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commonly

commonly

commonly Sentence Examples

  • He commonly went off in a rain.

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  • "Chopsticks" are commonly made of wood, bone or ivory, somewhat longer and slightly thinner than a lead-pencil.

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  • During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.

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  • This is the most commonly used form.

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  • Society is commonly too cheap.

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  • The material was sand of every degree of fineness and of various rich colors, commonly mixed with a little clay.

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  • Ali, the capitan pasha, was commander-in-chief, and he had with him Chulouk Bey of Alexandria, commonly called Scirocco, and Uluch Ali, dey of Algiers.

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  • It is, however, more commonly and familiarly called " the wire " or " the line."

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  • What is most commonly recognized in Colombia as guaco, or Vejuco del guaco, would appear to be Mikania Guaco (Humboldt and Bonpland, Pl.

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  • I can't understand why he wants to go to the war, replied Pierre, addressing the princess with none of the embarrassment so commonly shown by young men in their intercourse with young women.

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  • The joint most commonly used for hot-water pipes is termed the " rust " joint, which is cheap to make, but unfortunately is inefficient.

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  • There is commonly sufficient space about us.

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  • Commonly men will only be brave as their fathers were brave, or timid.

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  • in width, commonly styled "rinks" - a word which also designates each set of players - and these are numbered in sequence on a plate fixed in the bank at each end opposite the centre of the space.

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  • The apparatus for generating the electric action at one end is commonly called the transmitting apparatus or instrument, or the sending apparatus or instrument, or sometimes simply the transmitter or sender.

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  • in width, commonly styled "rinks" - a word which also designates each set of players - and these are numbered in sequence on a plate fixed in the bank at each end opposite the centre of the space.

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  • The one is commonly transitory, a sound, a tongue, a dialect merely, almost brutish, and we learn it unconsciously, like the brutes, of our mothers.

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  • It is commonly said that this is the difference between the affections and the intellect.

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  • The opening of large tracts by the ice-cutters commonly causes a pond to break up earlier; for the water, agitated by the wind, even in cold weather, wears away the surrounding ice.

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  • The slight reproach to which the virtue of patriotism is commonly liable, the noble are most likely to incur.

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  • Electric power generated by steam is now commonly used in Buenos Aires and other large cities for driving light machinery.

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  • CUSH, the eldest son of Ham, in the Bible, from whom seems to have been derived the name of the "Land of Cush," commonly rendered "Ethiopia" by the Septuagint and by the Vulgate.

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  • It is commonly supposed that, because nearly the whole country is ruled by Rajputs, therefore the population consists mainly of Rajput tribes; but these are merely the dominant race, and the territory is called Rajputana because it is politically possessed by Rajputs.

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  • In history he is commonly called Cyrus the Great.

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  • He adds that they were commonly carpeted and lined within with well-wrought embroidered mats, and were furnished with various utensils.

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  • However much we may admire the orator's occasional bursts of eloquence, the noblest written words are commonly as far behind or above the fleeting spoken language as the firmament with its stars is behind the clouds.

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  • As the conversation began to assume a loftier and grander tone, we gradually shoved our chairs farther apart till they touched the wall in opposite corners, and then commonly there was not room enough.

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  • A very few, as heroes, patriots, martyrs, reformers in the great sense, and men, serve the state with their consciences also, and so necessarily resist it for the most part; and they are commonly treated as enemies by it.

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  • Iridosmine occurs commonly with gold or tin in alluvial drifts.

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  • While the use of the bow and arrow does not seem to have occurred to them, the spear and axe are in general use, commonly made of hard-wood; the hatchets of stone, and the javelins pointed' with stone or bone.

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  • The highest form of the doctrine is scientific materialism, by which term is meant the doctrine so commonly adopted by the physicist, zoologist and biologist.

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  • The two methods most commonly employed are the differential and bridge methods.

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  • To obviate the inconvenience of placing the telephone to the mouth and the ear alternately, two telephones were commonly used at each end, joined either parallel to each other or in series.

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  • As subscribers' lines are invariably short, the smallest gauge of wire possessing the mechanical strength necessary to withstand the stresses to which it may be subjected can be employed, and bronze wire weighing 40 lb per mile is commonly used.

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  • Proceeding thence southwards, we find in succession the Monte Vettore (8128 ft.), the Pizzo di Sevo (7945 ft.), and the two great mountain masses of the Monte Corno, commonly called the Gran Sasso d'Italia, the most lofty of all the Apennines, attaining to a height of 9560 ft., and the Monte della Maiella, its highest summit measuring 9170 ft.

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  • Of these the most remarkable is the group between the valleys of the Serchio and the Magra, commonly known as the mountains of Carrara, from the celebrated marble quarries in the vicinity of that city.

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  • B.) S, ifOMAS Osborne, 1st Duke Of (1631-1712), Inglis Statesman, commonly known also by his earlier title of Earl Of Danby, son of Sir Edward Osborne, Bart., of Kiveton, Yorkshire, was born in 1631.

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  • It is not without reason, therefore, that those two schools, the older and the younger, are commonly called the Black (krishna) and the White (sukla) Yajus respectively.

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  • (" the natural and moral proofs of a future life commonly insisted upon "); last sentence of part i., Conclusion (" the proper proofs of [natural] religion from our moral nature," &c.); part ii.

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  • 29); secondly, organs commonly termed otocysts, on account of their resemblance to the audi tory vesicles of higher After 0.

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  • - This method of budding is commonly described as budding from a single body-layer, instead of from both layers.

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  • Of doubtful position, but commonly referred to the Trachylinae, are the two genera of fresh-water medusae, Limnocodium and Limnocnida.

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  • Physalia, known commonly as the Portuguese man-of-war, is remarkable for its great size, its brilliant colours, and its terrible stinging powers.

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  • Antoninus Pius died in 161, having recommended as his successor Aurelius, then forty years of age, without mentioning Commodus, his other adopted son, commonly called Lucius Verus.

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  • Dana, and now commonly used in scientific writings as a specific term for the real Prussian amber.

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  • The curious signs on the coloured carboys in chemists' windows, which were commonly to be seen until the middle of the 19th century, were signs used by the alchemists to indicate various chemical substances.

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  • The cells Cell and are commonly joined end to end in simple or branched Tissue filaments.

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  • The cells of the axis are commonly stouter and have much less chlorophyll than those of the appendages (Draparnaldia).

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  • The whole of the cortex, stereom and parenchyma alike, is commonly living, and its cells often contain starch.

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  • The end wall is usually very thin, and the protoplasm on artificial contraction commonly sticks to it just as in a sieve-tube, though no perforation of the wall has been found.

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  • In the more highly developed series, the mosses, this last division of labor takes the form of the differentiation of special assimilative organs, the leaves, commonly with a midrib containing elongated cells for the ready removal of the products of assimilation; and in the typical forms with a localized absorptive region, a well-developed hydrom in the axis of the plant, as well as similar hydrom strands in the leaf-midribs, are constantly met with.

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  • When there is a single protoxylem strand in the centre of the stele, or when, as is more commonly the case, there are several protoxylem strands situated at the internal limit of the xylem,, the centre of the stem being occupied by parenchyma, the stele is endarch.

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  • In some cases the heart-wood, instead of becoming specially hard, remains soft and easily rots, so that the trunk of the tree frequently becomes hollow, as is commonly the case in the willow.

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  • Such a source is commonly met with among the Fungi, the insectivorous plants, and such of the higher plants as have a saprophytic habit.

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  • White or grey spots may be due to Peronospora, Erysiphe, Cystopus, Entyloma and other Fungi, the mycelium of which will be detected in the discoloured area; or they may be scale insects, or the results of punctures by Red-spider, &c. Yellow spots, and especially bright orange spots, commonly indicate Rust Fungi or other Uredineae; but Phyllosticta, Exoascus, Clasterosporium, Synchytrium, &c., also induce similar symptoms. Certain Aphides, Red-spider, Phylloxera and other insects also betray their presence by such spots.

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  • It is sometimes differentiated into a clearer outer layer, of hyaloplasm, commonly called the ectoplasm, and an inner granular endoplasm.

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  • This is commonly called the spirem-figure.

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  • In South America strictly defined boundaries are still the exception, and the claims of neighbouring nations have very frequently given rise to war, though now more commonly to arbitration.'

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  • Wakefield was a man of large views and lofty aims, and in private life displayed the warmth of heart which commonly accompanies these qualities.

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  • Birds being of all animals most particularly adapted for extended and rapid locomotion, it became necessary for him to eliminate from his consideration those groups, be they small or large, which are of more or less universal occurrence, and to ground his results on what was at that time commonly known as the order Insessores or Passeres, comprehending the orders now differentiated as Passeriformes, Coraciiformes and Cuculiformes, in other words the mass of arboreal birds.

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  • There are a raven (Corvus), a coot (Fulica), the well-known Sandwich island goose (Bernicla sandvicensis), now very commonly domesticated in Europe; and some flycatchers and thrushlike birds.

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  • The Acephala, or Lamellibranchiata, are commonly known as bivalve shell-fish.

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  • The story of the youth of Moses is, as is commonly the case with great heroes, of secondary origin; moreover, the circumstances of his birth as related in Exod.

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  • ' Abul Hassan Ali, al Reza, commonly known as Imam Reza, the eighth imam of the Shiites, a son of Musa al Kazim, the seventh imam, was the leader from whom the party of the Alids (Shiites) had such hopes under the caliphate of Mamun.

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  • They were sold in 1628 along with the bulk of the Mantuan art treasures, and were not, as is commonly said, plundered in the sack of Mantua in 1630.

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  • The capital of the state is Recife, commonly known among foreigners as Pernambuco.

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  • The term Midrash, however, more commonly implies agada, i.e.

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  • 4, &c.) and the anonymous blessings commonly called Shemoneh 'Esreh (the Eighteen), together with certain Psalms. (Readings from the Law and the Prophets [Haphtarah] also formed part of the service.) To this framework were fitted, from time to time, various prayers, and, for festivals especially, numerous hymns.

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  • But they attest their tribal relations by their appellations, which are commonly drawn from the name of the tribe and not of the town itself.

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  • There may or there may not be a power vested somewhere of conferring nobility; but it is essential to the true idea of nobility that, when once acquired, it shall go on for ever to all the descendants - or, more commonly, only to all the descendants in the male line - of the person first ennobled or first recorded as noble.

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  • At Rome down to the last it made a difference whether the candidate for office was patrician or plebeian, though the difference was in later times commonly to the advantage of the plebeian.

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  • It was, as might be looked for, commonly filled by members of distinguished families, descendants of ancient magistrates, who were already beginning to be looked on as noble.

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  • That in the better times of the aristocracy nobility was not uncommonly granted to worthy persons, that in its worse times it was more commonly sold to unworthy persons, was the affair of the aristocratic body itself.

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  • The noble of the large country, on the other hand, the rural noble, as he commonly will be, is a member of an order, but he is hardly a member of a corporation; he is isolated; he acts apart from the rest of the body and wins powers for himself apart from the rest of the body.

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  • And this nobility by personal service seems commonly to have supplanted an older nobility, in early the origirrof which was, in some cases at least, strictly immemorial.

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  • The eorl of the old system would doubtless commonly become a thegn under the new, as the Roman patrician took his place in the new nobilitas; but others could take their place there also.

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  • And, as modern changes have commonly attacked the power both of kings and of nobles, the common notion has come that kingship and nobility have some necessary connexion.

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  • The last name is commonly written Boethius, from the idea that it is connected with the Greek (30rtOos; but the best manuscripts agree in reading Boetius.

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  • Several species of Dermestidae are commonly found in houses, feeding on cheeses, dried meat, skins and other such substances.

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  • It also, though much less commonly, resorts 1 The name seems to appear first in F.

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  • The animal commonly met with is small and possessed of very little strength; the best are those of Poland, the W.

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  • Nestor, an old monkish chronicler Origin of Kiev, relates that in the middle of the 9th century of the the Slav and Finnish tribes inhabiting the forest region around Lake Ilmen, between Lake Ladoga and the upper waters of the Dnieper, paid tribute to military adventurers from the land of Ras, which is commonly supposed to have been a part of Sweden.

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  • The term by which this subjection is commonly designated, the Mongol or Tatar yoke, suggests ideas of terrible oppression, Character but in reality these barbarous invaders from the Far of Tatar East were not such cruel, oppressive taskmasters as rule.

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  • Even when the visit to the Horde did not end so tragically, it involved a great deal of anxiety and expense, for the Mongol dignitaries had to be conciliated very liberally, and it was commonly believed that the judges were more influenced by the amount of the bribes than by the force of the arguments.

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  • The complete suppression of these small moribund states and the creation of the autocratic tsardom of Muscovy were the work of Ivan III., surnamed the Great, his son Basil and his grandson Ivan IV., commonly known as Ivan the Terrible, whose united reigns cover a period of 122 years (1462-1584).

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  • Thus began a period of Russian history commonly called " the Troublous Times, " which lasted until 1613.

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  • Consolidation and leasing were commonly permitted in the case of continuous lines, but were regularly prohibited in the case of parallel and competing lines.

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  • In the earlier years of American railway building, each project was commonly the subject of a special law; then special laws were in turn succeeded by general railway laws in the several states, and these in turn have come to be succeeded in most parts of the country by jurisdiction vested in the' state railway commission.

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  • The subsequent development of rack railways is especially associated with a Swiss engineer, Nicholas Riggenbach, and his pupil Roman Abt, and the forms of rack introduced by them are those most commonly used.

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  • The ballast consists of such materials as broken stone, furnace slag, gravel, cinders or earth, the lower layers commonly consisting of coarser materials than the top ones, and its purpose is to provide a firm, well-drained foundation in which the sleepers or crossties may be embedded and held in place, and by which the weight of the track and the trains may be distributed over the road-bed.

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  • which less commonly is also heaped up over them, especially at the projecting ends.

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  • In other countries they are generally lower; in the United States they are commonly level with, or only a few inches higher than, the top of the rails.

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  • The higher floors commonly form warehouses where traders may store goods which have arrived or are awaiting despatch.

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  • The unit of power commonly used by engineers is the horse-power, and this unit corresponds to a rate of working of 550 foot-lb of work per second.

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  • American cars, on the other hand, have long bodies mounted on two swivelling bogie-trucks of four wheels each, and are commonly constructed of steel.

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  • Another form of coupler, which used to be universal in the United States, though it has now been almost entirely superseded by the automatic coupler, was the " link and pin," which differed fundamentally from the couplers commonly used in Europe, in the fact that it was a buffer as well as a coupler, no :side buffers being fitted.

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  • FRANCISCO DE XAVIER (1506-1552), Jesuit missionary and saint, commonly known in English as St Francis Xavier and also called the "Apostle of the Indies."

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  • Precipitation is largely confined to local showers, often of such violence as to warrant the name "cloud bursts," commonly applied to the heavy down-pours of this desert region.

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  • sacrificium; sacer, holy, and facere, to make), the ritual destruction of an object, or, more commonly, the slaughter of a victim by effusion of blood, suffocation, fire or other means.

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  • The victim was the animal of a hostile totem-kin or an animal commonly offered to the god.

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  • As is well known, great efforts were made by King Edgar to reduce the number of wolves in the country, but, notwithstanding the annual tribute of 300 skins paid to him during several years by the king of Wales, he was not altogether so successful as has been commonly imagined.

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  • The snake, however, to which the word "asp" has been most commonly applied is undoubtedly the haje of Egypt, the spy-slange or spitting snake of the Boers (Naja haje), one of the very poisonous Elarinae, from 3 to 4 ft.

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  • The modern city consists of the nei ch' eng, or inner city, commonly known to foreigners as the "Tatar city," and the wai ch' eng, or outer city, known in the same way as the "Chinese city."

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  • The marriage was commonly antedated to the 14th of November 1532.

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  • The style is commonly called Byzantine; but some of the most striking features of the churches of Ravenna - the colonnades, the mosaics, perhaps the cupolas - are not so much Byzantine as representative of early Christian art generally.

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  • - In the IVth Dynasty there might be four of the latter: (1) identifying him with the royal god Horus; the name is commonly written in a frame Ijllll representing the façade of a building, perhaps a palace or tomb, on which the falcon stands.

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  • This has commonly been taken as Denmark, but more probably it was the French or Italian Marches.

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  • Let us assume, as is commonly the case, that the intrinsic energy of the initial system is greater than that of the final system.

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  • Ostwald has proposed a modification of Berthelot's method which has many advantages, and is now commonly in use.

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  • - What is commonly understood by thermochemistry is based entirely on the first law of thermodynamics, but of recent years great progress has been made in the study of chemical equilibrium by the application of the second law.

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  • It is now that we find the restless IIabiru, a name which is commonly identified with that of the " Hebrews " (` ibrim).

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  • The wisdom of Jesus ben Sira (Sirach) is contained in the book commonly called Ecclesiasticus.

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  • In medieval ecclesiastical usage the term might be applied to almost any person having ecclesiastical authority; it was very commonly given to the more dignified clergy of a cathedral church, but often also to ordinary priests charged with the cure of souls and, in the early days of monasticism, to monastic superiors, even to superiors of convents of women.

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  • The ancient liturgy used by the Christians of Toledo is commonly known as Mozarabic.

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  • It is clear that the rulers, as so P p commonly in ancient states, fulfilled priestly as well as royal functions.

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  • The rains are quickly absorbed by the light porous soil and leave only temporary effects on the surface, where arboreal growth is stunted and grasses are commonly thin and harsh.

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  • Thus " the son of the king " is more commonly expressed by b`ra dh`malka or b`reh d`malka than by bar mailed, whereas the latter type would alone be permissible in Hebrew.

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  • ad episc.) is the Jewish miznephet, and the well-known miniature of Gregory the Great (not St Dunstan, as commonly assumed) wearing a mitre (Cotton MSS.

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  • In place of the six stamens we commonly find but one (two in Cypripedium), and that one is raised together with the stigmatic surfaces on an elongation of the floral axis known as the "column."

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  • The remaining parts of the perianth are very much smaller, and commonly are so arranged as to form a hood overarching the "column."

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  • Here the Tibetan mountains unite with the line of elevation which stretches across the continent from the Pacific, and which separates Siberia from the region commonly spoken of under the name of central Asia.

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  • The mountain-sides are commonly clothed with pine forests, and the plains with grasses or shrubs.

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  • The cyclones of the Bay of Bengal appear to originate over the Andaman and Nicobar islands, and are commonly propagated in a north-westward direction, striking the east coast of the Indian peninsula at various points, and then often advancing with an easterly tendency over the land, and passing with extreme violence across the delta of the Ganges.

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  • is commonly registered, with intermediate quantities at intervening localities.

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  • The area between the southern border of Siberia and the margin of the temperate alpine zone of the Himalaya and north China, comprising what are commonly called central Asia, Turkestan, Mongolia and western Manchuria, is an almost rainless region, having winters of extreme severity and summers of intense heat.

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  • The other cereals may be seen occasionally, where artificial irrigation is practised, in all stages of progress at all seasons of the year, though the operations of agriculture are, as a general rule, limited to the rainy months, when alone is the requisite supply of water commonly forthcoming.

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  • The aspect of the vegetation is very peculiar, and is commonly determined by the predominance of some four or five species, the rest being either local or sparingly scattered over the area.

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  • A hybrid between the yak and Indian cattle, called zo, is commonly reared in Tibet and the Himalaya.

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  • The subsequent history of China is mainly a record of struggles with various tribes, commonly, but not very correctly, called Tatars.

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  • There is no reason why their descendants should not be found to-day in various tribes, but the physical type commonly called Jewish is characteristic not so much of Israel as of western Asia generally.

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  • The name of Bloomsbury is commonly derived from William Blemund, a lord of the manor in the 15th century.

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  • They are disposed in two groups on either side, corresponding in the Polychaeta to the parapodia; the two bundles are commonly reduced among the earthworms to two pairs of setae or even to a single seta.

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  • D, Optical section of a branch of organs are present to the number of a single pair per somite, and are commonly present in the majority of the segments of the body, failing often among the Oligochaeta in a varying number of the anterior segments.

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  • These sacs contain the developing sperm cells or eggs, and are with very few exceptions universal in the group. The testes are more commonly thus involved than are the ovaries.

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  • Clitellum commonly extensive and more posterior in position than in other groups.

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  • There are no setae and apparently only two pairs of nephridia, of which the anterior pair open commonly by a common pore on the third segment after the head, whose segments have not been accurately enumerated.

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  • Yet it may be asserted that until the more durable and more reputable connexion with Mme de Nehra these love episodes were the most disgraceful blemishes in a life otherwise of a far higher moral character than has been commonly supposed.

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  • (From this practice the sect received the less commonly used nickname "Dompelaers," meaning "tumblers.") They accept implicitly and literally the New Testament as the infallible guide in spiritual matters, holding it to be the inspired word of God, revealed through Jesus Christ and, by inspiration, through the Apostles.

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  • (2) Son of Archidamus II., Eurypontid, commonly called Agis I.

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  • (4) Son of Eudamidas II., of the Eurypontid family, commonly called Agis III.

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  • His palaces outshone those of his king, and few monarchs could afford such a display of plate as commonly graced the cardinal's table.

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  • The other work of Jordanes commonly called De rebus Geticis or Getica, was styled by himself De origine actibusque 1 The evidence of MSS.

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  • What is called Atholl brose is a compound, in equal parts, of whisky and honey (or oatmeal), which was first commonly used in the district for hoarseness and sore throat.

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  • The mode most commonly adopted of training wall pear-trees is the horizontal.

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  • Proserpine herself was commonly known as the daughter (Core), sometimes as the first-born.

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  • 1523), commonly ascribed to Sir Anthony Fitzherbert, a judge of the Common Pleas in the reign of Henry VIII., but more probably written by his elder brother John.

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  • Of wheel-ploughs he observes, that " they be good on even grounde that lyeth lyghte "; and on such lands they are still most commonly employed.

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  • The corn was commonly housed; but if there be a want of room, he advises that the ricks be built on a scaffold and not upon the ground.

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  • As the distance between his rows appeared much greater than was necessary for the range of the roots of the plants, he begins by showing that these roots extend much farther than is commonly believed, and then proceeds to inquire into the nature of their food.

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  • Other essential conditions of success will commonly include the liberal application of potash and phosphatic manures, and sometimes chalking or liming for the leguminous crop. As to how long the leguminous crop should occupy the land, the extent to which it should be consumed on the land, or the manure from its consumption be returned, and under what conditions the whole or part of it should be ploughed in - these are points which must be decided as they arise in practice.

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  • ELIZABETH [Elisabeth Philippine Marie Helene of] (1764-1794), commonly called Madame Elizabeth, daughter of Louis the Dauphin and Marie Josephine of Saxony, and sister of Louis XVI., was born at Versailles on the 3rd of May 1764.

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  • His main reading was still history, but he went through all the Latin and Greek authors commonly read in the schools and universities, besides several that are not commonly read by undergraduates.

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  • From an equally loose application of the word "fir" by our older herbalists, it is difficult to decide upon the date of introduction of this tree into Britain; but it was commonly planted for ornamental purposes in the beginning of the 17th century.

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  • It is most commonly found in sessile FIG.

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  • There alone we have proof that the art of writing was commonly practised, and there tribute-tallies suggest an imperial organization; there the arts of painting and sculpture in stone were most highly developed; there the royal residences, which had never been violently destroyed, though remodelled, continued unfortified; whereas on the Greek mainland they required strong protective works.

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  • In the highest hell rules alone the grisly king Sh'dum, "the warrior"; in the storey immediately beneath is Giv, "the great"; and in the lowest is Krun or Karkum, the oldest and most powerful of all, commonly called "the great mountain of flesh" (Third rabba d'besra), but also "the first-born of darkness."

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  • RICHARD AUNGERVYLE (1287-1345), commonly known as Richard De Bury, English bibliophile, writer and bishop, was born near Bury St Edmunds, Suffolk, on the 24th of January 1287.

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  • Accessory glands are commonly present in connexion both with the male and the female reproductive organs.

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  • over his son was, indeed, far greater than is commonly supposed, and it accounts for much in Charles XII.'s character which is otherwise inexplicable, for instance his precocious reserve and taciturnity, his dislike of everything French, and his inordinate contempt for purely diplomatic methods.

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  • In it were depicted with a marvellous fidelity, and thorough appreciation of form and colouring (despite a certain conventional 1 Ornithologia, from the Greek opvia-, crude form of dpvcs, a bird, and -aoyia, allied to X6yos, commonly Englished a discourse.

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  • Still it seems advisable to furnish some connected account of the progress made in the ornithological knowledge of the British Islands and those parts of the European continent which lie nearest to them or are most commonly sought by travellers, the Dominion of Canada and the United States of America, South Africa, India, together with Australia and New Zealand.

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  • His colleague, Vieillot, brought out in 1805 a Histoire naturelle des plus beaux chanteurs de la Zone Torride with figures by Langlois of tropical finches, grosbeaks, buntings and other hard-billed birds; and in 1807 two volumes of a Histoire' naturelle des oiseaux de l'Amenique septentrionale, without, however, paying much attention to the limits commonly assigned by geographers to' that part of the world.

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  • The letterpress is commonly limited to technical details, and is not always accurate; but it is of its kind useful, for in general knowledge of the outside of birds Temminck probably surpassed any of his contemporaries.

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  • In 1845 Reichenbach commenced with his Praktische Naturgeschichte der Vogel the extraordinary series of illustrated publications which, under titles far too numerous here to repeat, ended in or about 1855, and are commonly known collectively as his Vollsteindigste Naturgeschichte der Vogel.

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  • The mischief caused by this theory of a Quinary System was very great, but was chiefly confined to Britain, for (as has been will be necessary to limit this survey, as before indicated, to those countries alone which form the homes of English people, or are commonly visited by them in ordinary travel.

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  • As regards the ducks, L'Herminier agreed with Cuvier that there are commonly only two centres of ossification - the side-pieces of the middle series; but as these grow to meet one another a distinct median " noyau," also of the same series, sometimes appears, which soon forms a connexion with each of them.

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  • Nitzsch had of course exhausted all the forms of birds commonly to be obtained, and specimens of the less common forms were too valuable from the curator's or collector's point of view to be subjected to a treatment that might end in their destruction.

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  • A large proportion of the fossil remains, the determination and description of which was his object, were what are very commonly called the " long bones," that is to say, those of the limbs.

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  • Another way in which a demon is held to cause disease is by introducing itself into the patient's body and sucking his blood; the Malays believe that a woman who dies in childbirth becomes a langsuir and sucks the blood of children; victims of the lycanthrope are sometimes said to be done to death in the same way; and it is commonly believed in Africa that the wizard has the power of killing people in this way, probably with the aid of a familiar.

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  • The familiar, who is sometimes replaced by the devil, commonly figured in witchcraft trials; and a statute of James I.

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  • Quite commonly the burrow has a second passage running obliquely upwards from the main passage to the surface of the soil, and this subsidiary track may itself be shut off from the main branch by an inner door, so that when an enemy has forced an entrance through the main door, the spider retreats behind the second, leaving the intruder to explore the seemingly empty burrow.

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  • The first act of the female after oviposition is to wrap her eggs in a casing of silk commonly called the cocoon.

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  • The historical interest of the place centres in its proximity to the castle of Dinefawr, now commonly called Dynevor, which was originally erected by Rhodri Mawr or his son Cadell about the year 876 on the steep wooded slopes overhanging the Towy.

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  • It has been commonly thought that the production of cotton in the south is limited by the amount that can be picked, but this limit is evidently very remote.

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  • They bore holes and penetrate into flower-buds and young bolls, causing them to drop. Fortunately the " worms " prefer maize to cotton, and the inter-planting at proper times of maize, to be cut down and destroyed when well infested, is a method commonly employed to keep down this pest.

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  • Certainly it is due to this very much more than we commonly think, and the more it is due to this the more do moral therapeutics rise in possibility and importance " (Literature and Dogma, pp. 143-144).

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  • The drilling of a well is commonly carried out under contract, the producer erecting the derrick and providing the engine and boiler while the drilling contractor finds the tools, and is Drill ing the responsible for accidents or failure to complete the well.

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  • The means of transporting petroleum in bulk commonly used at the present day is the pipe-line system, the history of which dates from 1860.

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  • In life they are commonly rhythmically opened and shut by a wavy movement.

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  • All those who in the middle ages denied the substantial presence of the body and blood of Christ in the eucharist were commonly designated Berengarians.

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  • It is commonly said to take its origin in some small lakes a little south of the summit plateau of the Mont Genevre Pass.

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  • One of these is the position of the line MN through the sun at F in which the plane of the orbit cuts some fundamental plane of reference, commonly the ecliptic. This is called the line of nodes, and its position is specified by the angle which it makes with some fixed line FX in the fundamental plane.

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  • Hence the number of independent elements assigned to a planet or other body moving around the sun is commonly six.

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  • THOMAS BECKET (c. 1118-1170), by his contemporaries more commonly called Thomas of London, English chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury under Henry II., was born about the year 1118 in London.

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  • The Agora was commonly described as the " Ceramicus," and Pausanias gives it this name; of the numerous buildings which he saw here scarcely a trace remains; their position, for the most part, is largely conjectural, and the exact boundaries of the Agora itself are uncertain.

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  • The combination, as it is ordinarily termed, of chlorine with hydrogen, and the displacement of iodine in potassium iodide by the action of chlorine, may be cited as examples; if these reactions are represented, as such reactions very commonly are, by equations which merely express the relative weights of the bodies which enter into reaction, and of the products, thus Cl = HC1 Hydrogen.

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  • The fact that this theme is commonly called the " Ring-motif " is a glaring instance of what Wagner has had to endure from his friends.

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  • Her son, Mahommed, commonly called Baha-uddin Walad, was famous for his learning and piety, but being afraid of the sultan's jealousy, he emigrated to Asia Minor in 1212.

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  • Finally, Baha-uddin was invited to Iconium by `Ala-uddin Kaikubad (1219-1236), the sultan of Asia Minor, or, as it is commonly called in the East, Ram - whence Jalaluddin's surname (takhallus) Rumi.

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  • Most commonly Ariadne is represented asleep on the shore at Naxos, while Dionysus, attended by satyrs and bacchanals, gazes admiringly upon her; sometimes they are seated side by side under a spreading vine.

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  • It is noteworthy that while modern books commonly speak of the surnames as assumed, the explanations given by our ancient authorities almost invariably suppose them to be given as marks of homage or gratitude (English Historical Review, xvi.

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  • Far superior are those scenographic representations which enable a person consulting the map to identify prominent landmarks, such as the Pic du Midi, which rises like a pillar to the south of Pau, but is not readily discovered upon an ordinary map. This advantage is still fully recognized, for such views of distant hills are still commonly given on the margin of marine charts for the assistance of navigators; military surveyors are encouraged to introduce sketehes of prominent landmarks upon their reconnaissance plans, and the general public is enabled to consult " Picturesque Relief Maps " - such as F.

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  • In this sense the name is most commonly associated with the familiar phrase "as proud as Lucifer."

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  • Bee - farming is commonly prosecuted.

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  • SOCIETY OF FRIENDS, the name adopted by a body of Christians, who, in law and general usage, are commonly called Quakers.

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  • The greater part of the country is covered either with tall coarse grasses (these open plains being called ban), or more commonly with thick thorn-bush or jungle, among which rise occasional isolated trees.

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  • It is in the communities in which the military order obtained an ascendancy over the sacerdotal, and which were directly organized for war, that slavery (as the word is commonly understood) had its natural and appropriate place.

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  • There were also public slaves; of these some belonged to temples, to which they were presented as offerings, amongst them being the courtesans who acted as hieroduli at Corinth and at Eryx in Sicily; others were appropriated to the service of the magistrates or to public works; there were at Athens 1200 Scythian archers for the police of the city; slaves served, too, in the fleets, and were employed in the armies, - commonly as workmen, and exceptionally as soldiers.

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  • Those employed in workshops, whose overseers were themselves most commonly of servile status, had probably a harder lot than domestics; and the agricultural labourers were not unfrequently chained, and treated much in the same way as beasts of burden.

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  • Actors, comic and tragic, pantomimi, and the performers of the circus were commonly slaves, as were also the gladiators.

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  • The lighter punish ments inflicted by masters were commonly personal chastisement or banishment from the town house to rural labour; the severer were employment in the mill (pistrinum) or relegation to the mines or quarries.

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  • Probably it is a mere survival of a title commonly given to priests in his day.

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  • On the chronology and genuineness of the works commonly ascribed to Bede, see Plummer's ed., i., cxlv-clix.

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  • The tough but flexible coarse grey paper (German Fliesspapier), upon which on the Continent specimens are commonly fixed by gummed strips of the same, is less hygroscopic than ordinary cartridge paper, but has the disadvantage of affording harbourage in the inequalities of its surface to a minute insect, Atropos pulsatoria, which commits great havoc in damp specimens, and which, even if noticed, cannot be dislodged without difficulty.

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  • The graves, or loculi, as they are commonly designated, were, in the Christian cemeteries, with only a few exceptions (Padre Marchi produces some from the cemetery of St Ciriaca, Monium.

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  • The igneous formation of which the greater part of the Roman Campagna is, in its superior portion, composed, contains three strata known under the common name of tufa, - the " stony," " granular," and " sandy " tufa, - the last being commonly known as pozzolana.

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  • The person of Christ appeared but rarely, and then commonly simply as the chief personage in an historical picture.

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  • The construction of the tombs commonly keeps up the same analogy between the cities of the living and those of the dead.

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  • The cathedral of St Peter, commonly known as the minster, has no superior in general dignity of form among English cathedrals.

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  • Crown of the last lower molar commonly bilobed.

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  • meerschwein, although the word is commonly used by sailors to designate all the smaller cetaceans, especially those numerous species which naturalists call "dolphins," it is properly restricted to the common porpoise of the British' seas (Phocaena communis, or P. phocaena).

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  • The bridle road up the mountain leaves Glen Nevis at Achintee; it has a gradient nowhere exceeding 1 in 5, and the ascent is commonly effected in two to three hours.

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  • Sodium nitrite, the most commonly used salt of the acid, is generally obtained by heating the nitrate with metallic lead; by heating sodium nitrate with sulphur and sodium hydroxide, the product then being fractionally crystallized;(Read, Holliday & Sons): 3NaNO 3 +S+2NaOH = Na2S04+3NaN02+H20; by oxidizing atmospheric nitrogen in an electric arc, keeping the gases above 300° C., until absorption in alkaline hydroxide solution is effected (German Pat.

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  • They vary in texture from a fine-grained compact oolite to a coarse-grained rock composed of angular or rounded fragments, and they commonly exhibit strongly marked false bedding.

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  • It is commonly stated that in 1629 the British formed a settlement in New Providence, which they held till 1641, when the Spaniards expelled them.

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  • Poultry, bees and silkworms are commonly kept.

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  • Public instruction is much more widely diffused throughout the empire than is commonly supposed.

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  • The crook is usually richly ornamented, and is divided from the shaft by a boss; the shaft is commonly separated into sections by rings, so that it can be taken to pieces.

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  • Burckhardt, he was sent at Salt's charges to Thebes, whence he removed with great skill the colossal bust of Rameses II., commonly called Young Memnon, which he shipped for England, where it is in the British Museum.

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  • The principal feature is the suppression of the direct channel of the sap, and the substitution of four, or more commonly two, mother branches, so laid to the wall that the central angle contains about 90°.

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  • In the forcing of peaches fire heat is commonly applied about December or January; but it may, where there is a demand, begin a month sooner.

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  • by South and North Dakota - the Red River (commonly called the Red River of the North) separating it from the latter state - on the N.

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  • A strange barbaric chant commonly known as the Lorica or Hymn of St Patrick is preserved in the Liber hymnorum.

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  • Among later lives we may mention the hymn Genair Patraicc, commonly attributed to Fiacc, which is considered by the latest editors to have been originally composed about Boo.

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  • On the other hand, it is commonly thought that the single potentialdifferences at the surface of metals and electrolytes have been determined by methods based on the use of the capillary electrometer and on others depending on what is called a dropping electrode, that is, mercury dropping rapidly into an electrolyte and forming a cell with the mercury at rest in the bottom of the vessel.

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  • - The liturgical vestments of the Catholic Church, East and West, are not, as was at one time commonly supposed, borrowed from the sacerdotal ornaments of the Jewish ritual, although the obvious analogies of this ritual doubtless to a certain extent determined their sacral character; they were developed independently out of the various articles of everyday dress worn by citizens of the Graeco-Roman world under the Empire.

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  • It has been commonly assumed, and the assumption has been translated into practice, that the rubrics of 1549 prescribed the use of all the old "mass vestments."

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  • A more intimate acquaintance with the language commonly used by many of the more extreme "Ritualists" would have shown him that there has been, and is, no lack of such intention.

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  • It lives entirely away from houses, commonly taking up its abode in wheat or hay fields, where it builds a round grass nest about the size of a cricket-ball, in which it brings up its young.

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  • TRINOVANTES (commonly Trinobantes), a powerful British tribe about 50 B.C.-A.D.

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  • " Rambong " or Assam rubber is the produce of Ficus elastica, commonly known as the indiarubber tree and cultivated in Europe as an ornamental plant.

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  • The word is commonly used in the Alexandrian Greek translation of the Old Testament (Septuagint) for the Hebrew word (ger) which is derived from a root (gur) denoting to sojourn.

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  • It is, however, commonly employed hot, whereby its resistance is reduced.

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  • Zinc is commonly deposited by electrolysis on iron or steel goods which would ordinarily be "galvanized," but which for any reason may not conveniently be treated by the method of immersion in fused zinc. The zinc cyanide bath may be used for small objects, but for heavy goods the sulphate bath is employed.

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  • Muscovite and biotite are commonly found in siliceous rocks, whilst phlogopite is characteristic of calcareous rocks.

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  • At one time it was used for window panes of houses and the port-holes of Russian men-of-war, being commonly known as "Muscovy glass."

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  • For the cubic (ab) 2 axbx is a covariant because each symbol a, b occurs three times; we can first of all find its real expression as a simultaneous covariant of two cubics, and then, by supposing the two cubics to merge into identity, find the expression of the quadratic covariant, of the single cubic, commonly known as the Hessian.

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  • By beginning with a small amount The reverberatory furnace commonly used for cupelling goes by the name of the English cupelling furnace.

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  • The condenser commonly used is an old retort.

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  • He retained his old university habit of taking long walks with a congenial companion, even in London, and although he cared but little for what is commonly known as society - the society of crowded rooms and fragments of sentences - he very much liked conversation.

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  • ACONITE (Aconitum), a genus of plants belonging to the natural order Ranunculaceae, the buttercup family, commonly known as.

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  • The best method of application is by rubbing in a small quantity of the aconitine ointment until numbness is felt, but the costliness of this preparation causes the use of the aconite liniment to be commonly resorted to.

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  • In astronomical practice the masses of the planets are commonly expressed as fractions of the mass of the sun, the latter being taken as unity.

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  • HERMANN OF REICHENAU (HERIMANNUS AUGIENSIS), commonly distinguished as Hermannus Contractus, i.e.

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  • In Englishspeaking countries the ore is commonly known as magnetite, and pieces which exhibit attraction as magnets; the cause to which the attractive property is attributed is called magnetism, a name also applied to the important branch of science which has been evolved from the study of phenomena associated with the magnet.

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  • Manganese, though belonging (with chromium) to the iron group of metals, is commonly classed as a paramagnetic, its susceptibility being very small in comparison with that of the recognized ferromagnetics; but it is remarkable that its atomic susceptibility in solutions of its salts is even greater than that of iron.

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  • On the other hand, its susceptibility is about fifty times less than that of Hadfield's 12% manganese steel, which is commonly spoken of as non-magnetizable.

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  • This discharge, which is identical with the " brush " discharge of laboratory experiments, usually appears as a tip of light on the extremities of pointed objects such as church towers, the masts of ships, or even the fingers of the outstretched hand: it is commonly accompanied by a crackling or fizzing noise.

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  • It was most commonly an iron sulphate, sometimes probably an aluminium sulphate, and usually a mixture of the two.

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  • Two species of ratel are commonly recognized, the Indian (M.

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  • Cattle-raising was once a flourishing industry on the island of Marajo, at the mouth of the Amazon, and it is followed to some extent at Alemquer and other points along the Amazon, but the cattle are small, and commonly in bad condition.

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  • Impressment is commonly employed to fill the ranks, and in cases of emergency the prison population is drawn upon for recruits.

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  • His religious doctrine is Pantheistic; and, rejecting the belief in a future life as commonly conceived, he substitutes for it a theory of metempsychosis.

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  • Rugby football is in high favour, Edinburgh being commonly the scene of the international matches when the venue falls to Scotland.

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  • Therein two eggs, with white, chalky shells, are commonly laid.

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  • The seat of the provincial government is Pietermaritzburg (q.v.), commonly called Maritzburg (or P.M.B.), with a population (1904) of 31,199.

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  • Having at length received an intimation from London that the queen " could not acknowledge the independence of her own subjects, but that the trade of the emigrant farmers would be placed on the same footing as that of any other British settlement, upon their receiving a military force to exclude the interference 1 Commonly called the Republic of Natalia or Natal.

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  • The remark overlooks two facts - firstly that the main objects of theology and philosophy are identical, though the td°f ogyod method of treatment is different, and secondly that logical discussion commonly leads up to metaphysical problems, and that this was pre-eminently the case with the logic of the Schoolmen.

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  • From the scanty and ill-natured notices of his opponents (Anselm and Abelard), we gather that he refused to recognize the reality of anything but the individual; he treated " the universal substance," says Anselm, as no more than " flatum vocis," a verbal breathing or sound; and in a similar strain he denied any reality to the parts of which a whole, such as a house, is commonly said to be composed.

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  • The title " last of the Scholastics " is commonly given to Gabriel Biel, the summarizer of Occam's doctrine.

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  • with the atheistical opinions he is commonly believed to have held.

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  • One of the relations most commonly illustrated in this way is the time-relation; the passage of time being associated with the passage of a point along a straight line, so that equal intervals of time are represented by equal lengths.

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  • Gabir ben Aflah of Sevilla, commonly called Geber, was a celebrated astronomer and apparently skilled in algebra, for it has been supposed that the word " algebra " is compounded from his name.

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  • The principle gives an instantaneous solution of the question of the ultimate optical efficienc y in the method of " mirror-reading," as commonly practised in various physical observations.

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  • ST MARYLEBONE (commonly called Marylebone), a northwestern metropolitan borough of London, England, bounded N.

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  • ERECHTHEUM, a temple (commonly called after Erechtheus, to whom a portion of it was dedicated) on the acropolis at Athens, unique in plan, and in its execution the most refined example of the Ionic order.

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  • It is a district of poor houses, forming part of the area commonly known as the "East End."

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  • It will be seen that twenty districts are enumerated, these being the divisions under the Boer government and still commonly used.

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  • The last are important, as it is from the waistornaments chiefly that what is commonly considered clothing at the present day has been developed.

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  • Another factor besides climate which has exerted a powerful influence on dress - more perhaps on what is commonly regarded as " jewelry " as distinct from " clothing " - is superstition.

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  • The paenula, which was the garment most commonly worn, especially by soldiers when engaged on peace duties, was an oblong piece of cloth with a hole in the centre for the neck; a hood was usually attached to the back.

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  • Crum was probably the first to recognize that some hydrogen atoms of the cellulose had been replaced by an oxide of nitrogen, and this view was supported more or less by other workers, especially Hadow, who appears to have distinctly recognized that at least three compounds were present, the most violently explosive of which constituted the main bulk of the product commonly obtained and known as guncotton.

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  • One species, the guacharo (Steatornis caripensis), or oil-bird, is commonly said to occur only in Venezuela, though it is found in Colombia and Ecuador also.

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  • They live in caves, especially in Caripe, and are caught in large numbers for the oil extracted from them, which is commonly known as " Caripe butter."

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  • True hypertrophy is commonly found in the hollow muscular organs such as the heart, bladder and alimentary canal.

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  • In acute and chronic alcoholism, in phthisis, and in other diseases this fatty condition may be very extreme, and is commonly found in association with other tissue changes, so that probably we should look on these changes as a degeneration.

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  • But their disintegration is more commonly brought about by " phagocytosis " on the part of the phagocytic cells in the different organs concerned with the function of haemolysis, i.e.

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  • It is now commonly used to indicate the transparent homogeneous structureless swellings which are found affecting the smaller arteries and the capillaries.

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  • Amyloid develops in various organs and tissues and is commonly associated with chronic phthisis, tubercular disease of bone and joints, and syphilis (congenital and acquired).

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  • Dropsy of the serous cavities is very commonly merely part of a general anasarca, although occasionally it may be, as in the case of ascites, the sequel to an obstruction in the venous return.

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  • There is no sign in the Homeric poems of the subordination of medicine to religion which is seen in ancient Egypt and India, nor are priests charged, as they were in those countries, with medical functions - all circumstances which throw grave doubts on the commonly received opinion that medicine derived its origin in all countries from religious observances.

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  • Further, he had the discernment to see that certain symptoms - such as convulsions and delirium, which were then commonly held always to indicate inflammation - were often really signs of weakness.

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  • A number of other maladies, especially general diseases and those commonly regarded as nervous, were attributed to the same cause.

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  • These events, although far more mischievous in the brain, the functions of which are far-reaching, and the collateral circulation of which is ill-provided, are seen very commonly in other parts.

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  • The magnificent scenery of the west coast of Pomona is commonly visited from Stromness.

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  • 2) abolished the Prayer Book, repealed the Acts of Uniformity and restored "divine service and administration of sacraments as were most commonly used in England in the last year of Henry VIII."

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  • Between Westminster, the City and Stepney, and the northern boroughs - St Marylebone (commonly Marylebone), Holborn, Finsbury, Shoreditch, Bethnal Green.

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  • At this junction stand the Royal Exchange, the Mansion House (the official residence of the Lord Mayor of London) and the Bank of England, from which this important point in the communications of London is commonly known as " Bank."

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  • The steeple of St Mary-le-Bow, commonly called Bow Church, is one of the most noteworthy.

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  • A Gothic style has been most commonly adopted in building modern churches; but of these the most notable, the Roman Catholic Westminster Cathedral (see Westminster), is Byzantine, and built principally of brick, with a lofty campanile.

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  • The derivation commonly accepted for Piccadilly is from pickadil, a stiff collar or hem in fashion in the early part of the 17th century (Span.

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  • The Metropolitan District (commonly called the District) system serves Wimbledon, Richmond, Ealing and Harrow on the west, and passes eastward by Earl's Court, South Kensington, Victoria and Mansion House (City) to Whitechapel and Bow.

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  • The munificence of Sir Henry Tate provided the gallery, commonly named after him, by the Thames near Vauxhall Bridge, which contains the national collection of British art.

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  • Formerly hemp and also fibre ropes were commonly used.

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  • Mine pumps are of two classes: (I) those in which the driving engine is on the surface and operates the pumps by a long line of rods passing down the shaft, commonly known as the Cornish system; (2) direct-acting pumps, in which the engine and pumping cylinders form a single unit, placed close to the point underground from which the water is to be raised.

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  • Ioo, as is commonly assumed by critics who reject the authorship by Luke.

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  • The ground of these cameo glasses is most commonly transparent blue, but sometimes opaque blue, purple or dark brown.

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  • These tiny animals, commonly known as mousedeer, are in no wise nearly related to the true deer, but constitute by themselves a special section of artiodactyle ungulates known as Tragulina, for the characteristics of which see ARTIODACTYLA.

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  • 193) wheat commonly returned two hundred-fold to the sower, and occasionally three hundred-fold.

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  • This double method of writing words arises from the circumstance that the cuneiform syllabary is of non-Semitic origin, the system being derived from the non-Semitic settlers of the Euphrates valley, commonly termed Sumerians (or Sumero-Akkadians), to whom, as the earlier settlers, the origin of the cuneiform script is due.

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  • The cultivation of vines in pots is very commonly practised with good results, and pot-vines are very useful to force for the earliest crop. The plants should be raised from eyes, and grown as strong as possible in the way already noted, in rich turfy loam mixed with about one-third of horse dung and a little bone dust.

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  • The bagasse so used is now commonly taken straight from the cane mill to furnaces specially designed for burning it, in its moist state and without previous drying, and delivering the hot gases from it to suitable boilers, such as those of the multitubular type or of the water-tube type.

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  • Few of the commonly cultivated crops can live in a soil consisting mainly of humus.

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  • Such a fraternity was commonly called a "mistery" or "company" in the 15th and 16th centuries, though the old term "gild" was not yet obsolete.

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  • Officers, commonly called wardens in England, were elected by the members, and their chief function was to supervise the quality of the wares produced, so as to secure good and honest workmanship. Therefore, ordinances were made regulating the hours of labour and the terms of admission to the gild, including apprenticeship. Other ordinances required members to make periodical payments to a common fund, and to participate in certain common religious observances, festivities and pageants.

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  • The term tobacco appears not to have been a commonly used original name for the plant, and it has come to us from a peculiar instrument used for inhaling its smoke by the inhabitants of Hispaniola (San Domingo).

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  • Next come the " regalias," similarly made of the best Vuelta Abajo tobacco; and it is only the lower qualities, " ordinary regalias," which are commonly found in commerce, the finer, and the " vegueras," being exceedingly high-priced.

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  • Again, in direct-fired furnaces there are commonly seven or eight rows of retorts, one above another, so that to serve the upper rows the workman must stand upon a table, where he is exposed to the full heat of the furnace and requires a helper to wait upon him.

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  • Two wheels of unequal height are commonly fitted to the front of the beam.

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  • Although occasionally seen in large flocks, the mara is more commonly found in small parties or in pairs, the parties commonly moving in single file.

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  • It brought together the two sides of feudalism, vassalage and benefice, as they were now commonly called, and from this age their union into what is really a single H.

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  • CHOSROES, in Middle and Modern Persian Khosrau (" with a good name "), a very common Persian name, borne by a famous king of the Iranian legend (Kai Khosrau); by a Parthian king, commonly called by the Greeks Osroes; and by the following two Sassanid kings.

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  • Doughty adds that the Nejd highlands between Kasim and Mecca are watered yearly by seasonable rains, which at Taif are expected about the end of August and last commonly from four to six weeks.

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  • A conditional pardon most commonly occurs where an offender sentenced to death has his sentence commuted to penal servitude or any less punishment.

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  • BLACKBIRD (Turdus merula), the name commonly given to a well-known British bird of the Turdidae family, for which the ancient name was ousel, Anglo-Saxon Osle, equivalent of the German Amsel, a form of the word found in several old English books.

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  • In America it is commonly abbreviated to "roach."

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  • 2 List of Plants commonly met with in northern Tunisia Adonis microcarpa, DC. Nigella damascena, L.

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  • The so-called coast towns are commonly at some distance from the seashore, and their shipping ports are little more than a straggling collection of wretched habitations in the vicinity of the landing-stage and its offices and warehouses.

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  • The fruit is commonly used for the manufacture of oil, which is consumed in the country, and only a small part is exported.

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  • The cattle are commonly small and hardy, and, like the Mexican cattle, are able to bear unfavourable conditions.

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  • The labourers are commonly obtained from the Cholos, or Indian inhabitants of the sierras, who are accustomed to high altitudes, and are generally efficient and trustworthy.

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  • The French metric system is the official standard of weights and measures and is in use in the custom-houses of the republic and in foreign trade, but the old units are still commonly used among the people.

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  • The statement still commonly repeated that it originated with Petrus 1 These details are scarcely the invention of the chronicler; see Chronicles, and Expositor, Aug.

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  • Several centuries before the Christian era the name Jhvh had ceased to be commonly used by the Jews.

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  • Copaum (21 acres) was, at the time of the first settlement, a bay and the commonly used harbour, but the present harbour (6 m.

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  • The head of the Mevlevi dervishes (Aziz-Effendi, HazretiMevlana, Mollah-Unkiar, commonly styled simply ChelebiEffendi) has the right to gird on the sultan's sword at his investiture, and is master of the considerable revenues of the greatest religious establishment in the empire.

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  • The view most commonly held is that they were degraded or " depotentiated " gods, occupying a position intermediate between gods and men.

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  • -ECV (less commonly EvrEµvEtv).

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  • Superhuman qualities and powers, too, are commonly ascribed to both, an important difference, however, being that whatever worship may have been paid to the Teutonic heroes never crystallized into a cult.

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  • The most important event in foreign policy was the treaty with Great Britain of the 8th of May 1871, commonly known as the Treaty of Washington, whereby several controversies between the United States and Great Britain, including the bitter questions as to damage inflicted upon the United States by the "Alabama" and other Confederate cruisers built and equipped in England, were referred to arbitration.

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  • Thompson, 1830) synonymous with Bryozoa (Ehrenberg, 1831) for a group commonly included with the Brachiopoda in the Molluscoidea (Milne Edwards, 1;843).

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  • The ovicells commonly found as globular swellings surmounting the orifices are not direct modifications of zooecia, and each typically contains a single egg or embryo.

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  • 8 A, 9 A), but in many Cheilostomes the frontal surface is protected by a calcareous shield, which grows from near the free edges of the vertical walls and commonly increases in thickness as the zooecium grows older by the activity of the "epitheca," a layer of living tissue outside it.

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  • It is regarded as a modified zooecium, the polypide of which has become vestigial, although it is commonly represented by a sense-organ, bearing tactile hairs, situated on what may be termed the palate.

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  • They occur in particular in relation with the orifice of the zooecium, and with that of the compensation-sac. This delicate structure is frequently guarded by an avicularium at its entrance, while avicularia are also commonly found on either side of the operculum or in other positions close to that structure.

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  • GODWIT, a word of unknown origin, the name commonly applied to a marsh-bird in great repute, when fattened, for the table, and formerly abundant in the fens of Norfolk, the Isle of Ely and Lincolnshire.

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  • It commonly results from injury, as the tearing or cutting of a blood-vessel, but certain forms result from disease, as in scurvy and purpura.

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  • The family was in the habit of spending the summer holidays at the coast of the county, commonly at Mablethorpe, and here Tennyson gained his impressions of the vastness of the sea.

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  • 1 337 by Ali V., the first of the Beni-Marin (Marinide) sultans who ruled Tlemcen, and commonly called the Black Sultan.

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  • On the moors in late summer the mantis (kama-kiri-niushi) is commonly met with, and the cricket (kurogi) and the cockroach, abound.

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  • It is commonly believed that the two Japanese syllabarieswhich, though distinct in form, have identical soundswere invented by Kukai (790) and Kibi Daijin (760) respectively.

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  • He and the craftsmen of the school he established completely refute the theory that the anatomical solecisms commonly seen in the works of Japanese sculptors are due to faulty observation.

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  • Next in decorative importance to tsuzure-ori stands yuzen bir3do, commonly known among English-speaking people as cut velvet.

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  • Nomura Seisuke, or Ninsei as he is commonly called, was one of Japans greatest ceramists.

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  • Okamuia Yasutaro, commonly called Shozan, produces specimens which only a very acute connoisseur can distinguish from the work of Nomura Ninsei; Tanzan Rokuros half-tint enamels and soft creamy glazes would have stood high in any epoch; Taizan YOhei produces Awata faience not inferior to that of former days; Kagiya SObei worthily supports the reputation of the KinkOzan ware; Kawamoto Eijiro has made to the order of a well-known KiOto firm many specimens now figuring in foreign collections as old masterpieces; and ItO TOzan succeeds in decorating faience with seven colors sons couverte (black, green, blue, russetred, tea-brown, purple and peach), a feat never before accomplished.

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  • We next hear of Vacarius as lecturing at Oxford, in 1149, to "crowds of rich and poor," and as preparing, for the use of the latter, a compendium, in nine books, of the Digest and Code of Justinian, "sufficient," it was said, "if thoroughly mastered, to solve all legal questions commonly debated in the schools."

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  • The principle usually followed in the electrolytic refining of metals is to cast the impure metal into plates, which are exposed as anodes in a suitable solvent, commonly a salt of the metal under treatment.

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  • In 1783 he formed a connexion with Elizabeth Bridget Cane, commonly known as Mrs Armstead or Armistead, an amiable and well-mannered woman to whom he was passionately attached.

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  • commonly use ` heresy ' of false teaching in opposition to Catholic doctrine, and ` schism ' of a breach of discipline, in opposition to Catholic government "(Schaff).

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  • The invasion was commonly believed to have proceeded by way of Aetolia and Elis, and the name Naupactus was interpreted as an allusion to the needful " shipbuilding " on the Corinthian Gulf.

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  • The ancient wall running east and west, commonly known as the Hellenico, has been found extant in its whole length, and the two boundary walls running up the hill at each end of it, traced.

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  • It has been shown above that the potential due to a charge of q units placed on a very small sphere, commonly called a point-charge, at any distance x is q/x.

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  • This is commonly called Stokes's theorem.

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  • Therefore he was commonly spoken of as el condeduque.

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  • Though commonly called I The Pine-Marten (Mustela mantes).

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  • The object of the present article is to illustrate the practical application of the two general principles - (I) Joule's law of the equivalence of heat and work, and (2) Carnot's principle, that the efficiency of a reversible engine depends only on the temperatures between which it works; these principles are commonly known as the first and second laws of thermodynamics.

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  • The application will necessarily be confined to simple cases such as are commonly met with in practice, or are required for reference in cognate subjects.

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  • The metropolitans now commonly assumed the title of archbishop to mark their preeminence over the other bishops; at the same time the obligation imposed upon them, mainly at the instance of St Boniface, to receive thepallium from Rome, definitely marked the defeat of their claim to exercise metropolitan jurisdiction independently of the pope.

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  • CRYSTAL - GAZING, or Scrying, the term commonly applied to the induction of visual hallucinations by concentrating the gaze on any clear deep, such as a crystal or a ball of polished rock crystal.

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  • Crystal pictures, however, are commonly dismissed as mere results of "imagination," a theory which, of course, is of no real assistance to psychology.

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  • Owing to the softness of the metal, large crystals are rarely well defined, the points being commonly rounded.

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  • WILLEBRORD SNELL (1591-1626), commonly known as

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  • The cause has been commonly said to be the pressure of population on the food-supply.

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  • Whatever may have been the value of Manning's services to the Roman Catholic Church in England in bringing it, as he did, up to a high level of what in earlier years was commonly denounced as Ultramontanism, it is certain that by his social action, as well as by the earnestness and holiness of his life, he greatly advanced, in the minds of his countrymen generally, their estimate of the character and value of Catholicism.

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  • We must note, however, that the Baptist divines who were excluded from the Westminster Assembly issued a declaration of their principles under the title, " A Confession of Faith of seven Congregations or Churches in London which are commonly but unjustly called Anabaptists, for the Vindication of the Truth and Information of the Ignorant."

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  • The knights of St John of Jerusalem, commonly called " of Malta," were drawn from the nobility of Catholic Europe.

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  • The first two are those commonly used for medicinal purposes.

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  • No doubt the evidence as to the age of the earth and as to the antiquity of man was gathered by a class of workers not formally included in the ranks of the archaeologist: workers commonly spoken of as palaeontologists, anthropologists, ethnologists and the like.

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  • In 1500, by inheritance from the counts of Gdrz, the Pusterthal and upper Drave valley (east) were added; in 1505 the lower portion of the Zillerthal, with the Inn 1 To speak, as is commonly done, of "the Tirol" is as absurd as speaking of "the England."

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  • VISCACHA, or BISCACHA, a large South American burrowing rodent mammal belonging to the family Chinchillidae and commonly known as Lagostomus trichodactylus, although some writers prefer the name Viscacia.

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  • The encounter, which lasted from the 18th to the 10th of February and ranged from Plymouth to Calais, is commonly named the "Three Days' Battle" and was described by Clarendon as "stupendous."

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  • Like Maroboduus, he was able to combine the forces of tribes commonly hostile to each other, and his military ability almost went the length of genius.

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  • In art St Nicholas is represented with various attributes, being most commonly depicted with three children standing in a tub by his side.

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  • "case"), a term which, originally meaning a box in which money is kept, is now commonly applied to ready money or coin.

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  • Here may be mentioned the gigantic fossil deer commonly known as the Irish elk, which is perhaps a giant type of fallow-deer, and if so should be known as Cervus (Dama) giganteus.

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  • LANCASTER The name House of Lancaster is commonly used to designate the line of English kings immediately descended from John of Gaunt, the fourth son of Edward III.

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  • It was commonly made of earthenware, but sometimes of stone, glass or even more costly materials.

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  • In old English writings the terms pit-coal and sea-coal are commonly used.

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  • Usually it occurs in compact beds of alternating bright and dark bands in which impressions of leaves, woody fibre and other vegetable remains are commonly found.

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  • Such changes seem, however, to have been very rapidly accomplished, as pebbles of completely formed coal are commonly found in the sandstones and coarser sedimentary strata alternating with the coal seams in many coalfields.

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  • These very thick seams are, however, rarely constant in character for any great distance, being found commonly to degenerate into carbonaceous shales, or to split up into thinner beds by the intercalation of shale bands or partings.

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  • now commonly used; but in very deep pits they are sometimes tapered in section to reduce the dead weight lifted.

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  • Steam at high pressure exhausting into the atmosphere is still commonly used, but the great power required for raising heavy loads from deep pits at high speeds has brought the question of fuel economy into prominence, and more economical types of the two-cylinder tandem compound class with high initial steam pressure, superheating and condensing, have come in to some extent where the amount of work to be done is sufficient to justify their high initial cost.

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  • The latter is commonly referred to as the " brake horse-power."

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  • These equations express the " law of equipartition of energy," commonly spoken of as the Maxwell-Boltzmann Law.

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  • He seems to have commenced his poetical career by ridiculing and parodying the conventional language of epic and tragic poetry, and to have used the language commonly employed in the social intercourse of educated men.

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  • In contemporary English Free Churches the purity of the church is commonly secured by the removal of persons unsuitable for membership from the church books by a vote of the responsible authority.

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  • German New Guinea The German protectorate of New Guinea, so called after the island which contributes the greatest area, comprehends, besides Kaiser Wilhelms Land, the islands which are now commonly called the Bismarck Archipelago - viz.

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  • Thus he showed that the weevils of granaries, in his time commonly supposed to be bred from wheat, as well as in it, are grubs hatched from eggs deposited by winged insects.

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  • His attention having been drawn to the blighting of the young shoots of fruit-trees, which was commonly attributed to the ants found upon them, he was the first to find the Aphides that really do the mischief; and, upon searching into the history of their generation, he observed the young within the bodies of their parents.

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  • He carefully studied also the history of the ant and was the first to show that what had been commonly reputed to be "ants' eggs" are really their pupae, containing the perfect insect nearly ready for emersion, whilst the true eggs are far smaller, and give origin to "maggots" or larvae.

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  • Moreover, its prefects, since they were two and liable to be disunited, and since they could not be senators, neither combined with the In permanent forts and fortresses, praetorium probably denoted strictly a residence: the official headquarters building (though commonly styled praetorium by moderns) was the principia.

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  • The form emir is also commonly employed in English.

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  • vii., he speaks of " the sacrament of infanticide and of the eating of a murdered child and of incest following the banquet," the crimes of which the Christians were commonly accused.

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  • REFORMATION The Reformation, as commonly understood, means the religious and political revolution of the 16th century, of which the immediate result was the partial disruption of the Western Catholic Church and the establishment of various national and territorial churches.

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  • 1457) showed the Donation of Constantine to be a forgery, denied that Dionysius the Areopagite wrote the works ascribed to him, and refuted the commonly accepted notion that each of the apostles had contributed a sentence to the Apostles' Creed.

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  • His influence was indeed by no means so decisive and so pervasive as has commonly been supposed, and his attacks on the evils in the Church were no bolder or more comprehensive than those of Marsiglio and Wycliffe, or of several among his contemporaries who owed nothing to his example.

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  • The edict of Worms was entirely in harmony with the laws of Western Christendom, and there were few among the governing classes in Germany at that time who really understood or approved Luther's fundamental ideas; nevertheless - if we except the elector of Brandenburg, George of Saxony, the dukes of Bavaria, and Charles V.'s brother Ferdinand - the princes, including the ecclesiastical rulers and the towns, commonly neglected to publish the edict, much less to enforce it.

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  • A conservative Book of Common Prayer and Administration of the Sacraments and other Rites and Ceremonies after the Use of the Church of England - commonly called the First Prayer Book of Edward VI.

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  • In the summer and the autumn the weather is commonly fine, and often most beautiful; and especially in the Berkshires a cool, pure and elastic atmosphere prevails, relatively dry, and altogether delightful.

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  • Also it is to be said that with the single exception of religious toleration the record of the state in devotion to human rights has been from the first a splendid one, whether in human principles of criminal law, or in the defence of the civil rights commonly declared in American constitutions.

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  • A more reasonable explanation connects the name with Arae, " Curses," commonly known as Semnae, " Awful Goddesses," whose shrine was a cave at the foot of the hill, of which they were the guardian deities (Aeschyl.

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  • The better residences of the old style were commonly of two storeys - the ground-floor being occupied by shops, offices, stables and servants' quarters.

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  • It is now commonly recognized by scholars that when Gregory the Great became a monk and turned his palace on the Caelian Hill into a monastery, the monastic life there carried out was fundamentally based on the Benedictine Rule.

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  • The monasteries, however, played a great part in the educational side of the Carolingian revival; and certainly from that date schools for boys destined to live and work in the world were commonly attached to Benedictine monasteries.

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  • The scheme as a whole was shortlived and did not survive its originator; but the Capitula were commonly recognized as supplying a useful and much-needed supplement to St Benedict's Rule on points not sufficiently provided for therein.

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  • is held to be compiled with editorial additions from the two ancient documents (90o-700 B.C.) commonly denoted by the symbols J and E.

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  • 19, are commonly regarded as ancient lyrics of the early monarchy, perhaps in the time of David or Solomon, which J and E inserted in their narrative.

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  • It has been conjectured that the Arabic wise man, commonly called Luqman, is identical with Balaam.

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  • Filtration in the chemical laboratory is commonly effected by the aid of a special kind of unsized paper, which in the more expensive varieties is practically pure cellulose, impurities like feric oxide, alumina, lime, magnesia and silica having been removed by treatment with hydrochloric and hydrofluoric acids.

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  • 1154) - commonly known as St William of York - to the see of York, by sending him the pallium, in spite of the continued opposition of the powerful Cistercian order.

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  • No true antelopes are American, the prongbuck (Antilocapra), which is commonly called "antelope" in the United States, representing a distinct group; while, as already mentioned, the Rocky Mountain or white goat stands on the borderland between antelopes and goats.

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  • By later antiquarians Libitina was sometimes identified with Persephone, but more commonly (partly or completely) with Venus Lubentia or Lubentina, an Italian goddess of gardens.

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  • The principal chalybeate springs are the Tewitt well, called by Dr Bright, who wrote the first account of it, the "English Spa," discovered by Captain William Slingsby of Bilton Hall near the close of the r6th century; the Royal Chalybeate Spa, more commonly known as John's Well, discovered in 1631 by Dr Stanhope of York; Muspratt's chalybeate or chloride of iron spring discovered in 1819, but first properly analysed by Dr Sheridan Muspratt in 1865; and the Starbeck springs midway between High Harrogate and Knaresborough.

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  • As regards the " Declaration of Faith, Church Order and Discipline " adopted in 1833, and still printed in the official Year Book " for general information " as to " what is commonly believed " by members of the Union, what is characteristic is the attitude taken in the preliminary notes to " creeds and articles of religion."

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  • Indeed, it is commonly considered to be an extension of the Canadian mountains.

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  • This is the race most commonly grown in the British Isles and in central Europe, and includes a large number of sub-races and varieties among which are the finest malting barleys.

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  • The last variety is both the most ancient and the most commonly found, and is the sacred barley of antiquity, ears of which are frequently represented plaited in the hair of the goddess Ceres, besides being figured on ancient coins.

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  • The special doctrines most commonly mentioned as due to him are - (I) that of "immaterial products," and (2) what is called his "theorie des debouches."

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  • He is commonly considered as a humorist, and no doubt he is a humorist of a remarkable comic force and of a refreshing fertility.

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  • This left only Great Britain and the United States as the contestants for that territory west of the Rocky Mountains between 42° and 54° 40', which by this time was commonly known as the Oregon country.

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  • Of the two dialects commonly called Sabaean and Minaean the latter might be better called Hadramitic, inasmuch as it is the dialect of the inscriptions found in Hadramut, and the Minaeans seem undoubtedly to have entered the Jauf from Ijadramut.

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  • longitudo, " length"), the angle which the terrestrial meridian from the pole through a point on the earth's surface makes with some standard meridian, commonly that of Greenwich.

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  • The fruit trees commonly cultivated are the peach, apricot, apple, orange, lemon, pear, fig and plum.

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  • I (preaches in the synagogues, later more commonly by the lake-shore or on the mountain sides; or He teaches in a house where He happens to be); at iv.

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  • It was very commonly believed at the time that this nomination for the vice-presidency was participated in and heartily approved of by the machine politicians or "bosses" of the State of New York in their belief that it would result in his elimination from active political life.

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  • It is very probable that if they were at first intended to have any special form at all it was that of a tablebook or journal, such as was never more commonly kept than in the 16th century.

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  • It is a strip of stuff, usually silk, some 21-- yards long by 4 inches broad; in the middle and at the ends, which are commonly broadened out, it is ornamented with a cross.

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  • Hebrew title would be Book of Events of the Times, and this again appears to have been a designation commonly applied to special histories in the more definite shape - Events of the Times of King David, or the like (1 Chron.

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  • The baptistery proper was commonly a circular building, although sometimes it had eight and sometimes twelve sides, and consisted of an ante-room (rpoatAcos °Tacos) where the catechumens were instructed, and where before baptism they made their confession of faith, and an inner apartment where the sacrament was administered.

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  • Three steps led down to the floor of the font, and over it was suspended a gold or silver dove; while on the walls were commonly pictures of the scenes in the life of John the Baptist.

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  • It was necessary to make them large, because in the early Church it was customary for the bishop to baptize all the catechumens in his diocese (and so baptisteries are commonly found attached to the cathedral and not to the parish churches), and also because the rite was performed only thrice in the year.

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  • Most commonly these are " swing " or " turning " bridges.

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  • Most commonly the engineer has to attach great importance to the question of cost, and to design his structure to secure the greatest economy consistent with the provision of adequate strength.

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  • For an elastic arch of metal there is a more complete theory, but it is difficult of application, and there remains some uncertainty unless (as is now commonly done) hinges are introduced at the crown and springings.

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  • the building of the first stone bridge commonly called Old London Bridge: " About the year 1176, the stone bridge was begun to be founded by Peter of Colechurch, near unto the bridge of timber, but more towards the west."

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  • For railway bridges it commonly consists of cross girders, attached to or resting on the main girders, and longitudinal rail girders or stringers carried by the cross girders and directly supporting the sleepers and rails.

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  • But it is so commonly used in America as to be regarded as a distinctive American feature.

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  • is commonly assumed.

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  • Kingston (at first called "Kingstown," from Kings Towne, Rhode Island) was commonly known in its early days as the "Forty Township," because the first permanent settlement was made by forty pioneers from Connecticut, who were sent out by the Susquehanna Company and took possession of the district in its name in 1769.

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  • The volatile oil - oleum cubebae - is also official, and is the form in which this drug is most commonly used, the dose being 5 to 20 minims, which may be suspended in mucilage or given after meals in a cachet.

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  • A small percentage of cubebs is also commonly included in lozenges designed for use in bronchitis, in which the antiseptic and expectoral properties of the drug are useful.

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  • The thickness of the formation varies from 15 to 80 ft., but most commonly it is from 25 to 40 ft.

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  • The fees commonly charged by high-class institutions for the services of a trained and certificated nurse are - for ordinary cases £2, 2S.

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  • The French form Bonaparte was not commonly used, even by Napoleon, until after the spring of 1796.

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  • The largest and best preserved of them, now commonly called the Treasury of Atreus, is just outside the Lion Gate.

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  • There are several quite distinct forms of metre, of which those most commonly used are the Klong, the Kap and the Klon.

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  • The western tower, commonly known as Boston Stump, forms a landmark for 40 m.

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  • It is remarkable also that, contrary to the usual rule, he is commonly represented in Egyptian sculptures and paintings full faced instead of in profile.

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  • The Grondwet involved certain important changes, which were embodied in an act passed in 1854 and commonly known as the Regulations for the Government of Netherlands India.

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  • These are born naked and blind, and it is commonly five weeks before they see, or become covered with hair.

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  • The name is commonly applied to the southern part of the borough, which, however, includes the districts of Holloway in the north, Highbury in the east, part of Kingsland in the south-east, and Barnsbury and Canonbury in the south-central portion.

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  • THE BLACK COUNTRY, a name commonly applied to a district lying principally in S.

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  • OSCILLA, a word applied in Latin usage to small figures, most commonly masks or faces, which were hung up as offerings to various deities, either for propitiation or expiation, and in connexion with festivals and other ceremonies.

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  • Church history began to be written in a genuinely scientific spirit only in the 18th century under the leadership of Mosheim, who is commonly called the father of modern church history.

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  • In the early days the Church was thought of as a community of saints, all of whose members were holy, and as a consequence discipline was strict, and offenders excluded from the Church were commonly not readmitted to membership but left to the mercy of God.

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  • A yet further development, of comparatively recent growth, has been the formation of what are now commonly called in England the " free churches."

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  • The ectoderm loses entirely the ciliation which it had in the planula and actinula stages and commonly secretes on its external surface a protective or supporting investment, the perisarc. Contrasting with this, the anthopolyp is generally of s q uat form, the diameter often exceeding the height; the peristome is wide, a hypostome is lacking, and the ectoderm, or so much of it as is exposed, i.e.

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  • The disaster was commonly attributed to Claudius's treatment of the sacred chickens, which refused to eat before the battle.

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  • Aristotle is commonly supposed to be the first author who mentions a parrot; but this is an error, for nearly a century earlier Ctesias in his Indica (cap. 3),2 under the name of fib-Taws (Bittacus), so neatly described a bird which could speak an "Indian" language - naturally, as he seems to have thought - or Greek - if it had been taught so to do - about as big as a sparrow-hawk (Hierax), with a purple face and a black beard, otherwise blue-green (cyaneus) and vermilion in colour, so that there cannot be much risk in declaring that he must have had before him a male example of what is now commonly known as the Blossom-headed parakeet, and to ornithologists as Palaeornis cyanocephalus, an inhabitant of many parts of India.

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  • Finsch published at Leiden an elaborate monograph of the parrots, 4 regarding them as a family, in which he admitted 26 genera, forming 5 subfamilies: (I) that composed of Strigops (Kakapo), only; (2) that containing the crested forms or cockatoos; (3) one which he named Sittacinae, comprising all the long-tailed species - a somewhat heterogeneous assemblage, made up of Macaws and what are commonly known as parakeets; (4) the parrots proper with short tails; and (5) the so-called "brush-tongued" parrots, consisting of the LoRIES (q.v.) and Nestors.

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  • Its limits were frequently varied, and it was commonly united for administrative purposes with the province of Pontus.

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  • Hall's great work, The Union of the Noble and Illustre Famelies of Lancastre and York, commonly called Hall's Chronicle, was first published in 1542.

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  • The manufacture of sodium carbonate, commonly called soda, is treated under Alkali Manufacture.

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  • Of the latter he was an ardent champion, and the word itself is commonly supposed to have originated with him - at least in its English form it is first found in his Silver Vindicated (1876).

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  • As the name for a keeper of a herd or flock of domestic animals, the herdsman, it is usually qualified to denote the kind of animal under his protection, as swine-herd, shepherd, &c., but in Ireland, Scotland and the north of England, "herd" alone is commonly used.

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  • Cent Jours), the name commonly given to the period between the 10th of March 1815, the date on which Napoleon arrived in Paris after his return from Elba, and the 28th of June 1815, the date of the restoration of Louis XVIII.

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  • 3), Oxalis acetosella (wood sorrel) and Lamium amplexicaule are commonly occurring instances.

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  • - (a) In the East, commonly called the Byzantine Age, c. 530-1350.

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  • In the early middle ages it was commonly applied to secular officials and magistrates, and it remained all though the middle ages as the title of certain officials in the Italian city states.

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  • The term prior was most commonly used to denote the superiors in a monastery, at first with an indefinite significance, but later, as monastic institutions crystallized, describing certain definite officials.

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  • The portion within the Coastal Plain embraces nearly the whole of the south-east half of the state and is commonly known as tide-water Maryland.

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  • The portion of the state lying within the Appalachian Region is commonly known as Western Maryland.

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  • The waters of the Chesapeake Bay are especially rich in oysters and crabs, and there, also, shad, alewives, " striped " (commonly called " rock ") bass, menhaden, white perch and weak-fish (" sea-trout ") occur in large numbers.

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  • On the eastern side of the city stand the ruins of the Masjed i Jehan Shah, commonly known as the Masjed i Kebud, or "Blue Mosque," from the blue glazed tiles which cover its walls.

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  • He is commonly known as Rab.

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  • These are commonly divided into two leading chains, distinguished as the Great 1 and Little Atlas.

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  • Algeria was considered as a kind of great military fief, and the officers who ruled there commonly took the side of the native chieftains against the civil population.

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  • It is more commonly spoken of as being in the district entre Sambre et Meuse.

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  • This family, so commonly called Lynceidae, contains a large number of genera, among which one may usually search in vain, and rightly so, for the genus Lynceus.

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  • The young usually pass through several stages of development after leaving the egg, and this commonly after, even long after, the egg has left the maternal shell.

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  • - The traditions current among the Israelites respecting the origins and early history of their nation - the patriarchal period, and the times of Moses and Joshua - were probably first cast into a written form in the 10th or 9th century B.C. by a prophet living in Judah, who, from the almost exclusive use in his narrative of the sacred name " Jahveh " (" Jehovah "), - or, as we now commonly write it, Yahweh, - is referred to among scholars by the abbreviation " J."

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  • Somewhat later than " J," another writer, commonly referred to as " E," from his preference for the name Elohim (" God ") rather than " Jehovah," living apparently in the northern kingdom, wrote down the traditions of the past as they were current in northern Israel, in a style resembling generally that of " J," but not quite as bright and vivid, and marked by small differences of expression and representation.

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  • This combined narrative is commonly known as "JE."

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  • Hence the Pharaoh of the Exodus is commonly supposed to have been Ramses (Rameses) II.'s successor, Merenptah (Mineptah).

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  • 312-348), Khammurabi, the sixth king of the first Babylonian dynasty, was commonly referred to such dates as 2376-2333 B.C. (Sayce) or 2285-2242 B.C. (Johns).

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  • We learn this especially from the Didache; and the first part of that work, the so-called " Two-Ways," is commonly thought to have been in the first instance a Jewish manual put into the hands of proselytes.

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  • Most nearly on the lines of the New Testament are the so-called Apostolic (really Sub-Apostolic) Fathers (Clement of Rome to the Corinthians, Didache, Barnabas, the letters of Ignatius and the single letter of Polycarp, the Shepherd of Hermas, the homily commonly known as the Second Epistle of Clement).

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  • This list published by Muratori in 1740, and called after him " the Muratorian Fragment on the Canon," is commonly believed to be of Roman origin and to be a translation from the Greek, though there are a few dissentients on both heads.

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  • Hort (commonly quoted as WH), the Cambridge scholars, supplied the deficiencies of Lachmann, and without giving up the advantages of his system, and its development by Tischendorf, brought back the study of the text of the New Testament to the methods of Griesbach.

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  • The north of the chain, from the Kuriles to Formosa, belongs to the empire of Japan; southward it is continued by the Philippines (belonging to the United States of America) which link it with the vast archipelago between the Pacific and Indian oceans, to which the name Malay Archipelago is commonly applied.

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  • The entire eastern quarter of the state, coterminous with the Eastern Kentucky coalfield, is commonly known as the region of the " mountains," but with the exception of the narrow area just described it properly belongs to the Alleghany Plateau Province.

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  • In Russia the bishops are commonly selected from the archimandrites.

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  • The sudden death of the tsarevich Demetrius at Uglich (May 15, 1591) has commonly been attributed to Boris, because it cleared his way to the throne; but this is no clear proof that he was personally concerned in that tragedy.

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  • The term "Anglo-Saxon" is commonly applied to that period of English history, language and literature which preceded the Norman Conquest.

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  • The society's interdenominational character has commonly secured - what could hardly otherwise have been attained - the acceptance of the same version by missions of different churches working side by side.

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  • As a unit of 1.013, decimally multiplied, is most commonly to be deduced from the ancient Persian buildings, we may take 25.34 as the nearest approach to the ancient Persian unit.

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  • In Egypt this is found largely at Naucratis (28, 29), and less commonly at Defenneh (29).

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