What recommends commerce to me is its enterprise and bravery.
The commerce of the island has been of late years increasing at a rapid rate.
Commerce is carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone.
178), they were for a time very troublesome, as wreckers and pirates, to the reopened commerce between Egypt and the East, till they were chastised by the Greek sovereigns of Alexandria.
Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
He then returned to Bavaria, and his absence bringing him into ill odour at Vienna, he complained of the incompetence of the council of commerce and dedicated a tract on trade (CommercienTractat) to the emperor Leopold.
He then gave in his resignation as general, and returned to commerce; but his brewery was ruined, and after many vicissitudes of fortune he died in poverty in Paris on the 6th of February 1809.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district.
He is assisted by the conseil colonial numbering sixteen members, six of whom are French citizens elected by the French, six natives elected by the natives, the other four being members of the chamber of commerce of Saigon and the conseil prive.
Commerce is unexpectedly confident and serene, alert, adventurous, and unwearied.
With regard to commerce and to provisioning the army, the following was placarded everywhere:
The French found Moscow abandoned but with all the organizations of regular life, with diverse branches of commerce and craftsmanship, with luxury, and governmental and religious institutions.
The valonia of commerce, one of the richest of tanning materials, is the acorn of Q.
17-20, and the description of the commerce of Tyre (xxvii.
Money had to be raised by taxation, and at a meeting of the states-general (March 20, 1569) the governor-general proposed (1) an immediate tax of 1% on all property, (2) a tax of 5% on all transfers of real estate, (3) a tax of io% on the sale of all articles of commerce, the last two taxes to be granted in perpetuity.
Abroad its navigators monopolized the commerce of the world, and explored unknown seas; at home the Dutch school of painting reached its acme in Rembrandt (1607-1669); and the philological reputation of the country was sustained by Grotius, Vossius and the elder Heinsius.
Its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a council of tradearbitrators, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
The bark, very dark externally, is an excellent tanning substance; the inner layers form the quercitron of commerce, used by dyers for communicating to fabrics various tints of yellow, and, with iron salts, yielding a series of brown and drab hues; the colouring property depends on a crystalline principle called quercitrin, of which it should contain about 8%.
Undoubtedly some relation exists between all who live contemporaneously, and so it is possible to find some connection between the intellectual activity of men and their historical movements, just as such a connection may be found between the movements of humanity and commerce, handicraft, gardening, or anything else you please.
In the northern Netherlands generally up to the end of the 14th century the towns had no great political weight; their importance depended upon their river commerce and their markets.
army corps; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
While military service was less important to securing work in commerce, that was not a particularly noteworthy occupation.
They have no genius or talent for comparatively humble questions of taxation and finance, commerce and manufacturers and agriculture.
The Protestant policy was further followed up by treaties with Sweden and Denmark which secured the passage of the Sound for English ships on the same conditions as the Dutch, and a treaty with Portugal which liberated English subjects from the Inquisition and allowed commerce with the Portuguese colonies.
This is unprecedented in the history of commerce and could not be done without the Internet. 9.
Finance, commerce, the national armaments by sea and land, judicial procedure, church government, education, even art and science - everything, in short - emerged recast from his shaping hand.
The rhizome, as met with in commerce, occurs in cylindrical pieces 2 or 3 in.
Led to the ministry of commerce and industry or to that of public artment was chiefly formed.
They first brought the products and arts of the Orient into western Europe; and in the Netherlands, by the impulse that they gave to commerce, they were one of the primary causes of the rise of the chartered towns.
And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
This illicit commerce went on steadily till 1739, when it led to an outbreak of war between England and Spain, which put an end to the asiento.
He then joined Gambetta's cabinet as minister of commerce and the colonies, and in the 1883-85 cabinet of Jules Ferry he held the same office.
The original land-holding aristocracy, which had probably initiated and for a time monopolized commerce, was partly supplanted by prosperous upstarts, and with the general increase of prosperity began to lose its hold upon the community of artisans.
We find them also at war with many of these powers, and with the Genoese, who endeavoured to monopolize the commerce of the Black Sea.
In the absence of a tribunal de commerce commercial cases come before the ordinary tribunal darrondissement.
After the decline of the power of Rome, the dominant force in Asiatic commerce and navigation was Persia, and from that time onward, until the arrival of the Portuguese upon the scene early in the 16th century the spice trade, whose chief emporia were in or near the Malay Peninsula, was in Persian or Arab hands.
From the time of its foundation as a Greek colony to the present day it has always been a considerable emporium of commerce, and it was for two centuries and a half the capital of an empire.
Their power extended far into Arabia, particularly along the Red Sea; and Petra was a meeting-place of many nations, though its commerce was diminished by the rise of the Eastern trade-route from Myoshormus to Coptos on the Nile.
Simultaneously Megarian commerce in Sicily began to be supplanted by Corinth and Corcyra.
The development of commerce is retarded by lack of communications; the country possesses no railways and few roads.
The commerce of the lake consists principally of coal, wood pulp and building material, besides general merchandise.
The tonnage of the commerce of this port amounted, according to the reports of the United States army engineers, to 107,421 tons in 1904 and to 249,174 tons in 1908, of which in the latter year nearly 80% was lumber.
It thus serves as an entrepot for much of the commerce between Atlantic and Pacific ports, and between the interior towns of Central and South America and the cities of Europe and the United States.
Thus at the close of the 14th century, despite the constant wars between the feudal sovereigns who held sway in the Netherlands, the vigorous municipal life had fostered industry and commerce, and had caused Flanders in particular to become the richest possession in the world.
The latter is subdivided into general commerce, which includes all goods entering or leaving the country, and special commerce whirls includes imports for home use and exports of home produce.
the coles pratiques de commerce et dindustrie for the training of clerks and workmen; private schools controlled by the state, such as the coles supirieures de commerce; certain municipal schools, such as the Industrial Institute of Lille; and private establishments, e.g.
He redressed many grievances, regulated the administration of justice, encouraged commerce, reformed the coinage, but as time went on he was compelled to demand larger subsidies and to take severer measures against heretical opinions.
In the large towns banking and commerce flourish to a degree beyond what might be expected.
In 1569 William in his capacity as sovereign prince of Orange issued letters-of-marque to a number of vessels to prey upon the Spanish commerce in the narrow seas.
This town, which was laid out on an exceptionally fine site according to a scientific plan by the architect Hippodamus of Miletus, soon rose to considerable importance, and attracted much of the Aegean and Levantine commerce which had hitherto been in Athenian hands.
In 1666 he was appointed teacher of 'medicine at Mainz and body-physician to the archbishop-elector; and the same year he was made councillor of commerce (Commerzienrat) at Vienna, where he had gained the powerful support of Albrecht, Count Zinzendorf, prime minister and grand chamberlain of the emperor Leopold I.
The town has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college, flour-mills, manufactories of earthenware, biscuits, furniture, casks, and glass and brick works; the port has trade in grain, timber, hemp, flax, &c.
Official statistical works: A nnuaire statistique de la France (a summary of the statistical publications of the government), Slatistique agricole annue,lle, Statislique de lindustrie minerale et des appareils de vapeur, Tableau genera~l dii commerce et de la navigation, Reports on the various colonies issued annually by the British Foreign Office, &c. Guide Books: Karl Baedeker, Northern France, Southern France; P. Joanne, Nord, Champagne et Ardenne; Normandie; and other volumes dealing with every region of the country.
Commerce was the source of Aegina's greatness, and her trade, which appears to have been principally with the Levant, must have suffered seriously from the war with Persia.
Being in the main a self-supporting country France carries on most of her trade within her own borders, and ranks below _________ commerce, in Millions of Pounds Sterling.
In the last-named year the commerce of Algeria amounted to 24,506,020 and that of Tunisia to 5,969,248, making a grand total for French colonial trade in 1905 of 65,432,746 The figures were made up as follows:
The vilayet suffered severely during the Russian occupation of 1878, when, apart from the natural dislocation of commerce, many of the Moslem cultivators emigrated to Asia Minor, to be free from their alien rulers.
The glass industry began in Wheeling in 1821, and there a process was discovered by which in 1864 for soda ash bicarbonate of lime was substituted, and a lime glass was made which was as fine as lead glass; other factors contributing to the localization of the manufacture of glass here are the fine glass sand obtained in the state and the plentiful supply of natural gas for fuel Transportation and Commerce.
pioneers of Greek commerce.
The area of the ancient city is now called the Kaleh, and is inhabited by the Turks; eastward of this is the extensive Christian quarter, and beyond this again a low promontory juts northward into the sea, partly covered with the houses of a well-built suburb, which is the principal centre of commerce.
But the Spanish government was not content with the prohibition of sea-borne commerce.
The common law as it existed before his time was wholly inadequate to cope with the new cases and customs which arose with the increasing development of commerce.
From Jalalabad downwards the river is navigable by boats or rafts of inflated skins, and is considerably used for purposes of commerce.
Phocaea continued to exist under the Persian government, but greatly reduced in population and commerce.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
his Life of his father (1898), his Address to London Chamber of Commerce on " Imperial Telegraphic Communication " (1902), Lecture to Royal United Service Institution on " Submarine Telegraphy " (1907), Lectures to Royal Naval War College (1910) and R.E.
Tortoiseshell, an important article of commerce, is derived from the Thalassochelys caretta, a sea turtle.
They fought for bare existence, for primacy in commerce, for the command of seaports, for the keys of mountain passes, for rivers, roads and all the avenues of wealth and plenty.
Meanwhile, throughout the middle ages, it had been the policy of Venice to refrain from conquests on the Italian mainland, and to confine her energies to commerce in the East.
Naples, easily worsted by the French, under Miollis, left the British alliance, and made peace by the treaty of Florence (March 1801), agreeing to withdraw her troops from the Papal States, to cede Piombino and the Presidii (in Tuscany) to France and to close her ports to British ships and commerce.
commerce at Genoa had urged the Lanza cabinet to establish a commercial depot on the Red Sea.
Weaving is taught in the girls' school, and fairs are held for the sale of farm produce; but the absence of a railway and the badness of the roads retard commerce.
The Romans did not encourage navigation and commerce with the same ardour as their predecessors; still the luxury of Rome, The which gave rise to demands for the varied products Romans.
The three voyages of Vasco da Gama (who died on the scene of his labours, at Cochin, in 1524) revolutionized the commerce of the East.
These cakes are sent out into commerce.
The efforts (1712-1721) to foster colonization and commerce through trading corporations established by Antoine Crozat and John Law failed, and the colony soon came again under the direct control of the king.
Webster argued that the Federal Constitution gave to Congress control over interstate commerce, and that any interference .by the legislature of a state with this commerce was unconstitu - tional and void.
The universities are maintained by the state and by their own ancient resources; while the higher special schools are maintained conjointly by the state, the province, the commune and (sometimes) the local chamber of commerce.
Commerce - - 128 167
The Italian people, that people which gave to the world the commerce and the arts of Florence, was not indeed as yet apparent.
Sicily in the hands ot the Mussulmans, the Theme of Lombardy abandoned to the weak suzerainty of the Greek catapans, the Lombard duchy of Benevento slowly falling to pieces and the maritime republics of Naples, Gaeta and Amalfi extending their influence by commerce in the Mediterranean, were in effect detached from the Italian regno, beyond the jurisidiction of Rome, included in no parcel of Italy proper.
This commerce was a great source of wealth to Venice; but after the discovery of the new passage round the Cape, and the conquests of the Portuguese, the trade of the East passed into other hands.
A second large Dutch fleet sailed in 1598; and, so eager was the republic to extend her commerce over the world that another fleet, consisting of five ships of Rotterdam, was sent in the same year by way of Magellan's Strait, under Jacob Mahu as admiral, with William Adams as pilot.
It has a good harbour and a considerable lake commerce.
For a long time he had pondered over the confusion in which Spain was, which he attributed to the intimate relations allowed between Christians and infidels for the sake of commerce.
For a long time Torquemada had tried to get the royal consent to a general expulsion; but the sovereigns hesitated, and, as the victims were the backbone of the commerce of the country, proposed a ransom of 300,000 ducats instead.
For a long period the city was noted for its commerce with the West Indies, which began to decline about 1876, but the coast trade and commerce with Great Britain are still considerable, especially in the winter, when Portland is the outlet of much of the trade from the Great Lakes that in the other seasons passes through Montreal.
After his release he engaged in commerce at Hamburg with his brother Charles and the duc d'Aiguillon, and did not return to France until the Consulate.
He encouraged commerce, and, by constructing highways and building bridges, did much to facilitate it.
He was the son of a merchant, and was himself trained for the pursuits of commerce, in which, by his abilities and enterprising spirit, he attained a conspicuous position.
Romans has a tribunal of commerce and a communal college.
Guanajay has always been important as a distributing point in the commerce of the western end of the island.
It was from a remote period, antedating certainly 3000 B.C., the highway of empire and of commerce between east and west, more specifically between Babylonia or Irak and Syria, and numerous empires, peoples and civilizations have left their records on its shores.
The experiment was so far successful that, with incredible difficulty, the two vessels did actually reach Meskene, but the result of the expedition was to show that practically the river could not be used as a high-road of commerce, the continuous rapids and falls during the low season, caused mainly by the artificial obstructions of the irrigating dams, being insurmountable by ordinary steam power, and the aid of hundreds of hands being thus required to drag the vessels up the stream at those points by main force.
Annaberg has technical schools for lace-making, commerce and agriculture, in addition to high grade public schools for boys and girls.
It has a chamber of commerce, the president of which has a seat on the superior council of Indo-China; a chamber of the court of appeal of Indo-China, a civil tribunal of the first order, and is the seat of the chamber of agriculture of Tongking.
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, .a chamber of commerce and a communal college among its public institutions.
Trade is controlled by foreigners, the British being prominent in banking, finance, railway work and the higher branches of commerce; Spaniards, Italians and French in the wholesale and retail trade.
Uruguayans find an insignificant place in commerce.
The following apparatus (invented originally by Michel of Marseilles and improved subsequently by others) enables the manufacturer to produce either of two forms of "refined" sulphur which commerce demands.
The next following instalments of vapour, getting diffused throughout a large mass of relatively cold gas, condense into a kind of "snow," known in commerce and valued as "flowers of sulphur" (fibres sulphuris).
Athenian At Athens, as at Rome, an old patriciate, a nobility of by commerce.
The most important palm of the country perhaps is the Raphia vinifera, which produces the piassava fibre of commerce.
From the 16th century onwards, English, Dutch, German, French and other European traders contested the commerce of this coast with the Portuguese, and finally drove them away.
The principal places of commerce are: (I) Siang-t'an, on the Siang-kiang, said to contain 1,000,000 inhabitants, and to extend 3 m.
They are all, as found in commerce, of a pale yellow-green colour; they emit a peculiar aromatic odour, and have a slightly astringent bitter taste.
Other important buildings are the Sobranye, or parliament house, the palace of the synod, the ministries of war and commerce, the university with the national printing press, the national library, the officers' club and several large military structures.
In the latter half of the 15th century Sofia, owing to its situation at the junction of several trade routes, became an important centre of Ragusan commerce.
By means of his sons and his deputies (or viceroys) and by his system of matrimonial alliances he gave Athens a widespread influence in the centres of commerce, and brought her into connexion with the growing sources of trade and production in the eastern parts of the Greek world.
Of the elected members 3 are returned by the " black " clergy (the monks), 3 by the " white " clergy (seculars), 5 18 by the corporations of nobles, 6 by the academy of sciences and the universities, 6 by the chambers of commerce, 6 by the industrial councils, 34 by the governments having zemstvos, 16 by those having no zemstvos, and 6 by Poland.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
There has, however, been much activity since 1905 in the establishment of new educational institutions, notably technical and commercial schools, which are placed under the new minister of commerce and industry.
Not only was the army to be well drilled and the fleet to be carefully equipped, but railways were to be constructed, river-navigation was to be facilitated, manufacturing industry was to be developed, commerce was to be encouraged, the administration was to be improved, the laws were to be codified and the tribunals were to be reorganized.
Here, on the 14th of September 1829, was signed a treaty by which the Porte ceded to Russia the islands at the mouth of the Danube and several districts on the Asiatic frontier, granted full liberty to Russian navigation and commerce in the Black Sea, and guaranteed the autonomous rights previously accorded to Moldavia, Walachia and Servia.
As for the revolutionary " intellectuals," without the lever of agrarian discontent they In 1897 only 15% of the population were engaged in commerce or industry, including the work-people.
On the whole, the best statistical source for this information is the annual computation published by the Archiv fiir Eisenbahnwesen, the official organ of the Prussian Ministry of Public Works; but the figure quoted above utilizes the Board of Trade returns for the United Kingdom and the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the United States.
United Kingdom, 1908.39,316 £ 33,333 United States, 1908.254,192 10,372 2 1 he figures for the United States are from the report of the Interstate Commerce Commission for the year ended 30th of June 1908, and comprise mileage of first, second, third and fourth tracks, and paid-up capital in the hands of the public only.
In America, the basic units have been the ton-mile and the passenger-mile, and these figures are now required to be furnished to the Interstate Commerce Commission and to most of the state commissions as well.
Dewsnup (ed.), Railway Organization and Working (Chicago, 1906); Interstate Commerce Commission; Rate Regulation Hearings before the U.S. Senate Committee (Washington, 5 vols., 1905); and on current matters, The Official Railway Guide (monthly, New York, the Railroad Age Gazette (weekly, New York) and the Commercial and Financial Chronicle (weekly, New York).
But the jurisdiction of the state commissions was, by judicial interpretation, limited to commerce beginning and ending within the limits of the single state.
The result was the passage, in 1887, of the Interstate Commerce Act, which was directed towards the extirpation of illegal and unjust practices in commerce among the states.
For its enforcement, it created an Interstate Commerce Commission of five members, with powers of investigation, and with authority to issue remedial orders upon complaint and after hearing.
It created a Commerce Court (composed of five judges nominated by the president of the United States from the Federal circuit judges), transferred to it jurisdiction in cases instituted to enforce or set aside orders of the Inter-State Commerce Commission, and made the United States instead of the Commission a party in all such actions.
1249 2691 1181 2483 See the Quarterly and Annual Reports, issued by the Board of Trade, London, and the Annual Statistical Reports and Quarterly Accident Bulletins, published by the Interstate Commerce Commission, Washington.
- British Railways A similar comparison (Table XIX.) can be made for the United States of America, statistics prior to the establishment of the Interstate Commerce Commission being taken from Poor's Manual of Railroads as transcribed in government reports.
The limit was extended to the 1 st of August 1900 by the Interstate Commerce Commission, which was given discretion in the matter.
This law, however, did not serve in practice to secure so general a use of power brakes on freight trains as was thought desirable, and another act was passed in 1903 to give the Interstate Commerce Commission authority to prescribe what should be the minimum number of power-braked cars in each train.
It is supposed to be the Camanes of Ptolemy, and was formerly a very flourishing city, the seat of an extensive trade, and celebrated for its manufactures of silk, chintz and gold stuffs; but owing principally to the gradually increasing difficulty of access by water, owing to the silting up of the gulf, its commerce has long since fallen away, and the town has become poor and dilapidated.
The inhabitants of Peking being consumers only, and in no way producers, the trade of the city is very small, though the city is open to foreign commerce.
His grandfather was a man of ability, an enterprising merchant of London, one of the commissioners of customs under the Tory ministry during the last four years of Queen Anne, and, in the judgment of Lord Bolingbroke, as deeply versed in the " commerce and finances of England " as any man of his time.
Large quantities of cranberries are raised in the township. Plymouth is a port of entry, but its foreign commerce is unimportant; it has a considerable coasting trade, especially in coal and lumber.
The San Miguel river, which flows near, affords a means of transportation, and the town has considerable commerce.
Before this date the Jews had been learning the rOle they afterwards filled, that of the chief promoters of international commerce.
But economic laws are often too strong for civil vagaries or sectarian fanaticism, and as the commerce of Austria suffered by the absence of the Jews, it was impossible to exclude the latter from the fairs in the provinces of from the markets of the capital.
In Morocco the Jews, who until late in the 19th century were often persecuted, are still confined to a mellah (separate quarter), but at the coast-towns there are prosperous Jewish communities mostly engaged in commerce.
There were few Jews in England from that date till the Commonwealth, but Jews settled in the American colonies earlier in the 17th century, and rendered considerable services in the advancement of English commerce.
Many Jews have filled professorial chairs at the universities, others have been judges, and in art, literature (there is a notable Jewish publication society), industry and commerce have rendered considerable services to national culture and prosperity.
The expansion of Cretan commerce has been retarded by many drawbacks, such as the unsatisfactory condition of the harbours, the want of direct steamship lines to England and other countries, and the deficiency of internal communications.
Daru, in his history of Venice, mentions fourteen between the years 1207 and 1365, the most important being that of 1361-1364, - a revolt not of the natives against the rule of their Venetian masters, but of the Venetian colonists against the republic. But with all its defects their administration did much to promote the material prosperity of the country, and to encourage commerce and industry; and it is probable that the island was more prosperous than at any subsequent time.
In March he entered the Cabinet of President Harding as Secretary of Commerce, stipulating that he be allowed to carry out his European relief work, already begun.
It is, however, sparsely settled and has little commerce.
(medresseh), the place being as much celebrated for learning as for commerce.
Austin is the seat of the Southern Minnesota Normal College and Austin School of Commerce (1896), and has a Carnegie library, court house and city hall.
From 1875 to 1887, when he entered the U.S. Senate, he was again a representative in Congress, and from 1877 almost continuously to the close of his service he was chairman of the Committee on Commerce, in which capacity he had a prominent part in securing the passage of the Interstate Commerce Act of 1887.
The climate is generally such as to secure the population the necessaries of life without severe labour; the extremes of heat and drought are such as to render the land unsuitable for pasture, and the people everywhere subsist by cultivation of the soil or commerce, and live in settled villages or towns.
The whole tract, excepting south-eastern Arabia, is nominally subject to Turkey, but the people are to no small extent practically independent, living a nomadic, pastoral and freebooting life under petty chiefs, in the more arid districts, but settled in towns in the more fertile tracts, where agriculture becomes more profitable and external commerce is established.
The Japanese people have added to their ancient civilization and their remarkable artistic faculty, an adaptation of Western methods, and a capacity for progress in war and commerce, which single them out among Eastern races as a great modern world-force.
Rawling, who have increased our knowledge of ancient fields of industry and commerce in Turkestan and Tibet.
Some connexion between Babylonia and China is generally admitted, and all Indian alphabets seem traceable to a Semitic original borrowed in the course of commerce from the Persian Gulf.
All ideas of external conquest were abandoned, Christianity was forbidden, and Japan closed to foreigners, only the Dutch being allowed a strictly limited commerce.
There was no attempt to overwhelm whole empires by pouring into them masses of troops, but commerce was combined with territorial acquisition, and a continuity of European interest secured by the presence of merchants and settlers.
The tribunal of commerce and the communal college are the chief public institutions.
In the 12th century it was a free city, governed by a podesta and consuls after the model of the Italian republics, which it also emulated in commerce and navigation.
The commerce of Pomerania is in a flourishing condition, its principal ports being Stettin, Stralsund and Swinemiinde.
He established the freedom of the instrumentalities of the national government from adverse legislation by the states; freedom of commerce between the different states; the right of Congress to regulate the entire passenger traffic through and from the United States, and the sacredness of public franchises from legislative assault.
Linseed and other oil-bearing grains are also important articles of commerce, as well as wool and butter.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
The industries mainly consist in shipbuilding, fish-curing, and the manufacture of machinery (particularly for agriculture), and the commerce in the export of corn, wood and fish.
In 1754 he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement; in 1755 and 1756 he accompanied Gournay, then intendant of commerce, in his tours of inspection in the provinces, and in 1760, while travelling in the east of France and Switzerland, visited Voltaire, who became one of his chief friends and supporters.
Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.
It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
In addition he demanded the complete freedom of commerce and industry.'
Moreover, the commerce des bles had been a favourite topic of the salons for some years past, and the witty Galiani, the opponent of the physiocrats, had a large following.
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
There is a good harbour, and the city has a considerable lake commerce in grain, flour, and dairy products.
tall; the Library building which houses the state library (about 80,000 volumes, with many portraits and a valuable collection of old manuscripts), the State Law Library and also the offices of most, of the state officials; the Post-Office and Customs House; the State Penitentiary; the Chamber of Commerce; and, among the religious edifices, the Sacred Heart Cathedral (Roman Catholic), presented to the city by Mr and Mrs Thomas F.
commerce, gave a powerful stimulus to rural industry, augmented agricultural capital and called forth a more skilful and enterprising race of farmers.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
The result is that free trade had become by the end of the 19th century in the main an old habit, for which the ordinary English manufacturer could give no very reasonable explanation, whatever may be its influence in commerce and public affairs.
Although the British Empire contains within itself every known species of railway enterprise, the study of railways and other means of transport, and their relation to the business, the commerce and the social life of the country, is deplorably backward.
Cunningham's Growth of Industry and Commerce, and W.
Through its situation on the Severn it was connected with the sea, and in 1250 a bridge, the only one between it and Worcester, was built across the river and added greatly to the commerce of the town.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
He found that they were wholly inadequate, and summed up his views in a remarkable letter to the Directory (23rd of February), wherein he pointed out two possible alternatives to an invasion of England, namely, a conquest of the coast of the north-west of Germany, for the cutting off of British commerce with central Europe, or the undertaking of an expedition to the Orient which would be equally ruinous to British trade.
After occupying the Prussian capital he launched against England the famous Berlin Decree (21st of November 1806), declaring her coasts to be in a state of blockade, and prohibiting all commerce with them.
This decree is often called the basis of the Continental System, whereby Napoleon proposed to ruin England by ruining her commerce.
The aim in all these changes, it will be observed, was to acquire control over the seaboard, or, failing that, the commerce of all European states.
Neither Louis Bonaparte nor German douaniers could be trusted to carry out in all their stringency the decrees for the entire exclusion of British commerce from those important regions.
In the next months Napoleon promulgated a series of decrees for effecting the ruin of British commerce, and in December 1810 he decreed the annexation of the northwest coast of Germany, as also of Canton Valais, to the French empire.
(4) Commerce was practised to some extent in very early times, as is proved by the distribution of Melian obsidian over all the Aegean area and by the Nilotic influence on early Minoan art.
Meanwhile, at other favourable spots in the Aegean, but chiefly, it appears, on sites in easy relation to maritime commerce, e.g.
Commerce with Egypt, for example, has increased in a marked degree, and Aegean objects or imitations of them are found to have begun to penetrate into Syria, inland Asia Minor, and the central and western Mediterranean lands, e.g.
Before this work had been completed he was again sent to Europe, having been chosen on the 27th of September 1779 as minister plenipotentiary for negotiating a treaty of peace and a treaty of commerce with Great Britain.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
The doge assumed the title of duke of Dalmatia, and a great step was taken towards the supremacy of Venice in the Adriatic, which was essential to the free development of her commerce and also enabled her to reap the pecuniary advantages to be derived from the Crusades.
This expansion of the trade of Venice resulted in the rapid development of the wealthier classes, with a growing tendency to draw together for the purpose of securing to themselves the entire direction of Venetian politics in order to dominate Venetian commerce.
In spite of the check to their trade received from the emperor Manuel in 1171, Venetian commerce continued to flourish, the Venetian fleet to grow and the Venetians to amass wealth.
The accession of territory was not only vast, it was of the highest importance to Venetian commerce.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
foreign affairs, finance, commerce, peace and war.
They are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9,483,974 in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland).
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
Other buildings of local importance are the city hall (1865); the United tates government building (1871-1878, cost about $6,000,00); the county court-house (1887-1893, $2,250,000); the custom house (1837-1848); and the chamber of commerce (1892).
Beginning about 1855 the commerce of the port greatly declined.
Manufacturing is to-day the most distinctive industry, as was commerce in colonial times.
The location seemed one suitable for commerce and defence, and the Winthrop party chose it for their settlement.
Prices were low, foreign commerce was already large, business thriving; wealth gave social status; the official British class lent a lustre to society; and Boston " town " was drawing society from the " country."
Commerce and manufactures alike took great impetus.
But of course it was far less important than various other articles of trade in the aggregate values of commerce.
It was Boston commerce that was most sorely hurt by the embargo and non-importation policy of President Jefferson.
It was the losses entailed upon her commerce by the commercial policy of Jefferson's administration that embittered Boston against the Democratic-Republican party and put her public men in the forefront of the opposition to its policies that culminated in lukewarmness toward the War of 1812, and in the Hartford Convention of 1814.
The true Arab despises agriculture; but the pursuit of commerce, the organization and conduct of trading caravans, cannot be carried on without widespread connexions of blood and hospitality between the merchant and the leading sheiks on the route.
The great fiscal inscription, which still remains where it was set up, gives the fullest picture of the life and commerce of the city.
The Liberals only retained the confidence of the king by postponing the realization of almost all their democratic and reforming programme, and limiting their efforts to financial reorganization and treaties of commerce.
Commercially, New Haven is primarily a distributing point for the Atlantic seaboard, but the city is a port of entry, and foreign commerce (almost exclusively importing) is carried on to some extent, the imports in 1909 being valued at $404,805.
The period of greatest material prosperity of New Haven in the colonial period began about 1750, when a thriving commerce with other American ports and the West Indies developed.
New Haven's commerce suffered severely during the war, but by the close of the first decade of the 19th century it had regained its former importance.
Whatever may be its true botanical name it is the plant known in commerce as " Sea Island " cotton, owing to its introduction and successful cultivation in the Sea Islands and the coastal districts of South Carolina, Georgia and Florida.
The cotton is known in commerce under the name of the place of export, e.g.
Having become a haunt of pirates, and exceedingly injurious to Italian commerce, it was made the object of a crusade proclaimed by Pope Eugenius III.
Commerce and transport were the only distinctive basis of the city's growth and wealth until after 1890, when there was a great increase in manufacturing, especially, in South St Joseph, of the slaughtering and meat-packing industry in the last three years of the decade.
Hughes and Herbert C. Hoover, who became Secretary of State and of Commerce respectively.
Here the application of the term is limited to the liquid which is so important an article of commerce, though references will also be made to natural gas which accompanies petroleum.
Petroleum has very long been known as a source of light and heat, while the use of crude oil for the treatment of wounds and cutaneous affections, and as a lubricant, was even more general and led to the raw material being an article of commerce at a still earlier date.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
and from its position on the great route of commerce from the Euphrates to Egypt, Damascus became the arbiter of Syrian politics.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
In the second place, as has already been noticed, the Crusades represent the attempt of Western commerce to find new and more easy routes to the wealth of the East; and in this respect they led to various results.
At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on the Nest African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce.
The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of the British.
Not only in words concerning commerce and agriculture, but also in terms connected with social, religious and administrative matters that influence is traceable in Malay.
During the middle ages it was an important centre of commerce between Germany and Italy.
Milwaukee, situated on the shore of Milwaukee Bay, on the western side of the lake, is, next to Chicago, the largest city on the lake, and has a large commerce and a harbour of refuge.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, training-colleges and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony.
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
The rulers fostered agriculture, stimulated commerce and industry (notably the famous Attic ceramics), adorned the city with public works and temples, and rendered it a centre of culture.
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
As their fur is an important article of commerce, large numbers are annually killed, being either trapped or speared at the mouths of their holes.
His programme included the collective ownership of the means of production and the international association of labour, but when in June 1899 he entered Waldeck-Rousseau's cabinet of "republican defence" as minister of commerce he limited himself to practical reforms, devoting his attention to the improvement of the mercantile marine, to the development of trade, of technical education, of the postal system, and to the amelioration of the conditions of labour.
His books on Colonial Defence and Colonial Opinions (1873), The Defence of Great and Greater Britain (1879),(1879), Naval Intelligence and the Protection of Commerce (1881), The Use and the Application of Marine Forces (1883), Imperial Federation: Naval and Military (1887), followed later by other similar works, made him well known among the rising school of Imperialists, and he was returned to parliament (1886-1892) as Conservative member for Bow, and afterwards (1895-1906) for Great Yarmouth.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.
By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taichu was opened to European commerce, but the place was found quite unsuitable for a port of trade, and the harbour of Tam-sui was selected instead.
The commerce of Porto Rico is principally with the United States.
Commerce and Industry.
- According to the records of the Merchants' Exchange and the Chamber of Commerce, 35 lines of industry in the St.
A tribunal and chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators and a nautical school, are among the public institutions.
As regards commerce and manufactures, Atlanta ranks first among the cities of Georgia.
His interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot.
Dar-es-Salaam was laid out by the Germans on an ambitious scale in the expectation that it would prove an important centre of commerce, but trade developed very slowly.
He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
He was minister of commerce in Freycinet's second cabinet (1882), of finance under E.
Demetrius had presented himself in 307 as the liberator, and driven the Macedonian garrison from the Peiraeus; but his own garrisons held Athens thirteen years later, when he was king of Macedonia, and the Antigonid dynasty clung to the points of vantage in Greece, especially Chalcis and Corinth, till their garrisons were finally expelled by the Romans in the name of Hellenic liberty., The new movement of commerce initiated by the conquest of Alexander continued under his successors, though the breakup of the Macedonian Empire in Asia in the 3rd century and the distractions of the Seleucid court must have withheld many advantages from the Greek merchants which a strong central government might have afforded them.
Commerce, the great trade-routes between India and the West that the main stream of riches flowed then as in later centuries.
A tribunal and chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, a school of industry, a school of cloth manufacture and a museum of natural history are among its institutions.
The hotel-de-ville and the Cercle du Commerce are the chief modern buildings.
The Arsacids also were afraid of destroying the wealth and commerce of Seleucia, if they entered it with their large retinue of barbarian officials and soldiers (Strabo xvi.
In manufactures and commerce, also, servile gradually displaced free labour.
Hence a regular commerce in slaves was established, which was based on the " systematically-prosecuted hunting of man," and indicated an entire perversion of the primitive institution, which was essentially connected with conquest.
This state of things, it was plain, must continue as long as the trade was only a contraband commerce, involving merely pecuniary penalties.
Being the great entrepot for the trade of Egypt, the city is the headquarters of the British chamber of commerce and of most of the merchants and companies engaged in the development of the Delta.
As native influences, however, began to reassert themselves in the Nile valley, Alexandria gradually became an alien city, more and more detached from Egypt; and, losing much of its commerce as the peace of the empire broke up during the 3rd century A.D., it declined fast in population and splendour.
The building of Cairo in 969, and, above all, the discovery of the route to the East by the Cape of Good Hope in 1498, nearly ruined its commerce; the canal, which supplied it with Nile water, became blocked; and although it remained a principal Egyptian port, at which most European visitors in the Mameluke and Ottoman periods landed, we hear little of it until about the beginning of the 19th century.
The committee on commerce, to whom the petition was referred, reported favourably.
Before returning to America, however, he signed on the 6th of February 1778 the treaties of amity and commerce and of alliance which he and the other commissioners had successfully negotiated.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a prefecture, a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, training colleges, a lycee for boys, a communal college for girls, and a branch of the Bank of France.
Foreign commerce is almost wholly centred at New Orleans.
to 1860 the development of the state in population, agriculture and commerce was very rapid.
Aside from the recurrent loss of life, the pecuniary loss from such epidemics was enormous, and the interference with commerce and social intercourse with other countries extremely vexatious.
Commerce (resting largely upon specialized agriculture) is vastly more prominent as yet than manufacturing and mining in the island's economy.
In the quinquennial period 1890-1894 (immediately preceding the War of Independence) the average yearly commerce of the island in and out was $86,875,663 with the United States; and $28,161,726 with Spain.'
The British opened the port to commerce and the slave trade and revealed its possibilities.
Spain paid increasing attention to the island, and in harmony with the policy of the Laws of the Indies many decrees intended to stimulate agriculture and commerce were issued by the crown, first in the form of monopolies, then with increased freedom and with bounties.
Free commerce with foreigners - a fact after 1809 - was definitely legalized in 1818 (confirmed in 1824).
Industries, Commerce, Communications.
Clark, Commercial Cuba (New York, 1898); reports of foreign consular agents in Cuba; and the statistical annuals of the Hacienda on foreign commerce and railways.
But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation are prosecuted.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
During this period life and property were rendered secure, and great progress was achieved, on the lines already indicated, in creating an efficient civil service, harmonizing Moslem law with new enactments, promoting commerce, carrying out important public works, and reorganizing the fiscal and educational systems. All classes 1 For the Christian rebellion - and its causes, see A.
Agriculture and Commerce: annual British consular reports, and the official Ergebnisse der Viehzahlungen (1879 and 1895), and Landwirtschaft in Bosnien and Herzegovina (1899).
The grand vizier (sadr-azam), who is nominated by the sultan, presides ex officio over the privy council (mejliss-i-khass), which, besides the Sheikh-ul-Islam, comprises the ministers of home and foreign affairs, war, finance, marine, commerce and public works, justice, public instruction and " pious foundations " (evkaf), with the grand master of ordnance and the president of the council of state.
In the second category were included the imperial civil list, the departments of the Sheikh-ulIslamat and of religious establishments, the ministries of the interior, war, finance, public instruction, foreign affairs, marine, commerce (including mines and forests), and public works, and, finally, of the grand master of ordnance.
The ministry of commerce and of public works absorbed £T883,161 a reduction of some £T 180,000 on the previous year.
Public works and commerce.
Law, Commerce and Finance: F.
Caillard, Babington-Smith and Block, Reports on the Ottoman Public Debt (London, 1884-1898, 1899-1902, 1903 -1910); Annuaire oriental du commerce (Constantinople); Journal de la chambre de commerce (Constantinople, weekly); Annual Report of the Regie Co-interessee des Tabacs (Constantinople); Annual Report of the Council of Foreign Bondholders (London); C. Morawitz, Les Finances de la Turquie (Paris, 1902); G.
A powerful naval expedition was fitted out, but failed, an armistice and treaty of commerce being signed with the grand master, Pierre d'Aubusson (1479).
Thus it was against his advice that, at the beginning of 1578, advantage was taken of the disorders arising on the death of Shah Tahmasp of Persia to attack 1 It was ten years before a formal truce was signed with Spain (1584); two hundred years passed before the signature of a definitive treaty of peace and commerce (Sept.
between France and Austria contracted in 1756; and these resulted in the signature of Capitulations, or a treaty of friendship and commerce (March 22, 1761).
Commerce and navigation in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were free to both countries.
The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.
In ancient times the expedition was regarded as a historical fact, an incident in the opening up of the Euxine to Greek commerce and colonization.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
In literature, art and science, it divided the supremacy of the world with Cordova; in commerce and wealth it far surpassed that city.
Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
There are also ecclesiastical seminaries, lycees for boys and girls, training-colleges, a school of commerce and industry, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The chief articles of commerce are fattened poultry, prunes (pruneaux d'Agen) and other fruit, cork, wine, vegetables and cattle.
Lake View Park along the lake shore contains only 102 acres, but is a much frequented restingplace near the business centre of the city, and affords pleasant views of the lake and its commerce.
To meet the demands of the rapidly increasing commerce the harbour has been steadily improved.
The commerce of the harbour of Cleveland in 1907 was 12,872,448 tons.
Especially has this been manifested by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce and by the Municipal Association, an organization of influential professional and business men, which, by issuing bulletins concerning candidates at the primaries and at election time, has done much for the betterment of local politics.
- Manual of the City Council (1879); Annuals of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce (1894-); E.
See also a Handbook of Cardiff and District, prepared for the use of the British Association, 1891; Cardiff, an Illustrated Handbook, 1896; the Annual Report of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce; the Calendar of the University College.
The native plays little or no part in commerce.
This combination of natural and artificial highways of commerce derives an additional importance from the character of the regions thus.
Iron shipments from the Mesabi and Vermilion ranges, cereals from the Northwest, fruits and vegetables from the Pacific coast, and Oriental products obtained via the great northern railways, are also elements of great importance in the state's commerce.
There must also be mentioned the fine public zoological gardens, Hagenbeck's private zoological gardens in the vicinity, the schools of music and navigation, and the school of commerce.
Its commerce is, ho wever, almost entirely of the nature of transit trade, for it is not the chief distributing centre for the middle of Europe of the products of all other parts of the world, but is also the chief outlet for German, Austrian, and even to some extent Russian (Polish) raw products and manufactures.
Its commerce was further extended and developed by the French occupation of Holland in 1795, when the Dutch trade was largely directed to its port.
The great fire of 1842 (5th-8th of May) laid in waste the greatest part of the business quarter of the city and caused a temporary interruption of its commerce.
DATE PALM, The dates' of commerce are the fruit of a species of palm, Phoenix dactylifera, a tree which ranges from the Canary Islands through Northern Africa and the south-east of Asia to India.
Dover has long had a considerable commerce, both by rail and by water, that by water being chiefly Emery Walker sc.
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
To promote commerce there are a stock and produce exchange (Berta), a national bank, privileged to issue notes, and several other banking establishments.
In the autumn of 1779 he was appointed secretary to John Adams, who had been selected as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain, and in December 1780 he was appointed diplomatic representative to the Russian government.
The rubber is of good quality, though, owing to the method of preparation adopted, the product is often impure and discoloured, and consequently usually brings a lower price than the best rubbers of commerce.
Plantation rubber comes into commerce in the form of the crinkled ribbons known as crepe, in sheets or biscuits, and sometimes in large blocks made by compressing the crepe rubber.
The latex, which exudes slowly and in many tortuous courses, some of it ultimately falling on the ground, is allowed to remain on the tree for several days, until it becomes dry and solid, when it is pulled off in strings, which are either rolled up into balls or put into bags in loose masses, in which form it enters commerce under the name of Ceara " scrap."
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a chamber of commerce and a communal college.
Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.
The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna.
It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.
The vermilion-like pigment which occurs in commerce as "chromered" is a basic chromate, Pb2Cr05, prepared by treating recently precipitated normal chromate with a properly adjusted proportion of caustic soda, or by boiling it with normal (yellow) potassium chromate.
Both industry and commerce were largely dependent on foreign (German, Baltic and Russian) capital, and agriculture on large and small agricultural enterprise constantly and rapidly growing.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
As capital of an arrondissement, Bastia is the seat of a tribunal of first instance and a sub-prefect, while it is also the seat of the military governor of Corsica, of a court of appeal for the whole island, of a court of assizes, and of a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, and has a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, and a library with between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes.
The town has active commerce, especially with Italy.
iii., it must rest on special features of the trade in slaves, which was always an important part of the commerce of the Levant.
The chief civil buildings are a large Chamber of Commerce, including the customs and port services, and a fine modern town hall.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
commerce or navigation.
Its medieval importance, due to the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century owing to the foundation of Libourne.
Potash alum is the common alum of commerce, although both soda alum and ammonium alum are manufactured.
The national government reserves for itself the exclusive right to direct the foreign affairs of the republic, to maintain an army and navy, to impose duties on imports, to regulate foreign commerce, to collect port dues, to issue money and create banks of issue, and to maintain a postal and national telegraph service.
The states are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states.
foreign affairs; finance; agriculture, industry and commerce; 1 communications (Viacao) and public works; 1 war; and marine.
C. Tavares Bastos, whose Cartas do Solitario were highly instrumental in causing the Amazon to be thrown open to the world's commerce and also in preparing the way for the abolition of slavery; and in that of Joaquin].
For nearly thirty years the kings of Portugal paid no further attention to their newly-acquired territory than what consisted in combating the attempts of the Spaniards to occupy it, and dispersing the private adventurers from France who sought its shores for the purposes of commerce.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
Notwithstanding this the sources of public wealth in Brazil were unaffected, and commerce continued steadily to increase.
The handsome modern town-hall contains among other institutions the tribunal of commerce, the museum and the library.
It also has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Its bark forms a valuable article of commerce.
Twentieth-Century Impressions of Natal (London, 1906) deals with the peoples, commerce, industries and resources of the colony; the Census of the Colony of Natal, April 1904 (Maritzburg, 1905) contains a large amount of authoritative information; The Natal Almanac is a directory and yearly register published at Maritzburg.
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
But it contained also a bold indictment of the whole system of foreign policy then in vogue, founded on ideas as to the balance of power and the necessity of large armaments for the protection of commerce.
He became a member of the chamber of commerce, and soon infused new life into that body.
Throughout his long labours in behalf of unrestricted commerce he never lost sight of this, as being the most precious result of the work in which he was engaged, - its tendency to diminish the hazards of war and to bring the nations of the world into closer and more lasting relations of peace and friendship with each other.
After a good deal of time spent in these preliminary and unofficial negotiations, the question of a treaty of commerce between the two countries having entered into the arena of diplomacy, Cobden was requested by the British government to act as their plenipotentiary in the matter in conjunction with Lord Cowley, their ambassador in France.
And when relations with America were becoming critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from British ports, he brought the question before the House of Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force.
Certain districts are distinguished for particular kinds of fruit, which form an important article of commerce both for inland consumption and for export.
- jEn.] [[[Geography And Statistics]] of agriculture, of industry and commerce, of justice, the minister for Croatia-Slavonia, and the minister ad latus or near the king's person.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.
2 The cabinet consisted of Dr Wekerle (premier and finance), Ferencz Kossuth (commerce), Count Gyula Andrassy (interior), 'Count Albert Apponyi (education), Davanyi (agriculture), Polonyi ((justice) and Count Aladar Zichy (court).
Other ministers were Mr Károly de Hieronymi (commerce), Dr Lukacs (finance), Ferencz de Szekely (justice, education, public worship), Bela Serenyi (agriculture) and General Hazay (national defence).
The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notices of the flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, regions which appear to have in part corresponded with Badakshan.
Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.
Wine, timber and iron are important articles of commerce.
It has important commerce in linen, flax, hemp, wool and seeds, and a considerable transit trade.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
After the Revolution Nansen continued in high honour, but he chiefly occupied himself with commerce, and was less and less consulted in purely political matters.
14: " All persons, other than natives, conforming themselves to the laws of the South African Republic (a) will have full liberty, with their families, to enter, travel, or reside in any part of the South African Republic; (b) they will be entitled to hire or possess houses, manufactories, warehouses, shops and premises; (c) they may carry on their commerce either in person or by any agents whom they may think fit to employ; (d) they will not be subject, in respect of their persons or property, or in respect of their commerce or industry, to any taxes, whether general or local, other than those which are or may be imposed upon citizens of the said Republic."
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
Nevertheless, much had been done to establish order and restart commerce by the time peace was made.
After the almost total cessation of commerce during the war, there was in the last half of 1902 and the beginning of 1903 a great impetus to trade.
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
A board of trade arbitration and a school of commerce and industry are among the public institutions.
A large number of vessels are engaged in the nitrate trade, and Iquique ranks as one of the two leading ports of Chile in the aggregate value of its foreign commerce.
Aurillac is the seat of a prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges and a branch of the Bank of France..
In the midst of the Annamese live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated together according to the districts from which they come and carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country.
Trade, which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part carried on by sea, the chief ports being Tourane and Qui-Nhon, which are open to European commerce.
The coast outline of Venezuela is indented with a large number of gulfs and bays, comparatively few of which, however, are open to foreign commerce.
The great majority of these have only a limited commerce, restricted to domestic exchanges.
The commerce of these ports, both in the foreign and domestic trade, is small, tariff regulations being onerous, and the people too impoverished to be consumers of much beyond the barest necessaries of life.
The department of fomento is charged with the supervision of all matters relating to agriculture, stock-raising, mines, industries, commerce, statistics, immigration, public lands, posts, telegraphs and telephones.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
In 1826 the port was opened to foreign commerce.
The commerce carried on by the river itself is supplemented by the numerous railways, which skirt its banks and converge to its principal towns.
In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of Pope Benedict IX.
officinalis, and that all that is found in modern commerce is the product of the Liquidambar orientalis of Cyprus and Anatolia.
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
The Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, was established in 1754 for the encouragement of arts, manufactures and commerce.
Commerce Port of London.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
shipowners, barge owners, the railway companies interested, &c. Rival schemes, however, were proposed by the London County Council,which proposed to take over the entire control through a committee, by the City Corporation, which suggested that it should appoint instead of 3 members to the new board; and by the London Chamber of Commerce, which proposed a Harbour Trust of ex-officio and elected members.
During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.
He speaks of its wealth, commerce, grandeur and magnificence - of the mildness of the climate, the beauty of the gardens, the sweet, clear and salubrious springs, the flowing streams, and the pleasant clack of the watermills.
The commerce of Lake Ontario is limited in comparison with that of the lakes above Niagara Falls, and is restricted to vessels 1?
Temesvar is the most important centre of commerce and industry of south Hungary, and carries on a brisk trade in grain, flour, spirits and horses.
In 1831 Louis Philippe made him a peer of France and director-general of manufactures and commerce.
on his accession (1797), in which, inter alia, he urged upon the king the necessity for granting freedom to the press and to commerce.
From the large masses great lenses and mirrors may be produced, while the smaller pieces are used for the production of the disks and slabs of moderate size, in which the optical glass of commerce is usually supplied.
Between Egypt and Syria there was frequent intercourse both of conquest and commerce.
Some light is thrown on the condition of the industry at the end of the 17th century by the Houghton letters on the improvement of trade and commerce, which appeared in 1696.
Bourgeois ministry of 1895-1896 as minister of commerce, industry, post and telegraphs, was vice-president of the Chamber from 1898 to 1902, and presided over the Budget Commission of 1899, 1901 and 1902.
Omdurman is the headquarters of the native traders in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darfur and Kordofan.
Slaves, beeswax, coffee, cotton and hides were formerly the chief articles of commerce.
With the development of commerce, and especially of the Katanga mines - in which the colony had a two-thirds interest - the prospects of balancing the budget became good.
Fareham owed its importance in medieval times to its facilities for commerce.
secured the high-roads of commerce to the Mediterranean together with the Phoenician seaports and then made himself master of Babylonia.
Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic - the language of commerce and diplomacy - was added to the number of subjects which the educated class was required to learn.
The citizens found themselves in opposition to the nobility of the hills around the city, Teutonic feudatories of Ghibelline sympathies, who interfered with their commerce.
The Florentines now undertook to open the highways of commerce towards Rome, for their city was already an important industrial and banking centre.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
But for all practical purposes the system of claying sugar is a thing of the past, and the bulk of the sugar of commerce is now purged in centrifugals, as indeed it has been for many years.