Communes sentence example

communes
  • All these are nominated for life by the president of the republic. Besides the accounts of the state and of the communes, those of charitable institutionsi and training collegesi and a great variety of other public establishments are scrutinized by the Cour des Comptes.

    1
    0
  • The senatorial electors in the provinces are (1) delegates of the communes and (2) all the members of the provincial council, presided over by the governor.

    1
    0
  • He permitted laymen to hold certain public offices, under surveillance of the prelates, organized a guard from among the Roman nobility, decreed a plan for redeeming the base coinage, permitted the communes a certain degree of municipal liberty, and promised the liquidation of the public debt.

    0
    0
  • The provinces are divided into cantons and subdivided into communes.

    0
    0
  • In 1865, however, it was suppressed, and one half of the beni ademprivili was assigned to the state, the other half being given to the communes, with the obligation of compensating those who claimed rights over these lands.

    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Aisne is divided into five arrondissements - St Quentin and Vervins in the north, Laon in the centre, and Soissons and CIA, teau-Thierry in the south - and contains 37 cantons and 841 communes.

    0
    0
  • In southern Italy there are 72 Albanian communes, with 154,674 inhabitants; in Sicily 7 communes, with 52,141 inhabitants.

    0
    0
  • The state, the departments, and the communes were thus relieved from the payment of salaries and grants to religious bodies, an item of expenditure which amounted in the last year of the old system to 1,101,000 paid by the state and 302,200 contributed by the departments and communes.

    0
    0
  • The urban and rural district roads, covering a much greater mileage and classed as la petite voirie, are maintained chiefly by the communes under the supervision of the Minister of the Interior.

    0
    0
  • The canton is purely an administrative division, containing on an average, about twelve communes, though some exceptional communes are big enough to contain more than one canton.

    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • The communes, varying greatly in area and population, are the administrative units in France.

    0
    0
  • Liabilities on behalf of communes and public establishments, including departmental services 17,366,520

    0
    0
  • But in communes the revenues of which exceed 120,000, the budget is always submitted to the president of the republic. The ordinary revenues include the produce of additional centimes allocated to communal purposes, the rents and profits of communal property, sums produced by municipal taxes and dues, concessions to gas, water and other companies, and by the octroi or duty on a variety of articles imported into the commune for local consumption.

    0
    0
  • Both the departments and the communes have considerable public debts.

    0
    0
  • Each commune is in theory obliged to maintain at least one public primary school, but with the approval of the niinister, the departmental council may authorize a commune to combine with other communes in the upkeep of a school.

    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • Public primary schools include (1) icoles maternellesinfant schools for children from two to six years old; (2) elementary primary schoolsthese are the ordinary schools for children from six to thirteen; (3) higher primary schools (coles primaires suprieures) and supplementary courses; these admit pupils who have gained the certificate of primary elementary studies (cerlificat diludes primaires), offer a more advanced course and prepare for technical instruction; (4) primary technical schools (coles manuelles dapprenlissage, coles primaires suprleures professionnelles) kept by the communes or departments.

    0
    0
  • Secondary Education.Secondary education is given by the state in lyces, by the communes in colleges and by private individuals and associations in private secondary schools.

    0
    0
  • Commercial and technical instruction is given in various institutions comprising national establishments such as the icoles nalionales professionnelles of Armentires, Vierzon, Voiron and Nantes for the education of working men; the more advanced coles darts et mtiers of Chlons, Angers, Aix, Lille and Cluny; and the Central School of Arts and Manufactures at Paris; schools depending on the communes and state in combination, e.g.

    0
    0
  • In addition to the educational work done by the state, communes and private individuals, there exist in France a good many societies which disseminate instruction by giving courses of lectures and holding classes both for children and adults.

    0
    0
  • In India the franchise is exercised without distinction of color or nationality; in Senegal the electors are the inhabitants (black and white) of the communes which have been given full powers.

    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • This view ignores that man has ideals of absolute value, truth, beauty, goodness, that he consciously communes with the God who is in all, and through all, and over all, that it is his mind which recognizes the vastness of the universe and thinks its universal law, and that the mind which perceives and conceives cannot be less, but must be greater than the object of its knowledge and thought.

    0
    0
  • Dordrecht, Leiden, Haarlem, Delft, Vlaardigen, Rotterdam in Holland, and Middleburg and Zierikzee in Zeeland, repeated with modifications the characteristics of the communes of Flanders and Brabant.

    0
    0
  • He was quite aware that the industrial wealth of the great Flemish communes was financially the mainstay of his power, but their very prosperity made them the chief obstacle to his schemes of unifying into a solid dominion the loose aggregate of states over which he was the ruler.

    0
    0
  • The kingdom is divided into 69 provinces, 284 regions, of which 197 are classed as circondarii and 87 as districts (the latter belonging to the province of Mantua and the 8 provinces of Venetia), 1806 administrative divisions (mandamenti) and 8262 communes.

    0
    0
  • In 1906 there were 1805 mandamenti and 8290 communes, and 4 boroughs in Sardinia not connected with communes.

    0
    0
    Advertisement
  • This has been due to speculation, to the unrestricted pasturage of goats, to the rights which many communes have over the forests, and to some extent to excessive taxation, which led the proprietors to cut and sell the trees and then abandon the ground to the Treasury.

    0
    0
  • A characteristic Italian industry is that of straw-plaiting for hat-making, which is carried on principally in Tuscany, in the district of Fermo, in the Alpine villages of the province of Vicenza, and in some communes of the province of Messina.

    0
    0
  • By the act of 1903 the state contributes half and the province a quarter of the cost of roads connecting communes with the nearest railway stations or landing places.

    0
    0
  • Elementary, of two grades, of the lower of which there must legally be at least one for boys and one for girls in each commune; while the upper grade elementary school is required in communes having normal and secondary schools or over 4000 inhabitants.

    0
    0
  • In both the instruction is free They are maintained by the communes, sometimes with state help.

    0
    0
  • Of the secondary and higher educatory methods, in the normal schools and licei the state provides for the payment of the staff and for scientific material, and often largely supports the ginnasi and technical schools, which should by law be supported by the communes.

    0
    0
  • A fourth of this sum was to be handed to the communes to be employed on works of beneficence or education as soon as a surplus was obtained from that part of the annuity assigned for the payment of monastic pensions; and in Sicily, 209 communes entered on their privileges as soon as the patrimony was liquidated.

    0
    0
  • The public worship endowment fund has relieved the state exchequer of the cost of public worship; has gradually furnished to the poorer parish priests an addition to their stipends, raising them to 32 per annum, with the prospect of further raising them to 40; and has contributed to the outlay incurred by the communes for religious purposes.

    0
    0
  • The suffrage is extended to all citizens over twenty-one years of age who can read and write and have either attained a certain standard of elementary education or are qualified by paying a rent which varies from 6 in communes of 2500 inhabitants to 16 in communes of 15p,ooo inhabitants, or, if peasant farmers, I6s.

    0
    0
  • One-tenth of the tax is paid to the communes as compensation for revenues made over to the state.

    0
    0
  • I must be remembered that the sums realized by the octroi go in th main to the various communes.

    0
    0
  • Up to that year some of the regions of the kingdom, such as Tuscany, continued to have a kind of autonomy; but by the laws of the 20th of March the whole country was divided into 69 provinces and 8545 communes.

    0
    0
  • In addition, the communes have a right to levy a, surtax not exceeding 50% of the quota levied by the state upon lands and buildings; a family tax, or fuocatico, upon the total incomes of families, which, for fiscal purposes, are divided into various categories; a tax based upon the rent-value of houses, and other taxes upon cattle, horses, dogs, carriages and servants; also on licences for shopkeepers, hotel and restaurant keepers, &c.; on the slaughter of animals, stamp duties, one-half of the tax on bicycles, &c. Occasional sources of interest are found in the sale of communal property, the realization of communal credits, and the contraction of debt.

    0
    0
  • The former category comprises the maintenance of provincial roads, bridges and watercourse embankments;, secondary education, whenever this is n.ot provided for by private, institutions or by the state (elementary education being maintained by the communes), and the maintenance of foundlings and pauper lunatics.

    0
    0
  • The total was in 1900, 49,496,193 for the communes and 6,908,022 for the provinces.

    0
    0
  • During the forty-seven years war, when pope and emperor were respectively bidding for their affiance, and offering concessions to secure their support, the communes grew in self-reliance, strength and liberty.

    0
    0
  • Though the institutions of the communes varied in different localities, this is the type to which they all approximated.

    0
    0
  • The rise of the Lombard communes produced a sympathetic revolution in Rome, which deserves to be mentioned in this place.

    0
    0
  • Though the communes gained so much by the war of investitures, the division of the country between the popes and emperors parties was no small price to pay for inde- Munlelpendence.

    0
    0
  • No sooner had the compromise of the investitures been conduded than it was manifest that the burghers of the new enfranchised communes were resolved to turn their arms against each other.

    0
    0
  • It was only the habit of interurban jealousy which prevented the communes from at once combining to resist demands which threatened their liberty of action, and would leave them passive at the pleasure of a foreign master The diet was opened at Roncaglia near Piacenza, where Fredericli listened to the complaints of Como and Lodi against Milan, of Pavia against Tortona and of the marquis of Montferrat against Asti and Chieri.

    0
    0
  • Opposed by an anti-pope whom the emperor favored, Alexander found it was his truest policy to rely for support upon the antiimperialist communes.

    0
    0
  • Looking back from the vantage-ground of history upon the issue of this long struggle, we are struck with the small results which satisfied the Lombard communes.

    0
    0
  • According to the terms of this treaty, the communes were confirmed in their right of self-government by con6uls, and their right of warfare.

    0
    0
  • The communes, no less than the popes, felt that they must prepare themselves for contest to the death with a power which threatened their existence.

    0
    0
  • He won favor by these means, and completed the levelling down of classes, which had been proceeding ever since the emergence of the communes.

    0
    0
  • Other communes which stit preserved the shadow of independence, like Perugia and Bologna began once more to dream of republican freedom under theii own leading families.

    0
    0
  • Aube is divided into 5 arrondissements with 26 cantons and 446 communes.

    0
    0
  • Ain is divided into five arrondissements - those of Bourg and Trevoux in the west, and those of Gex, Nantua and Belley in the east; containing in all 36 cantons and 455 communes.

    0
    0
  • There are a number of large towns in the state, but the census returns include their populations in those of the municipios (communes) to which they belong.

    0
    0
  • On the 19th of March he laid before the House his programme of reforms, which included the emancipation of the peasants from the control of the communes and the handing over to them of the crown lands and imperial estates.

    0
    0
  • Over an average of years it appears that 27% of the capital cost was found by the state, 28% by the province, 40.9% by the communes and 4 .

    0
    0
  • They are under the control of the Post and Telegraph department, the state issuing loans to encourage the undertakings; the authorities in the provinces and communes also give support in various ways, and under various conditions, to public bodies or private persons who desire to promote or embark in the industry.

    0
    0
  • He extended his influence by the subjugation of Marseilles in 1257, then one of the most important maritime cities of the world, and two years later several communes of Piedmont recognized Charles's suzerainty In 1262 Pope Urban IV.

    0
    0
  • The island is divided into 86 communes, each with a mayor, an assistantmayor, and a communal council elected by the people.

    0
    0
  • These functionaries also hold monthly sessions in the various communes.

    0
    0
  • The poorer communes are aided by a state subvention.

    0
    0
  • Lack of central control over the virtually independent communes (over forty thousand in number) led to a sharp rebound under the Convention, when all matters of importance were disposed of by commissioners appointed by that body.

    0
    0
  • The three provinces are divided for local administration into 18 circles and 989 communes.

    0
    0
  • The department has Chartres for its capital, and is divided into the arrondissements of Chartres, Chateaudun, Dreux and Nogent-le-Rotrou (24 cantons and 426 communes).

    0
    0
  • As a matter of fact their chief service to the administration lies in keeping up good relations with the maires of the communes in their arrondissement, and thus acquiring a certain amount of influence over them.

    0
    0
  • Under Turkish rule the communes chose their own parish priests, but this right is now vested in the government.

    0
    0
  • For administrative purposes the immediate possessions of the sultan are divided into vilayets (provinces), which are again subdivided into sanjaks or mutessarifliks (arrondissements), these into kazas (cantons), and the kazas into nahies (parishes or communes).

    0
    0
  • Allier is divided into the arrondissements of Moulins, Gannat, Lapalisse and Montlugon (29 cantons, 321 communes).

    0
    0
  • Towards the close of his life, he had to fight against his own son, Thomas de Marie, who in 1115 succeeded him, subsequently becoming notorious for his deeds of violence in the struggles between the communes of Laon and Amiens.

    0
    0
  • Under the Lombards the civil government was in the hands of a gastaldo, under the Carolingians of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the commonwealth.

    0
    0
  • These urban municipalities are towns which for their local government are independent of the counties in which they are situated, and have, therefore, a larger amount of municipal autonomy than the communes or the other towns.

    0
    0
  • The communes or parishes are bound to maintain elementary schools, and they are entitled to levy an additional tax of 5% on the state taxes for their maintenance.

    0
    0
  • Since 1891 infant schools, for children between the ages of 3 and 6 years, have been maintained either by the communes or by the state.

    0
    0
  • There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.

    0
    0
  • By the new constitution of the Lutheran Church, published at first in 1870 for the city only, but in 1876 extended to the rest of the Hamburg territory, the parishes or communes are divided into three church-districts, and the general affairs of the whole community are entrusted to a synod of 53 members and to an ecclesiastical council of 9 members which acts as an executive.

    0
    0
  • The capital is Carcassonne, and the department is divided into the four arrondissements of Carcassonne, Limoux, Narbonne and Castelnaudary, with 31 cantons and 439 communes.

    0
    0
  • In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.

    0
    0
  • Another work, based on the formula of Concord, was entitled Loci communes theologici.

    0
    0
  • Of a controversial character are the Confessio Catholica, (1633-1637), an extensive work which seeks to prove the evangelical and catholic character of the doctrine of the Augsburg Confession from the writings of approved Roman Catholic authors; and the Loci communes theologici (1610-1622), his principal contribution.

    0
    0
  • But the work of crushing the nobles of the contado and of asserting the city's position among rival communes continued.

    0
    0
  • The commune of Tlemcen, which includes a number of villages near the city, had a population (1906) of 39,757, and the arrondissement, which includes nine communes, 149,467.

    0
    0
  • As Duke Albert sided with Osiander, Chemnitz resigned the librarianship. Returning (1553) to Wittenberg, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes, his lectures forming the basis of his own Loci Theologici (published posthumously, 1591), which constitute probably the best exposition of Lutheran theology as formulated and modified by Melanchthon.

    0
    0
  • At Bologna he read Melanchthon's Loci communes theologiae and was so impressed by it that in 1549 he went to Wittenberg to see the author, and shortly afterwards became a Protestant.

    0
    0
  • The country is divided into 21 administrative districts (Bezirke), each composed of a number of communes or civil parishes.

    0
    0
  • The population of the town of Bona in 1906 was 36,004, of the commune 42,934, of the arrondissement, which includes La Calle and other communes, 77,803.

    0
    0
  • It is divided into three arrondissements (29 cantons, 292 communes) cognominal with the towns of Bourges, SaintAmand-Mont-Rond, and Sancerre, of which the first is the capital, the seat of an archbishop and of a court of appeal and headquarters of the VIII.

    0
    0
  • To this general subject matter Aristotle gives the name "Topics" (TOroc, loci, communes loci).

    0
    0
  • The new view of faith is bracketed with the old, and practically neutralized by it; as was already the case in Melanchthon's theological definitions in the 1552-1553 edition of Loci Communes, also printed in other works by him.

    0
    0
  • Appointed teacher (1522) in the cloister school of Cappel, he lectured on Melanchthon's Loci Communes (1521).

    0
    0
  • In France, Colbert, in 1670, ordered the extension to the rural communes of the system which had for many years been in force in Paris of registering and periodically publishing the domestic occurrences of the locality.

    0
    0
  • The canton is divided into eleven administrative districts, and contains 241 communes.

    0
    0
  • But considerable as is the prosperity of modern Courtrai it is but a shadow of what it was in the middle ages during the halcyon period of the Flemish communes.

    0
    0
  • Finally, the communes had self-government within their own sphere.

    0
    0
  • They alleged as a reason that two small country communes of Lower Austria, Oberand Unter-Themmenau, had a mixed colony of Czechs and Croats; it was further advanced on their side that a considerable annual migration to Vienna took place, which became Germanized in the second generation, and so lost to their Czech nationality.

    0
    0
  • The Ardennes are the holiday ground of the Belgian people, and much of this region is still unknown except to the few persons who by a happy chance have discovered its remoter and hitherto well-guarded charms. There is still an immense quantity of wild game to be found in the Ardennes, including red and roe deer, wild boar, &c. The shooting is preserved either by the few great landed proprietors left in the country, or by the communes, who let the right of shooting to individuals.

    0
    0
  • In the Brussels agglomeration are nine suburbs or communes, each self-governing with burgomaster and sheriffs located in a Maison Communale.

    0
    0
  • In 1815-1816 it was created by adding to the old territory belonging to the city (just around it, with the outlying districts of Jussy, Genthod, Satigny and Cartigny)16 communes (to the south and east, including Carouge and Chene) ceded by Savoy, and 6 communes (to the north, including Versoix), cut off from the French district of Gex.

    0
    0
  • The chief towns are Algiers, the capital and principal seaport, with a population (1906), including Mustapha and other suburbs, of 154,049; Oran (100,499),' a western The figures given are not those of the communes, but of the towns proper, certain classes of persons (such as troops, lunatics, convicts) excluded from the municipal franchise not being counted.

    0
    0
  • The principle of unity of authority was set aside by the second republic in 1848, when many of the public services were attached to the corresponding ministries in Paris, and the departments organized on the metropolitan model by division into arrondissements and communes and by placing a prefect at their head.

    0
    0
  • The country is divided into arrondissements and communes, with most of the apparatus of self-government enjoyed by the corresponding units in France.

    0
    0
  • In those of the first kind, modelled on the French communes, the Mahommedans possess the municipal franchise.

    0
    0
  • The " mixed " communes are under an administrator nominated by the governor-general and assisted by a municipal council composed of Europeans and natives.

    0
    0
  • These communes are large areas, each containing several towns or villages.

    0
    0
  • Native communes are organized on the same plan as those last mentioned.

    0
    0
  • It will be seen that communes do not correspond with any natural unit.

    0
    0
  • The communes with full powers have each for centre a town with a considerable European population.

    0
    0
  • A senatus-consulte of 1863 laid the basis for the change in the land system by providing (I) for the delimitation of the territory of each tribe, (2) for the repartition of the territory thus delimited among newly formed tribal divisions (douars or communes), and (3) for the recognition of private ownership by the issue of title deeds for such individual or family property (melk) as already existed.

    0
    0
  • Pop. (1906) of the town, 24,494 (of whom three-fourths are French or Spaniards); of the commune, 29,088;29,088; of the arrondissement, which includes 17 communes, 98,309.

    0
    0
  • Its capital is Foix; it comprises the arrondissements of Foix, St Girons and Pamiers, with 20 cantons and 33 8 communes.

    0
    0
  • In the 14th century it promised to become one of the principal communes in Flanders; but having incurred the resentment of Ypres on a matter of trade rivalry it was attacked and captured by the citizens of that place, who reduced it to a very subordinate position.

    0
    0
  • Victims of the communal claims at Rome, they constituted themselves the champions of similar claims in northern Italy, and their alliance with the Lombard communes ultimately led to success.

    0
    0
  • He succeeded in imposing his will on the nobles and communes in the patrimony of St Peter, and, as guardian of Henry VI.'s son Frederick, was for some time able to conduct the government of the kingdom of the Two Sicilies, but in his claims on the rest of Italy the failure of the temporal power was manifest.

    0
    0
  • The canton is divided into 30 administrative districts, and contains 507 communes (the highest number in Switzerland).

    0
    0
  • As the provincial states only meet a few times in the year, they name a committee of deputy-states which manages current general business, and at the same time exercises the right of control over the affairs of the communes.

    0
    0
  • The administration of justice is entrusted (1) to the high council (hooge rand) at the Hague, the supreme court of the whole kingdom, and the tribunal for all high government officials and for the members of the states-general; (2) to the five courts of justice established at Amsterdam, the Hague, Arnhem, Leeuwarden and 's Hertogenbosch; (3) to tribunals established in each arrondissement; (4) to cantonal judges appointed over a group of communes, whose jurisdiction is restricted to claims of small amount (under 200 guilders), and to breaches of police regulations, and who at the same time look after the interest of minors.

    0
    0
  • The various provinces and communes have separate budgets.

    0
    0
  • The kingdom is divided into nine provinces which are subdivided into 342 cantons and 2623 communes.

    0
    0
  • They can give a certificate qualifying scholars for a mastership in the primary, schools, which are under the full control of the communes.

    0
    0
  • For the relief of pauperism there are a limited number of houses of mendicity, in which inmates are received, Provinces and communes.

    0
    0
  • A law was passed, despite violent protests from the Liberals, which enacted that the communes might maintain the private Catholic schools established since 1879 and suppress unsectarian schools at their pleasure.

    0
    0
  • For purposes of local administration the republic is divided into 23 counties (partidos), which are subdivided into communes.

    0
    0
  • There are five arrondissements, of which the chief towns are Rodez, capital of the department, Espalion, Millau, St Affrique and Villefranche, with 43 cantons and 304 communes.

    0
    0
  • Philip was frequently disturbed by the insubordination of the Flemish communes.

    0
    0
  • Early in the 12th century a commune was established here, but the earliest known charter only dates from about 1180; owing to the importance of Arras, this soon became a model for many neighbouring communes.

    0
    0
  • Included within it, besides the grand-duchy of Luxemburg, are the Austrian communes of Jungholz and Mittelberg; while, outside, lie the little free-port territories of Hamburg, Cuxhaven, Bremerhaven and Geestemnde, Heligoland, and small portions of the districts of Constance and Waldshut, lying on the Baden Swiss frontier.

    0
    0
  • These are divided into rural communes (Land gemeinden) and urban communes (Stadtgemeinden), the powers and functions of which, though differing widely, are based upon the same general principle of representative local self-government.

    0
    0
  • The higher organs of local government, so far as these are representative, are based on the principle of a group or union of communes (Gemeindeverband).

    0
    0
  • Thus, in Prussia, the representative assembly of the Circle (Kreistag) is composed of delegates of the rural communes, as well as of the large landowners and the towns, while the members of the provincial diet (Provinziallandtag) are chosen by the Kreistage and by such towns as form separate Kreise.

    0
    0
  • Of these areas the provinces, circles and communes are for the purposes both of the central administration and of local self-government, and the bodies by which they are governedare corporations.

    0
    0
  • Common to allis the president(Regierungsprasident, Kreishauptmann in Saxony), an official who, with a committee of advisers, is responsible for the oversight of the administration of the circles and communes within his jurisdiction.

    0
    0
  • The representative assembly of the Circle (Kreistag, Distrikisral in Bavaria, Amtsversammlung in Wtirttemberg, Bczirksversammlung in Saxony) is elected by the communes, and is presided over by an official, either elected or, as in the case of the Prussian Landrat, nominated from a list submitted by the assembly.

    0
    0
  • The laws as to the constitution and powers of the rural communes vary much in the different states.

    0
    0
  • Where there are large estates these sometimes constitute communes of themselves.

    0
    0
  • For common purposes several communes may combine, such combinations being termed in Wbrttemberg Burgermeistereien, in the Rhine province Amtsverbdnde.

    0
    0
  • In general the communes are of slight importance.

    0
    0
  • Towns.The constitution of the towns (Stadieverfassung) varies more greatly in the several states than that of the rural communes.

    0
    0
  • In those parts of Germany which come under the influence of French legislation, the constitution of the towns and that of the rural communes (the so-called Bitrgermeistereiverfassung) is identical, in that the members of the communal executive body are, in the same way as those of the communal assembly, elected to office immediafely by the whole body of municipal electors.

    0
    0
  • In Wurttemberg, Baden and Hesse-Nassau the system is a compromise between the two; both the town and rural communes have a mayor (Blirgermeister or Schuitheiss, as the case may be) and a Gemeinderat for administrative purposes, the citizens exercising control through a representative Gemeindeausschuss (communal committee).

    0
    0
  • In some German states and communes certain dues (such as the dog tax in Saxony), death duties and particularly dues payable in respect of public entertainments and police court fines, are assigned to the poorrelief chest.

    0
    0
  • Pop. (1906) of the town, 19,528, of the commune 22,011, of the arrondissement, comprising 27 communes, 332,684.

    0
    0
  • The French army (about 7000 cavalry and 30,000 infantry) took ground exactly opposite to the enemy and in a similar formation, cavalry on the wings, infantry, including the milice des communes, in the centre, Philip with the cavalry reserve and the Oriflamme in rear of the foot.

    0
    0
  • In the same year, 1521, he published his Loci communes rerum theologicarum, the first systematized presentation of the reformed theology.

    0
    0
  • The island is divided into the four communes of Le Palais, Bangor, Sauzon and Locmaria.

    0
    0
  • Of these alps about 45% are owned by the communes (exclusively or jointly) and 54% by individuals, the remaining% being the property of the state or a few great monasteries.

    0
    0
  • In the case of the alps belonging to the Swiss communes, it must be borne in mind that "commune" here does not signify either Einwohnergemeinden or Biirgergemeinden, but a special class called Alpgemeinden (for instance in the well-known valley of Grindelwald there is one Einwohnergemeinde, but seven Alpgemeinden).

    0
    0
  • They differed also from the Flemish cities in the nature of their privileges and immunities, as they did not possess the rights of communes, but only those of "free cities" of the Rhenish type.

    0
    0
  • The other half canton is that of Basel Landschaft or Bale Campagne, which is divided into four administrative districts and comprises seventy-four communes, its capital being Liestal.

    0
    0
  • This half-canton is divided into three administrative districts, comprising twenty communes, and is mainly industrial, the manufacture of cotton goods, muslins, and embroidery being very flourishing.

    0
    0
  • It sends one member (named by the Landsgemeinde) to the federal Stdnderath, and one also to the federal Nationalrath, while it forms but a single administrative district, though divided into six communes.

    0
    0
  • The Landsgemeinde is the supreme legislative authority, and elects both the executive (in Inner Rhoden composed of nine members and called Stdndeskommission, and in Ausser Rhoden of seven members and called Regierungsrath) and the president or Landammann; in each half-canton there is also a sort of standing committee (composed of the members of the executive and representatives from the communes - in Inner Rhoden one member per 250 or fraction over 125 of the population, and in Ausser Rhoden one member per 1000 of the inhabitants) which prepares business for the Landsgemeinde and decides minor matters; in Inner Rhoden it is named the Grossrath and in Ausser Rhoden the Kantonsrath.

    0
    0
  • In Sicily Spanish rule was less absolute, for the island had not been conquered, but had given itself over voluntarily to the Aragonese; and the parliament, formed by the three bracci or orders (the militare consisting of the nobility, the ecclesiastico, of the clergy, and the demaniale, of the communes), imposed certain limitations on the viceroy, who had to play off the three bracci against each other.

    0
    0
  • Three frontier communes in the south-west of East Prussia were also assigned to Poland.

    0
    0
  • When the right wing had made sufficient ground the left wing was to come into action against the Italian line in the Seven Communes, north of the Upper Astico.

    0
    0
  • But von Koevess's attack had broken through the Italian line in the Seven Communes.

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile von Koevess had been pushing back the Italians in the Seven Communes.

    0
    0
  • In the weeks that followed, the men who held at Passo di Buole and on Pasubio, south of the Posina and east of the Val Canaglia and in the Seven Communes, outnumbered at first and always outgunned, completely broke up the attack that had begun so well.

    0
    0
  • But it is as the ally and protector of the communes that he takes his almost unique place in French history.

    0
    0
  • It is true that he suppressed some communes in the newly conquered fiefs, such as Normandy, where John had been prodigal of privileges, but he erected new communes in his own private domain, quite contrary to the custom of other kings.

    0
    0
  • The communes, though they appear as taking part in the battle of Bouvines, compounded for their service by a money payment as early as 1194.

    0
    0
  • Of the population about 47% live in towns or communes exceeding 2000 inhabitants, and about 53% are rural.

    0
    0
  • Meanwhile communes with consuls at their head were formed in Tuscany much as elsewhere.

    0
    0
  • In some other respects the constitution of the cities in the south of France, as will be seen, has more in common with that of the Italian communes, and that of the northern French towns with those of Germany, than the constitutions of the various groups of French towns have among each other.

    0
    0
  • The constitutional history of the communes in northern France in a number of points widely differed from that of these villes consulaires.

    0
    0
  • The members were described as jurati (also burgenses, vicini, amici), although in some communes that term was reserved for the members of the governing body.

    0
    0
  • At an earlier stage the king had frequently come to the assistance of the communes in their struggle with their lords.

    0
    0
  • These two varieties, the communes and the villes consulaires together form the group of villes libres.

    0
    0
  • On the 1st of January 1899, thirteen outlying communes were incorporated, extending the area of the town from 2805 to 13,700 acres.

    0
    0
  • The Medoc is divided into a number of communes (such as St Julien, Margaux, Pauillac, &c.), and in these communes are situated the different vineyards from which the actual name of the wine is derived.

    0
    0
  • The district of Sauternes covers the communes of Sauternes, Bommes and a part of Barsac, Preignac, Fargues and St Pierre-de-Mops.

    0
    0
  • This region consists of the commune of St Emilion, together with the four surrounding communes.

    0
    0
  • All education above that level is in the hands of the educational department and school boards elected in each parish, each rural parish being bound (since 1898) to be divided into a proper number of school districts and to have a school in each of them, the state contributing to these expenses Boo marks a year for each male and 600 marks for each female teacher, or 25% of the total cost in urban communes.

    0
    0
  • The numerous local branches of the Friends of the Folk-School and the Society for Popular Education display great activity, the former by aiding the smaller communes in establishing schools, and the latter in publishing popular works, starting their own schools as well as free libraries (in nearly every commune), and organizing lectures for the people.

    0
    0
  • Although the emperor's experiment was short-lived podestas soon became general in northern Italy, making their appearance in most communes about 1200.

    0
    0
  • The districts were divided into communes (concelhos), each administered by an elected council, and a mayor nominated by the central authority.

    0
    0
  • The communes were subdivided into parishes (freguesias), which were administered by the elected council (junta de parochia) over which the parish priest (presbitero) presided, and by the regedor, an official who represented the mayor of the commune and was nominated by the civil governor.

    0
    0
  • Thus, by the nth century, the Lombard cities had become "communes," commonalties, republics, managing their own affairs, and ready for attack or defence.

    0
    0
  • Leaden seals were also used by the archbishops of Ravenna and other prelates of Italy; also to some extent by officials of a lower rank, and by certain communes.

    0
    0
  • The department is divided into three arrondissements (Nice, Grasse and Puget Theniers), 2 7 cantons and 155 communes.

    0
    0
  • For purposes of local government, Rumania is divided into 32 departments, each controlled by a prefect, and subdivided into sub-prefectures and communes.

    0
    0
  • At the close of the 19th century, however, the accommodation was insufficient, the attendance limited in consequence, and the percentage of illiterates high; reaching 88.5% in some of the rural communes.

    0
    0
  • The cost of education is largely borne by the communes, as well as by the state.

    0
    0
  • The department is divided into the arrondissements of Privas, Largentiere and Tournon, with 31 cantons and 342 communes.

    0
    0
  • Andorra comprises the six parishes or communes of Andorra Vicilla, Canillo, Encamp, La Massana, Ordino and San Julian de Loria, which are subdivided into fifty-two hamlets or pueblos.

    0
    0
  • The city contains some of the finest monuments of the great period of the Flemish communes, while its medieval appearance is better preserved, as a whole, than in the case of any other Belgian city.

    0
    0
  • It is a continuation of the Extravagantes communes, and includes a selection of papal constitutions, from Sixtus IV.

    0
    0
  • Patrick Hamilton, the Scottish martyr, was one of his pupils; and it was at Lambert's instigation that Hamilton composed his Loci communes, or Patrick's Pleas as they were popularly called in Scotland.

    0
    0
  • About one-thirteenth of the department consists of woods, a very small proportion of which belong to the government, the rest to the communes and private individuals.

    0
    0
  • The department has five arrondissements - Pau, Bayonne, Oloron, Orthez and Mauleon, divided into 41 cantons and 559 communes.

    0
    0
  • Luther was no systematic thinker; Melanchthon, the theologian of the Lutheran Church, gave his system, the loose form of Loci communes, and went back more and more in successive editions to the traditional lines of doctrinal theory - a course which could not be followed without bringing back much of the older substance along with the familiar forms of thought.

    0
    0
  • Later editions of Melanchthon's Loci Communes, generously protected by Luther, drop out or tone down Luther's favourite doctrine of predestination.

    0
    0
  • The department is divided into five arrondissements (Digne, Barcelonnette, Castellane, Forcalquier, and Sisteron), 30 cantons and 250 communes.

    0
    0
  • Each department was subdivided into districts, cantons and communes.

    0
    0
  • Pop. (1906), of the town 16,539, of the commune 26,050,26,050, of the arrondissement, which includes 12 communes, 147,607.

    0
    0
  • The total forest area (official estimate, 1909) is about 3,800,000 acres, of which 1,625,000 belong to the communes and 1,375,000 to the state.

    0
    0
  • In 1868 the whole business of posting was taken over by the state; post offices are also maintained by many communes, and a few are itinerant.

    0
    0
  • Every department is divided into districts (srez), administered by the sub-prefect (sreski nachalnik); and the districts are sub-divided into communes or municipalities, each having its salaried mayor (kmet or knez), who presides over a council elected on a basis of population.

    0
    0
  • The communes and municipalities pay the entire cost of primary education, except the salaries of teachers, which, with the cost of higher education, are paid by the state.

    0
    0
  • These are subdivided into rural and urban communes, each with its representative council.

    0
    0
  • Philip thus set the feudal lords one against the other; and against them all, first the Church, then the communes.

    0
    0
  • He was the actual creator of the communes, although an interested creator, since they made a breach in the fortress of feudalism and extended the royal authority far beyond the kings demesne.

    0
    0
  • The communes of Flanders, rich, hard-working, jealous of their liberties, had always been restive under the authority of their counts and the influence of their suzerain, the king of France.

    0
    0
  • The old courtier Maurepas, jealous of Turgot and desirous of remaining a minister himself, refrained from defending his colleague; and when Turgot, who never knew how to give in, spoke of establishing assemblies of freeholders in the communes and the provinces, in order to relax the tension of over-centralization, Louis XVI., who never dared to pass from sentiment to action, sacrificed his minister to the rancour of the queen, as he had already sacrificed Malesherbes (1776).

    0
    0
  • Bouchotte, a totally inefficient minister for war, the Communes man of straw, left the army without food or ammunition, while the suspected officers remained inactive.

    0
    0
  • These are subdivided into 25 cantons and 152 communes.

    0
    0
  • These villages form part of 3 communes, those of Le Chatelard (including Clarens and Vernex) and of Les Planches (including Territet), while a bit (not Chillon) of that of Veytaux is alone included.

    0
    0
  • If it were possible, a loose collection of anarchist communes would be the best scheme of arrangement.

    0
    0
  • At the local level, France's metropolitan departments are divided into communes, which are governed by municipal councils.

    0
    0
  • By the union of Utrecht the communes and provinces had each the regulation of its own religion; hence constant conflict.

    0
    0
  • In a commune of 2500 inhabitants or less there is one deputy; in more populous communes there may be more, but in no case must the number exceed twelve, except at Lyons, where as many as seventeen are allowed.

    0
    0
  • The council also chooses communal delegates to elect senators; and draws up the list of repartiteurs, whose function is to settle how the communes share of direct taxes shall be allotted among the taxpayers.

    0
    0
  • The tax on doors and windows is levied in each case according to the number of apertures, and is fixed with refetence to population, the inhabitants of the more populous paying more than those of the less populous communes.

    0
    0
  • Departmental Finances.Every department has a budget of its own, which is prepared and presented by the prefect, voted by the departmental council and approved by decree of the president of the republic. The ordinary receipts include the revenues from the property of the department, the produce of additional centirnes, which are levied in conjunction with the direct taxes for the maintenance of both departmental and communal finances, state subventions and contributions of the communes towards certain branches of poor relief and to maintenance of roads.

    0
    0
  • The most brilliant period of their chequered history, the period which includes the rise of communes, the exchange of municipal liberty for despotism and the gradual discrimination of the five great powers (Milan, Venice, Florence, the Papacy and the kingdom of Naples), now begins.

    0
    0
  • I The abolition of the special courts of the peasants was announced in the same imperial ukaz (18th of October 1906) which promised the relief of the peasants from the arbitrary control of the communes, and permission for them to migrate elsewhere without losing their communal rights.

    0
    0
  • The first was retained by the leaders who still carried on the struggle for liberty in Montenegro; the second was transferred to the headmen of the communes.

    0
    0
  • According to the so-called Steinsche Stadteverfassung (the system introduced in Prussia by Stein in 1808), which, to differentiate between it and other systems, is called the Magistratsverfassung (or magisterial constitution), the municipal communes enjoy a greater degree of self-government than do the rural.

    0
    0
  • He afterwards retracted his compliance with the adiaphora, and never really swerved from the views set forth in the Loci communes; but he regarded the surrender of more perfect for less perfect forms of truth or of expression as a painful sacrifice rendered to the weakness of erring brethren.

    0
    0
  • But he met with opposition from the turbulent nobility and the clergy, who had been deprived of many privileges, and he failed to conciliate the communes, which were oppressed by taxes and beginning to aspire to autonomy.

    0
    0
  • As America left the age of science fiction and entered into the age of communes and natural living, younger families rejected the pink flamingo and all it stood for.

    0
    0
  • There are a total of five communes in this appellation including Barsac, Bommes, Farques and Preignac.

    0
    0
  • Two-fifths of the land belongs to the state, and two-fifths more to the various communes; the remaining fifth is minutely subdivided among a large number of small proprietors, many of whom have been expropriated from inability to pay the taxes, which, considering the low value of the land, are too heavy; while the state is unable to let a large proportion of its lands.

    0
    1
  • In Tuscany, where the Guelph party was very strongly organized, and the commercial constitution of Florence kept the nobility in check, the communes remained as yet free from hereditary masters.

    1
    1