures connected with the Agapemone deserves passing mention, as throwing some light on the origin of the wealth of the community.
They imply the existence of a community with which Paul was personally acquainted, and to which he felt himself bound and free to address keen, authoritative reproaches.
He has great privileges and responsibilities as the recognized head of the Greek community in Turkey, and enjoys also many personal honours which have survived from the days of the Eastern emperors.
The patriarch under the old Ottoman system had his own court at Phanar, and his own prison, with a large civil jurisdiction over, and responsibility for, the Greek community.
The members of this Church were to constitute a millet or community, enjoying equal rights with the Greeks and Armenians; and its head, the Bulgarian exarch, was to reside at Constantinople.
The next stage in this (so far as evidence goes, purely imaginary) career is the monastery of Fontenay le Comte, where, as has been seen, he is certainly found in 1519 holding a position sufficiently senior to sign deeds for the community, where he, probably in 1511, took priest's orders, and where he also pursued, again certainly, the study of letters, and especially of Greek, with ardour.
Indicative of the fact that the agricultural community was little affected by the trade depression are the export figures for 1904 and 1906, which were £2,044,000 and £2,627,000 respectively.
The St Petersburg suburb is the seat of the German aristocracy and merchant community.
He believes that excessive indulgence in it is confined to a comparatively small number of the wealthier classes of the community.
His tastes were literary, and the earliest fact which he records of his career is that he assisted Abbot Godfrey (1081-1105) in collecting a library for the use of the community.
The dukes gradually extended their power over all Tuscany, but after the death of the famous Matilda the city began to constitute itself an independent community, and in 1160 it obtained from Welf VI., duke of Bavaria and marquis of Tuscany, the lordship of all the country for 5 m.
Several bridges connect it with Menasha, on the opposite side of the river, and the two cities form one industrial community.
The two men were bound together by a mutual respect deeper than a sympathy of tastes, and a community of spirit stronger than a similarity of opinions.
And so attention was directed to St Augustine's writings on community life; and out of them, and spurious writings attributed to him, were compiled towards the close of the 11th century three Rules, the "First" and "Second" being mere fragments, but the "Third" a substantive rule of life in 45 sections, often grouped in twelve chapters.
He next appears in " Cambaliech " or Peking, and wrote letters (of January 8, 1305, and February 13, 1306), describing the progress of the Roman mission in the Far East, in spite of Nestorian opposition; alluding to the Roman Catholic community he had founded in India, and to an appeal he had received to preach in " Ethiopia " and dealing with overland and oversea routes to " Cathay," from the Black Sea and the Persian Gulf respectively.
Early in 1849 the Mormon community was organized as the state of Deseret 1 with Brigham Young as governor.
Through irrigation experiments agriculture became the industrial foundation of the desert community.
The Lebanon community numbers about 300,000, and the total of the whole denomination cannot be much under half a million.
Increase of wealth and the influence of returned emigrants tend to soften Maronite character, and the last remnants of the barbarous state of the community - even the obstinate blood-feud - are disappearing.
There is no doubt that Pandemos was originally an extension of the idea of the goddess of family and city life to include the whole people, the political community.
It has three Roman Catholic churches, one of which - the Gymnasial Kirche - is used by the Protestant community.
The Anglican church in Vico San Pasquale was built in 1862 on ground given to the British community by Garibaldi when dictator, and was the first Protestant church erected in Naples.
In other words, seeing that the highest human good is realizable only in a community, the theory of the state as the organ of morality, and itself in its structure and institutions the expression of ethical ideas or qualities, becomes an integral part of philosophy.
As a boy he worked in a lace factory, where he attracted the notice of the leaders of the Baptist community, who sent him to the academy at Leicester and the Baptist college at Nottingham to be educated for the ministry.
It will be formed naturally, for instance, in cases when one barbarous community conquers another, but it is not able to destroy entirely the latter or to treat its members as mere chattels.
In both cases there is absorption and administration by the state of so much of the income of the community, and it may be a question whether the private ownership of the property would not be more expedient both for the state and its subjects than state ownership is, in spite of the apparent advantage to all concerned in the state getting so much of its income without the compulsion of a tax.
In describing the principal taxes which are employed in 'the United Kingdom to provide for the national expenditure, observations have necessarily been made upon the incidence, probable or assumed, upon the taxpayer, and on the question how far they may fall equally on the whole community without any special incidence being traceable.
Again, the death duties are in a distinct category, these duties falling each year not on a particular class of the community, or a particular kind of property, but on a few individuals only, who are in some cases treated severely, while others may have no cause of complaint.
To establish, therefore, any fair account of the incidence of indirect taxes on different classes of the community, real classes being distinguished, and not a mere rough grouping into so-called classes of units who are altogether heterogeneous, is probably beyond the skill of man.
The conclusion that with good taxes long established the burden of taxation tends to become equal over the whole community was certainly not ill founded in the circumstances of former times, and may be accepted as true even in the present day.
In new countries especially the diversion of industry from its natural development cannot but be mischievous, wrong manufactures and industries being set up at the expense of the whole community, instead of those manufactures and industries which would be most profitable.
This is not the place to discuss such political problems, but there is no question of free trade theory involved if the cost to the community of any such taxation is frankly acknowledged.
Apart from the merits or demerits of particular taxes or groups of taxes, and the questions as to inequality, injury to trade, and the like already discussed, the aggregate of taxation, or rather revenue, of a state may be considered in the most general way, having regard to the proportion appropriated by the state of the total income of the community, and the return made by the state therefor.
The community thereby suffers, but the land and fixed capital remain, and when the high government expenditure ceases individuals at once have the benefit, subject to possible disturbance at the moment of transition, when many persons employed by the state return to private employment.
The port of Bombay (including docks and warehouses) is managed by a port trust, the members of which are nominated by the government from among the commercial community.
Rumanian historians have striven, by Vlachs piecing together the stray fragments of evidence which survive, to prove that their Vlach ancestors had not, as sometimes alleged, been reduced to a scattered community of nomadic shepherds, dwelling among the Carpathians as the serfs of their more powerful neighbours.
The gipsy community was bound to bring fifteen pounds weight of gold from the washings of the Argesh.
Community of creed, ancient traditional influence, the entire absence of Russian merchants, and t the consequent avoidance of many small commercial rivalries, contributed to bring about a sort of passive preference for Russia, while the bitter disputes that had occurred with Germany on the question of railway finance had left a very hostile feeling.
The centre of the old town and indeed of the entire community of Prague is the town hall (staromestska radnice), which is surrounded by the market-place, the scene of the execution of the Bohemian patriots in 1621.
Under such conditions primary schools in the villages and rural districts were practically unknown, and the parish priest was the only educated person in the community.
Her mother Jeanne de Valois, visited her in 1331 and further cemented the community of interests between England and Flanders.
Incidentally, the fact becomes plain that this section is composed from the standpoint of Asia Minor and Syria, that it dates from soon after the time of Maximin (235-38) and Decius (249-51), and that it springs from a Christian community of a strictly puritan type.
Having successfully terminated the affairs entrusted to him, he returned to Venice in 1588, and passed the next seventeen years in study, occasionally interrupted by the part he was compelled to take in the internal disputes of his community.
The country was politically split up into little principalities, most of them governed by some petty despot, whose interests were not often the same as those of the community.
The British element of the community is largely resident in the towns, and is generally engaged in trade or in professional pursuits; but in the eastern provinces the bulk of the farmers are English or German; the German farmers being found in the district between King William's Town and East London, and on the Cape Peninsula.
The Dutch Reformed Church, as might be anticipated from the early history of the country, is by far the most numerous community.
Next in number of adherents among the white community come the Anglicans - Cape Colony forming part of the Province of South Africa.
These include schools maintained by the German community, in which the medium of instruction is German.
In politics the newspapers are divided, principally on racial lines, appealing either to the British or the Dutch section of the community, rarely to both sides.
From this time Cape Colony ceased to be the only civilized community in South Africa, though for long it maintained its predominance.
The taking and re-taking of Tortuga by the French was always with the assistance of the roving community; and at the conquest of Jamaica the English navy had the same influence in its favour.
But the untimely death of Mansfield nipped in the bud the only rational scheme of settlement which seems at any time to have animated this wild community; and Morgan, now elected commander, swept the whole Caribbean, and from his headquarters in Jamaica led triumphant expeditions to Cuba and the mainland.
After the treachery of the French commander of this expedition a spirit of unity and despairing energy seemed reawakened in them; but this could not avert and scarcely delayed the rapidly approaching extinction of the community.
There was that in the very nature of the community which, from its birth, marked it as liable to speedy decline.
A proclamation was issued demanding the community of goods, the abolition of the right of inheritance, and the enfranchisement of women.
While perhaps too cautious to be the ideal leader of a young and vigorous community, his grasp of detail, indefatigable industry, and unbending integrity won him the respect even of his political opponents.
Though Old Aberdeen, extending from the city suburbs to the southern banks of the Don, has a separate charter, privileges and history, the distinction between it and New Aberdeen can no longer be said to exist; and for parliamentary, municipal and other purposes, the two towns now form practically one community.
Sometimes he ruled over only one community, sometimes over several, each of which had its own abbot as well.
By the rule of St Benedict, which, until the reform of Cluny, was the norm in the West, the abbot has jurisdiction over only one community.
The practice of commendation, by which - to meet a contemporary emergency - the revenues of the community were handed over to a lay lord, in return for his protection, early suggested to the emperors and kings the expedient of rewarding their warriors with rich abbeys held in commendam.
When the great reform of the i i th century had put an end to the direct jurisdiction of the lay abbots, the honorary title of abbot continued to be held by certain of the great feudal families, as late as the 13th century and later, the actual head of the community retaining that of dean.
In Poona, during 1897, two European officials were assassinated; the editor of a prominent native paper was sentenced to imprisonment for sedition; and two leaders of the Brahman community were placed in confinement.
In 1815 he went with his family to Sarepta, where he joined the Moravian community and again became strongly orthodox.
But, as he refused to limit his ministrations to one sect, the Seceders and he parted company, and without their countenance he made a tour through the principal towns of Scotland, the authorities of which in most instances presented him with the freedom of the burgh, in token of their estimate of the benefits to the community resulting from his preaching.
These prophecies 1 The idea of " righteousness " (s-d-k), or loyalty, appears to have implied the mutual bonds uniting the community and its deity, see Journ.
Journeying to East Friesland, (1530) he founded a community at Emden (1532), securing a large following of artisans.
The similar word for an enclosure or pen for animals, especially for sheep, and hence applied in a spiritual sense to a community of worshippers, or to the whole body of Christians regarded as Christ's flock, must be distinguished.
They are mostly traders, and live in the towns; and the wealth of many of their community gives them a social importance greater than would result from their mere numbers.
But when Buddhism, whose widely open doors had absorbed the mass of the community, became thereby corrupted from its pristine purity and gradually died away, the smaller school of the Jains, less diametrically opposed to the victorious orthodox creed of the Brahmans, survived, and in some degree took its place.
Among the monastic orders, whose crowded common life seems to have been particularly favorable to the spread of the plague, there were cases where a whole community, from the abbot down to the novices, perished.
But the basis of society was shaken by the Black Death; the kingdom was still essentially an agricultural community, worked on the manorial system; and the sudden disappearance of a third of the laboring hands by which that system had been maintained threw everything into disorder.
The people, he contended, were no worse off under the old monarchy than they will be in the long run under assemblies that are bound by the necessity of feeding one part of the community at the grievous charge of other parts, as necessitous as those who are so fed; that are obliged to flatter those who have their lives at their disposal by tolerating acts of doubtful influence on commerce and agriculture, and for the sake of precarious relief to sow the seeds of lasting want; that will be driven to be the instruments of the violence of others from a sense of their own weakness, and, by want of authority to assess equal and proportioned charges upon all, will be compelled to lay a strong hand upon the possessions of a part.
But the British influence on the community was negligible, and British rule.
Father Braun cites numerous inventories and the like to show that the cope (pluviale) was originally no more than a more elaborate cappa worn on high festivals or other ceremonial occasions, sometimes by the whole religious community, sometimes - if the stock were limited - by those, e.g.
In the 10th century, partly under the influence of the wealthy and splendour-loving community of Cluny, the use of the cope became very widespread; in the 11 th century it was universally worn, though the rules for its ritual use had not yet been fixed.
Not only is the charge of secrecy rigidly obeyed in regard to the alien world, but full initiation into the deeper mysteries of the creed is permitted only to a special class designated Akils, (Arabic `Akl, intelligence), in contradistinction from whom all other members of the Druse community, whatever may be their position or attainments, are called Jahel, the Ignorant.
A notable instance is his doctrine of the Church - the community (Gemeinde); the sole object of God's electing love, according to Ritschl's interpretation of St Paul.
On 26th March 1845 the Park Village Community was set on foot in Regent's Park, London, to minister to the poor population of St Pancras.
The community afterwards united with the Devonport Sisters, founded by Miss Sellon in 1849, and together they form what is known as Ascot Priory.
The sultan's palaces, and the residences of all classes of the community, adopt with more or less success a European style of building.
Sounds do not become words until a meaning has been put into them, and this meaning embodies the thought of a community.
But they seem to point to a community of origin of Hexapods and Crustacea in regard to the complicated ommatidia of the compound eye, and to a certain isolation of the Arachnida, which are, however, traceable, so far as the eyes are concerned, to a distant common origin with Crustacea and Hexapoda through the very simple compound eyes (monostichous, polymeniscous) of Limulus.
Bauer ridiculed Strauss's notion that a community could produce a connected narrative.
The import of this term is essentially social; and we can explain Plato's use of it only by reference to the analogy which he drew between the individual man and the community.