How to use Commercial in a sentence
The capital was the center of the commercial activities.
He continued the agitation with the object of attaining both the political and commercial independence of Hungary.
In addition to the storage buildings, he owns an insurance agency, a bank and a bunch of commercial real estate.
The Galapagos Islands are of some commercial importance to Ecuador, on account of the guano and the orchilla moss found on them and exported to Europe.
Numerous small islands lie off the western coast, but none has any commercial importance.Advertisement
It sits among joining street shops in a quaint commercial area.
Attempts have been made to apply electricity to agriculture on a commercial scale, but the exact measure of success attained remains somewhat doubtful.
There are several handsome commercial and banking houses.
The members of council, the commanders of the troops, and the commercial residents plundered on a grand scale.
Though Rhodes continued a free town for another century, its commercial prosperity was crippled and a series of extensive earthquakes after A.D.Advertisement
Favoured by its proximity to two great waterways and by its two ports, Nisaea on the Saronic and Pegae on the Corinthian Gulf, Megara took a prominent part in the commercial expansion of Greece from the 8th century onwards, and for two hundred years enjoyed prosperity out of proportion to the slight resources of its narrow territory.
He defined almost every principle that governed commercial transactions in such a manner that his successors had only to apply the rules he had laid down.
In 1826-1828 the town became for a time the capital of Greece and the centre of a large commercial population (about Io,000), which has dwindled to about 4300.
Baker and Smith of the Sydney Technical College, have brought to light many other valuable products likely to prove of commercial value.
The town's commercial center has historical restaurants open from morning until night.Advertisement
The capital of the state is Cuyaba., and the chief commercial town is Corumbá at the head of navigation for the larger river boats, and 1986 m.
The fact that the Aeginetan scale of coins, weights and measures was one of the two scales in general use in the Greek world is sufficient evidence of the early commercial importance of the island.
There are classical, modern and commercial schools.
Grasses and herbage in great variety constitute the most valuable element of Australian flora from the commercial point of view.
Commercial intercourse with Asia Minor, Arabia, Tarshish (probably in Spain) and Ophir filled his coffers, and his realm extended from the Euphrates to the border of Egypt.Advertisement
As early as 1668, Sir Josiah Child, the millionaire governor of the East India company, pleaded for their naturalization on the score of their commercial utility.
The general election which was held in the following month turned on native policy and on the measures necessary to meet the commercial depression.
Prentice, the historian of the Anti-Corn-Law League, who was then editor of the Manchester Times, describes how, in the year 1835, he received for publication in his paper a series of admirably written letters, under the signature of "Libra," discussing commercial and economical questions with rare ability.
This was his desire and hope as respects the commercial treaty with France.
Its commercial importance was also great, being especially due to its trade in wool.Advertisement
Millions of commercial articles in metal-work, wood and ivory flood the European markets, and may be bought in any street in Europe at a small price, but they offer a variety of design and an excellence of workmanship which place them almost beyond Western competition.
Compound locomotives have been built by various designers, but opinion is still uncertain whether any commercial economy is obtained by their use.
The right to send a ship to trade with China was one for which large sums were paid, and Pereira, as commander of the expedition, would enjoy commercial privileges which Ataide had, ex officio, the power to grant or withhold.
When cut open, it displays an infinity of tiny leaf-buds and stems, and at intervals there exudes from it an aromatic resin, which from its astringent properties is used by the shepherds as a vulnerary, but has not been converted to any commercial purpose.
There are a Roman Catholic and two Evangelical churches, a pilgrimage chapel, dating from 1100, a ducal chateau, built by a son of the elector John George about the end of the 16th century (now utilized as government offices), classical, technical and commercial schools and a hospital.
From Bristol downward the river is one of the most important commercial waterways in England, as giving access to that great port.
For a few months he worked as a legal reporter for the Cincinnati Times (owned by his brother C. P. Taft), and then for the Cincinnati Commercial.
They brought to the support of that instrument "the areas of intercourse and wealth" (Libby), the influence of the commercial towns, the greater planters, the army officers, creditors and property-holders generally, - in short, of interests that had felt the evils of the weak government of the Confederation, - and alsc of some few true nationalists (few, because there was as yet no general national feeling), actuated by political principles of centralization independently of motives of expediency and self-interest.
It is a district of poor streets, inhabited by a labouring population employed in leather and other factories, and in the Surrey Commercial Docks and the wharves bordering the river.
The article Fisheries deals with the subject from the economic and commercial point of view, and Angling with the catching of fish as a sport.
It is the commercial capital of Mazandaran, and 26 m.
The trees of the greatest commercial value are oak and chestnut at the foot of the mountains and yellow pine on the uplands of the Coastal Plain.
At the beginning of the 20th century a great number of minerals were found in the Piedmont Plateau and Mountain regions, but most of them in such small quantities as to be of little or no commercial value, and in 1902 the total value of the products of the mines and quarries was only $927,376; but in 1907 their value was $2,961,381, and in 1908, $2,145,947.
Both entered India as commercial companies, but the disorganized condition of the Mogul empire necessitated the use of military force to protect their interests, and allured them to conquest.
Feudal in origin, Dunster's later importance was commercial, and the port had a considerable wool, corn and cattle trade with Ireland.
Commercial glycerin is mostly obtained from the "spent lyes" of the soap-maker.
It is probably the greatest commercial city in the central Sudan.
Admitted to the bar in Boston in 1805, Webster began the practice of law at Boscawen, but his father died a year later, and Webster removed in the autumn of 1807 to Portsmouth, then one of the leading commercial cities of New England.
It is built principally of wood, stands on a low cape, and has the aspect of an important commercial city.
The commercial importance of the town dates from the second half of the r9th century; in 1870 its population had risen to 38,000, and after it was brought into railway connexion with Kharkov and Voronezh, and thus with the fertile provinces of south and south-east Russia, the increase was still more rapid, the number reaching 56,047 in 1885, and 58,928 in 1900 - Greeks, Jews, Armenians and West-Europeans being important elements.
This commercial policy had indeed a deeper and more fatal effect than the alienation of the towns; it secularized still further the brethren of the Order, and made them financiers instead of soldiers.
The old infirmary building is now occupied by St Joseph's College, a commercial academy of the Marist Brotherhood, in connexion with which there is a novitiate for the training of members of the order for missionary service at home or abroad.
In both 1715 and 1745 Dumfries remained apathetic. Prince Charles Edward indeed occupied the town, holding his court in a building afterwards known as the Commercial Hotel, levying £2000 tribute money and requisitioning 1000 pairs of shoes for his Highlanders, by way of punishing its contumacy.
It has an agreeable, temperate climate, is regularly built, and has considerable commercial importance.
The rude symmetry of the feudal system had been long ago destroyed by partial and unskilful adaptations to modern commercial life, effected at various dates and in accordance with various theories.
In the old Prussian provinces alone there were fifty-three different customs frontiers, and German manufactures could not develop until the growth of the Zollverein brought with it commercial consolidation, internal freedom and greater homogeneity of economic conditions.
Commercial supremacy required not so much highly trained intelligence amongst manufacturers and merchants as keen business instinct and a certain rude energy.
The spread of the modern industrial system has brought with it the modern state, with its millions of consumers, its vast area, its innumerable activities, its complicated code of industrial and commercial law.
But a new institution cannot be made on the same terms. The modern industrial system has brought with it an immense variety of practical problems which nations must solve on pain of industrial and commercial ruin.
The backwardness of economic science has been an index of the danger threatening the industrial and commercial supremacy of the United Kingdom.
There are very few questions of public or commercial importance upon which the best and most recent investigations are to be found amongst English works.
If we take, for example, the corner-stone of the British commercial system in the 19th century, namely, the policy of "free trade ", the public do not now read the economic works which supplied the theoretical basis of that policy, and, indeed, would not be convinced by them.
The absence of conviction in regard to British commercial policy naturally had its counterpart in the attitude of many men to the financial system of the country.
In spite of the vast increase in national wealth, it was found a matter of increasing difficulty to meet a comparatively slight strain without recourse to measures of a highly controversial character; and the search for new sources of revenue (as in 1909) at once raised, in an acute form, questions of national commercial policy and the relations between the United Kingdom and the colonies.
These questions of commercial policy and local government are closely bound up with the scientific study of the transport system.
It is obvious that no inquiry into commercial policy, or into such social questions as the housing of the poor, can be effective unless this deficiency is remedied.
In its native habitats it is said to endure for several centuries; but in those countries from which the commercial supply of its timber is chiefly drawn, it attains perfection in from 70 to 90 years, according to soil and situation.
In November 1797 he sent to Malta Poussielgue, secretary of the French legation at Genoa, on business which was ostensibly commercial but (as he informed the Directory) "in reality to put the last touch to the design that we have on that island."
On the 30th of January he caused the official French paper, the Moniteur, to publish in extenso a confidential report sent by Colonel Sebastiani describing his so-called commercial mission to the Levant.
Indeed, along with other serious checks in Spain, which involved the conquest of that land, it cut through the wide meshes of his policy both in Levantine, Central European and commercial affairs.
But that struggle may more reasonably be ascribed to the rigidity with which he carried out his commercial decrees and his diplomacy.
The Cnossian palace was re-occupied in its northern part by chieftains who have left numerous rich graves; and general commercial intercourse must have been resumed, for the uniformity of the FIG.
They contain the voluminous and invaluable records of the Venetian republic, diplomatic, judicial, commercial, notarial, &c. Under the republic the various departments of state stored their records in various buildings, at the ducal palace, at the Scuola di San Teodoro, at the Camerlenghi.
Under the republic commercial shipping used to enter Venice by the Tort of San Nicole del Lido and lie along the quay called the Riva degli Schiavoni, in the basin of San Marco, and up the broad Giudecca Canal.
The geographical position of Venice and her commercial policy alike compelled her to attempt to secure the command of the rivers and roads of the mainland, at least up to the mountains, that is to say, of the north-western outlet, just as she had obtained command of the south-eastern inlet.
There can be no doubt that if Cobden had been satisfied to devote all his energies to commercial life he might soon have attained to great opulence, for it is understood that his share in the profits of the business he had established amounted to from £8000 to £10,000 a year.
But though he declined to share the responsibility of Lord Palmerston's administration, he was willing to act as its representative in promoting freer commercial intercourse between England and France.
He then addressed himself to the French ministers, and had much earnest conversation, especially with Rouher, whom he found well inclined to the economical and commercial principles which he advocated.
But it remains the fact that his success with the free-trade movement was for years unchallenged, and that the leaps and bounds with which English commercial prosperity advanced after the repeal of the cornIaws were naturally associated with the reformed fiscal policy, so that the very name of protectionism came to be identified with all that was not merely heterodox but hateful.
In the Reichstag he had originally been a member of the National Liberal party, but in 1879 he was the first to accept the new commercial policy of Bismarck, and in his later years he joined the Moderate Conservatives, but his deafness prevented him from taking a prominent part in debate.
Hungary forms together with Austria one customs and commercial territory, and the statistics for the foreign trade is given under Austria-Hungary.
Its commanding position at the head of the Gulf of Quarnero, and spacious new harbour works, as also its immediate connexions with both the Austrian and Hungarian railway systems, render it specially advantageous as a commercial port.
There are also a special commercial court at Budapest, a naval court at Fiume, and special army courts.
The following nine years mark the financial and commercial rehabilitation of Hungary, the establishment of a vast and original railway system which won the admiration of Europe, the liberation and expansion of her over-sea trade, the conversion of her national debt under the most favourable conditions and the consequent equilibrium of her finances.
But in November 1898, on the occasion of the renewal of the commercial convention with Austria, the attack on the ministry was renewed with unprecedented virulence, obstruction being systematically practised with the object of goading the government into committing illegalities, till Banffy, finding the situation impossible, resigned on the 17th of February 1899.
As a result of this compromise the budget of 1899 was passedlin little more than a month, and the commercial and tariff treaty with Austria were renewed till 1903.2 But the government had to pay for this complacency with a so-called " pactum," which bound its hands in several directions, much to the profit of the opposition during the " pure " elections of 1901.
Among the newer writers on common and commercial law may be mentioned Wenczal, Zlinsky, ZsgOd, Gustave Schwarz, Alexander Plosz, Francis Nagy and Neumann; on constitutional law, Korbuly, Boncz, Stephen Kiss, Ernest Nagy, Kmety, Arthur Balogh, Ferdinandy, Bela Grunwald, Julius Andrassy and Emeric Ha j nik; on administration, George Fesiis, Kmety and Csiky; on finance, Mariska, Exner and Laszlo.
Mechanical, commercial, economic and statistical facts (the latter usually involving the time-relation) afford numerous examples.
The first efforts of the new monarch were directed against the Wendish pirates who infested the Baltic and made not merely the political but even the commercial development of the Danish state impossible.
There is also a special court of arbitration in commercial disputes and another for such as arise under accident insurance.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
The opening of the Amazon to navigation, and the subsequent arrival of foreign ocean-going vessels at Iquitos, added immensely to the importance of the city, and made it the commercial entrepot of eastern Peru.
He turned his attention to the lagoon of Venice, which had been steadily growing in commercial and maritime importance, and had, on the whole, shown a sympathy for Byzantium rather than for the Franks.
During the same period we also note the development of certain families, thanks to the accumulation of wealth by trade, and here we get the beginnings of that commercial aristocracy whose evolution was the dominant factor in the constitutional history of the republic.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
The theory of the government, a theory expressed throughout the whole commercial career of the republic, the theory which made Venice a rigidly protective state, was that the Levant trade belonged solely to Venice and her citizens.
To secure for themselves the command of trade the leading commercial families resolved to erect themselves into a close gild, which should have in its hands the sole direction of the business concern, the exploitation of the East.
Exhausting as the Turkish wars were to the Venetian treasury, her trade was still so flourishing that she might have survived the strain had not the discovery of the Cape route to the Indies cut the tap-root of her commercial prosperity by diverting the stream of traffic from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic. When Diaz rounded the Cape in 1486 a fatal blow was struck at Venetian commercial supremacy.
Commercial fishing is important only in Lake Erie.
Gephart's Transportation and Industrial Development in the Middle West (New York, 1909), in the Columbia University Studies in History, Economics and Public Law, is a commercial history of Ohio.
It has very little importance as a commercial or industrial centre, having only a small trade and a few unimportant industries.
Commercial interests are largely concentrated in East Boston.
The Cunard arrangement was the first of various measures that worked for a commercial rapprochement between the New England states and Canada, culminating in the reciprocity treaty of 1854, and Boston's interests are foremost to-day in demanding a return to relations of reciprocity.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
Being neither rich in material resources nor well placed for commercial enterprise, Phocis was mainly pastoral.
New Paphos became the administrative capital of the whole island in Ptolemaic and Roman days, as well as the head of one of the four Roman districts; it was also a flourishing commercial city in the time of Strabo, and famous for its oil, and for "diamonds" of medicinal power.
As a commercial product spider-silk has been found to be equal, if not superior, to the best silk spun by lepidopterous larvae; but the cannibalistic propensities of spiders, making it impossible to keep more than one in a single receptacle, coupled with the difficulty of getting them to spin freely in a confined space, have hitherto prevented the silk being used on any extensive scale for textile fabrics.
In 1872 he became vicar of St Jude's, Commercial Street, Whitechapel, and in the next year married Henrietta Octavia Rowland, who had been a co-worker with Miss Octavia Hill and was no less ardent a philanthropist than her husband.
The city owes its origin to a series of commercial experiments.
All attempts to enforce the British commercial regulations were ineffectual.
The following table, summarized from the Handbook to the Imperial Institute Cotton Exhibition, 1905, giving the length of staple and value on one date (January 16, 1905), will serve to indicate the comparative values of some of the principal commercial cottons.
In modern commercial cotton production ginning machines are always used.
Compared with the commercial fertilizer which the farmer has to buy, cotton seed possesses, therefore, a distinct value.
No certain remedy is known for the destruction on a commercial scale of the boll weevil, but every effort has been made in the United States to check the advance of the insect, to ascertain and encourage its natural enemies, and to propagate races of cotton which resist its attacks.
The World's Commercial Cotton Crop. It is impossible to give an exact return of the total amount of cotton produced in the world, owing to the fact that in China, India and other eastern countries, in Mexico, Brazil, parts of the Russian empire, tropical Africa, &c., considerable - in some cases very large - quantities of cotton are made up locally into wearing apparel, &c., and escape all statistical record.
The area devoted to this crop in 1879 was 14,480,019 acres, and the-total commercial crop was 5,755,359 bales.
The cultivation of cotton on a commercial scale is quite new in Nyasaland, and although general conditions of soil and climate appear favourable the question of transport is serious and labour is not abundant.
Queensland, New South Wales and South Australia possess suitable climatic conditions, and in the first-named state the cotton has been grown on a commercial scale in past years, the crop in 1897 being about 450 bales.
Tartaric acid, which is sometimes present in large quantities as an adulterant in commercial citric acid, may be detected in the presence of the latter, by the production of a precipitate of acid potassium tartrate when potassium acetate is added to a cold solution.
The most important commercial place, however, is the treaty port of Niu-chwang, at the head of the Gulf of Liao-tung.
The first commercial exploitation of importance appears to have been the distillation of the oil at Alfreton in Derbyshire by James Young.
Even prior to the discovery of petroleum in commercial quantities, a number of chemists had made determinations of the chemical composition of several different varieties, and these investigations, supplemented by those of a later date, show that petroleum consists of about 84% by weight of carbon with 12% of hydrogen, and varying proportions of sulphur, nitrogen and oxygen.
It should be pointed out that the deposits which have been hitherto of chief commercial importance occur in the old rocks (Carboniferous to Silurian) on the one hand, and in the comparatively new Tertiary formations on the other, the intermediate periods yielding but little or at any rate far less abundantly.
The Venetians, however, maintained their position in Palestine; and their quarters remained, along with those of the Genoese, as privileged commercial franchises in an otherwise feudal state.
These extensions in the south and east had also, it is easy to see, a commercial motive.
The commercial motive, again, had been one of the great motives of the crusade; and the class which was impelled by that motive would be both large and, in view of the quality of the Eastern goods in which it dealt, exceptionally prosperous.
Midway between the seignorial cours de bourgeoisie and the privileged jurisdictions of the Italian quarter, there were two kinds of courts of a commercial character - the cours de la fonde in towns where trade was busy, and the cours de la chaine in the sea-ports.
The former courts, under their bailiffs, gradually absorbed the separate courts which the Syrians had at first been permitted to enjoy under their own refs; and the bailiff with his 6 assessors (4 Syrians and 2 Franks) thus came to judge both commercial cases and cases in which Syrians were involved.
In any case the native Frank, accustomed to commercial intercourse and diplomatic negotiations with the Mahommedans, could hardly share the unreasoning passion to make a dash for the "infidel."
In the second place, there was the commercial grudge of Venice, which had only been given large privileges by the Eastern empire to desire still larger, and had, moreover, been annoyed not only by alterations or revocations of those privileges, such as the usurper Alexius III.
If the Third Crusade had been directed by the lay power towards the true spiritual end of all Crusades, the Fourth was directed by the lay power to its own lay ends; and the political and commercial motives, which were deeply implicit even in the First Crusade, had now become dominantly explicit.
Other writers, again, blame the com mercial cupidity of the Italian towns; of what avail, they asked with no little justice, was the Crusade, when Venice and Genoa destroyed the naval bases necessary for its success by their internecine quarrels in the Levant (as in 1257), or - still worse - entered into commercial treaties with the common enemy against whom the Crusades were directed?
On the very eve of the Fifth Crusade, Venice had concluded a commercial treaty with Malik-al-Kamil of Egypt; just before the fall of Acre the Genoese, the king of Aragon and the king of Sicily had all concluded advantageous treaties with the sultan Kala`un.
The number of Portuguese, English, Dutch and Chinese words in Malay is not considerable; their presence is easily accounted for by political or commercial contact.
The oil mixture used differs in the several manufacturing countries, and the commercial name of the product is correspondingly varied.
He resisted the navy, the mainspring of Washington's foreign policy; he opposed commercial treaties and diplomatic intercourse in a similar fashion.
Commercial warfare was to be avoided because of the cost.
Commercial warfare failed, the Embargo was repealed, and Jefferson, having entangled foreign relations and brought the country to the verge of civil war, retired to private life, leaving to his successor Madison, and to Gallatin, the task of extricating the nation from its difficulties.
Peace was his reward; on the 24th of December 1814 the treaty was signed; and after visiting Geneva for the first time since his boyhood, and assisting in negotiating a commercial convention (1815) with England by which all discriminating duties were abolished, Gallatin in July 1815 returned to America.
The centre of commercial and civic life of the older group of communities, as of the greater city of the classical age, was the Agora or market.
After the Persian Wars the northern portion was used for commercial, the southern for political and ceremonial purposes.
In the centre was the Agora of Hippodamus; on the western margin of the Cantharus harbour extended the emporium, or Digma, the centre of commercial activity, flanked by a series of porticoes; at its northern end, near the entrance to the inner harbour, was another Agora, on the site of the modern market-place, and near it the µa?cp l OTOa, the corn depot of the state.
The greater commercial advantages offered by Nauplia, Corinth and Patras were outweighed by the historic claims of Athens in the choice of a capital for the newly founded kingdom, and the seat of government was transferred hither from Nauplia in 1833.
Industrial and commercial Industry activity is mainly centred at the Peiraeus, where and corn- 8 cloth and cotton mills, cognac distilleries, 14 steam coerce.
The port and the capital are now connected by railway with Corinth and the principal towns of the Morea; the line opening up communication with northern Greece and Thessaly, when its proposed connexion with the Continental railway system has been effected, will greatly enhance the importance of the Peiraeus, already one of the most flourishing commercial towns in the Levant.
Nor did the commons obtain relief through any commercial or colonial enterprises such as those which alleviated social distress in many other Greek states.
By his economic legislation Solon placed Athenian agriculture once more upon a sound footing, and supplemented this source of wealth by encouraging commercial enterprise, thus laying the foundation of his country's material prosperity.
It possesses a Roman Catholic and two Protestant churches, a palace, which from 1524 to 1642 was the residence of the Harburg line of the house of Brunswick, a high-grade modern school, a commercial school and a theatre.
Iron ore, lignite, copper, mercury, molybdenite, nickel, platinum and other minerals have been found, but the quantity of each is too small, or the quality too poor, for them to be of commercial value.
The capital, Aguascalientes, named from the medicinal hot springs near it, is a flourishing commercial and manufacturing city.
A zoning law determines definitely the residential, industrial and commercial districts; 29 street widenings, openings and cut-offs were under construction in 1921.
It was Orduin who first abolished the onerous system of tolls on exports and imports, and established a combination of native merchants for promoting direct commercial relations between Sweden and Russia.
Proceeding to the six-membered hetero-atomic rings, the benzo-, dibenzoand naphtho-derivatives are frequently of great commercial and scientific importance.
He resigned office on the 15th of March 1890 on the question of the Franco-Turkish commercial treaty.
The west coast of the Red Sea was dotted with commercial stations of royal foundation from Arsinoe north of Suez to Arsinoe in the south near the straits of Bab-el-Mandeb.
It was Alexandria into which this stream of traffic poured and made it the commercial metropolis of the world.
Returning to Massachusetts in 1849, he became a clerk and subsequently a junior partner in a prominent Boston commercial house.
The details of the commercial processes are trade secrets.
In the second half of the 15th century Bolgari became part of the Kazan kingdom, lost its commercial and political importance, and was annexed to Russia after the fall of Kazan.
The commercial and political importance of Mozambique has been eclipsed by Lourengo Marques.
Globes manufactured for commercial purposes by Blaeu and others have already been mentioned, but several large globes, for show rather than for use, were produced in addition to these.
Thereafter the Italian government assumed the direct administration of the ports, a purely commercial undertaking replacing the Benadir Company.
Lancaster is the trade centre of a fertile agricultural region, has good transportation facilities, and is near the Hocking Valley and Sunday Creek Valley coal-fields; its commercial and industrial importance increased greatly, after 1900, through the development of the neighbouring natural gas fields and, after 1907-1908, through the discovery of petroleum near the city.
All the former commercial grandeur of Chandernagore has now passed away, and at present it is little more than a quiet suburb of Calcutta, without any external trade.
Speculators either directly employed slaves as artisans or commercial and banking agents, or hired them out, sometimes for work in mines or factories, sometimes for service in private houses, as cooks, flute-players, &c., or for viler uses.
The wish of Toussaint was that San Domingo should enjoy a practical independence whilst recognizing the sovereignty and exclusive commercial rights of France.
The History covers the years between the Roman invasion and the death of Henry VIII., and the "new plan" is the combination of an account of the domestic life and commercial and social progress of the people with the narrative of the political events of each period.
From the time of the conquest York was important as a trading and commercial centre.
To the south-east stretches the fruitful plain of Beauce, "the granary of France," of which the town is the commercial centre.
Leon is essentially a manufacturing and commercial city; it has a cathedral and a theatre, the latter one of the largest and finest in the republic. The city is regularly built, with wide streets and numerous shady parks and gardens.
Shrimps, frogs (of great commercial importance), terrapin, clams and oysters are common.
English law has largely moulded, for example, criminal and commercial law and the law of evidence; the development of the law of corporations, damages, prohibitions and such extraordinary remedies as the mandamus has been very similar to that in other states; while in the fusion of law and equity, and the law of successions, family relations, &c., the civil law of Spain and France has been unaffected.
The fear of Spanish commercial laws powerfully stimulated resistance to the transfer, and though Ulloa made commercial and monetary concessions, they were not sufficient.
The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
Ordinary commercial Cuban seed of to-day is largely, and often altogether, Mexican tobacco."
The commercial product of stones, brick and cement is of rapidly increasing importance.
In 1907 the number of students was 554 Below the university there are six provincial institutes, one in each province, in each of which there is a preparatory department, a department of secondary education, and (this due to peculiar local conditions) a school of surveying; and in that of Havana commercial departments in addition.
A few shallow salt lakes are filled by rain water, but they dry up on the setting in of the hot weather, leaving a thick crust of salt on their beds, which is used for commercial and domestic purposes.
His father, a prosperous merchant in Breslau, intended Ferdinand for a business career, and sent him to the commercial school at Leipzig; but the boy got himself transferred to the university, first at Breslau, and afterwards at Berlin.
It was not, however, a commercial success, and the same result attended Siemens and Halske's application of the silent discharge.
The conversion of nitrogen into ammonia by electricity has received much attention, but the commercial aspect appears to have been first worked out by de Hemptinne in 1900, who used both the spark and silent discharge on mixtures of hydrogen and nitrogen, and found that the pressure and temperature must be kept low and the spark gap narrow.
The fixation of nitrogen as a nitride has not been attended with commercial success.
In respect of foreign trade Bosnia and Herzegovina were in 1882 included in the customs and commercial system of AustriaHungary, to the extinction of all intermediate imposts.
For higher education there were in 1908 three gymnasia, a realschool at Banjaluka, a technical college and a teachers' trainingcollege at Serajevo, where, also, is the state school for Moslem law-students, called scheriatschule from the sheri or Turkish code; and various theological, commercial and art institutes.
At this period the Servian empire had reached its zenith; Hungary, governed by the feeble monarch, Charles Robert of Anjou, was striving to crush the insurgent magnates of Croatia; Venice, whose commercial interests were imperilled, desired to restore peace and maintain the balance of power.
Ragusa furnished him with money and a fleet, in return for a guarantee of protection; commercial treaties with Venice further strengthened his position; and the Vatican, which had instigated the Croats to invade the dominions of their heretical neighbour (1337-40), was conciliated by his conversion to Roman Catholicism.
It is not a commercial town, and its only noteworthy manufacture is the " clay dumplings " which are eaten with potatoes by the inhabitants of the Bolivian uplands.
Of these, commercial stamps are among the revenues specifically hypothecated to the Public Debt Administration, £T460,079; the others, consisting of legal stamps of various kinds, registration and transfer-duties, &c., are estimated to produce £ T6 53,373 forming a combined total of £T1,113,452.
Under the old commercial treaties which lapsed about 1890 - but which have been maintained " provisionally " in force until one or other of the great powers consents to set a term to the negotiation of fresh treaties - an ad valorem duty of 8% was imposed on all articles imported into the Turkish empire.
Since then the import duties have been collected at the rate of 11% ad valorem under the supervision of the Public Debt Administration, the bondholders having certain rights, under the decree of Muharem, described below, over any increase of revenue arising from modification of the commercial treaties.
These " six indirect contributions " were the revenues from tobacco, salt, wines and spirits, stamps (commercial), certain specified fisheries, and the silk tithe in specified provinces.
The ceded revenues, exclusive of the " contributive parts " and the excess from commercial treaties, were estimated by Bourke, in his report to the bondholders on the decree of Muharrem, at £I,812,562 (£T1,993,818).
A large and remunerative export trade in salt to India is now established, whereas formerly not one grain found its way there; the first steps in this direction were taken in 1892 when works were begun to place the great rock-salt salines of Salif, on the coast of the Red Sea, on a commercial footing.
Commercial and criminal codes, as well as codes of procedure, were drawn up, largely on the basis of the Code Napoleon.
Besides the court of superior officers, which assists the pasha in the general administration of the province, there is also a mejlis or mixed tribunal for the settlement of municipal and commercial affairs, to which both Christian and Jewish merchants are admitted.
Lower Euclid Avenue (the old country road to Euclid, 0., and Erie, Pa.) is given up to commercial uses; the eastern part of the avenue has handsome houses with spacious and beautifully ornamented grounds, and is famous as one of the finest residence streets in the country.
Cleveland's rapid growth both as a commercial and as a manufacturing city is due largely to its situation between the iron regions of Lake Superior and the coal and oil regions of Pennsylvania and Ohio.
The discovery of iron ore in the Lake Superior region made Cleveland the natural meeting-point of the iron ore and the coal from the Ohio, Pennsylvania and West Virginia mines; and it is from this that the city's great commercial importance dates.
The commercial greatness of Cardiff is due to the vast coal and iron deposits of the country drained by the Taff and Rhymney, between whose outlets the town is situated.
Its proximity to Athens and the islands of the Saronic gulf, the commercial advantages of its position, and the fame of its temple of Asclepius combined to make Epidaurus a place of no small importance.
In 1850 he became a member of the Institute, and in the following year published an important work in favour of free trade, under the title of Examen du systeme commercial connu sous le nom de systeme protecteur.
His chief public triumph was the important part he played in bringing about the conclusion of the commercial treaty between France and Great Britain in 1860.
For an inland state Minnesota is exceptionally well situated to play a chief part in the commercial life of the country, and various causes combine to make it important in respect to its interstate and foreign trade.
Its noteworthy public buildings are the custom-house and its storehouses which occupy the old quadrangular fortress built by the Spanish government between 1770 and 1775, and cover 15 acres, the prefecture, the military and naval offices and barracks, the post-office, three Catholic churches, a hospital, market, three clubs and some modern commercial houses.
For a short time the commercial interests of the stricken city centred at Bellavista, 14 m.
It consists of a rocky promontory, containing three natural harbours, a large one on the north-west which is still one of the chief commercial harbours of the Levant, and two smaller ones on the east, which were used chiefly for naval purposes.
Gelatin forms a white amorphous powder; the commercial product, however, generally forms glassy plates.
It was restored and enlarged in 1904, and shelters the commercial library of nearly 100,000 vols.
The wars which ensued, the closing of continental ports against English trade, the occupation of the city after the disastrous battle of Jena, and pestilence within its walls brought about a severe commercial crisis and caused a serious decline in its prosperity.
Under the long peace which followed the close of the Napoleonic wars, its trade gradually revived, fostered by the declaration of independence of South and Central America, with both of which it energetically opened close commercial relations, and by the introduction of steam navigation.
South of Resht this section is broken through at almost a right angle by the Safid Rud (White river),and along it runs the principal commercial road between the Caspian and inner Persia, Resht-Kazvin-Teheran.
Under Venetian protection, freely accepted in 1401, the inhabitants maintained their municipal independence and commercial prosperity down to the destruction of the Venetian republic in 1797, though on two occasions, in 1500 and 1560, their city was burned by the Turks.
Date sugar is a valuable commercial product of the East Indies, obtained from the sap or toddy of Phoenix sylvestris, the toddy palm, a tree so closely allied to the date palm that it has been supposed to be the parent stock of all the cultivated varieties.
A commercial tribunal, a court of appeal and the court of cassation are also in Belgrade.
In 1717 Prince Eugene of Savoy conquered it for Austria, which kept it until 1739, improving the fortifications and giving great impulse to the commercial development of the town.
It is regularly built and contains few buildings of architectural interest, but is a flourishing and important commercial town, not merely owing to its own manufactures (which are miscellaneous) but for the products of the district, and one of the greatest railway centres in Italy.
At the end of the canal is a large commercial harbour, beyond which the channel opens into the lake - in reality an arm of the sea - roughly circular in form and covering about 50 sq.
The enormous increase in the commercial demand for rubber and the probability of the continuance of this increase in view of the great variety of purposes to which the material can be applied, has led to great activity in rubber planting in other parts of the world, especially in Ceylon and the Malay Peninsula and Archipelago, where the Para rubber trees (Hevea brasiliensis) has been successfully introduced, and numerous plantations; many of which have not been in existence for more than ten or fifteen years, are now contributing to the world's supply.
America which furnish rubber of secondary commercial importance are Hancornia speciosa, yielding the Mangabeira rubber of Brazil, and species of Sapium furnishing the Colombian rubber and much of the rubber of Guiana (derived from Sapium Jenmani), which is scarcely inferior to the rubber of Para.
The proteids should be as far as possible removed during the preparation of the rubber, as these substances are chiefly responsible for the objectionable smell and colour of " native " rubbers, and their presence leads to subsequent change in the commercial material.
The presence of more than a small percentage of resin in the latex leads to the production of rubber containing much resin, which seriously depreciates its commercial value for most purposes.
It is already certain that some commercial rubbers contain a variable proportion of a substance of the nature of caoutchouc, but having different properties.
It may therefore be said that caoutchouc has been already artificially or synthetically prepared, and the possibility of producing synthetic rubber cheaply on a commercial scale remains the only problem.
This viscous liquid is present in small proportion in some commercial rubbers owing to overheating during their preparation.
It appears to be the principal cause of stickiness or the " tacky " condition of some rubbers, which considerably depreciates their commercial value.
The modern town of Susa, despite its commercial prosperity, occupies only a third of the old site.
Daux, discovered the jetties and the moles of the commercial harbour, and the line of the military harbour (Cothon); both harbours, which were mainly artificial, are entirely silted up. There remains a fragment of the fortifications of the Punic town, which had a total length of 6410 metres, and remains of the substructions of the Byzantine acropolis, of the circus, the theatre, the water cisterns, and of other buildings, notably the interesting Byzantine basilica which is now used as an Arab cafe (Kahwat-el-Kubba).
In commercial importance Iloilo ranks next to Manila among Philippine cities; it has manufactures of pina, jusi, coconut oil, lime, vinegar and various articles made from palm wood.
And it is along these trenches that the principal commercial routes have been made for reaching the higher levels of the plateau itself.
Large sheets of muscovite, such as are of commercial value, are found only in the very coarsely crystallized pegmatite veins traversing granite, gneiss or micaschist.
He announced his intention "to follow in the footsteps of his illustrious predecessor," took over all but one of Jackson's cabinet, and met with statesmanlike firmness the commercial crisis of 1837, already prepared for before he took office.
The state elections of 1837 and 1838 were disastrous for the Democrats, and the partial recovery in 1839 was offset by a second commercial crisis in that year.
The Danube, joined by the Iller just above the town and by the Blau just below, here becomes navigable, so that Ulm occupies the important commercial position of a terminal river-port.
The municipality owns and operates the water-works (the water-supply being drawn from the Penobscot by the Holly system) and an electric-lighting plant; there is also a large electric plant for generation of electricity for power and for commercial lighting, and in Bangor and the vicinity there were in 1908 about 60 m.
During much of the 16th century it was one of the most important agricultural and commercial settlements of the island.
Commercial red lead is frequently contaminated with this oxide, which may, however, be removed by repeated digestion with lead acetate.
The inferior varieties of commercial "white lead" are produced by mixing the genuine article with more or less of finely powdered heavy spar or occasionally zinc-white (ZnO).
Early in the 16th century the commercial rivalry between Weymouth and the neighbouring borough of Melcombe came to a height.
A very pure form of iron, which from the method of its manufacture is called " steel," is now extensively used for the construction of dynamo magnets; this metal sometimes contains not more than 0.3% of foreign substances, including carbon, and is magnetically superior to the best commercial wrought iron.
He applied his method with good effect, however, in testing a large number of commercial specimens of iron and steel, the magnetic constants of which are given in a table accompanying his paper.
Several instruments in which the traction method is applied have been devised for the rapid measurement of induction or of magnetization in commercial samples of iron and steel.
The first column contains the symbols of the various elements which were added to the iron, and the second the percentage proportion in which each element was present; the sample containing 0.03% of carbon was a specimen of the best commercial iron, the values obtained for it being given for comparison.
Later papers 7 give the results of a more minute examination of those specimens which were remarkable for very low and very high permeabilities, and were therefore likely to be of commercial importance.
In 1680, immediately after Plymouth had conveyed the "Neck" to a company of four, the village was laid out; the following year, in anticipation of future commercial importance, the township and the village were named Bristol, from the town in England.
Although Petropolis is not a commercial centre, its water-power and cool climate are making it an important manufacturing town.
On these rounded hills occurs the deposit of phosphate of lime which gives the island its commercial value.
Rengo is an active commercial town and had a population of 6463 in 1895.
In 1797 it sought incorporation with France from motives of commercial policy, and in 1871 it passed to Germany.
Among the most remarkable are the ruins of a bridge and a citadel, or palace, besides vestiges of canals and watermills, which tell of former commercial activity.
The new caravan road to Isfahan, opened for traffic in 1900, promised, if successful, to give Ahvaz greater commercial importance.
Although religious animosities between Christian nations have died out, although dynasties may now rise and fall without raising half Europe to arms, the springs of warlike enterprise are still to be found in commercial jealousies, in imperialistic ambitions and in the doctrine of the survival of the fittest which lends scientific support to both.
The largest of these and the only one of commercial value is the Ribeira de Iguape, which has its source on the tablelands of Parana and after receiving several affluents west of the Serra do Mar breaks through a depression in that range and discharges into the Atlantic"some miles below Santos on the southern boundary of the state of Sao Paulo.
There are still other bays along the coast which are well adapted for commercial purposes but are used only in the coasting trade.
It is taken with the harpoon and its oil is one of the commercial products of the Amazon valley.
Along the coast, much of the virgin forest has been cut away, not only for the creation of cultivated plantations, but to meet the commercial demand for Brazil-wood and furniture woods.
Although the coast of Brazil shows a large number of bays and tide-water river channels which are apparently suitable for commercial ports, a close examination of them reduces the number of good ports to less than a dozen.
Besides these it might easily excel in producing many of the tropical fruits for which there is a commercial demand.
These deficits were common enough under the monarchy, but they have become still more prominent under the republic. According to the " Retrospecto Commercial " for 1906 of the Jornal do Commercio (Rio de Janeiro, March 5, 1907), the aggregate deficits for the eleven years 1891 to 1904 were 692,000,000 milreis, or, say, £43,250,000.
Its fluctuations in value have been not only a serious inconvenience in commercial transactions, but also the cause of heavy loss to the people.
Commercial business at the principal ports is largely transacted through foreign banks, of which there are a large number.
It was not, however, till 1662 that Holland signed a treaty with Portugal, by which all territorial claims in Brazil were abandoned in exchange for a cash indemnity and certain commercial privileges.
A similar plot and rebellion took place in the province of Pernambuco, where the inhabitants of the important commercial city of Recife (Pernambuco) were jealous of Rio and the sacrifices they were compelled to make for the support of the luxurious court there.
Although Edinburgh is a residential rather than a manufacturing or commercial centre, the industries which it has are important and flourishing.
Hence, though the village of Canongate grew up beside the abbey of David I., and Edinburgh was a place of sufficient importance to be reckoned one of the four principal burghs as a judicatory for all commercial matters, nevertheless, even so late as 1450, when it became for the first time a walled town, it did not extend beyond the upper part of the ridge which slopes eastwards from the castle.
The Commercial, the Union and the Clydesdale banks are in George Street, the National.
As early as the 13th century the vulgar tongue was already well established at Siena, being used in public documents, commercial records and private correspondence.
But besides a commercial crisis the colony had been the scene of an ecclesiastical dispute which attracted widespread attention.
These somewhat frequent changes of ministry, characteristic of a country new to responsible government, reflected, chiefly, differences concerning the treatment of commercial questions and the policy to be adopted towards the natives.
Not long after the conclusion of the war of1899-1902the close commercial relations between the Transvaal and Natal led to suggestions for a union of the two colonies, but these suggestions were not seriously entertained.
His relative, noting the lad's passionate addiction to study, solemnly warned him, against indulging such a taste, as likely to prove a fatal obstacle to his success in commercial life.
When he was about twenty years of age he became a commercial traveller, and soon became eminently successful in his calling.
In 1830 Cobden learnt that Messrs Fort, calico printers at Sabden, near Clitheroe, were about to retire from business, and he, with two other young men, Messrs Sheriff and Gillet, who were engaged in the same commercial house as himself, determined to make an effort to acquire the succession.
In 1877 he participated in the commercial negotiations with France, in 1878 compiled the Italian customs tariff, and subsequently took a leading part in the negotiations of all the commercial treaties between Italy and other countries.
After his fall from office in June 1898, his principal achievement was the negotiation of the Franco-Italian commercial treaty, though, as deputy, journalist and professor, he continued to take an active part in all political and economic manifestations.
Alcala de Henares contains a military academy and various public institutions, but its commercial importance is slight and its main interest is historical.
His hostility towards Great Britain and even Cape Colony led him to adopt a commercial policy both narrow and prejudicial to the interests of the gold industry.
Besides law, the important departments of finance and mines were organized, and steps taken to remedy the grievances of the commercial and mining classes.
The efforts made by the administration to restore the Boers to the land, to develop the material resources of the country, and to remove all barriers to the intellectual and moral development of the people, were soon, however, hampered by severe Economic commercial depression.
Great Britain finally (in 1906) abandoning all her claims. The commercial depression was due to many causes; of these the most apparent was the shortage of labour at the Rand mines.
Fredericton is the chief commercial centre in the interior of the province, and has also a large trade in lumber.
Of these "tinstone" is of the greatest commercial importance.
The first stage has for its purpose the production of a fairly pure tinstone; the second the conversion of the oxide into metallic tin; and the third preparing a tin pure enough for commercial purposes.
Of the several commercial varieties Banka tin is the purest; it is indeed almost chemically pure.
Iquique is a city of much commercial importance and is provided with banks, substantial business houses, newspapers, clubs, schools, railways, tramways, electric lights, telephone lines, and steamship and cable communication with the outside world.
It is an important railway and commercial centre, trade in hardware being especially large.
The chief towns of Annam are Hue (pop. about 42,000), seat both of the French and native governments, Tourane (pop. about 4000), Phan-Thiet (pop. about 20,000) in the extreme south, Qui-Nhon, and Fai-Fo, a commercial centre to the south of Tourane.
In this respect the greatest efforts have naturally been made by Hamburg; but Magdeburg, Dresden, Meissen, Riesa, Tetschen, Aussig and other places have all done their relative shares, Magdeburg, for instance, providing a commercial harbour and a winter harbour.
In its lower course, whatever is worthy of record clusters round the historical vicissitudes of Hamburg - its early prominence as a missionary centre (Ansgar) and as a bulwark against Slav and marauding Northman, its commercial prosperity as a leading member of the Hanseatic League, and its sufferings during the Napoleonic wars, especially at the hands of the ruthless Davotit.
Basing his foreign policy upon the alliance, as supplemented by the naval entente with Great Britain negotiated by his predecessor, Count Robilant, Crispi assumed a resolute attitude towards France, breaking off the prolonged and unfruitful negotiations for a new Franco-Italian commercial treaty, and refusing the French invitation to organize an Italian section at the Paris Exhibition of 1889.
At home Crispi secured the adoption of the Sanitary and Commercial Codes, and reformed the administration of justice.
From this time forward Japan's commercial and military advancement continued to make uninterrupted progress.
The " City " bears in the great commercial buildings fringing its narrow streets all the marks of a centre of the world's exchanges.
It is estimated that upwards of a million daily enter and leave the City alone as the commercial heart of London, and a great proportion of these travel in and out by the suburban railways.
Thence it runs by commercial Cannon Street to the junction with Cheapside and several other busy streets.
Owing to the by-laws of the County Council, the method of raising commercial or residential buildings to an extreme height is not practised in London; the block known as Queen Anne's Mansions, Westminster, is an exception, though it cannot be called high in comparison with American high buildings.
The derivations of names may here be grouped into two classes, those having a commercial connexion, and those associated with ancient buildings, particularly the City wall and ecclesiastical foundations.
The Jews had their quarter near the commercial centre, their presence being indicated by the street named Old Jewry, though it is probable that they did not reoccupy this locality after their expulsion in 1290.
The amalgamations mentioned were effected subsequently to 1860, and there are now three principal companies within the county, the Gas Light & Coke, South Metropolitan and Commercial, though certain other companies supply some of the outlying districts.
Surrey Commercial Docks, Rotherhithe (Bermondsey), occupy a peninsula between the Lower Pool and Limehouse Reach.
In Mincing Lane are the commercial salerooms. Besides the Bank of England there are many banking houses; and the name of Lombard Street, commemorating the former money dealers of Lombardy, is especially associated with them.
Albany is an important railway and commercial centre, particularly as a distributing point for New England markets, as a lumber market and - though to a much less extent than formerly - as a depot for transhipment to the south and west.
From this time the town, on account of its favourable commercial and strategic position at the gateway of the Iroquois country and at the head of navigation on the Hudson river, was for a century and a half one of the most important places in the colonies.
In the reserves the trees of commercial value can only be cut under a licence returning a revenue to the state, while unreserved trees can be cut by the natives for home consumption.
In 1362 we find Florence at war with Pisa on account of commercial differences, and because the former had acquired the lordship of Volterra.
Besides his commercial value to Cromwell, Carvajal was politically useful also, for he acted as "intelligencer."
Some crystallizers are made entirely cylindrical, and are connected to the condenser of the vacuum pan; in order to maintain a partial vacuum in them, some are fitted with cold-water pipes to cool them and with steam pipes to heat them, and some are left open to the atmosphere at the top. But the efficiency of all depends on the process of almost imperceptible yet continuous evaporation and the methodical addition of syrup, and not on the idiosyncrasies of the experts who manage them; and there is no doubt that in large commercial processes of manufacture the simpler the apparatus used for obtaining a desired result, and the more easily it is understood, the better it will be for the manufacturer.
The quantities for India have been computed from information furnished by the India office, and publications made under authority of the secretary of state and the commercial intelligence department of the Indian government.
Both Germany and Austria had realized the influence of commercial upon political union.
The schools include the Gymnasium (founded in 1592 by the Protestant community as a Latin school), the Realgymnasium (founded in 1830, for "modern" subjects and Latin), the Oberrealschule and Realschule (founded 1893, the latter wholly "modern"), two girls' high schools, a girls' middle-class school, a large number of popular schools, a mechanics' and polytechnic school, a school of mechanics, an industrial drawing school, a commercial school, and a school for the deaf and dumb.
The ordinances of a gild merchant thus aim to protect the brethren from the commercial competition of strangers or non-gildsmen.
The greater the commercial and industrial prosperity of a town, the more rapid was the multiplication of craft gilds, which was a natural result of the ever-increasing division of labour.
The deposits in the great limestone caves of Kentucky, Virginia and Indiana have been probably derived from the overlying soil and accumulated by percolating water; they are of no commercial value.
The commercial success of some of the companies has been very striking, dividends as high as III% having been paid.
New Zealand has attempted to produce tobacco as a commercial crop, but the effort was abandoned several years ago.
In 1886 experiments were conducted, under certain restrictions, and the plant was grown in Norfolk, Kent and other counties with sufficient success to prove the entire practicability of raising tobacco as a commercial crop in England.
Fortunately, however, the small amounts of any of them that are likely to be found in commercial zinc are not for most purposes very deleterious.
Grades of commercial zinc are usually based on selected ores, and brands, when they mean anything, usually mean that the metal is made from certain ores.
A redistilled zinc, from an ordinarily pure commercial zinc, is often called chemically pure, but redistillation is seldom practised except for the recovery of zinc from galvanizer's dross and from the skimmings and bottoms of the melting furnaces of zinc rolling mills.
The mainland of Zeeland-Flanders was formerly also composed of numerous islands which were gradually united by the accumulation of mud and sand, and in this way many once flourishing commercial towns, such as Sluis and Aardenburg, were reduced in importance.
The former commercial importance of the town has disappeared, and the Schlei now affords access to small vessels only.
It served as a medium of commercial intercourse between the North Sea and the Baltic, and was known to the Arabian geographers.
But the principal means of commercial communication for a country like Arabia must always be by sea.
The overthrow of the Wahhabis in 1817 restored Sultan Said to independence; he equipped and armed on Western models a fleet built in Indian ports, and took possession of Sokotra and Zanzibar, as well as the Persian coast north of the straits of Hormuz as far east as Gwadur, while by his liberal policy at home Sohar, Barka and Muscat became prosperous commercial ports.
In 1793 he published in two volumes his great work, History, Civil and Commercial, of the British Colonies in the West Indies, and in 1797 published his Historical Survey of the French Colony in the Island of St Domingo.
Methods have also been discovered for the electrolytic manufacture of calcium, which have had the effect of converting a laboratory curiosity into a product of commercial importance.
In the century of energetic commercial development before 1350 the German merchants abroad led the way.
Though Lubeck's right as court of appeal from the Hanseatic counter at Novgorod was not recognized by the general assembly of the League until 1373, the long-existing practice had simply accorded with the actual shifting of commercial power.
As a consequence of the close commercial relations early existing between England and the Rhenish-Westphalian towns, the merchants of Cologne were the first to possess a gildhall in London and to form a "hansa" with the right of admitting other German merchants on payment of a fee.
The Germans recognized the staple rights of Bruges for a number of commodities, such as wool, wax, furs, copper and grain, and in return for this material contribution to the growing commercial importance of the town, they received in 1309 freedom from the compulsory brokerage which Bruges imposed on foreign merchants.
Not merely because of its central commercial position, but because of its width of view, its political insight, and its constant insistence on the necessity of union, this counter played a leading part in Hanseatic policy.
The commercial relations with the North cannot be regarded as an important element in the union of the Hanse towns, but the geographical position of the Scandinavian countries, especially that of Denmark, commanding the Sound which gives access to the Baltic, compelled a close attention to Scandinavian politics on the part of Lubeck and the League and thus by necessitating combined political action in defence of Hanseatic sea-power exercised a unifying influence.
Under the pressure of commercial and political necessity, authority was definitely transferred from the Hansas of merchants abroad to the Hansa of towns at home, and the sense of unity had become such that in 1380 a Lubeck official could declare that "whatever touches one town touches all."
The whole system was designed to suppress the competition of outsiders, but the divergent interests of individuals and towns, the pressure of competition and changing commercial conditions, in part the reactionary character of the legislation, made enforcement difficult.
The capital is Chillan, and the only other important town is Bulnes, a railway junction and active commercial centre.
Azov was long a place of great military and commercial importance.
Leopoldstadt which together with Brigittenau are the only districts on the left bank of the Danube Canal, is the chief commercial quarter, and is inhabited to a great extent by Jews.