Communities Sentence Examples

communities
  • Physically wet but physiologically dry ha bit ats,f with the accompanying plant communities of fens, moors, and salt marshes.

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  • A single case of homicide often leads to a series of similar crimes or to protracted warfare between neighbouring families and communities; the murderer, as a rule, takes refuge in the mountains from the avenger of blood, or remains for years shut up in his house.

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  • The urban and rural communities are in the proportion of 4 to 6.

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  • Finally, within any district of constant or fairly constant climatic conditions, it is possible to distinguish plant communities which are related chiefly to edaphic or soil conditions; and the vegetation units of these definite edaphic areas are the plant formations of some writers, and, in part, the edaphic formations of Schimper.

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  • The terrible losses sustained by whole communities of farmers, planters, foresters, &c., from plant diseases have naturally stimulated the search for remedies, but even now the search is too often conducted in the spirit of the believer in quack medicines, although the agricultural world is awakening to the fact that before any measures likely to be successful can be attempted, the whole chain of causation of the disease must be investigated.

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  • On the other hand, ecological plant geography seeks to ascertain the distribution of plant communities, such as associations and formations, and enquires into the nature of the factors of the habitat which are related to the distribution of plantsplant forms, species, and communities.

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  • While making these reservations, it is at thesame time right to observe that certain Italian communities were more advanced upon the path of independence than others.

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  • He speculated on the differences in the character of races of mankind living in different climates, and correlated the political forms of communities with their situation on a seashore, or in the neighbourhood of natural strongholds.

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  • The law had to be declared and applied by the people itself in its communities, while the spokesmen of the people were neither democratic majorities nor individual experts, but a few leading men - the twelve eldest thanes or some similar quorum.

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  • In the infancy of the Roman republic its revenues were of the kind usual in such communities.

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  • These small particles or larger communities are subject to accidents, internal or external, which destroy them, immediately or slowly, and thus life ceases; or they may wear out, or become clogged by the products of their own activity.

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  • The direction of events towards the formation of serfdom is already clearly noticeable in Celtic communities.

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  • The government required the town and village communities to pay into the state treasury £1, 4s.

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  • Had the expenses of all the small towns and rural communities been included, the total would be in excess of $20 gold, or £4, per capita.

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  • On the fertile low grounds along the margins of rivers or in clearings of forests, agricultural communities naturally take their rise, dwelling in villages and cultivating the wild grains, which by careful nurture and selection have been turned into rich cereals.

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  • Political geography takes account of the partition of the earth amongst organized communities, dealing with the relation of races to regions, and of nations to countries, and considering the conditions of territorial equilibrium and instability.

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  • Rivers do not form effective international boundaries, although between dependent self-governing communities they are convenient lines of demarcation.

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  • According to returns published in 1905 the adherents of the different religious communities in the whole of the Russian empire numbered approximately as follows, though the heading Orthodox Greek includes a very great many Raskolniki or Dissenters.

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  • Circumcision and Sabbath, separation from marriage with a foreigner, which rendered a Jew unclean, as well as strict conformity to the precepts of the Torah, constituted henceforth an adamantine bond which was to preserve the Jewish communities from disintegration.

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  • Of the other religious communities, the most important are the Protestants, numbering 3000, and the Buddhists, about 250.

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  • The Roman annalist had not, like the Greek, to deal with the varying fortunes and separate doings of a number of petty communities, but with the continuous life of a single city.

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  • Warnsdorf was formed in 1870 by uniting seven separate village communities, and is now one of the largest towns in Bohemia.

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  • The numerous ancient churches and the cathedrals of Ely and Peterborough bear witness to the share taken by religious communities in the reclamation and cultivation of the land.

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  • In recent years enterprising traders have raised foxes by culture and by especially protecting certain small islands, and this has furnished employment to whole communities of natives.

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  • The Kirghiz are Sunni Mahommedans by faith, but amongst them there are curious survivals of an ancient ritual of which the origin is to be traced to those Nestorian Christian Evidences communities of Central Asia which existed in the of the middle ages.

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  • The government was directly interested in maintaining their efficiency and in preventing migrations and desertions which led to a weakening of the taxpaying communities.

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  • Politically one might differ from him, but economists as such must either be silent when political reasons are alleged for taxes that are against fundamental maxims, or must be content to point out the cost of the taxes in order that the communities concerned may decide whether the object in view is obtainable by means of the taxation, and is worth the price.

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  • But as the friars soon came nearly all to be priests devoted to spiritual ministrations, and the communities grew larger, it became increasingly difficult for them to support themselves by personal work; and so the begging came to play a greater role than had been contemplated by St Francis.

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  • There was also a small class of peasant proprietors, called mocheneni in Walachia, resechi in Moldavia, living and working in family communities; but the great mass of the peasantry cultivated the lands of the large proprietors, giving a certain number of days' work to their manorial lord, in addition to a tithe of the raw produce.

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  • South of the Danube its chief political interest centred in the Kutzo-Vlach communities in Macedonia, which were the object of a Panhellenic propaganda most offensive to Rumanian nationalism.

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  • The communities of Vysehrad (1883), Holesovic-Bubna (1884) and Liben (1901) were consecutively included in the city.

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  • Of the original inhabitants there remain only a few scattered tribes in the forests, who refuse to submit to civilized requirements, and a much larger number who live in organized communities and have adopted the language, customs and habits of the dominant race.

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  • Many of the civilized Indian communities have not become wholly Hispanicized and still retain their own dialects and customs, their attitude being that of a conquered race submitting to the customs and demands of a social organization of which they form no part.

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  • They lived in settled communities, cultivated the soil to some extent, and ascribed their progress toward civilization to a legendary cause remarkably similar to those of the Aztecs of Mexico and the Incas of Peru.

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  • Political independence and misrule led to the abandonment of these roads, and they are now little better than the bridle-paths which are usually the only means of communication between the scattered communities of the Cordilleras.

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  • By the middle of the century the Spanish power was fairly established, and flourishing communities arose along the coasts, and in the table-lands of Cundinamarca formerly occupied by the Muiscas.

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  • In the Ottoman Empire the rulers appointed to the quasi-independent Christian communities subject to it have usually been designated " prince, " and the title has thus come to signify in connexion with the Eastern Question a sovereignty more or less subordinate.

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  • The Great Trek, as it is called, lasted from 1836 to 1840, the trekkers, who numbered about 7000, founding communities with a republican form of government beyond the Orange and Vaal rivers, and in Natal, where they had been preceded, however, by British emigrants.

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  • The various communities ruled themselves principally according to their customs and traditions, which, however, possessed a certain uniformity resulting from their close connexion with natural and divine law.

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  • In November 1820 he was appointed consistorial president of the evangelical communities at Saratov and subsequently became chief superintendent of the Lutheran communities in St Petersburg.

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  • Communities under 2500 in population are regarded as towns, and have a separate form of government by a board of trustees.

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  • In the 'seventies, after a succession of wet seasons, and again in the 'eighties, settlement was pushed far westward, beyond the limits of safe agriculture, but hundreds of settlers - and indeed many entire communities - were literally starved out by the recurrence of droughts.

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  • This was an act to prevent the further accumulation of landed property in the dead hand of religious persons and communities.

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  • The price of food, already raised by the war, was still further increased by sueCore Laws cessive Corn Laws, and the artificial value thus given and to arable land led to the passing of Enclosure Bills, Enclosure under which the country people were deprived of their Acts, common rights with very inadequate compensations and life in the village communities was made more and more difficult.

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  • The right to return members to parliament was claimed for all communities; and since this right was unconstitutionally withheld, unrepresented towns were invited to exercise it in anticipation of its formal concession.

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  • In 1774 was passed the Quebec Act for the government of the Province of Quebec into which the Wisconsin region was incorporated by this act, but it had little effect on the French settlements west of Lake Michigan, which remained throughout the entire British period a group of detached and periodically self-governing communities.

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  • De Langlade led his French and Indian forces against the American frontier communities west of the Alleghanies.

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  • During the exile many occasional fasts were doubtless observed by the scattered communities, in sorrowful commemoration of the various sad events which had issued in the downfall of the kingdom of Judah.

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  • As soon as we begin to know anything of the Druses they were living in a feudal state of society, as village communities under sheikhs, themselves generally subordinate to one or more amirs.

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  • Unitarians carry their history up to the Apostolic age, claim for their doctrine a prevalence during the ante-Nicene period, and by help of Arian communities and individual thinkers trace a continuity of their views to the present time.

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  • Suppressed as a rule in individual cases, this type of doctrine ultimately became the badge of separate religious communities, in Poland (extinct), in Hungary (still flourishing), and at a much later date in England.

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  • It was in Poland and Hungary that religious communities, definitely anti-Trinitarian, were first formed and tolerated.

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  • Galata is the chief business centre of the city, the seat of banks, postoffices, steamship offices, &c. Pera is the principal residential quarter of the European communities settled in Constantinople, where the foreign embassies congregate, and the fashionable shops and hotels are found.

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  • More than thirty foreign educational institutions flourish in Constantinople itself, and they are largely attended by the youth belonging to the native communities of the country.

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  • The social and political influence of this intellectual improvement among the various communities of the empire soon made itself felt, and had much to do with the startling success of the constitutional revolution carried out, under the direction of the Committee of Union and Progress, in the autumn of 1908.

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  • The following figures are given as an approximate estimate of the size of the communities which compose the population.

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  • A certain measure of self-government is likewise granted to the native Christian communities under their ecclesiastical chiefs.

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  • From the middle ages downwards the securing of the right to the coral fisheries on the African coasts was an object of considerable rivalry among the Mediterranean communities of Europe.

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  • When they were united they were a formidable power, but, like other half-organized communities, they seldom combined for long together, and consequently they influenced but little the fortunes of the Greeks.

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  • David Strauss in his Life of Jesus had accounted for the Gospel narratives as half-conscious products of the mythic instinct in the early Christian communities.

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  • Nor have we to consider the special doctrines that have formed the bond of union of the Christian communities except in their ethical aspect, their bearing on the systematization of human aims and activities.

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  • Under the general idea of law, defined as an " ordinance of reason for the common good, promulgated by him win has charge of the community," Thomas distinguishes (1) the eternal law or regulative reason of God which embraces all his creatures, rational and irrational; (2) " natural law," being that part of the eternal law that relates to rational creatures as such; (3) human law, which properly consists of more particular deductions from natural law particularized and adapted to the varying circumstances of actual communities; (4) divine law specially revealed to man.

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  • AntiSemitism is not prevalent in Servia, owing to the smallness of the Jewish communities.

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  • Henceforward all his energies were directed towards stimulating the anti-dynastic movement, first by the collection of funds from the Chinese communities in the United States, Hawaii and the Straits Settlements, and then by organized propaganda work conducted by secret agents throughout the Empire.

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  • Under the names of Baiame, Pundjel, Mulkari, Daramulun and many others, the south-eastern tribes (both those who reckon descent in the female and those who reckon by the male line) have this faith in an All-Father, the attributes varying in various communities.

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  • Thus among the wandering tribes of the desert and of the heart of the forests, where large communities are impossible, a patriarchal system prevails with the family as the unit.

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  • Where the forest is less dense and small agricultural communities begin to make their appearance, the unit expands to the village with its headman.

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  • Christianity, introduced into Gaul during the 1st century of the Christian era by those foreign merchants who traded along the coasts of the Mediterranean, had by the middle of the 2nd century founded communities at Vienne, at Autun and at Lyons.

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  • These Christian communities, disguised under the legally authorized name of burial societies, gradually formed a vast secret cosmopolitan association, superimposed upon Roman society but incompatible with the Empire.

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  • At first in Sicily and afterwards throughout Italy the Ghibellines gave them a warm welcome; the rigorists and the malcontents who had either left the church or were on the point of leaving it, were attracted by these communities of needy rebels; and the tribune Rienzi was at one time disposed to join them.

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  • Isolated cases of piracy have occurred on the Rif coast of Morocco even in our time, but the pirate communities which lived by plunder and could live by no other resource, vanished with the French conquest of Algiers in 1830.

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  • These take place only in communities where some have got more than is sufficient while others have not enough.

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  • Only two communities separated Cortez and Durango; Mancos and Hesperus, and neither were memo­rable.

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  • The clan is generally subdivided into smaller communities (mahale), each administered by a local notable or jobar.

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  • In some communities they fell into the control of violent men and became simply bands of outlaws, dangerous even to the former members; and the anarchical aspects of the movement excited the North to vigorous condemnation.'

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  • In 1905 the population was 268,916, of whom 30% live in communities of more than 2000.

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  • Flourishing communities were likewise to be found in Hainault, Namur, Cambrai and the other southern districts of the Netherlands, but nowhere else the vigorous independence of Ghent, Bruges and Ypres, nor the splendour of their civic life.

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  • Split up into numerous and mutually hostile communities, they never, through the fourteen centuries which have elapsed since the end of the old Western empire, shook off the yoke of foreigners completely; they never until lately learned to merge their local and conflicting interests in the common good of undivided Italy.

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  • With the Reformation in the 16th century, Church courts properly speaking disappeared from the non-episcopal religious communities which were established in g Holland, in the Protestant states of Switzerland and of Germany, and in the then non-episcopal countries of Denmark and Norway.

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  • Previous to this the Aryan settlements, along the three routes they followed in their penetration into India, had remained isolated, independent and small communities.

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  • In such cases the immediate damage done may be slight; but the effects of prolonged action and the summation of numerous attacks at numerous points are often enormotis, certain of these leafdiseases costing millions sterling annually to some planting and agricultural communities.

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  • Hence, in any cosmopolitan treatment of vegetation, it is necessary to consider the groups of plant communities from the standpoint of the climatic or geographical district in which they occur; and this indeed is consistently done by Schimper.

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  • Physically and physiologically wet habitats, with the accompanying plant communities of lakes, reed swamps, and marshes.

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  • It is noticeable that the patriotic spirit is strongest in those places where people are brought most intimately into relation with the land; dwellers in the mountain or by the sea, and, above all, the people of rugged coasts and mountainous archipelagoes, have always been renowned for love of country, while the inhabitants of fertile plains and trading communities are frequently less strongly attached to their own land.

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  • The state is the chief owner of forests (almost exclusive owner in Archangel), and owns no less than 289,226,000 acres in European Russia and Poland (235,000,000 acres of good forests), while private persons own 171,800,000 acres, the peasant communities 67,250,000 and the imperial family 22,400,000 acres.

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  • Seers and prophets of all kinds ranged from those who were consulted for daily mundane affairs to those who revealed the oracles in times of stress, from those who haunted local holy sites to those high in royal favour, from the quiet domestic communities to the austere mountain recluse.

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  • Judas avenged them by burning the harbour and the shipping, and set to work to bring into Judaea all such communities of Jews who had kept themselves separate from their heathen neighbours.

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  • The popes themselves, within their own immediate jurisdiction, were often far more tolerant than their bulls issued for foreign communities, and Torquemada was less an expression than a distortion of the papal policy.

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  • In Persia Jews are often the victims of popular outbursts as well as of official extortion, but there are fairly prosperous communities at Bushire, Isfahan, Teheran and Kashan (in Shiraz they are in low estate).

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  • At the end of 1909 was held the first conference of Jewish ministers in London, and from this is expected some more systematic organization of scattered communities.

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  • Its communities were bound together by a sense of close fraternal relation.

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  • All the evidence before Sir George, and the study he made of the Boer character, convinced him that the barriers separating the various white communities were largely artificial.

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  • The term " Progressive " was now formally adopted by the British mercantile communities in the large towns and among the sturdy farmers of British descent in the eastern province.

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  • Liberty of worship is accorded to Roman Catholics, Jews, Mahommedans and certain Protestant communities.

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  • As a papal delegate he had to visit all the Roman Catholic communities in Dalmatia, Herzegovina and Bosnia, and had numerous opportunities of hearing the bards recite songs on old national heroes.

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  • For the origin of the institution it is safe to assume that neighbouring communities, whether tribes (g Ovrt) or cities, desiring friendly intercourse with one another chose the sanctuary of some deity conveniently situated, at which to hold their periodical festival for worship and their fair for the interchange of goods.

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  • Although the hieromnemones of the Thessalians, who held the presidency, and perhaps of a few other communities, must have been elected, the office was ordinarily, as at Athens, filled by lot.

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  • The inability of the council to enforce its resolutions was chiefly due to its composition; the majority of the communities represented were even in combination no match for individual cities like Athens, Sparta or Thebes.

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  • But these varying conceptions with their religious meaning become religiously productive only in the souls of religious heroes, who are the authors of new religions, mediators of the religious life, founders of religious communities.

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  • In addition to the secular clergy there are several communities of regular priests scattered over the country, ministering in their own churches but without parochial jurisdiction.

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  • But though we may safely assume that a number of scattered communities existed in Ireland, and probably not in the south alone, it is unlikely that there was any organization before the time of St Patrick.

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  • He also organized the already existing Christian communities, and with this in view founded a church at Armagh as his metropolitan see (444) It is further due to him that Ireland became linked up with Rome and the Christian countries of the Western church, and that in consequence Latin was introduced as the language of the church.

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  • It was through these Scandinavian trading communities that Ireland came into contact with the rest of Europe in the iith and 12th centuries.

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  • The king of Dublin exercised overlordship over the other Viking communities in the island, and thus became the most dangerous opponent of the ardri, with whom he was constantly at variance.

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  • Droves of swine under the charge of swineherds wandered through the forests; some belonged to the ri, others to lords (flaith) and others again to village communities.

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  • Of the total population of Austria 14,009,233 were scattered in 26,321 rural communities with less than 2000 inhabitants; while the remainder was distributed in 1742 communities with a population of in 260 communities with a population of 5000-10,00o; in 96 towns with a population of 10,000-20,000; in 41 towns with a population of 20,000-50,000; in 6 towns with a population of 50,000-Ioo,000; and in 6 towns with a population of over 100,000 inhabitants.

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  • In the basins of the southern rivers they formed semi-independent military communities.

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  • The means of accomplishing the former have been already pointed out, but they are obviously difficult to carry out on a large scale, particularly in native communities.

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  • A new Sanhedrin was formed there under the presidency of a ruler, who received yearly dues from all Jewish communities.

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  • If fugitives are for the next half-century to be met with in all parts of Europe, yet, especially in the Levant, there grew up thriving Jewish communities often founded by Spanish refugees.

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  • In Morocco the Jews, who until late in the 19th century were often persecuted, are still confined to a mellah (separate quarter), but at the coast-towns there are prosperous Jewish communities mostly engaged in commerce.

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  • The influence of the happier communities has been exercised on behalf of those in a worse position by individuals such as Sir Moses Montefiore rather than by societies or leagues.

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  • It was applied by the Moslems in Spain to the Christian communities existing among them, in Cordova, Seville, Toledo and other large cities, in the exercise of their own laws and religion.

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  • From choice or compulsion large numbers settled in Egypt in the time of the Ptolemies, and added an appreciable element to Alexandrine culture, while gradual voluntary emigration established Jewish communities in Syria, Asia Minor, Greece and Italy, who facilitated the first spread of Christianity.

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  • He advocated freedom of the corn trade, reduction of the number of religious communities, and deprecated regulation of the interest on loans.

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  • The village community has always existed as the social unit in the Mahratta territories, though with less cohesion among its members than in the village communities of Hindustan and the Punjab.

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  • He lived in a time when the Christian communities enjoyed almost uninterrupted peace and held an acknowledged position in the world.

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  • Tiryns and Hissarlik, other communities of the early race began to arrive at civilization, but were naturally influenced by the more advanced culture of Crete, in proportion to their nearness of vicinity.

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  • Ottoman Turks, scattered gipsy communities, German settlers in north Palestine, and all sorts of Europeans make up a heterogeneous and incompatible population.

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  • Besides orthodox Moslems there are also Shi`ite sects, as well as a number of religious communities whose doctrine is the outcome of the process of fermentation that characterized the first centuries of Islam.

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  • From the upper Sajur northwards Turkish prevails, even among the Armenians; but many Kurdish communities retain their own tongue.

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  • Provincial governors were kept under strict supervision; extortion was practically unheard of; the jus Latii was bestowed upon several communities; special officials were instituted for the control of the finances; and the emperor's interest in provincial affairs was shown by his personal assumption of various municipal offices.

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  • Each community could speak of its own baal, although a collection of allied communities might share the same cult, and naturally, since the attributes ascribed to the individual baals were very similar, subsequent syncretism was facilitated.

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  • The centre of commercial and civic life of the older group of communities, as of the greater city of the classical age, was the Agora or market.

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  • In the Minoan epoch Athens is proved by the archaeological remains to have been a petty kingdom scarcely more important than many other Attic communities, yet enjoying a more unbroken course of development than the leading states of that period.

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  • Within the empire itself, the various communities were allowed, subject to the interference of the king or his officials, to manage their own affairs.

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  • In the loosely-knit Seleucid realm it is plain that a great deal more independence was left to the various communities, - cities or native tribes, - than in Egypt, where the conditions made a bureaucratic system so easy to carry through.

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  • Nay more, the Gentile Christians took possession of them, and just in proportion as they were neglected by the Jews - who, after the war of Bar-Cochba, became indifferent to the Messianic hope and hardened themselves once more in devotion to the law - they were naturalized in the Christian communities.

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  • In the interests of self-preservation against the world, the state and the heretics, the Christian communities had formed themselves into compact societies with a definite creed and constitution, and they felt that their existence was threatened by the white heat of religious subjectivity.

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  • But these intruders seem to have been successively absorbed in the Somali stock; and the Arabs never succeeded in establishing permanent communities in this region.

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  • It is in the communities in which the military order obtained an ascendancy over the sacerdotal, and which were directly organized for war, that slavery (as the word is commonly understood) had its natural and appropriate place.

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  • Not very long after the disappearance of serfdom in the most advanced communities comes into sight the new system of colonial slavery, which, instead of being the spontaneous outgrowth of social necessities and subserving a temporary need of human development, was politically as well as morally a monstrous aberration.

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  • The group of instincts which we class as imitative (and they afford only the foundations on which intelligent imitation is based) are of biological value chiefly, if not solely, in those species which form larger or smaller communities.

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  • At the moment when this doctrine had come to be generally accepted by the thinking part of the nation, the Jews found themselves dispersed among foreign communities, and from that time were a subject people environed by aliens, Babylonian, Persian and Greek.

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  • Even in the 19th century reports were spread of communities in which Indian blood was supposedly still plainly dominant; but the conclusion of the competent scientists who have investigated such rumours has been that at least absolutely nothing of the language and traditions of the aborigines has survived.

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  • The latter measure produced extreme suffering and much starvation (as the reconcentrados were largely thrown upon the charity of the beggared communities in which they were huddled).

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  • There are also various private schools, belonging to the different religious communities.

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  • The non-Mussulman population is divided into millets, or religious communities, which are allowed the free exercise of their religion and the control of their own monasteries, schools and hospitals.

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  • The communities now recognized are the Latin (or Catholic), Greek (or Orthodox), Armenian Catholic, Armenian Gregorians, Syrian, and United Chaldee, Maronite, Protestant and Jewish.

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  • This is due partly to the Christian communities, notably the Maronites and others in Syria, the Anatolian and Rumelian Greeks, and the Armenians of the eastern province and of Constantinople.

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  • The military exemption tax is not collected as above, but by the spiritual chiefs of the various religious communities.

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  • As all the preparatory schools founded by the state were for Mussulman children only (the various Christian communities maintaining their own schools), idadi or secondary schools were established in 1884 for the instruction of children of all confessions.

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  • Besides these, there are the religious heads of the community; especially the nakib and Jewish high priest, who possess an undefined and extensive authority in their own communities.

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  • It seems not unlikely that Pelagianism had taken root among the Christian communities of Ireland, and it was found necessary to send a bishop to combat the heresy.

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  • We are totally ignorant as to the extent and number of the pre-Patrician Christian communities in Ireland.

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  • Again, many who had become converts to Judaism afterwards joined the new Christian communities.

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  • The land is held by the Russian village communities in virtue of the right of occupation.

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  • Though indeed we might look nearer home than the Talmud for similar absurdities; most Puritan communities could furnish strange freaks of Sabbatarian casuistry.

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  • But such literature was not confined to the members of these communities, but had been current among the Chasids and their successors the Pharisees.'

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  • These naturally became the popular religious books of the rising Jewish-Christian communities, and were held by them in still higher esteem, if possible, than by the Jews.

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  • They were in loose alliance with and in quasi-supremacy over the Boer communities which had left the Cape and settled at Winburg and at Potchefstroom.

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  • The two great Protestant communities are divided into ecclesiastical districts, five for each; the heads of these districts bear the title of superintendents.

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  • The Jewish communities are comprised in ecclesiastical districts, the head direction being at Budapest.

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  • Everywhere the civic communities were declining; even Buda and Pressburg were half in ruins.

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  • This is the Catholic view, common to all the ancient Churches whether of the West or East, and it is one that necessarily excludes from the union of Christendom all those Christian communities which possess no such apostolically derived ministry.

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  • The result is the creation of an almost inconceivably vast body of traditional custom, law and knowledge into which every human being is born, less in the more isolated and barbarous communities, but large everywhere.

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  • Education is not in its essential nature a training administered to the young by an older generation, but is the natural and unaided assimilation of the Record of the Past by the automatically educable brain - an assimilation which is always in all races very large but becomes far larger in civilized communities.

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  • But it must not be forgotten that the problems presented by human communities are extremely complex, and that the absence of any selection of healthy or desirable stock in the breeding of human communities leads to undesirable consequences.

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  • Since 1887 a church rate has been levied on the Evangelical-Lutheran communities, and since 1904 upon the Roman Catholics also.

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  • Here it is only necessary to state that the Voortrekkers were animated by an intense desire to be altogether rid of British control, and to be allowed to set up independent communities and govern the natives in such fashion as they saw fit.

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  • Up to 1845 Potgieter continued to exercise authority over the Boer communities on both sides of the Vaal.

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  • In the re- establishment of the field comets and in other directions a return was made to the republican forms of administration, and on the education question an agreement satisfactory to both the British and Dutch-speaking communities was reached.

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  • The Lao, who descended from the mountain districts of Yunnan, Szechuen and Kweichow to the highland plains of upper Indo-China, and drove the wilder Kha peoples whom they found in possession into the hills, mostly adopted Buddhism, and formed small settled communities or states in which laws were easy, taxes light and a very fair degree of comfort was attained.

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  • The same thing is seen from the fact that the heresy of the Marcionites was already showing itself in this district, for (in Tixeront's words) " heresies, in the first centuries at feast, only spread in already constituted Christian communities."

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  • The somatic cells represent communities or republics, as it were, which we name organs and tissues, but each cell possesses a certain autonomy and independence of action, and exhibits phenomena which are indicative of vitality.

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  • In fact the free Greek cities and communities, in both Sicily and southern Italy, were sacrificed to Syracuse; there the greatness and glory of the Greek world in the West were concentrated.

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  • A minute knowledge of printed books and a methodical examination of departmental and communal archives furnished him with material for a long course of successful lectures, which gave rise to some important works on municipal history and led to a great revival of interest in the origins and significance of the urban communities in France.

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  • There are five states, all sawbwaships, under the supervision of the superintendent of the northern Shan States, besides an indeterminate number of Wa States and communities of other races beyond the Salween river.

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  • Folk-right is the aggregate of rules, formulated or latent but susceptible of formulation, which can be appealed to as the expression of the juridical consciousness of the people at large or of the communities of which it is composed.

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  • Dulaurier published from a Parisian Sahidic MS., subjoining a French translation, what is termed a fragment of the apocryphal revelations of St Bartholomew (Fragment des revelations apocryphes de Saint Barthelemy, &c., Paris, 1835), and of the history of the religious communities founded by St Pachomius.

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  • They associate in communities, forming their burrows among loose rocks, and coming out to feed in the early morning and towards sunset.

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  • This was done by dividing the communities into choirs, which relieved each other by turn in the church.

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  • Some live in settled communities and roughly cultivate the soil.

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  • The Hindu and Mahommedan communities had been practically untouched.

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  • Duff saw that, to reach these communities, educational must take the place of evangelizing methods, and he devised the policy of an educational mission.

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  • Rhode Island was one of the first communities in the world to advocate religious freedom and political individualism.

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  • The system of apportionment and the franchise qualifications were worked out to meet the needs of a group of agricultural communities.

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  • Others maintain that only the seaboard was included in the province, the inland cities being constituted self-governing, "protected" communities.

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  • From that time until his death in 1881 the Aga Khan, while leading the life of a peaceful and peacemaking citizen, under the protection of British rule, continued to discharge his sacerdotal functions, not only among his followers in India, but towards the more numerous communities which acknowledged his religious sway in distant countries, such as Afghanistan, Khorasan, Persia, Arabia, Central Asia, and even distant Syria and Morocco.

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  • With the exception of Griend and Schokland, the islands of the Zuider Zee are inhabited by small fishing communities, who retain some archaic customs and a picturesque dress.

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  • Derby, Ansonia and Shelton form one of the most important manufacturing communities in the state; although their total population in 1900 (23, 448) was only 2.9% of the state's population, the product of their manufactories was 7.4% of the total manufactured product of Connecticut.

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  • It is probable that after the time of the synoecism the nobles who had hitherto governed the various independent communities were obliged to reside in Athens, now the seat of government; and at the beginning of Athenian history the noble clans form a class which has the monopoly of political privilege.

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  • Cato felt that the record of Roman glory could not be isolated from the story of the other Italian communities, which, after fighting against Rome for their owil independence, shared with her the task of conquering the world.

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  • They own a chief sheikh, resident at Jeba`a, and have the reputation, like most heretical communities in the Sunni part of the Moslem world, of being exceedingly fanatical and inhospitable.

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  • In tracing the history of the religion of the Roman people we are not, as in the case of Greece, dealing with separate, though interacting, developments in a number of independent communities, but with a single community which won its way to the headship first of Latium, then of Italy and finally of a European empire.

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  • There were simply certain communities of believers bound together by a common hope, and by a free organization, which might be modified to any required extent.

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  • It maintained itself there in a number of close communities, probably in places where no Catholic congregation had been formed; and to these the Novatians at a later period attached themselves.

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  • In advising Pliny about the different free communities in the provinces, Trajan showed the same regard for traditional rights and privileges which he had exhibited in face of the senate at Rome.

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  • Doubtless there were many who bore the name of John in the early Christian communities; we read, for instance, of ` John, whose surname was Mark,' and there may have been a second John in Asia, since at Ephesus, we are told, there were two tombs said to be John's..

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  • But the Torres Straits islanders are employed by Europeans in the pearl shell fishery, and are good labourers; and in some of the Kei and Aru Islands the Papuan inhabitants form orderly Christian communities.

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  • Notwithstanding these measures for their extermination, the French Protestants were proceeding to organize a church in accordance with the conceptions of the early Christian communities as Calvin described them in his Institutes.

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  • Beginning with Paris, some fifteen communities with their consistories were established in French towns between 1555 and 1560.

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  • What prosperity or stability remains in various Cape Cod communities is largely due to foreign immigrants-especially BritishAmericans and Portuguese from the Azores; although the population remains, to a degree exceptional in northern states, of native stock.

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  • They invaded the West Indies, seized one island after another, and formed the freebooting communities known as the Brethren of the Coast and the Buccaneers.

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  • It was inevitable that in the early stages of their history, the so-called Latin communities should fall under the control of "the single person," and no less inevitable that he should be a soldier.

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  • And though in recent years Spanish America has seemingly settled down, and republican institutions have followed upon long periods of continual revolution, yet over the American continent as a whole there is an overwhelming predominance, material and intellectual, of the communities of English speech and politically of English origin.

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  • Nero admitted the old inhabitants to the privileges of the colony, thus uniting in one the two previously distinct communities.

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  • The members which make up the One Ecclesia are not communities but individual men.

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  • Driven from Subiaco by the jealousy and molestations of a neighbouring priest, but leaving behind him communities in his twelve monasteries, he himself, accompanied by a small band of disciples, journeyed south until he came to Cassino, a town halfway between Rome and Naples.

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  • At the time of the first annexation of the Transvaal the Free State declined Lord Carnarvon's invitation to federate with the other South African communities.

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  • Similar researches have also established the fact that in prehistoric times nearly all the lakes of Switzerland, and many in the adjoining countries - in Savoy and the north of Italy, in Austria and Hungary and in Mecklenburg and Pomerania - were peopled, so to speak, by lake-dwelling communities, living in villages constructed on platforms supported by piles at varying distances from the shores.

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  • Many communities usually regarded as true states do not possess it.

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  • It is still more at variance with the facts in these days when a few great states predominate, and when the contact of western states with African and Asiatic states or communities gives rise to relations of dependence falling short of conquest.

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  • It is true that this mostly happened at the expense of the German industrial communities, since the Slav labourers as immigrants acquired schools in their own language.

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  • His connexion with the Bombay presidency was appropriately commemorated in the endowment of the Elphinstone College by the native communities, and in the erection of a marble statue by the European inhabitants.

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  • This was assured to the insurgents at the outset by the revolt of the maritime communities of the Greek archipelago.

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  • Farther north the country is peopled by Laos, scattered in villages along all the river banks, and by numerous communities of Shan, Karen, Kamoo and other tribes living in the uplands and on the hilltops.

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  • In Germany the Reformers called themselves usually evangelici, and avoided special designations for their communities, which they conceived only as part of the true Catholic Church; "Calvinists," "Lutherans," "Zwinglians" were, in the main, terms of abuse intended to stamp them as followers of one or other heretical leader, like Arians or Hussites.

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  • Intercommunication between the various Christian communities was very active.

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  • Considered from the standpoint of the world outside, the Roman Church is, no less than the Protestant communities, merely one of the sects into which Western Christendom has been divided - the most important and widespread, it is true, but playing in the general life and thought of the world a part immeasurably less important than that filled by the Church before the Reformation, and one in no sense justifying her claim to be considered as the sole inheritor of the tradition of the pre-Reformation Church.

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  • If this be true of the Roman Catholic Church, it is still more so of the other great communities and confessions which emerged from the controversies of the Reformation.

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  • These represent a theory of the Church practically unknown to the Reformers, and only reached through the necessity for discovering a logical basis for the communities of conscientious dissidents from the established churches.

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  • This argument leaves no room for a special priesthood in the Christian Church, and in fact nothing of the kind is found in the oldest organization of the new communities of faith.

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  • In 1526 Luther published the German Mass and order of Divine Service, which, without being slavishly copied, served as a model for Lutheran communities.

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  • Three of these addresses were published, wholly or in part, in the later editions of Village Communities; the substance of others is understood to be embodied in the Cambridge Rede lecture of 1875, which is to be found in the same volume.

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  • Here the Lechici, as they called themselves (a name derived from the mythical patriarch, Lech), seemed to have lived for centuries, in loosely connected communities, the simple lives of huntsmen, herdsmen and tillers of the soil, till the pressure of rapacious neighbours compelled them to combine for mutual defence.

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  • Hunters and fishermen frequented its innumerable rivers, returning home laden with rich store of fish and pelts, while runaway serfs occasionally settled in small communities beneath the shelter of the fortresses built, from time to time, to guard the 'southern frontiers of Poland and Muscovy.

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  • Even during the Social War Nuceria remained true to Rome, though the dependent towns joined the revolt; after it they were formed into independent communities, and Nuceria received the territory of Stabiae, which had been destroyed by Sulla in 89 B.C., as a compensation.

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  • The census showed that in addition to French settlers and their descendants (278,976) there were 117,475 Spaniards (most of whom are found in the department of Oran), 33,153 Italians (chiefly in the department of Constantine), 64,645 Jews, 6217 Maltese, and smaller communities of British, Germans, Levantines and Greeks.

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  • The system of education is complicated by the co-existence of Mahommedan and Christian communities.

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  • The turning from idols was of course peculiar to the Gentile communities, but the waiting for the Messiah from heaven was common to all Christians, whatever their origin.

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  • The doctrines of Christianity, and in many communities the customs of the Church, were held to be inferences from the inspired text of the Scriptures.

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  • In advancing industrial communities, the portion of annual produce set apart as capital, bears an increasing proportion to that which is immediately destined to constitute a revenue, either as rent or as profit.

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  • The Waldenses of Savoy and France, the Brethren (small communities of evangelical dissenters from the medieval faith) of Germany, and the Unitas Fratrum of Bohemia all used the same catechism (one that was first printed in 1498, and which continued to be published till 1530) for the instruction of their children.

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  • As Ignatius said, the ancient monastic communities were the infantry of the Church, whose duty was to stand firmly in one place on the battlefield; the Jesuits were to be her light horse, capable of going anywhere at a moment's notice, but especially apt and designed for scouting and skirmishing.

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  • Not only so, but, when greater strictness of rule and of enclosure seemed the most needful reforms in communities that had become too secular in tone, the proposal of Ignatius, to make it a first principle that the members of his institute should mix freely in the world and be as little marked off as possible externally from secular clerical life and usages, ran counter to all tradition and prejudice, save that Cara.ffa's then recent order of Theatines, which had some analogy with the proposed Society, had taken some steps in the same direction.

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  • In all the communities schools have multiplied, but the new seminaries are of the old non-progressive type.

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  • The Greeks have a literary society, and there is a well-organized club to which members of all the native communities, as well as many foreigners, belong.

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  • As a church they now number 27 communities with about 12,500 members, in a flourishing condition and respected for their traditions of scholarship and liberal thought.

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  • By the Lex Julia of 90 B.C. and the Lex Plautia Papiria of 89 B.C. every town in Italy which made application in due form received the complete citizenship. The term municipium was no longer confined to a particular class of Italian towns but was adopted as a convenient name for all urban communities of Roman citizens in Italy.

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  • This partial civitas does not seem to have been entirely replaced, as in Italy, by the grant of full privileges to the communities possessing it, and the distinction survived for some time in the provinces between coloniae, municipia juris Romani, and municipia juris Latini.

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  • In the west city communities rapidly sprang up under direct Roman influence.

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  • And the self-governing communities of the middle ages were a restoration, rather than a development, of the flourishing and independent municipalities of the age of Augustus and his immediate successors.

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  • But in Turkestan, and as far as the Chinese frontier, there existed numerous Manichaean communities and even whole tribes that had adopted the name of Mani.

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  • Matters of a local or special nature, such as bills for chartering and incorporating gas, water, canal, tramway, railway or telephone companies, or for conferring franchises in the nature of monopolies or special privileges upon such companies, or for altering their constitutions, as also for incorporating cities or minor communities and regulating their affairs.

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  • They are seldom persons of shining ability or high standing in their communities.

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  • In rural communities the attendance is usually good, the debates are sensible and practical, and a satisfactory administration is generally secured.

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  • These American corporations had the usual English system of borough government, consisting of a mayor, aldermen and councilmen, who carried out the simple administrative and judicial functions needed br the then small communities.

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  • The provisions of the Constitution, which is later in date than the creation of the original states, and presupposes the existence and activity of those communities, include two sets of matters, which must be considered separately-(a) the Federal system, i.e.

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  • Several religious communities have been named after Our Lady of Lourdes.

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  • The formation of such communities in the East does not date from the introduction of Christianity.

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  • The money raised by the sale was expended in the purchase of stores for the support of the communities, and what was over was devoted to charity.

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  • There were some fifteen independent communities, but none of great importance.

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  • It may be doubted whether at this time it would have been safe to give these small communities complete self-government.

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  • The system came into existence in isolated communities through the connivance of justices of the peace with white farmers.

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  • The National government, until the administration of President Jackson, regarded the Indian tribes as sovereign nations with whom it alone had the power to treat, while Georgia held that the tribes were dependent communities with no other right to the soil than that of tenants at will.

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  • Troup, which represented the interests of the aristocratic and slave-holding communities; the other, formed by John Clarke (1766-1832) and his brother Elijah, found support among the non-slave-holders and the frontiersmen.

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  • On the isthmus are distinct traces of the canal cut by Xerxes before his invasion of Greece in 480 B.C. The peninsula is remarkable for the beauty of its scenery, and derives a peculiar interest from its unique group of monastic communities with their medieval customs and institutions, their treasures of Byzantine art and rich collections of documents.

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  • The more typical members of the family are rat-like burrowing rodents, living in communities.

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  • Religious statistics show that 84% of the inhabitants belong to the EvangelicalLutheran Church, 17 to the Roman Catholic and less than 1% to the Jewish communities.

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  • In other respects they are pagans in a low state of culture, mostly divided into hostile communities and addicted to piracy.

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  • As the only deliberative body in which most Greek communities were represented, its decisions were those of the bulk of the Hellenic people.

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  • In the United States this artificial method has become a necessity, to prevent the upgrowth of alien communities, which might at some later date cause domestic trouble of a perilous character.

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  • Just the same rough and ready nomenclature was applied to communities conquered on foreign soil; the 17rapTCaTac became Spartani, the /vpaK60-tot Syracusani, and the 'AataTLKoL Asiani, and so on.

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  • Both held property in common; both had scattered communities which received guests one from the other; both avoided a light use of oaths; both taught passive obedience to political authority.

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  • It was the constant ambition of the Thebans to absorb the other townships into a single state, just as Athens had annexed the Attic communities.

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  • To these we have to add small German and Flemish-speaking communities in Italy and France and somewhat larger German and Swedish populations in Russia.

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  • In the British Isles, especially Ireland, there is (in addition to the Celtic-speaking elements) a considerable population which claims Celtic nationality though it uses no language but English; and further all Teutonic communities contain to a greater or less degree certain immigrant (especially Semitic) elements which have adopted the languages of their neighbours.

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  • It is probable, however, that the latter, like the liti or lati of later times, consisted not only of manumitted slaves but also of whole communities which had forfeited their liberty through unsuccessful warfare or other causes.

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  • In such cases there may be some connexion between the giants and the semi-civilized (Finnish or Lappish) communities of the mountainous districts.

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  • With this organization, under the popes Zosimus, Boniface and Celestine the Roman Church came into conflict on somewhat trivial grounds, and was, on the whole, being worsted in the struggle, when the Vandal invasion of Africa took place, and for nearly a century to come the Catholic communities were subjected to very hard treatment.

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  • Some 60 of these more or less nomadic communities, of one or two thousand tents (or houses) each, representing a population of several hundred thousands are described by Oppenheim.

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  • Most of these elements have now become merged in the general type, but there are still many communities in which the popular language is a corrupt German dialect, largely Rheno-Franconian in its origin, known as " Pennsylvania Dutch."

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  • Consuls represented Barcelona at the principal commercial centres on or near the Mediterranean; and the city was among the first communities to adopt the practice of marine insurance.

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  • In Canada and Australia, the Anglican, Presbyterian, Methodist, Baptist and other communities have regular organizations for foreign missions.

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  • The Karen Christian communities are strong numerically and have a good name for self-support.

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  • Although small Christian communities existed in Ireland and elsewhere calling themselves Brethren, and holding similar views, the accession to the ranks of Darby so increased their numbers and influence that he is usually reckoned the founder of Plymouthism.

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  • During the next eight years the progress of the sect was rapid, and communities were founded in many of the principal towns in England.

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  • The communities which inhabited the detached hills and projecting ridges which later on formed the city of Rome were in a specially favourable position.

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  • These communities may be briefly described according to their geographical arrangement.

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  • Many of the smaller places mentioned in the list of Dionysius, or the early wars of the Romans, had altogether ceased to exist, but the statement of Pliny that fifty-three communities (populi) had thus perished within the boundaries of Old Latium is perhaps exaggerated.

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  • The movement, recognized by Ibn Saud, Emir of Nejd, had taken definite shape after 1910; and in 1921 it still seemed likely to have far-reaching effects upon the attitude of the people of Central Arabia towards other Arabian communities and even to the outer world.

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  • The Beguine communities were fruitful soil for the missionary enterprise of the friars, and in the course of the 13th century the communities in France, Germany and upper Italy had fallen under the influence of the Dominicans and Franciscans to such an extent that in the Latin-speaking countries the tertiaries of these orders were commonly called beguini and beguinae.

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  • At the Reformation the communities were suppressed in Protestant countries, but in some Catholic countries they still survive.

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  • It is uncertain whether the parallel communities of men originated also with Lambert le Begue.

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  • The first records are of communities at Louvain in 1220 and at Antwerp in 1228.

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  • The history of the male communities is to a certain extent parallel with the female, but they were never so numerous and their degeneration was far more rapid.

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  • The earliest Flemish Beghard communities were associations mainly of artisans who earned ' In the year 1287 the council of Liege decreed that "all Beguinae desiring to enjoy the Beguine privileges shall enter a Beguinage, and we order that all who remain outside the Beguinage shall wear a dress to distinguish them from the Beguinae."

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  • This led to the utmost confusion, the laity in many cases taking the part of the Beguine communities, and the Church being thus brought into conflict with the secular authorities.

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  • The male communities did not survive the 14th century, even in the Netherlands, where they had maintained their original character least impaired.

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  • Here in one portion of the desert, named Cellia, the monks lived a purely eremitical life; but in Nitria (the Wadi Natron) they lived either alone, or two or three together, or in communities, as they preferred.

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  • Hardly half a dozen monasteries survive, inhabited by small and ever dwindling communities.

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  • Again, it is surely plain enough that the apprehension by individuals of the evils of poverty, or a sense of duty to their possible offspring, may retard the increase of population, and has in all civilized communities operated to a certain extent in that way.

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  • Spencer county was still a wilderness, and the boy grew up in pioneer surroundings, living in a rude log-cabin, enduring many hardships and knowing only the primitive manners, conversation and ambitions of sparsely settled backwoods communities.

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  • Several of them, especially Mainz,Worms and Spires, had received The cities valuable rights from the kings and other lords; they were becoming self-governing and to some extent independent communities and an important and growing element in the state.

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  • Borromeo, therefore, established seminaries, colleges and communities for the education of candidates for holy orders.

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  • In 639 and 656 the flourishing Latin communities of Salona and Epidaurum were destroyed by the Avars, and the island rock of Ragusa was colonized by the survivors.

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  • For new colonists of this kind the established communities of all races were making way.

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  • The condition of the Christians varied from that of personal slaves to that of communities left free on the payment of tribute.

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  • It was a small number of monkish communities whose care of those narrow channels prevented their ever drying up altogether.

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  • How purely Italic in sentiment these communities of the mountain country remained appears from the choice of the mountain fortress of Corfinium as the rebel capital.

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  • The notion that the Arab invaders were welcomed and assisted by the Copts, driven to desperation by the persecution of Cyrus, appears to be refuted by the fact that the invaders treated both Copts and Romans with the same ruthlessness; but the dissensions which prevailed in the Christian communities, leading to riots and even civil war in Alexandria and elsewhere, probably weakened resistance to the common enemy.

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  • The terms were those on which conquered communities were ordinarily taken under Moslem protection.

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  • On the 4th of October 1125 he with his followers was seized and imprisoned by order of the Caliph Amir, who was now resolved to govern by himself, with the assistance of only subordinate officials, of whom two were drawn from the Samaritan and Christian communities.

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  • A great financial reform was now effected by Mahommed Pasha, who readjusted the burdens imposed on the different communities of Egypt in accordance with their means.

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  • There is complete religious toleration, but though most of the important Christian communities are represented their numbers are very small.

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  • There was also the sort of unofficial censorship, undefined by law but real, which communities exercised against those who had been pro-German or who were now less ready than their neighbours thought fitting to subscribe for loans and the Red Cross, and to observe food regulations.

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  • The population is estimated at 27,000, of whom about one-half are Christians of the Armenian, Chaldean, Jacobite, Protestant and Roman Catholic communities.

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  • The heads of the various religious communities are the only representatives of the Christian population recognized by the Turkish government; they possess a seat in the local administrative councils and supervise the Christian schools.

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  • The martyrs were the local heroes of particular communities; but there were men whose life and death were of significance for the whole of Christendom - the apostles.

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  • There was a great love of poetry in the communities in which Buddhism arose.

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  • In the course of a generation almost all the monastic communities in western Scotland had been destroyed.

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  • The Piojes live in permanent communities and cultivate the soil.

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  • The tendency is for the mestizo who dwells in Indian communities to revert to the Indian type, and it is probable that the larger estimate is nearer the truth.

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  • He was zealous for the establishment of religious communities, both of men and women, and for the holding of retreats and missions.

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  • The native population consists of Malay fishermen, Chinese, Tamils and small shifting communities of Kadayans, Tutongs and other natives of the neighbouring Bornean coast.

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  • The most interesting of all the non-Arab communities in the country, however, is without doubt the Samaritan sect in Nablus (Shechem); a gradually disappearing body, which has maintained an independent existence from the time when they were first settled by the Assyrians to occupy the land left waste by the captivity of the kingdom of Israel.

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  • Historical material after 586 is scanty in the extreme, and, apart from the records of Nehemiah and a few other passages, the interest lies in the religious history of the communities and reformers who returned from Babylonia.

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  • The latter half of the 19th century is mainly occupied with the record of a very remarkable process of colonization and settlement - French and Russian monastic and other establishments, some of them semi-religious and semi-political; German colonies; fanatical American communities; Jewish agricultural settlements - all, so to speak, " nibbling " at the country, and each so intent upon gaining a step on its rivals as to be forgetful of the gathering storm.

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  • The notices are drawn up in set phraseology, and some of the names, in harmony with a characteristic feature of early Hebrew history, are those of personified families of communities rather than of families?

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  • The settled Afghans form the village communities, and in part the population of the few towns.

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  • Village communities and trade gilds in towns existed previously, but these were only rudimentary forms of palities.

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  • They marched in whole communities from one river-valley to another, each house-father a warrior, husbandman and priest, with his wife and his little ones, and cattle.

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  • Crime, with the many facilities offered for rapid locomotion to those who committed it, had ceased to be merely local, and the whole state rather than individual communities ought to be taxed; prison charges should be borne by the public exchequer and not by local rates.

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  • Amana was the strongest in numbers of the few sectarian communities in America which outlived the 19th century.

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  • Story was a staunch supporter of his Church, and had little sympathy for schemes of reunion with the other Presbyterian communities.

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  • All of the settlements were for a long time chiefly agricultural communities.

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  • Roman civic institutions perished; but probably parts of the population survived, and small Christian congregations with their bishops in most cases seem to have weathered all storms. Much of the city walls presumably remained standing, and within them German communities soon settled.

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  • A number of small communities was formed under elected tribunes, acknowledging as their sovereign the emperor at Constantinople.

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  • In the Mahommedan dominions it has been recognized as a state within the state, and in these communities faith and patriotism are one.

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  • The Dutch, and to a minor extent the Arabs, are of importance on account of their political influence in Dutch Borneo, while the British communities have a similar importance in Sarawak and in British North Borneo.

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  • In the most perfect form of federation the states agree to delegate to a supreme federal government certain powers or functions inherent in themselves in their sovereign or separate capacity, and the federal government, in turn, in the exercise of those specific powers acts directly, not only on the communities making up the federation, but on each individual citizen.

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  • The founding and the growth of such communities furnish matter for an interesting chapter in the history as well of ancient as of modern civilization; and the regulation of the relations between the parent state and its dependencies abroad gives rise to important problems alike in national policy and in international economics.

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  • From a very early period the little civic communities of Greece had sent forth numerous colonizing streams. At points so far asunder as the Tauric Chersonese, Cyrene and Massilia were found prosperous centres of Greek commercial energy; but the regions most thickly peopled by settlers of Greek descent were the western seaboard of Asia Minor, Sicily and the southern parts of the Italian peninsula.

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  • Nor were the least prosperous communities those which were sprung from earlier colonies.

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  • Among the Carolines and the Marshalls darker and more savage communities are found, suggesting a Melanesian element, which is further traceable in the Ebon (Marshall) and other languages.

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  • Persons of the same sept must not intermarry, and when two islands or communities meet in war the members of one sept, however widely separated by distance of space or time, will not injure or fight with each other.

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  • Emerging from the remote endemic centres to which it had retreated, plague has once more taken its place among the zymotic diseases with which Western communities have to reckon, and that which has for more than a century been little more than a name and a tradition has become the familiar object of investigation, carried on with all the ardour and all the resources of modern science.

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  • Entire Christian communities were massacred, flourishing towns were English Miles 20 100 1 0 o onstai.

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