The history of the Roman commonwealth illustrates this perhaps better than any other.'
It is only in a commonwealth that a nobility can really rule; that is, it is only in a commonwealth that the nobility can really be an aristocracy.
The constitution of the commonwealth had slowly matured itself through a series of revolutions, which confirmed and defined a type of singular stability.
All Boehme's works were translated into English in the time of the Commonwealth, and regular societies of Boehmenists were formed in England and Holland.
There were few Jews in England from that date till the Commonwealth, but Jews settled in the American colonies earlier in the 17th century, and rendered considerable services in the advancement of English commerce.
Other elective officers are the mayor, city treasurer, city sergeant, commonwealth attorney, city collector, city auditor, sheriff and high constable, elected for four years; and clerks of the various courts elected for eight years.
Commonwealth Avenue, one of the Back Bay streets running from the foot of the Public Garden, is one of the finest residence streets of the country.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
It was provided that a person was to be prohibited from landing in Australia who failed to write in any prescribed language fifty words dictated to him by the commonwealth officer supervising immigration.
Including the total receipts derived from the customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up as follows: Customs and excise £8,999,485 Posts, telegraphs, &c..
P. Tregarthen, Commonwealth of Australia; Ida Lee, Early Days of Australia; W.
But in the Venetian commonwealth the nobility was a real aristocracy.
He served in various capacities in the Civil War, and in1865-1867was a member of the state House of Representatives, becoming secretary of the commonwealth in1873-1878and again in 1879-1882, recorder of Philadelphia in 1878-1879, and state treasurer in 1886-1887.
2,824,182 Other revenue 55,676 £11,879,343 The return made to the states was £7,385,731, so that the actual revenue disposed of by the Commonwealth was less by that amount, or £4,493,612.
Up till 1908 it had been generally assumed that the constitution required the treasurer of the Commonwealth to hand over to the states month by month whatever surplus funds remained in his hands.
Garran, The Coming Commonwealth: a Handbook of Federal Government (Sydney, 1897); George William Rusden, History of Australia, 3 vols.
Within two years uniform customs duties were to be imposed; thereafter the parliament of the Commonwealth had exclusive power to impose customs and excise duties, or to grant bounties; and trade within the Commonwealth was to be absolutely free.
It was the same question that formed the chief subject of debate over the Federal Conciliation and Arbitration Act, which, after causing the defeat of more than one ministry, passed through the Commonwealth parliament in 1904.
Bowman (1900); Cromwell's Jewish Intelligencies (1891), Crypto-Jews under the Commonwealth (1894), Menasseh Ben Israel's Mission to Oliver Cromwell (1901), by L.
There are some 6686 post-offices throughout the Commonwealth, or about one office to every 600 persons.
On the formation of the Commonwealth a Labour party was established in the federal houses.
At the end of 1908 the strength of the naval forces under the Commonwealth defence department was: permanent, 217, naval militia, 1016; the estimated expenditure for 1908-1909 being £63,531.
Although the financial operations of the Commonwealth and the states are quite distinct, a statement of the total revenue of the Australian Commonwealth and states is not without interest as showing the weight of taxation and the different sources from which revenue is obtained.
A great many works on agriculture appeared during the time of the Commonwealth, of which Walter Blith's Improver Improved and Samuel Hartlib's Legacie are the most valuable.
- Australian public finance requires to be treated under the separate headings of Commonwealth and states finance.
The Labour party held power in the Commonwealth for a short period, and has had the balance of power in its hands ever since the formation of the Commonwealth.
Irish in a league against the supporters of the parliament, and only a few scattered forts held out for the Commonwealth, while the young king was every day expected to land and complete the conquest of the island.
Their exclusive possession of power made the commonwealth in which they bore rule an aristocracy; but they were a democracy among themselves.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
£4,494,841 The states have the same powers of taxation as the Commonwealth except in regard to customs and excise, over which the Commonwealth has exclusive power, but the states are the owners of the crown lands, and the revenues derived from this source form an important part of their income.
The states have a total revenue, from sources apart from the Commonwealth, of £23,820,439, and if to this be added the return of customs duties made by the federal government, the total revenue is £31,206,170.
The Commonwealth legislation thus made provision for the aged poor in the three states which up to 1908 had not accepted the principle of old age pensions, and also for those who, owing to their having resided in more than one state, were debarred from receiving pension in any.
The anarchy of the last months of the commonwealth converted him to royalism, and he showed great activity in bringing about the Restoration.
The commune of Venice, the ancient style of the commonwealth, changed into the seigniory of Venice.
And even in a democratic commonwealth the sentiment of nobility may exist, though all legal privilege has been abolished or has never existed.
Under this act, which was dated the 9th of July 1900, a proclamation was issued on the 17th of September of the same year, declaring that, on and after the 1st of January 1901, the people of New South Wales, Victoria, South Australia, Queensland, Tasmania and Western Australia should be united in a federal commonwealth under the name of the Commonwealth of Australia.
Provision was made for necessary alteration of the constitution of the Commonwealth, but so that no alteration could be effected unless the question had been directly submitted to, and the change accepted by the electorate in the states.
Grutzmacher's article in Hauck-Herzog's Realencyklopiidie; Robert Barclay's Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876), and C. Beard's Hibbert Lectures (1883), ch.
The six colonies entering the Commonwealth were denominated original states, and new states might be admitted, or might be formed by separation from or union of two or more states or parts of states; and territories (as distinguished from Provisions states) might be taken over and governed under the legis- of the Act lative power of the Commonwealth.
In conformity with this determination the various state legislatures enacted new laws or amended the existing laws to cope with the difficulty; these remained until they were in effect superseded by Commonwealth legislation.
The choice of governor-general of the new Commonwealth fell upon Lord Hopetoun (afterwards Lord Linlithgow), who had won golden opinions as governor of Victoria a few years before; Mr (afterwards Sir Edmund) Barton, who had taken the lead among the Australian delegates, became first prime minister; and the Commonwealth was inaugurated at the opening of 1901.
The great task of adjusting the financial business of the Commonwealth on a permanent basis was one of very great difficulty, as the apparent interests of the states and of the Commonwealth were opposed.
The chief external interest, however, of the new financial policy of the Commonwealth lay in its relation towards the empire as a whole.
of England (1883-1884) and of the Great Civil War (1886), Cromwell's Place in History (1897), Oliver Cromwell (1901), and History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate (1894-1903); Cromwell, by C. H.
During the commonwealth and empire aes grave was used to denote the old as in contradistinction to the existing depreciated coin; while aes rude was applied to the original oblong coinage of primitive times.
It is a minority, a minority strictly marked out by birth from other members of the commonwealth, a minority which seems further, though this point is less clearly marked, to have had on the whole the advantage in point of wealth.
If so, there would be no place in Athens for those great plebeian houses, once patrician in some other commonwealth, out of which the later Roman nobilitas was so largely formed.
The park system consists of two concentric rings, the inner being the city system proper, the outer the metropolitan system undertaken by the commonwealth in co-operation with the city.
The commonwealth has four times recognized a community of metropolitan interests in creating state commissions since 1882 for the union of such interests, beginning with a metropolitan health district in that year.
Naval defence in any case remained primarily a question for the Imperial navy, and by agreement (1903, for ten years) between the British government and the governments of the Commonwealth (contributing an annual subsidy of £200,000) and of New Zealand (£40,000), an efficient fleet patrolled the Australasian waters, Sydney, its headquarters, being ranked as a first-class naval station.
Tasmania is now the largest copper-producing state of the Commonwealth; in 1905 the output was over £672,010 and in earlier years even larger.
the excess of the 1 The statistical portion of this article includes Tasmania, which is a member of the Australian Commonwealth.
- Australia is politically divided into five states, which with the island of Tasmania form the Commonwealth of Australia.
Until other provision was made, the governor-general was to have a salary of £10,000, paid by the Commonwealth.
He urged Fairfax to attack the Scots at once in their own country and to forestall their The invasion; but Fairfax refused and resigned, and battles of Cromwell was appointed by parliament, on the 26th Dunbar of June 1650, commander-in-chief of all the forces and of the Commonwealth.
A part of the revenue of confiscated church lands was allotted to the maintenance of schools, and the question of national education was seriously taken in hand by the Commonwealth.
This is not nobility in the true sense; it is not nobility as nobility was understood either in the French kingdom or in the Venetian commonwealth.
Livy could never get rid of the idea that the old struggle between patrician and plebeian was something like the struggle between the nobility and the people at large in the later days of the commonwealth.
speaks for some writer to record, is to be distinguished) - has been assisted by the historical use of the term, in ancient times, for an extraordinary magistrate in the Roman commonwealth.
Among the city's clubs are the Westmoreland and the Commonwealth.
His advice was followed and he returned home in time to be elected a member of the convention which framed the Massachusetts constitution of 1780, still the organic law of that commonwealth.
Howe, and for association with Laura Bridgman and Helen Keller; the Massachusetts school for idiotic and feebleminded children (1839); and the Massachusetts charitable eye and ear infirmary (1824), all receive financial aid from the commonwealth, which has representation in their management.
The improvement of the Back Bay and of the South Boston flats was in considerable measure forced upon the city by the commonwealth.
Under the Commonwealth he faced both ways, keeping his ecclesiastical preferment, but publishing from time to time pamphlets on behalf of the Church of England.
have occupied the site of the Monastery of the Asomati Barges a great commonwealth; they were the tribute paid to the intellectual renown of Athens by foreign potentates or dilettanti, who desired to add their names to the list of its illustrious citizens and patrons.
In 1911 the Legislature adopted a new school code for the entire commonwealth, coming into operation Nov.
Lucy, The Molly Maguires of Pennsylvania; (London, n.d.); The Commonwealth versus John Kehoe et al.
His great work The American Commonwealth, which appeared in 1888, was the first in which the institutions of the United States had been thoroughly discussed from the point of view of a historian and a constitutional lawyer, and it at once became a classic. His Studies in History and Jurisprudence (1901) and Studies in Contemporary Biography (1903) were republications of essays, and in 1897, after a visit to South Africa, he published a volume of Impressions of that country, which had considerable weight in Liberal circles when the Boer War was being discussed.
The insistence on an inward spiritual experience was the great contribution made by Friends ' At the time referred to, and during the Commonwealth, the pulpits of the cathedrals and churches were occupied by Episcopalians of the Richard Baxter type, Presbyterians, Independents and a few Baptists.
William Rogers set forth his views in The Christian Quaker, 1680; the story of the dissension is told, to some extent, in The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, by R.
There is no evidence to show that they were in any way connected with any of the plots of the Commonwealth or Restoration periods.
The penal laws under which Friends suffered may be divided chronologically into those of the Commonwealth and the Restoration periods.
1 On the whole subject of preaching " after the priest had done," see Barclay's Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth, ch.
They agreed to raise an annual sum of £200 for the expenses of their commonwealth; they assigned their governor a salary of £20; they prohibited the sale of ardent spirits to the Indians and imprisonment for debt.
The Inner Life of the Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (London, 1876) by Robert Barclay, a descendant of the Apologist, contains much curious information about the Quakers.
Ficklen above cited, another by the same author in collaboration with Grace King (New Orleans, 1902) and another (more valuable) by Albert Phelps (Boston, 1905), in the American Commonwealth Series.
Folwell's Minnesota, the North Star State (Boston, 1908), in the " American Commonwealth series "; E.
He was a member of all the bodies formed to promote the Federation of Australia as well as of the delegation which proceeded to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill in 1 9 o° and, as Attorney-General, he was included in Sir Edmund Barton's first Federal " Cabinet of the Captains " (1901-3), succeeding him as Premier of Australia.
S., where (in a former mansion) some of the conspirators in the Gunpowder Plot defied search for eight days (1605); and Westwood, a fine hall of Elizabethan and Carolean date on the site of a Benedictine nunnery, a mile west of Droitwich, which offered a retreat to many Royalist cavaliers and churchmen during the Commonwealth.
Mr. Bryce, already favourably regarded in America as the author of a classical work on the American Commonwealth, made himself thoroughly at home in the country; and, after the fashion of American ministers or ambassadors in England, he took up with eagerness and success the role of public orator on matters outside party politics, so far as his diplomatic duties permitted.
In the middle of the 17th century the sermon became one of the most highly-cultivated forms of intellectual entertainment in Great Britain, and when the theatres were closed at the Commonwealth it grew to be the only public form of eloquence.
Kindred to this latter view was the position of sundry sects of English fanatics during the Commonwealth, who denied that an elect person sinned, even when committing acts in themselves gross and evil.
Under the Lombards the civil government was in the hands of a gastaldo, under the Carolingians of a count, whose authority, by slow degrees and a course of events similar to what took place in other Italian communes, gave way to that of the bishop, whose power in turn gradually diminished and was superseded by that of the consuls and the commonwealth.
The botanical gardens on the southern shores of Farm Cove are the finest in the Commonwealth and are distinguished for their immense collection of exotics.
The castle never had any military history, and having been seized by parliament together with the other royal possessions, and being considered of insufficient importance for repair, was demolished during the Commonwealth.
Syracuse thus became a democratic commonwealth.
In the arrangements of the commonwealth the clauses treating of royal privileges are more or less evenly distributed over all reigns, but the systematic development of police functions, especially in regard to responsibility for crimes, the catching of thieves, the suppression of lawlessness, is mainly the object of 10th and 11th century legislation.
(c) The more ancient documents of Anglo-Saxon law show us the individual not merely as the subject and citizen of a certain commonwealth, but also as a member of some group, all the fellows of which are closely allied in claims and responsibilities.
Palgrave, History of the English Commonwealth; Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, i.; Pollock and Maitland, history of English Law, i.; H.
Among the English histories of Florence, Napier's Florentine History (6 vols., London,1846-1847) and A.Trollope's History of the Commonwealth of Florence (4 vols., London, 1865) are not without value although out of date.
He was the first "endenizened" Jew in England, and by his extensive trade with the West Indies rendered considerable services to the Commonwealth.
He was foremost in support of the claims of the Presbyterians and against the bishops; advocated the indiscriminate infliction of penalties, and demanded that the officials of the commonwealth should be compelled to refund their salaries.
During the Civil War in England many Royalists sought refuge in Barbados, where, under Lord Willoughby (who had leased the island from the earl of Carlisle), they offered stout resistance to the forces of the Commonwealth.
He was Minister of Railways in the short-lived Dawson Ministry of 1899, and in 1901 was elected a member of the Commonwealth Parliament, retaining his scat for 15 years.
xiv.), implies an author who lived in the ideas of the religious commonwealth of post-exile times.
The great undertaking was supported by liberal subscriptions, and Walton's political opinions did not deprive him of the help of the Commonwealth; the paper used was freed from duty, and the interest of Cromwell in the work was acknowledged in the original preface, part of which was afterwards cancelled to make way for more loyal expressions towards that restored monarchy under which Oriental studies in England immediately began to languish.
Without holding any official post in the commonwealth he had created, the prior of St Mark's was the real head of the state, the dictator of Florence, and guarded the public weal "Dictator with extraordinary political wisdom.
of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, vol.
When Cromwell before his death in 1658 allowed a conference to prepare a new confession of faith for the whole commonwealth, the Westminster Confession was accepted as a whole with an added statement on church order and discipline.
Under the Aragonese, Malta, as regards local affairs, was administered bya Universitd or municipal commonwealth with wide and indefinite powers, including the election of its officers, Capitan di Verga, Jurats, &c. The minutes of the " Consiglio Popolare " of this period are preserved, showing it had no legislative power; this was vested in the king, and was exercised despotically in the interests of the Crown.
This was, in its day, a colossal undertaking; and its success transformed Holyoke from a farming village into a great manufacturing centre - in 1900 and 1905 the ninth largest of the commonwealth.
Young Adams graduated from Harvard College in 1740, and three years later, on attaining the degree of A.M., chose for his thesis, "Whether it be Lawful to resist the Supreme Magistrate, if the Commonwealth cannot otherwise be preserved."
In 1779 he was a member of the convention which framed the constitution of Massachusetts that was adopted in 1780, and is still, with some amendments, the organic law of the commonwealth and one of the oldest fundamental laws in existence.
They sent their own ambassadors to foreign powers, transacted business with the cities of the Florentine domain, and controlled the military establishment of the commonwealth.
At the time of the Commonwealth Acton was a centre of Puritanism.
Barclay, Inner Life of Religious Societies of the Commonwealth (1876) for a good account of Mennonite anticipations of Quaker views and practices; F.
The crown which strangely enough surmounts the shield with the arms of the Commonwealth on the coins of Oliver Cromwell (as distinguished from those of the Commonwealth itself, which have no crown) is a royal crown with alternate crosses and fleurs-de-lys round the circlet, and is surmounted by three arches, which, though somewhat flattened, are not bent.
Those crowns were the personal crowns, worn by the different kings on various state occasions, but they were all crowned before the Commonwealth with the ancient crown of St Edward, and the queens consort with that of Queen Edith.
Queen Edith's crown had a plain circlet with, so far as can be determined, four crosses of pearls or gems on it, and a large cross patee rising from it in front, and arches of jewels or pearls terminating in a large pearl at the top. A valuation of these ancient crowns was made at the time of the Commonwealth prior to their destruction.
He at once became a dominant factor in New York politics, and for the next quarter of a century he played a leading role in the history of the commonwealth.
Its constitution was that of a crown colony in association with Queensland; but in 1901 the federal government took control of the territory and in 1906 a proclamation by the governor-general of the commonwealth gave it the name of the Territory of Papua.
He opposed the execution of Charles I., lived quietly under the Commonwealth, and was assiduous in promoting the king's return; for this he was afterwards offered the bishopric of Coventry and Lichfield, but declined it, it is said, on his wife's persuasion.
The commonwealth has expended large sums since 1890 in a vain attempt.
The commonwealth, for example, is still denominated " sovereign," and education is not declared a constitutional duty of the commonwealth.
An educational test (dating from 1857) is exacted for the privilege of voting, every voter being required to be able to read the constitution of the commonwealth in the English language, and to write his name.
Especially has the commonwealth undertaken certain noteworthy enterprises as the agent of the several municipalities in the immediate vicinity of Boston, constituting what is known as the Metropolitan District; as, for example, in bringing water thither from the Nashua River at Clinton, 40 m.
The commonwealth joined the city of Boston in the construction of a subway beneath the most congested portion of the city for the passage of electric cars.
For the better accommodation of the increasing commerce of the port of Boston, the commonwealth bought a considerable frontage upon the harbour lines and constructed a dock capable of receiving the largest vessels, and has supplemented the work of the United States government in deepening the approaches to the wharves.
crossings of railways and highways,' and in 1894 the commonwealth began the construction and maintenance of state highways.2 Since 1885, in Boston, and since 1894, in Fall River, the administration of the city police departments, including the granting of liquor licences, has been in the hands of state commissioners (one commissioner in Boston, a board in Fall River) appointed by the governor.
They may call special town-meetings; they appoint election officers and may appoint additional constables or ' The usual allotment of the cost of this work is as follows: 65% isaid by the railwa y company, 25% by the commonwealth and 10% by the municipality in which the crossing is located.
2 The cost was apportioned between the commonwealth and the local government in the proportion of 3 to I.
4 The laws practically offer such education free to every child of the commonwealth.
The commonwealth contributes to the support of textile schools in cities in which 450,000 spindles are in operation.
The commonwealth also maintains aboard a national ship a nautical training school (1891) for instruction in the science and practice of navigation.
In the case of corporations realty and machinery are taxed generally by the local authorities, and stock values by the commonwealth.
The outcome of the uprising was an encouraging test of loyalty to the commonwealth; and the insurrection is regarded as having been very potent in preparing public opinion throughout the country for the adoption of a stronger national government.
Cushing, Transition from Provincial to Commonwealth Government in Massachusetts (Columbia University Studies in History, vol.
Townships governed by close corporations, and all embedded in the despotic power of the crown, presented none of the elements out of which a commonwealth could be formed.
He was led from these ideas to think that there should be no government in the Church separate from the civil government which ruled the commonwealth.
Up to 1909 only sovereigns and half-sovereigns were struck at these establishments, but in Iwo arrangements were made for a Commonwealth silver coinage.
but only to rule the commonwealth in all outward justice..
And therefore also because the Church is in a commonwealth, it is of their charge; that is, concerning the outward provision and outward justice, they are to look to it.
Dale, p. 374 ff.) of moment for the Commonwealth era, between " Independency " as a principle and " Congregationalism " as an ideal of church polity.
But under the Commonwealth many professed the one without fully accepting the other.
There are two English translations published respectively under the titles A commonwealth of good counsaile, &c. (1607), and The Accomplished Senator, done into English by Mr Oldisworth (1733).
He was the author of The Religious Aspects of Philosophy (1885); California (1886, in the American Commonwealth Series) The Feud of Oakfield Creek (1887, a novel); The Spirit of Modern Philosophy (1892); The Conception of God (1895); Studies of Good and Evil (1898); The World and the Individual (2 vols., 1900-1, Gifford Lectures at the university of Aberdeen); The Conception of Immortality (1900); Outlines of Psychology (1903); Herbert Spencer: An Estimate and Review (1904); The Philosophy of Loyalty (1908); Race Questions, Provincialism and Other American Problems (1908);' William James and Other Essays on the Philosophy of Life (1911); Bross Lectures on the Sources of Religious Insight (1912); The Problem of Christianity (2 vols., 1913, lectures before Manchester College, Oxford); War and Insurance (1914); The Hope of the Great Community (1916, war addresses) and the posthumously published Lectures on Modern Idealism (1919).
called a commonwealth....
Whatever may be the truth as to this, the modern theory is first clearly stated in Jean Bodin's book On the Commonwealth (French ed., 1576; Latin version, 1586), which, was the first systematic study of sovereignty.
It is more accurate to say that as to certain matters the legislature of the Canadian Dominion is sovereign, and as to certain others that it is not (Lefroy, 244; Quick and Garran, Australian Commonwealth, 328; Dicey, 106); and as to some matters they are in fact, if not in form, universitates superiorem non recognoscentes (Quick and Garran, 319); or that they are states in process of making.
As early as the 14th century councils and commissions had been formed from time to time to advise parliament in matters of trade, but it was not till the middle of the 17th century, under the Commonwealth, that any department of a permanent character was attempted.
He had thoughts of joining the imperial service, and offered to transport from England a body of the old Commonwealth men; but this was refused by the English court.
Australian and Japanese trade in the archipelago was stimulated by the establishment of the Australian Commonwealth (1901) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-5).
69, and Gardiner's Commonwealth, i.
A great part of his fleet had been scattered and destroyed by storms. The most important event in his reign was the voluntary submission of the Icelandic commonwealth.
1 The Cossack kosh, or commonwealth, had the privilege of electing its hetman, or chief, and his chief officers, the starshins.
In the Critias Plato adds a history of the ideal commonwealth of Atlantis.
Then the long continued unrest both in the mother country and in the province seems to have encouraged Josias Fendall, the proprietor's own appointee as governor, to strike a blow against the proprietary government and attempt to set up a commonwealth in its place; but this revolt was easily suppressed and order was generally preserved in the province from the English Restoration of 1660 to the English Revolution of 1688.
Under the Commonwealth Evelyn amused himself with his favourite occupation of gardening, and made many friends among the scientific inquirers of the time.
Meanwhile he had refused employment from the government of the Commonwealth, and had maintained a cipher correspondence with Charles.
The counties are grouped into judicial circuits, those containing a population of more than 150,000 constituting separate districts; each district has a judge and a commonwealth's attorney.
The rural teachers, however, have been paid from the state fund, so that the poorer districts receive aid from the richer districts of the commonwealth.
The state makes provision for revenue for school purposes as follows: (1) the interest on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $1,327,000 00; (2) dividends on 798 shares of the capital stock of the Bank of Kentucky - representing a par value of $79,800.00; (3) the interest at 6% on the Bond of the Commonwealth for $381,986.08, which is a perpetual obligation in favour of the several counties; (4) the interest at 6% on $606,641.03, which was received from the United States; (5) the annual tax of 262 cents on each $100 of value of all real and personal estate and corporate franchises directed to be assessed for taxation; (6) a certain portion of fines, forfeitures and licences realized by the state; and (7) a portion of the dog taxes of each county.
The Bank of the Commonwealth was chartered in 1820 as a state institution and the charter of the Bank of Kentucky was revoked in 1822.
A court decision denying the legal tender quality of the notes issued by the Bank of the Commonwealth gave rise to a bitter controversy which had considerable influence upon the political history of the state.
The resolutions further declare that " this Commonwealth is determined, as it doubts not its co-states are, tamely to submit to undelegated and therefore unlimited powers in no man or body of men on earth," and that " these and successive acts of the same character, unless arrested on the threshold, may tend to drive these states into revolution and blood."
That cannot be frustrated, and, as it includes the choice of Israel as His people, it is certain that, though the present commonwealth must perish, a new and better Israel will rise from its grave.
1 He is less absolute in his doctrine of governmental non-interference when he comes to consider in his fifth book the "expenses of the sovereign or the commonwealth."
Here on the 9th of May 1901 the first federal parliament of the Australian commonwealth was opened by King George V.
In 1901 Melbourne became the temporary capital of the Australian commonwealth pending the selection of the permanent capital in New South Wales.
His work on The Secret Commonwealth of Elves, Fauns and Fairies, left in MS. and incomplete (the remainder is in the Laing MSS., Edinburgh University library), was published (a hundred copies) in 1815 by Sir Walter Scott, and in the Bibliotheque de Carabas (Lang) there is a French translation.
The Jan are now a subterranean commonwealth, now they reside in ruinous places, like the fairies in the Irish raths.
The works of Mr Jeremiah Curtin and Dr Douglas Hyde are useful for Ireland; for Scotland, Kirk's Secret Commonwealth has already been quoted.
(See American Commonwealth.
1 As to the scheme and working of the Federal government in its relation to the states, see American Commonwealth, chs.
(See, as to the details of party machinery, American Commonwealth, chs.
Having witnessed the unjust exactions of a democracy at Athens, the dwindling population of an oligarchy at Sparta, and the oppressive selfishness of new tyrannies throughout the Greek world, he condemned the actual constitutions of the Greek states as deviations (7rapec- (3do as) directed merely to the good of the government; and he contemplated a right constitution (607) 7roAtTeia), which might be either a commonwealth, an aristocracy or a monarchy, directed to the general good; but he preferred the monarchy of one man, pre-eminent in virtue above the rest, as the best of all governments (Nicomachean Ethics, viii.
Then follows the treatment of oligarchy, democracy, commonwealth and tyranny, and of the various powers of government (0), and independent investigation of revolution, and of the means of preserving states (E), and a further treatment of democracy and oligarchy, and of the different offices of the state (Z), and finally a return to the discussion of the right form of constitution (II, 0).
Commonwealth, of the majority excelling in virtue.
For some years Sir George Ayscue lived in retirement, but the later years of the Commonwealth he spent in Sweden, Cromwell having despatched him thither as naval adviser.
One of the first problems of the new commonwealth was that of finance.
But all agree in giving the central place to the realization of a real effective kingship of Yahweh; in fact the conception of the religious subject as the nation of Israel, with a national organization under Yahweh as king, is common to the whole Old Testament, and connects prophecy proper with the so-called Messianic psalms and similar passages which speak of the religious relations of the Hebrew commonwealth, the religious meaning of national institutions, and so necessarily contain ideal elements reaching beyond the empirical present.
Under the present constitution, which dates from 1783, the general affairs of the commonwealth are entrusted to an assembly (o-vvaes) of twenty members, one from each monastery; a committee of four members, chosen in turn, styled epistatae (7rurrfirat), forms the executive.
This painting was among Charles I.'s collection which was sold by order of the Commonwealth in 1649.
The society spread in the eastern counties, in spite of repressive measures; it revived under the Commonwealth, and lingered into the early years of the 18th century; the leading idea of its "service of love" was a reliance on sympathy and tenderness for the moral and spiritual edification of its members.
Whatever value may attach to the consolidation of the British Empire itself as a factor in spreading the peace which reigns within it, it is also a great contribution to the peace of the world that the British race should have founded practically independent states like the Dominion of Canada, the Commonwealth of Australia, the South African Union and the Dominion of New Zealand.
A sort of Monroe doctrine is growing into popular favour also throughout the Australian Commonwealth, where it is felt that a continent so far removed from European rivalries ought not to be exposed to complications on account of them.
It is, however, the conclusion of Mr Bryce, in his American Commonwealth, that as a rule a seat in Congress costs the candidate less than a seat for a county division in the House of Commons.
Palgrave, Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth (London, 1831-1832); J.
Round, "Colchester and the Commonwealth" in Eng.
The governor controls a large amount of patronage, appointing, subject to the advice and consent of two-thirds of the senate, a secretary of the commonwealth and an attorney-general during pleasure, and a superintendent of public instruction for four years, and may fill vacancies in various offices which occur during the recess of the senate.
His power of pardon is limited, being subject to the recommendation of three members of a board which consists of the lieutenant-governor, secretary of the commonwealth, attorneygeneral and secretary of internal affairs.
The other executive officials are the lieutenant-governor and the secretary of internal affairs, elected for four years, the auditor-general, elected for three years, the treasurer, elected for two years, and (all appointed by the governor) the secretary of the commonwealth, the attorney-general and a superintendent of public instruction.
The employment of children under fourteen years of age in coal-mines is forbidden, as is also the employment of children under fourteen years of age in any cotton, woollen, silk, paper, bagging or flax factory, or in any laundry, or the employment of children under twelve years of age in any mill or factory whatever within the commonwealth.
The Penns lost their governmental rights in 1776, and three years later their territorial interests were vested in the commonwealth in return for a grant of £120,000 and the guarantee of titles to private estates held in severalty.
7 Commonwealth of England (ed.
The false code of honour supplants the laws of the commonwealth, the law of God and the eternal principles of right.
Montanism sought to form a new Christian commonwealth which, separated from the Jerusalem from above, and its establishment in the spot which by the direction of the Spirit had been chosen in Phrygia.
A strong party in the Provinces were unfriendly to the Commonwealth, and insults were offered in the Hague to the English envoys.
Meanwhile the Commonwealth in England had been followed in 1660 by the restoration of the monarchy.
Palgrave, The Rise and Progress of the English Commonwealth (London, 1832); J.
To the motley commonwealth thus formed he acted not merely as ruler, but also as physician, teacher and priest.
Also he took advantage of the rule of the Commonwealth to indulge much more freely than he might have otherwise dared in rationalistic criticism of religious doctrines; while, amid the turmoil of sects, he could the more forcibly urge that the preservation of social order, when again firmly restored, must depend on the assumption by the civil power of the right 2 L.W.
The attack was duly noted at Oxford, where under the Commonwealth a new spirit of scientific activity had begun to stir.
' The modern statistics of the commonwealth may be more accurately kept, and there may be less waste in use, but it is not supposed that there is any diminution in the free use of the beverage which has always characterized the antipodean colonist.
Some of these, in 1764, formed themselves into a club, which gradually became a formidable power in the commonwealth of letters.
Commonwealth of Australia - -, 7,690
Commonwealth of Australia -.
in 1901) became its first premier, and he held that position till in 1901 he joined the Commonwealth government, first as minister for defence, later as minister for home affairs and postmaster-general, resigning the office of federal treasurer in July 1907.
He became bankrupt in 1822, but during the following years he accomplished one of his best pieces of work, The History of the Commonwealth, founded on pamphlets and original documents, which still retains considerable value.
This way of speaking would imply that Agyrium had so far advanced in Greek ways as to run the usual course of a Greek commonwealth.
The established rule of Carthage in western Sicily was now something that could well be endured alongside of the robber commonwealth at Messana.
In its results the Norman conquest of Sicily was a Latin conquest far more thorough than that which had been made by the Roman commonwealth.
Charles was now besieging Messina; Sicily seems to have put on some approach to the form of a federal commonwealth.
RANTERS, an antinomian and spiritualistic English sect in the time of the Commonwealth, who may be described as the dregs of the Seeker movement.
The Recess of 1536 enacted that the bishops should forfeit their temporal and spiritual authority, and that all their property should be transferred to the crown for the good of the commonwealth.
Under the Commonwealth an attempt was made to secure or recover the right, and two members are said to have been returned, but they were not allowed to take their seats.
Its buildings, arranged around Under the Commonwealth Richard Bennett (elected by General Assembly)1652-1655Edward Digges (elected by House of Burgesses)1655-1657Samuel Mathews (elected by House of Bur gesses).1657-1660Under the Crown Sir William Berkeley, Governor.1660-1677Francis Morrison (or Moryson), Deputy Governor.
Entering politics as a Whig, he was chairman of the Whig state central committee in 1854, and from 1855 to 1858 was secretary of the commonwealth.
The English or anglicized element in Scotland was never subjugated by England, save during the few years of the Cromwellian Commonwealth, and was supported (with occasional defections, and troubles caused by dynastic Celtic risings) by the Celtic element in the kingdom during the long struggle for national independence.
In its origin a revolt against feudal oppression, it became, under the leadership of Munzer, a war against all constituted authorities, and an attempt to establish by force his ideal Christian commonwealth, with absolute equality and the community of goods.
On the establishment of the Commonwealth, though out of sympathy with the government, he was nominated to the council of state and a commissioner of the new Great Seal.
These forebodings were intensified in his Commonwealth or Empire?
In addition to the monographs mentioned above, he published: Maryland's Influence in Founding a National Commonwealth (1877); Methods of Historical Study (1884); Maryland's Influence upon Land Cessions to the United States (1885); and the Life and Writings of Jared Sparks (2 vols., Boston, 1893), his most important work.
His principal works are: The Coming Revolution (1880); The Co-operative Commonwealth in its Outlines, An Exposition of Modern Socialism (1884); Ca Ira, or Danton in the French Revolution (1888), a rehabilitation of Danton; Our Destiny, The Influence of Socialism on Morals and Religion (1890); and The New Economy (1898) .
During the fifteen years in which Vermont was an independent commonwealth, Bennington was the headquarters of the council of safety.
Each human being is in the first instance a citizen of his own nation or commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, whereof the city political;s only a copy in miniature.
Davis, after landing the relief party and taking off all the others, waited for the return of Mawson as long as he dared, having in view the necessity of relieving Wild's party in Queen Mary Land, and the fact that every anchor on the ship had been lost in the fight with blizzards in Commonwealth Bay.
The " Aurora " returned to Commonwealth Bay on Dec. 13 1913, and after taking the base party on board made another voyage to Queen Mary Land and carried out valuable oceanographical work on the way back to Hobart.
His political insight is shown by the fact that he endeavoured to limit the indefinite extension of Moslem conquest, to maintain and strengthen the national Arabian character of the commonwealth of Islam, 4 and especially to promote law and order in its internal affairs.
To it belonged the men of real piety, who saw with displeasure the promotion to the first places in the commonwealth of the great lords who had actually done nothing for Islam, and had joined themselves to it only at the last moment.
The most permanent interest of the history of the United States is the picture it offers of a primitive democratic society transformed by prosperity and the acquisition of capital into a great republican commonwealth.
(2) Politically the villeins were not eliminated from the body of citizens: they had to pay taxes, to serve in great emergencies in the militia, to serve on inquests, &c., and although there was a tendency to place them on a lower footing in all these respects yet the fact of their being lesser members of the commonwealth did not remove the fundamental qualification of citizenship. (3) Even in civil matters villeins were deemed free as regards third persons.
He now effected a coalition with Antonius and Lepidus, and on the 27th of November 43 B.C. the three were formally appointed a triumvirate for the reconstitution of the commonwealth for five years.
Firth's historical work was almost entirely confined to English history during the time of the Great Civil War and the Commonwealth; and although he is somewhat overshadowed by S.
The chief of them are: Life of the Duke of Newcastle (1886); Scotland and the Commonwealth (1895); Scotland and the Protectorate (1899); Narrative of General V enables (r 9 00); Oliver Cromwell (1900); Cromwell's Army (1902); and the standard edition of Ludlow's Memoirs (1894).
He studied law, and practised with his father, and in 1842 became commonwealth's attorney.
Adelaide is also the central share market of Australia, for West Australian goldmines, for the silver-mines at Broken Hill, and for the coppermines at Wallaroo, Burra Burra and Moonta; while Port Adelaide, on the neighbouring shore of St Vincent Gulf, ranks as the third in the Commonwealth.
At the Commonwealth the manor was temporarily out of the bishops' hands, being sold to Colonel Edmund Harvey.
The Commonwealth of Australia, proclaimed in 1901, is another interesting example of self-governing states federating into a united whole.
The governor, lieutenant-governor, attorney-general, secretary of the commonwealth, treasurer, superintendent of public instruction and commissioner of agriculture are elected for a term of four y ears, every fourth year from 1905, and each new administration begins on the 1st of February.
In each county an electoral board, consisting of the attorney for the Commonwealth, the division superintendent and one member appointed by the judge of the circuit court, appoints a board of three school trustees for each district, one each year.
His conduct upon that legation was afterwards severely criticized; for his political antagonists accused him of betraying the true interests of the commonwealth, and using his influence for the restoration of the exiled house of Medici to power.
As a political theorist, Guicciardini believed that the best form of government was a commonwealth administered upon the type of the Venetian constitution (Op. ined.
From the stores of valuable materials contained in those ten volumes, it will be enough here to cite (1) the Ricordi politici, already noticed, consisting of about 400 aphorisms on political and social topics; (2) the observations on Machiavelli's Discorsi, which bring into remarkable relief the views of Italy's two great theorists on statecraft in the 16th century, and show that Guicciardini regarded Machiavelli somewhat as an amiable visionary or political enthusiast; (3) the Storia Fiorentina, an early work of the author, distinguished by its animation of style, brilliancy of portraiture, and liberality of judgment; and (4) the Dialogo del reggimento di Firenze, also in all probability an early work, in which the various forms of government suited to an Italian commonwealth are discussed with infinite subtlety, contrasted, and illustrated from the vicissitudes of Florence up to the year 1 494.
Descended from a family which had attained some legal eminence in the time of the Commonwealth, John Keble, the father of the poet, was vicar of Coln St Aldwyn, but lived at Fairford, about 3 m.
In its final manifestation during the Commonwealth, Puritanism won a transient victory over the mundane forces of both Reformation and Renaissance, as these had taken shape in England.
The United Kingdom produces no wine, but the Cape and the Australian Commonwealth each produce some 5 million gallons.
Wines Of The British Empire The production of the British empire is very small, amounting to roughly to million gallons, and this is produced almost entirely in the Cape of Good Hope and in the Australian Commonwealth.
Upon the downfall of the Puritan Commonwealth in the mother country (1660) numerous grievances were presented to King Charles II.
The chief motive of its founders in coming to the New World was the establishment of a new Christian commonwealth, but subordinate to this there was from the first an economic motive.
The period of the Commonwealth was filled with the strife between these two parties, its bitterness not lessened by the fact that the assembly dissolved in 1653 by Cromwell's soldiers was not allowed to meet again in his protectorate.
She assisted Dr Howe in editing the Commonwealth in 1851-1853.
The whole party were more or less in sympathy with the Commonwealth, and Cudworth was consulted by John Thurloe, Cromwell's secretary of state, in regard to university and government appointments.
1° On the 3rd of May, after considerable discussion, the Lords decided upon the sentence, which was," That he should undergo fine and ransom of £40,000; that he should be imprisoned in the Tower during the king's pleasure; that he should be for ever incapable of any office, place or employment in the state or commonwealth; that he should never sit in parliament, or come within the verge of the court.
The work was to have been completed by the addition of a second part, treating of the laws of a model commonwealth, which was never written.
This council of Wales, the headquarters of which had been fixed at Ludlow, undoubtedly did good service on behalf of law and order under such capable presidents as Bishop Rowland Lee and William Herbert, earl of Pembroke; but it had long ceased to be of any practical use, and had in fact become an engine of oppression by the time of the Commonwealth, although it was not definitely abolished till the revolution of 1688.
Having been joined by a few friends from Massachusetts, Williams founded a commonwealth in which absolute religious liberty was combined with civil democracy.
Threats were equally unavailing, and accordingly on the 27th of July 1656 Spinoza was solemnly cut off from the commonwealth of Israel.
s Heinrich Oldenburg (c. 1626-1678) was a native of Bremen, but had settled in England in the time of the commonwealth.
Or what are you within this commonwealth?"
Knox does not seem to have known beforehand of Rizzio's "slaughter," which had been intended to be a semi-judicial act; but soon after it he records that "that vile knave Davie was justly punished, for abusing of the commonwealth, and for other villainy which we list not to express."
UTOPIA, an ideal commonwealth, or an imaginary country whose inhabitants are supposed to exist under the most perfect conditions possible.
Bernard de Mandeville's Fable of the Bees is unique in that it describes the downfall of an ideal commonwealth.
INSTRUMENT OF GOVERNMENT, the name given to the decree, or written constitution, under which Oliver Cromwell as "lord protector of the commonwealth" governed England, Scotland and Ireland from December 1653 to May 1657.
Gardiner, History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, vols.
This restriction of the power of appeal to the privy council is much greater than are the restrictions upon appeals from the Commonwealth of Australia, where appeals to the privy council lie by right from the several state Supreme Courts.
The difference arises from the fact that the Commonwealth is a federation of states; whereas the Union of South Africa is but one state with but one Supreme Court.
The greatness of the opportunity was rightly stated by the governor of Natal (Sir Matthew Nathan), who declared that the convention might create a commonwealth which should add to and not draw upon the strength of the empire - a commonwealth which in culture as in power would be among the foremost nations of the world.
In February 1665 the ill-omened war with Holland was declared, during the progerss of which it became apparent how greatly the condition of the national services and the state of administration had deteriorated since the Commonwealth, and to what extent England was isolated and abandoned abroad, Michael de Ruyter, on the 13th of June 1667, carrying out his celebrated attack on Chatham and burning several warships.
Soc. Pubtns., 5903); History of England, of the Civil War and of the Commonwealth, by S.
Gardiner, 1894) and 18 (Scotland and the Commonwealth, 1651-1653, ed.
He would have placed at the head of his commonwealth a president and Cortes freely elected by the people, ruling the country in,a liberal spirit and with due respect for conservative principles, religious traditions and national unity.
It included remarkable incunabula, 16th-century literature, and scientific literature; and among its special collections are Lord Macaulay's library of British Parliamentary papers, a great collection of English Commonwealth pamphlets, one on the history of Mexico, and other rarities.
There was an influential political club here from 1786 to 1790, and here, too, sat the several conventions - nine in all - which asked for a separation from Virginia, discussed the proposed conditions of separation from that commonwealth, framed the first state constitution, and chose Frankfort as the capital.
He lived in retirement during the Commonwealth period.
NEW SOUTH WALES, a state of the Australian Commonwealth.
taxation; sale and lease of lands; earnings of railways, tramways and other services; and share of surplus revenue returned by the commonwealth.
During 1906 the income derived under each of these heads was: from taxation £1,297,776; from lands £1,729,887; from railways and other services £5,856,826; from commonwealth £2,742,770; these with miscellaneous collections to the amount of £655,823 made up a total revenue of £12,283,082.
The powers of the state parliament have been since 1901 restricted by the transfer of certain powers to the commonwealth of Australia.
Th.e administration of the post office is under the commonwealth government Railways.-The railways are almost entirely in the hands of the state, for out of 3471 m.
He preferred his literary leisure at Vaucluse, at Parma, in the courts of princes, to a post which would have brought him into contact with jealous priors and have reduced him to the position of the servant of a commonwealth.
After the establishment of the Commonwealth he was chosen, on the 17th of January 1652, a member of the committee for legal reforms. In 1653 he became a member of the Protectorate council of state, and a commissioner of the treasury, and was appointed one of the four generals at sea and a commissioner for the army and navy.
There is the interesting case of Papua (formerly British New Guinea), over which a protectorate was established in 1884, but which became in 1906 a territory of the Australian Commonwealth.
The factional quarrels there, together with the Commonwealth government in England, made it easy for Massachusetts to enforce this claim at the time, and between 1652 and 1658 Maine was gradually annexed to Massachusetts.
Maine was in general well governed as a part of Massachusetts, but a geographical separation, a desire to be rid of the burden of a large state debt, and a difference of economic interests as well as of politics (Maine was largely Democratic and Massachusetts was largely Federalist) created a desire for an independent commonwealth.
Egle, Illustrated History of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania (Harrisburg, Pa., 1876); Sarah H.
He is the historian of the Puritan revolution, and has written its history in a series of volumes, originally published under different titles, beginning with the accession of James I.; the seventeenth (the third volume of the History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate) appeared in Igor.
to the Outbreak of the Civil War, 1603-1642 (10 vols.); History of the Great Civil War, 1642-1649 (4 vols.); and History of the Commonwealth and Protectorate, 1649-1660.
The burgesses were represented in parliament by one member during the Commonwealth, but not again until by the Reform Act of 1832 they were allowed to return two members.
Afterwards, feeling alarmed, according to his own accounts, he admonished Catesby against intending the death of " not only innocents but friends and necessary persons for a commonwealth," and showed him a letter from the pope forbidding rebellion.
He was a keen supporter of Federation and in 1900 led the delegation sent to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill.
However this may be, the Commonwealth made an end of them, and they seem never to have been revived; Sparrow, in his Rationale upon the Book of Common Prayer (London, 1668), speaks of "the service formerly appointed in the Rogation days of Procession."
The Massachusetts legislature denounced this battle-flag resolution as " an insult to the loyal soldiery of the nation " and as " meeting the unqualified condemnation of the people of the Commonwealth."
Robertson, "The Genesis of Political Authority and of a Commonwealth Government in Oregon" in the Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, vol.
Consistently with his desire to remain neutral, Hale took the engagement to the Commonwealth as he had done to the king, and in 1653, already serjeant, he became a judge in the court of common pleas.
in Edinburgh, and stoutly advocating the restoration of the monarchy in the time of the Commonwealth.
P. Dunn's Indiana, a Redemption from Slavery (Boston, 1888) in the " American Commonwealth " series, as its secondary title indicates, is devoted principally to the struggle over the provision in the Ordinance of 1787 prohibiting slavery.
After his death Palermo was for a moment a commonwealth.
KANSAS (known as the " Sunflower State "), the central commonwealth of the United States of America, lying between 37° and 40° N.
The early 'eighties were made notable by a tremendous " boom " in real estate, rural and urban, throughout the commonwealth.
Spring's Kansas (Boston, 1885, in the American Commonwealth Series); Charles Robinson, The Kansas Conflict (New York, 1892); Eli Thayer, The Kansas Crusade (New York, 1889); the Proceedings of the Kansas State Historical Society (Topeka, 1891 seq.), full of the most valuable material; W.
The period when the English kingdoms began to enter into the commonwealth of Christendom, by receiving the Formation missionaries sent out from Rome or from lona, practikingdoms. cally coincides with the period in which the occupation of central Britain was completed, and the kingdoms of the conquerors assumed their final size and shape.
They declared that they were privileged to discuss any matter relating to the commonwealth which they chose to take in hand, and embodied their opinion in a protest, which they entered on their journals.
The Commons, who knew that the crown had used the powers which it claimed, not against conspirators, but against the commonwealth itself, refused to listen to the argument, and insisted on the acceptance of the whole Petition of Right, in which they demanded redress for all their grievances.
with the Dutch, which found vent in one war in the time of the Commonwealth, and in two wars in the time of Charles II., gave way to a dread, rising into hatred, of the arrogant potentate who, at the head of the mightiest army in Europe, treated with contempt all rights which came into collision with his own wishes.
From 1603 to 1656 we have Gardiners History (England, 10 vols.; Civil ~Var, 4 vols.; Commonwealth and Protectorate, 3 vols.), and to 1714 Rankes 1-listory of England (6 vols.; see also Firths Cromwell and Cromwells Army, and various editions of texts and monographs).
According to an old Portuguese tradition each of the seven leaders founded and ruled a city, and the whole island became a Utopian commonwealth, free from the disorders of less favoured states.
It included, as was natural enough in a warm admirer of Montesquieu, a fragment on law, of which he justly said that it ought to be the leading science in every well-ordered commonwealth.
Fox still held to his old opinions as stoutly as he could, and condemned and opposed the war which England had declared against the French republic. Burke, who was profoundly incapable of the meanness of letting personal estrangement blind his eyes to what was best for the commonwealth, kept hoping against hope that each new trait of excess in France would at length bring the great Whig leader to a better mind.
Other notable dates in history are 1637 and 1647, when general synods of New England churches met at Cambridge to settle disputed doctrine and define orthodoxy; the departure for Connecticut of Thomas Hooker's congregation in 1636; the meeting of the convention that framed the present constitution of the commonwealth, 1779-1780; the separation of the Congregationalists and Unitarians of the first parish church, in 1829; and the grant of a city charter in 1846.
Another institution treated with considerable fulness in the treatise Taanith is that of the -nyn 'th (y iri stationis), who are represented as having been laymen severally representing the twenty-four classes or families into which the whole commonwealth of the laity was divided.
African state of the British Commonwealth of Nations.
If so, parliament was told that temporal possessions ruin the church and drive out the Christian graces of faith, hope and charity; that the priesthood of the church in communion with Rome was not the priesthood Christ gave to his apostles; that the monk's vow of celibacy had for its consequence unnatural lust, and should not be imposed; that transubstantiation was a feigned miracle, and led people to idolatry; that prayers made over wine, bread, water, oil, salt, wax, incense, altars of stone, church walls, vestments, mitres, crosses, staves, were magical and should not be allowed; that kings should possess the jus episcopale, and bring good government into the church; that no special prayers should be made for the dead; that auricular confession made to the clergy, and declared to be necessary for salvation, was the root of clerical arrogance and the cause of indulgences and other abuses in pardoning sin; that all wars were against the principles of the New Testament, and were but murdering and plundering the poor to win glory for kings; that the vows of chastity laid upon nuns led to child murder; that many of the trades practised in the commonwealth, such as those of goldsmiths and armourers, were unnecessary and led to luxury and waste.
A paper on the " Roman Commonwealth" which belongs to this period, expresses convictions about religious liberty and the relations of religion to the state that were modified and deepened afterwards; objections to the sacerdotal conception of Christianity appear in another article; short work is made of ecclesiastical claims to infallibility in the interpretation of Scripture in a third; a scheme of utilitarian ethics, wider than that of Hobbes, is suggested in a fourth.
But beyond this nature did not seem to go in determining the relations of the sexes; accordingly, we find that community of wives was a feature of Zeno's ideal commonwealth, just as it was of Plato's; while, again, the strict.
" We recognize one commonwealth, the world," says Tertullian; " we know," says Origen, " that we have a fatherland founded by the word of God."
He was not a feudal lord nor a local sheriff, for any franklin could change his g060r5 when he would, and the rights of "judgment by peers" were in full use; moreover, the office could be bequeathed, sold, divided or pledged by the possessor; still the goc51 had considerable power as long as the commonwealth lasted.
But here constitutional growth ceased: the law-making body made few and unimportant modifications of custom; the courts were too weak for the chiefs who misused and defied them; the speaker's power was not sufficiently supported; even the ecclesiastical innovations, while they secured peace for a time, provoked in the end the struggles which put an end to the commonwealth.
Life in the commonwealth was turbulent and anarchic, but free and varied; it produced men of mark, and fostered bravery, adventure and progress.
This period of Iceland's existence is eventless: she had got peace but with few of its blessings; all spirit seemed to have died with the commonwealth; even shepherding and such agriculture as there had been sank to a lower stage; wagons, ploughs and carts went out of use and knowledge; architecture in timber became a lost art, and the fine carved and painted halls of the heathen days were replaced by turfwalled barns half sunk in the earth; the large decked luggers of the old days gave way to small undecked fishing-boats.
The art of poetry stood to the Icelanders in lieu of music; scarcely any prominent man but knew how to turn a mocking or laudatory stanza, and down to the fall of the commonwealth the accomplishment was in high request.
Just as the change of law gave the death-blow to an already perishing commonwealth, so the rush of medieval influence, which followed the union with Norway, completed a process which had been in force since the end of the 11th century, when it overthrew the old Icelandic poetry in favour of the rimur.
Nearly all that we know of the heathen commonwealth may be traced to the collections of Ari.
This charming little book is, with the much later collections of laws, our sole authority for the Icelandic constitution of the commonwealth, but, " much as it tells, the lost Liber would have been of still greater importance."
The first part of Islendinga (1202-1242) tells of the beginning and first part of the civil wars, the lives of Snorri and Sighvat, Sturla's uncles, of his cousin and namesake Sturla Sighvatsson, of Bishop Gudmund, and Thorwald Gizursson, - the fall of the Sturlungs, and with them the last hopes of the great houses to maintain the commonwealth, being the climax of the story.
From 1791 to 1801 he was secretary of the commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
It added religious education to the evangelical preaching and the thorough discipline already established, and so completed the reformer's ideal of a Christian commonwealth.
Numbers of them fled to Iceland, which grew into an independent commonwealth, while the Scottish isles fell under Norwegian rule.
Then there are Ormonde Royalists, of the Episcopalian and mixed creeds, strong for king without covenant; Ulster and other Presbyterians strong for king and covenant; lastly, Michael Jones and the Commonwealth of England, who want neither king nor covenant."
He attended Laud at his execution, and during the Commonwealth kept a school at Stevenage, Hertfordshire.
The choir was occupied by the Roundheads during the Commonwealth, and was wrecked by the castle guns.
He obtained many offices under the Commonwealth, among them that of provost of Eton College.
The word commonwealth had no meaning either east or west of the Iberian range.
an item in a commonwealth, the members of which are in all respects equally well endowed.
Apart from South Africa, his most important work at this time was the successful passing of the Australian Commonwealth Act (1900), in which both tact and firmness were needed to settle certain differences between the imperial government and the colonial delegates.
At the opening of 1904 he was officially invited by Mr Deakin, the prime minister of the Commonwealth, to pay a visit to Australia, in order to expound his scheme, being promised an enthusiastic welcome "as the harbinger of commercial reciprocity between the mother country and her colonies."
The scene produced a deep impression on his mind, and in February 1649 he along with other petitioners presented to the House of Commons a paper entitled The Serious Apprehensions of a part of the People on behalf of the Commonwealth, which he followed up with a pamphlet, England's New Chains Discovered, criticizing Ireton, and another exposing the conduct of Cromwell, Ireton and other leaders of the army since June 1647 (The Hunting of the Foxes from Newmarket and Triploe Heath to Whitehall by Five Small Beagles, the "beagles" being Lilburne.
In January 1652, for printing and publishing a petition against Sir Arthur Hesilrige and the Haberdashers' Hall for what he conceived to have been an injury done to his uncle George Lilburne in 1649, he was sentenced to pay fines amounting to 7000, and to be banished the Commonwealth, with prohibition of return under the pain of death.
Godwin (Commonwealth, iii.
TASMANIA, a British colonial state, forming part of the Australian Commonwealth.
per inhabitant; of this sum £ 2 59, 0 99 was the excess of Commonwealth collections over expenditure, and £216,953 from other taxation; the railways returned £245,049, while from public lands was obtained £63,088, and from other sources £43,504.
Defence.-Tasmania being a portion of the Commonwealth of Australia, its defence is undertaken by the federal government.
During the Commonwealth the question of the readmission of the Jews was often mooted under the growing desire for religious liberty.
In 1704 he found, while visiting a member of his flock, a book which had been brought into Scotland by a commonwealth soldier.
He possessed a deep knowledge of France and her history, an abiding affection for the Commonwealth and especially the USA.
The English pole-vaulter tested positive for a banned anabolic steroid at the Commonwealth Games trials.
Of course we are pursuing every avenue open to us at Commonwealth level.
baton relay has been the traditional opener of the Commonwealth games, to be held in Manchester this year, since the 1970s.
On the 26 th and 27 th, Commonwealth troops had secured a beachhead and made a general move forward.
Also, the former Commonwealth middleweight boxing champion Michael Watson praised the improvement in sports/leisure facilities for disabled people.
And finally, as dusk fell, to Tyne Cot, the biggest commonwealth cemetery in the World.
Foreign and Commonwealth Office Travel Advice Worldwide disease and immunization checklist Footprint Travel Guides Venezuela is a coastal, mountain, and plains republic.
colonyelieve that people in self-governing Colonies will find greater security, prosperity and freedom by remaining part of the Commonwealth.
commonwealth of nations fought, Inspired by her strength, Democracy was held intact By the price they paid at length.
commonwealth of Massachusetts your friends or watching you work field of pastry.
Already it has compelled many of them to join the so-called commonwealth of Independent States.
The great majority did, although Ireland did not and South Africa left the commonwealth for many years.
European, North American and other international (including commonwealth) monitors were not invited.
A covenant to establish a commonwealth in political union with the U.S. was approved in 1975.
At Edinburgh, I hope that together we can start to build a commonwealth for the 21st Century.
Adams castigated my biography of Thomas More in a review in the New Republic because I said the island commonwealth had no king.
Davies sees a strong compensation for this weakness in the idea of the godly commonwealth.
Kant had anticipated some of the features of the ethical commonwealth in earlier works.
The modern commonwealth has sought to be relevant by championing democracy.
It is not just the term " the British commonwealth " that should be consigned to history.
A most free commonwealth of " voters; " but with Eternal Justice to preside over it, Eternal Justice enforced by Almighty Power!
commonwealth citizens obliged to have visas.
commonwealth war cemetery in the world in terms of burials.
commonwealth fund reported an agent work.
commonwealth affairs, vol.
commonwealth games athlete, finished seventh in 2002, was having to deal with the same slippery conditions.
He has been on the coaching staff of GB and English teams and his swimmers include Olympic, Commonwealth and European championship competitors.
Dr. Jonathan Sacks is Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew congregations of the Commonwealth.
decathlon gold at the Commonwealth Games in Melbourne on Tuesday morning after two grueling days of competition.
He represented former Tanganyika soldiers on the British and Commonwealth Ex-Servicemen's League 1963-64 and launched the Askari Appeal in 1998.
But these " core Commonwealth values " have been those imposed by British imperialism and interpreted to suit its interests.
Catherine the Great annexed the Tartar khanate of Crimea and acquired parts of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth.
nominated for election after an open competition run jointly by the Foreign and Commonwealth Office and the Lord Chancellor's Department.
This means that the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office certify the notary 's signature and seal.
overprinted to show the location of each Commonwealth cemetery and memorial.
pistol shooting medals won in four Commonwealth Games.
privileged to participate in this Commonwealth Youth Summit, " Citizen You " .
Regulation of the press is a constantly recurring theme wherever the Commonwealth press gathers.
The baton relay has been the traditional opener of the Commonwealth games, to be held in Manchester this year, since the 1970s.
This means that the U.K. Foreign and Commonwealth Office certify the notary's signature and seal.
Recently he won silver in the Commonwealth Tournament held in Northern Ireland.
unrivaled experience in teacher training - a Brunel founder college was the 1st teacher training school in the British Commonwealth.
Agency addresses are listed in the Commonwealth universities yearbook.
"The like collapse has often been experienced in history when bands of religious men, going forth, as they thought, to freedom and the immediate erection of a holy commonwealth, have found their unity wrecked and their enthusiasm dissipated by a few inclement seasons on a barren and hostile shore."
Of Japanese there were 3500, of Hindu and Sinhalese 4600, according to recent computation, but the policy of the Commonwealth is adverse to further immigration of other than whites.
The area of the various states is as follows: To the area of the Commonwealth shown in the table might be added that of New Guinea, 90,000 sq.
m.; this would bring the area of the territory controlled by the Commonwealth to 3,062,906 sq.
In 1908-1909 a movement began for the establishment by Australia of a local flotilla of torpedo-boat destroyers, to be controlled by the Commonwealth in peace time, but subject to the orders of the British admiralty in war time, though not to be removed from the Australian coast without the sanction of the Commonwealth; and by 1909 three such vessels had been ordered in England preparatory to building others in Australia.
The constitution set forth elaborate arrangements for the administration of finance and trade during the transition period following the transference of departments to the Commonwealth.
The same period that saw this legislation adopted was also marked by the establishment of old age pensions in the three eastern states, and also in the Commonwealth.
An important work of the Commonwealth parliament was the passing of a uniform tariff to supersede the six separate tariffs in force at the establishment of the Commonwealth, Tariff but many other important measures were considered and some passed into law.
At the Imperial Conference in London in 1907 Mr Deakin, the Commonwealth premier, was the leading advocate of colonial preference with a view to imperial commercial union; and though no reciprocal arrangement was favoured by the Liberal cabinet, who temporarily spoke for the United Kingdom, the colonial representatives were all agreed in urging such a policy, and found the Opposition (the Unionist party) in England prepared to adopt it as part of Mr Chamberlain's tariff reform movement.
"It is strange," wrote Pepys in 1667 under a different regime, "how everybody nowadays reflect upon Oliver and Cromwell to the authority of the Commonwealth and the Navi a S' g empire.
Hitherto he had been scrupulously impartial in raising the best men to the judicial bench, including the illustrious Matthew Hale, but he now appointed compliant judges, and, alluding to Magna Carta in terms impossible to transcribe for modern readers, declared that" it should not control his actions which he knew were for the safety of the Commonwealth."The country was now divided into twelve districts each governed by a major-general, to whom was entrusted the duty of maintaining order, stamping out disaffection and plots, and executing the laws relating to public morals.
The faction of the counts of Tusculum raised its head from time to time in the Eternal City, and Rome still claimed to be a commonwealth.
Popes and emperors who needed the assistance of a city, had to seek it from the consuls, and thus these officers gradually converted an obscure and indefinite authority into what resembles the presidency of a commonwealth.
In the next year he returned, assumed the presidency of the democratic party, and by a system of corruption and popularity-hunting, combined with the patronage of arts and letters, established himself as the real but unacknowledged dictator of the commonwealth.
of England (1604), was the earliest instance of the orders banishment from a state where it had proved disloyal to the commonwealth.
We may name, besides those already specified - in the Naples Museum, " St Euphemia," a fine early work; in Casa Melzi, Milan, the " Madonna and Child with Chanting Angels " (1461); in the Tribune of the Uffizi, Florence, three pictures remarkable for scrupulous finish; in the Berlin Museum, the " Dead Christ with two Angels "; in the Louvre, the two celebrated pictures of mythic allegory- " Parnassus " and " Minerva Triumphing over the Vices "; in the National Gallery, London, the " Agony in the Garden," the " Virgin and Child Enthroned, with the Baptist and the Magdalen," a late example; the monochrome of " Vestals," brought from Hamilton Palace; the " Triumph of Scipio " (or Phrygian Mother of the Gods received by the Roman Commonwealth), a tempera in chiaroscuro, painted only a few months before the master's death; in the Brera, Milan, the " Dead Christ, with the two Maries weeping," a remarkable tour de force in the way of foreshortening, which, though it has a stunted appearance, is in correct technical perspective as seen from all points of view.
3 in., communication between different countries of the Australian Commonwealth being thus carried on under the disadvantage of break of gauge.
Griffith Taylor, "The Control of Settlement by Humidity and Temperature (with Special Reference to Australia and the Empire): An Introduction to Comparative Climatology," Commonwealth Bur, of Met., Bull.
To the first tribunate of Saturninus is probably to be assigned his law on majestas, the exact provisions of which are unknown, but its object was probably to strengthen the power of the tribunes and the popular party; it dealt with the minuta majestas (diminished authority) of the Roman people, that is, with all acts tending to impair the integrity of the Commonwealth, being thus more comprehensive than the modern word " treason."
He was a member of all the bodies formed to promote the Federation of Australia as well as of the delegation which proceeded to London with the Australian Commonwealth bill in 1 9 oÃ‚° and, as Attorney-General, he was included in Sir Edmund Barton's first Federal " Cabinet of the Captains " (1901-3), succeeding him as Premier of Australia.
He was at last offered his discharge on giving a bond of £1000 to do nothing to the prejudice of the commonwealth.
of England, of the Civil War and of the Commonwealth; Notes and Queries, 8th series, vol.
An appreciation of the issues of the Reformation - or Protestant revolt, as it might be more exactly called - depends therefore upon an understanding of the development of the papal monarchy, the nature of its claims, the relations it established with the civil powers, the abuses which developed in it and the attempts to rectify them, the sources of friction between the Church and the government, and finally the process by which certain of the European states threw off their allegiance to the Christian commonwealth, of which they had so long formed a part.
by the commonwealth, 1898; also edited by Charles Deane, in Collections of the Massachusetts Historical Society, 1856, series 4, vol.
But the religion of the Old Testament did not become merely individualistic in becoming individual, and now the problem was to realize a new conception of the society of faith, the true Israel, the collective servant of Yahweh - in a word to form the idea of a spiritual commonwealth and to show how it was possible for faith to hold fast, in spite of all seeming contradiction, to the truth that Yahweh had chosen for himself a spiritual people, every member of which was in truth the object of His saving and unfailing love, and which should ultimately in very deed inherit that glory of which the carnal Israel was unworthy.
Meanwhile the printing of the greater work was proceeding, and finally it appeared about the middle of the same year, 1651, under the title of Leviathan, or the Matter, Form and Power of a Commonwealth, Ecclesiastical and Civil (E.W.
55Ã‚° S.) the ship reached Adelie Land, discovered by D'Urville in 1840, and effected a landing in Commonwealth Bay, the position of which was subsequently fixed by wireless time-signals as lat.
In 1295 Wigan returned two members to parliament and again in 1307; the right then remained in abeyance till 1547, but from that time till 1885, except during the Commonwealth, the borough returned two members, and since 1885 one member.
1Ã‚° On the 3rd of May, after considerable discussion, the Lords decided upon the sentence, which was," That he should undergo fine and ransom of £40,000; that he should be imprisoned in the Tower during the king's pleasure; that he should be for ever incapable of any office, place or employment in the state or commonwealth; that he should never sit in parliament, or come within the verge of the court.
The emperor Gallienus and his wife Salonina were also his enthusiastic admirers, and favoured his idea of founding a Platonic Commonwealth (Platonopolis) in Campania (cf.
But this state of affairs was too insecure even for these rovers, and they would speedily have succumbed had not a refuge been found for them by the fortunate conquest of Jamaica in 1655 by the navy of the English Commonwealth.
KANSAS (known as the " Sunflower State "), the central commonwealth of the United States of America, lying between 37Ã‚° and 40Ã‚° N.
The innumerable tracts and newsletters are a valuable source for the Civil Wars and Commonwealth period (see J.
By virtue of tolerance and understanding, the Empire has evolved into a Commonwealth of 36 Independent Nations spanning the five Continents.
Wales ' Commonwealth hopefuls impressed the gathered throng of spectators at the Norwich Union International this weekend.
We have unrivaled experience in teacher training - a Brunel founder college was the 1st teacher training school in the British Commonwealth.
Agency addresses are listed in the Commonwealth Universities Yearbook.
Mint Julep Cup with the Seal of Kentucky - This polished pewter ulep cup is adorned with the seal of the Commonwealth of Kentucky.
TCC has the second largest undergraduate student body in the Commonwealth of Virginia.
Blackstone is accredited by the Middle States Commission on Higher Education and the Distance Education and Training Council, and it is licensed by the State Board of Private Licensed Schools, Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Commonwealth Assisted Living communities provide personalized care plans for more than six hundred senior citizens throughout the state of Virginia.
With their corporate headquarters located in Charlottesville, Virginia, Commonwealth manages twelve assisted living communities in the state.
The company believes in keeping their assisted living facilities within the Commonwealth of Virginia, where each facility is less than a three hour drive from the corporate offices.
In addition, each of the Commonwealth facilities has on-site management and a team of professionals providing residents with comfortable quality housing, personal care and needed services.
Many of the Commonwealth communities include specialized Memory Care Programs for residents who suffer from Alzheimer's disease or other forms of dementia.
Currently, eight of the Commonwealth communities provide Memory Care Programs; plans exist to implement the program into more of the facilities in the near future.
The website of Commonwealth Assisted Living features several video tours of many of the communities.
Commonwealth also provides home care services for senior citizens who prefer to remain in their homes rather than move into an assisted living community or other type of care facility.
The Commonwealth at-home care service provides assisted living services on an hourly basis.
The assisted living communities of the Commonwealth organization provide a full scope of services to senior citizens within its area of service.
Boston University School of Education. 605 Commonwealth Ave., Room 356 Boston, MA 02215. (617) 353-3262.
It is officially known as the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, one of only four states with that designation.
Originally a British site, the Canadian commonwealth is represented with its own site, which shows many singles from coast to coast.
The word usage examples above have been gathered from various sources to reflect current and historial usage. They do not represent the opinions of YourDictionary.com.