It should be added that Professor Elliot Smith has pointed out a certain peculiarity in its commissures whereby the brain of the diprotodonts differs markedly from that of the polyprotodonts From Flower, Quart.
The brain-lobes are generally four in number, a ventral and a dorsal pair, respectively united together by the above-mentioned commissures, and moreover anteriorly interfusing with each other, right and left.
- The brain of a Nemertine, with its lobes and commissures.
The wide divarication of the lateral cords in the prosoma and their connexion by transverse commissures, together with the " attraction " of ganglia to the prosomatic ganglion group which properly belong to hinder segments, are very nearly identical in the two animals.
The pedal cords are connected by commissures, and the pedal and pleural of each side are similarly connected.
The perioesophageal nerve-ring of Chaetopoda and Arthropoda is represented, not by the collar first mentioned in the above description, but by the commissures connecting the cerebral and pedal ganglia.
There is a welldeveloped brain dorsal, to the mouth; this gives off a pair of oesophageal commissures, which surround the oesophagus and unite in a median ventral nerve-cord which runs between the longitudinal muscles to the posterior end of the body.
As regards their innervation an apparent exception is found in the case of A pus, where the nerves to the antennules arise, behind the brain, from the oesophageal commissures, but this is, no doubt, a secondary condition, and the nerve-fibres have been traced forwards to centres within the brain.
In the primitive Phyllopoda the ventral chain retains the ladder-like arrangement found in some Annelids and lower worms, the two halves being widely separated and the pairs of ganglia connected together across the middle line by double transverse commissures.
atn, Antennary nerves; co, commissures between ventral cords; d, ventral appendages of brain; E, eye en, nerves passing outwards from ventral cord; F.g.i, ganglionic enlargements from which nerves to feet pass off; jn, nerves to jaws; org, ganglionic enlargement from which nerves to oral papillae pass off; orn, nerves to oral papillae; pc, posterior lobe of brain; pn, nerves to feet; sy, sympathetic nerves.
Osborn, " The Origin of the Corpus Callosum, a contribution upon the Cerebral Commissures of the Vertebrata," Morphol.
The muscular walls of the rhynchocoel, which by their transverse contractions serve to bring about eversion of the proboscis in the way above traced, are attached to the musculature of the head just in front of the ganglionic commissures (fig.
places it has sunk into the con Passing from the middle line outwards they are - (i.) the median pallial nerve to the middle of the dorsal mantle; (ii.) numerous small nerves - the circum-oesophageal commissures - which pass round the oesophagus to the chief arm-nerve or supra-oesophageal ganglion; (iii.) the under arm-nerve to the lophophore and its muscles; (iv.) the lateral pallial nerve to the sides of the dorsal mantle.
There are two pairs of longitudinal cords, a pedal pair situated ventrally and united beneath the intestine by numerous commissures, and a pallial pair situated laterally and continuous with one another above the rectum (fig.
In the primitive Phyllopoda, and less distinctly in some other orders, the nerves supplying the antennae arise, not from the brain, but from the circum-oesophageal commissures, and even in those cases where the nerves and the ganglia in which they are rooted have been moved forwards to the brain, the transverse commissure of the ganglia can still be traced, running behind the oesophagus.
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