Commerce Sentence Examples
What recommends commerce to me is its enterprise and bravery.
The commerce of the island has been of late years increasing at a rapid rate.
Commerce is carried on in wine, brandy and building-stone.
The chief local bodies concerned with commerce and industry are the chambres de commerce and the chambres consultatives darts et manufactures, the members of which are elected from their own number by the traders and industrialists of a certain standing.
Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?Advertisement
He then returned to Bavaria, and his absence bringing him into ill odour at Vienna, he complained of the incompetence of the council of commerce and dedicated a tract on trade (CommercienTractat) to the emperor Leopold.
The commerce on Lake Champlain is carried on chiefly through Burlington, the port of entry for the Vermont customs district.
He then gave in his resignation as general, and returned to commerce; but his brewery was ruined, and after many vicissitudes of fortune he died in poverty in Paris on the 6th of February 1809.
These cakes are sent out into commerce.
Money had to be raised by taxation, and at a meeting of the states-general (March 20, 1569) the governor-general proposed (1) an immediate tax of 1% on all property, (2) a tax of 5% on all transfers of real estate, (3) a tax of io% on the sale of all articles of commerce, the last two taxes to be granted in perpetuity.Advertisement
The whole tract, excepting south-eastern Arabia, is nominally subject to Turkey, but the people are to no small extent practically independent, living a nomadic, pastoral and freebooting life under petty chiefs, in the more arid districts, but settled in towns in the more fertile tracts, where agriculture becomes more profitable and external commerce is established.
Linseed and other oil-bearing grains are also important articles of commerce, as well as wool and butter.
Although bitterly opposed by the partisans of scholastic routine, Genovesi found influential patrons, amongst them Bartolomeo Intieri, a Florentine, who in 1754 founded the first Italian or European chair of political economy (commerce and mechanics), on condition that Genovesi should be the first professor, and that it should never be held by an ecclesiastic. The fruit of Genovesi's professorial labours was the Lezioni di Commercio, the first complete and systematic work in Italian on economics.
The industries mainly consist in shipbuilding, fish-curing, and the manufacture of machinery (particularly for agriculture), and the commerce in the export of corn, wood and fish.
In 1754 he was a member of the chambre royale which sat during an exile of the parlement; in 1755 and 1756 he accompanied Gournay, then intendant of commerce, in his tours of inspection in the provinces, and in 1760, while travelling in the east of France and Switzerland, visited Voltaire, who became one of his chief friends and supporters.Advertisement
Between 1755 and 1756 he composed various articles for the Encyclopedic, and between 1757 and 1760 an article on Valeurs et monnaies, probably for the Dictionnaire du commerce of the abbe Morellet.
It was in 1770 that he wrote his famous Lettres sur la liberte du commerce des grains, addressed to the comptroller-general, the abbe Terray.
After tracing the origin of commerce, Turgot develops Quesnay's theory that the land is the only source of wealth, and divides society into three classes, the productive or agricultural, the salaried (stipendiee) or artisan class, and the land-owning class (classe disponible).
In addition he demanded the complete freedom of commerce and industry.'
Moreover, the commerce des bles had been a favourite topic of the salons for some years past, and the witty Galiani, the opponent of the physiocrats, had a large following.Advertisement
The opposition was now continued by Linguet and Necker, who in 1 775 published his treatise Sur la legislation et le commerce des grains.
There is a good harbour, and the city has a considerable lake commerce in grain, flour, and dairy products.
Four out of the five essays are elaborate and powerful solutions of perplexing technical problems - the distribution of the gains of international commerce, the influence of consumption on production, the definition of productive and unproductive labour, the precise relations between profits and wages.
No general rules, applicable to all times, can be laid down as to what not only be prepared to take account of the physical features of the world, the general structure and organization of the industry and commerce of different states, the character of their administration and other important causes of economic change.
The result is that free trade had become by the end of the 19th century in the main an old habit, for which the ordinary English manufacturer could give no very reasonable explanation, whatever may be its influence in commerce and public affairs.Advertisement
Although the British Empire contains within itself every known species of railway enterprise, the study of railways and other means of transport, and their relation to the business, the commerce and the social life of the country, is deplorably backward.
Through its situation on the Severn it was connected with the sea, and in 1250 a bridge, the only one between it and Worcester, was built across the river and added greatly to the commerce of the town.
In Switzerland and parts of Germany, where it is collected in some quantity for commerce, a long strip of bark is cut out of the tree near the root; the resin that slowly accumulates during the summer is scraped out in the latter part of the season, and the slit enlarged slightly the following spring to ensure a continuance of the supply.
He found that they were wholly inadequate, and summed up his views in a remarkable letter to the Directory (23rd of February), wherein he pointed out two possible alternatives to an invasion of England, namely, a conquest of the coast of the north-west of Germany, for the cutting off of British commerce with central Europe, or the undertaking of an expedition to the Orient which would be equally ruinous to British trade.
This may, however, be due to the fact that their contact with civilization was so short; the Yue-Chi and Turks had had some commerce with more advanced races before they played any part in political history, but the Ephthalites appear as raw barbarians, and were annihilated as a nation in little more than a hundred years.
But it is in the domestic architecture of Venice that we find the most striking and characteristic examples of Gothic. The introduction of that style coincided with the consolidation of the Venetian constitution and the Gothic development of Venetian commerce both in the Levant and with England and Flanders.
The doge assumed the title of duke of Dalmatia, and a great step was taken towards the supremacy of Venice in the Adriatic, which was essential to the free development of her commerce and also enabled her to reap the pecuniary advantages to be derived from the Crusades.
This expansion of the trade of Venice resulted in the rapid development of the wealthier classes, with a growing tendency to draw together for the purpose of securing to themselves the entire direction of Venetian politics in order to dominate Venetian commerce.
In spite of the check to their trade received from the emperor Manuel in 1171, Venetian commerce continued to flourish, the Venetian fleet to grow and the Venetians to amass wealth.
The accession of territory was not only vast, it was of the highest importance to Venetian commerce.
The, expansion of commerce which resulted from the Fourth Crusade soon made itself evident in the city by a rapid development in its architecture and by a decided strengthening of the commercial aristocracy, which eventually led to the great constitutional reform - the closing of the Maggior Consiglio in 1296, whereby Venice became a rigid oligarchy.
They are Cleveland, Toledo, Sandusky, Cincinnati, Columbus and Dayton, and the value of the foreign commerce passing through these in 1909 amounted to $9,483,974 in imports (more than one-half to Cleveland) and $10,920,083 in exports (nearly eight-ninths from Cleveland).
Of far greater volume than the foreign commerce is the domestic trade in coal, iron, lumber, &c., largely by way of the Great Lakes.
Other buildings of local importance are the city hall (1865); the United tates government building (1871-1878, cost about $6,000,00); the county court-house (1887-1893, $2,250,000); the custom house (1837-1848); and the chamber of commerce (1892).
Beginning about 1855 the commerce of the port greatly declined.
The true Arab despises agriculture; but the pursuit of commerce, the organization and conduct of trading caravans, cannot be carried on without widespread connexions of blood and hospitality between the merchant and the leading sheiks on the route.
The great fiscal inscription, which still remains where it was set up, gives the fullest picture of the life and commerce of the city.
The Liberals only retained the confidence of the king by postponing the realization of almost all their democratic and reforming programme, and limiting their efforts to financial reorganization and treaties of commerce.
Commercially, New Haven is primarily a distributing point for the Atlantic seaboard, but the city is a port of entry, and foreign commerce (almost exclusively importing) is carried on to some extent, the imports in 1909 being valued at $404,805.
Moreover the chief object of the Petroleum Acts passed in the United Kingdom has hitherto been to regulate storage, and it has always been possible to obtain oils either of higher or lower flash-point, when such are preferred, irrespective of the legal standard, in addition to which it may be asserted that in a properly constructed lamp used with reasonable care the ordinary oil of commerce is a safe illuminant.
It is Egypt therefore - to which, it must be remembered, the centre of Mahommedan power had now been virtually shifted, and to which motives of trade impelled the Italian towns (since from it they could easily reach the Red Sea, and the commerce of the Indian Ocean) - it is Egypt which is henceforth the normal goal of the Crusades.
In the second place, as has already been noticed, the Crusades represent the attempt of Western commerce to find new and more easy routes to the wealth of the East; and in this respect they led to various results.
At a very early period - as early probably as the 16th century B.C.- Syria became the meeting-place of Egyptian and Babylonian elements, resulting in a type of western Asiatic culture peculiar to itself, which through the commerce of the Phoenicians was carried to the western lands of the Mediterranean basin.
Here the slave trade was longer maintained than anywhere else on the Nest African seaboard; since its extirpation, palm oil and india-rubber have been the main objects of commerce.
The development of marine commerce has been retarded by unimproved harbours, but Fernandina and Pensacola harbours have always been good.
The Spanish were accused of inciting the Indians to make depredations on the English settlements and of interfering with English commerce and the Spanish were in constant fear of the encroachments of the British.
Not only in words concerning commerce and agriculture, but also in terms connected with social, religious and administrative matters that influence is traceable in Malay.
Milwaukee, situated on the shore of Milwaukee Bay, on the western side of the lake, is, next to Chicago, the largest city on the lake, and has a large commerce and a harbour of refuge.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, training-colleges and a chamber of arts and manufactures.
At the same time the relative proximity of three natural harbours, Peiraeus, Zea and Munychia, favoured the development of maritime commerce and of the sea power which formed the basis of Athenian hegemony.
The great advantages which the Peiraic promontory with its three natural harbours offered for purposes of defence and commerce were first recognized by Themistocles, in whose archonship (493 B.C.) the fortifications of the Peiraeus were begun.
The rulers fostered agriculture, stimulated commerce and industry (notably the famous Attic ceramics), adorned the city with public works and temples, and rendered it a centre of culture.
But the triumph of the navy in 480 and the great expansion of commerce and industry had definitely shifted the political centre of gravity from the yeoman class of moderate democrats to the more radical party usually stigmatized as the " sailor rabble."
Besides securing her Aegean possessions and her commerce by the defeat of Corinth and Aegina, her last rivals on sea, Athens acquired an extensive dominion in central Greece and for a time quite overshadowed the Spartan land-power.
The commerce of Athens extended from Egypt and Colchis to Etruria and Carthage, and her manufactures, which attracted skilled operatives from many lands, found a ready sale all over the Mediterranean.
As their fur is an important article of commerce, large numbers are annually killed, being either trapped or speared at the mouths of their holes.
Another civic improvement was the plan that a permanent committee of citizens should be engaged in the solving of the housing problem, and that the chamber of commerce, cooperating with the state, should employ a director in charge of the Americanization programme in which the public schools and corporations cooperate.
By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taichu was opened to European commerce, but the place was found quite unsuitable for a port of trade, and the harbour of Tam-sui was selected instead.
The commerce of Porto Rico is principally with the United States.
A tribunal and chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators and a nautical school, are among the public institutions.
As regards commerce and manufactures, Atlanta ranks first among the cities of Georgia.
His interests lay chiefly in financial questions and in 1849 he became minister of commerce and agriculture in the cabinet of Odilon Barrot.
Dar-es-Salaam was laid out by the Germans on an ambitious scale in the expectation that it would prove an important centre of commerce, but trade developed very slowly.
He specially devoted himself to finance, being for a short time president of the customs commission before his appointment as minister of agriculture and commerce in March 1879 in the Waddington cabinet.
Demetrius had presented himself in 307 as the liberator, and driven the Macedonian garrison from the Peiraeus; but his own garrisons held Athens thirteen years later, when he was king of Macedonia, and the Antigonid dynasty clung to the points of vantage in Greece, especially Chalcis and Corinth, till their garrisons were finally expelled by the Romans in the name of Hellenic liberty., The new movement of commerce initiated by the conquest of Alexander continued under his successors, though the breakup of the Macedonian Empire in Asia in the 3rd century and the distractions of the Seleucid court must have withheld many advantages from the Greek merchants which a strong central government might have afforded them.
Commerce, the great trade-routes between India and the West that the main stream of riches flowed then as in later centuries.
A tribunal and chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, a school of industry, a school of cloth manufacture and a museum of natural history are among its institutions.
The hotel-de-ville and the Cercle du Commerce are the chief modern buildings.
In manufactures and commerce, also, servile gradually displaced free labour.
Hence a regular commerce in slaves was established, which was based on the " systematically-prosecuted hunting of man," and indicated an entire perversion of the primitive institution, which was essentially connected with conquest.
Aside from the recurrent loss of life, the pecuniary loss from such epidemics was enormous, and the interference with commerce and social intercourse with other countries extremely vexatious.
But although oranges, pine-apples and some other fruits form important articles of commerce, it is only rarely that systematic and thorough methods of cultivation are prosecuted.
Its converts nevertheless included many of the Bosnian nobles and the ban Kulin (1180-1204), whose reign was long proverbial for its prosperity, owing to the flourishing state of commerce and agriculture, and the extensive mining operations carried on by the Ragusans.
Commerce and navigation in the Black Sea and the Mediterranean were free to both countries.
The atrophy of the Ottoman sea-power had left the archipelago at the mercy of the Greek war-brigs; piracy flourished; and it became essential in the interests of the commerce of all nations to make some power responsible for the policing of the narrow seas.
In ancient times the expedition was regarded as a historical fact, an incident in the opening up of the Euxine to Greek commerce and colonization.
In place of the movements of great fleets to a single end, we have a nine years' story (1805-1814) of cruising for the protection of commerce, of convoy, of colonial expeditions to capture French, Dutch or Spanish possessions and of combined naval and military operations in which the British navy was engaged in carrying troops to various countries, and in supporting them on shore.
The remaining colonial possessions of France, and of Holland, then wholly dependent on her, were conquered by degrees, and the ports in which privateers were fitted out to cruise against British commerce in distant seas were gradually rendered harmless.
In literature, art and science, it divided the supremacy of the world with Cordova; in commerce and wealth it far surpassed that city.
Agen is the seat of a bishop. It is the seat of a court of appeal and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce and a chamber of commerce.
There are also ecclesiastical seminaries, lycees for boys and girls, training-colleges, a school of commerce and industry, and a branch of the Bank of France.
The chief articles of commerce are fattened poultry, prunes (pruneaux d'Agen) and other fruit, cork, wine, vegetables and cattle.
Lake View Park along the lake shore contains only 102 acres, but is a much frequented restingplace near the business centre of the city, and affords pleasant views of the lake and its commerce.
To meet the demands of the rapidly increasing commerce the harbour has been steadily improved.
The commerce of the harbour of Cleveland in 1907 was 12,872,448 tons.
Especially has this been manifested by the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce and by the Municipal Association, an organization of influential professional and business men, which, by issuing bulletins concerning candidates at the primaries and at election time, has done much for the betterment of local politics.
See also a Handbook of Cardiff and District, prepared for the use of the British Association, 1891; Cardiff, an Illustrated Handbook, 1896; the Annual Report of the Cardiff Chamber of Commerce; the Calendar of the University College.
Dover has long had a considerable commerce, both by rail and by water, that by water being chiefly Emery Walker sc.
The name is applied in commerce to a complex mixture of carbohydrates obtained by boiling starch with dilute mineral acids; in chemistry, it denotes, with the prefixes d, 1 and d+l (or i), the dextro-rotatory, laevo-rotatory and inactive forms of the definite chemical compound defined above.
The glucose of commerce, which may be regarded as a mixture of grape sugar, maltose and dextrins, is prepared by hydrolysing starch by boiling with a dilute mineral acid.
To promote commerce there are a stock and produce exchange (Berta), a national bank, privileged to issue notes, and several other banking establishments.
In the autumn of 1779 he was appointed secretary to John Adams, who had been selected as minister plenipotentiary to negotiate treaties of peace and commerce with Great Britain, and in December 1780 he was appointed diplomatic representative to the Russian government.
The rubber is of good quality, though, owing to the method of preparation adopted, the product is often impure and discoloured, and consequently usually brings a lower price than the best rubbers of commerce.
Plantation rubber comes into commerce in the form of the crinkled ribbons known as crepe, in sheets or biscuits, and sometimes in large blocks made by compressing the crepe rubber.
The latex, which exudes slowly and in many tortuous courses, some of it ultimately falling on the ground, is allowed to remain on the tree for several days, until it becomes dry and solid, when it is pulled off in strings, which are either rolled up into balls or put into bags in loose masses, in which form it enters commerce under the name of Ceara " scrap."
The town is the seat of a sub-prefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a chamber of commerce and a communal college.
Part of this commerce (textiles, sugar, tobacco, steel goods) is conveyed by sea to the Pacific ports.
The very extensive commerce of the province has also its centre in Vienna.
It holds its own, however, when base bullion contains bismuth in appreciable amounts, as in the Pattinson process bismuth follows the lead to be cupelled, while in the Parkes process it remains with the desilverized lead which goes to market, and lead of commerce should contain little bismuth.
The vermilion-like pigment which occurs in commerce as "chromered" is a basic chromate, Pb2Cr05, prepared by treating recently precipitated normal chromate with a properly adjusted proportion of caustic soda, or by boiling it with normal (yellow) potassium chromate.
Both industry and commerce were largely dependent on foreign (German, Baltic and Russian) capital, and agriculture on large and small agricultural enterprise constantly and rapidly growing.
What the war and revolution had left of the large farms, subsequent agrarian legislation further damaged; and in 1921 the Latvian state was still struggling against the dislocating effects of war and revolution, and its finance and commerce were seeking new methods of reconstruction.
As capital of an arrondissement, Bastia is the seat of a tribunal of first instance and a sub-prefect, while it is also the seat of the military governor of Corsica, of a court of appeal for the whole island, of a court of assizes, and of a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, and has a lycee, a branch of the Bank of France, and a library with between 30,000 and 40,000 volumes.
The town has active commerce, especially with Italy.
The chief civil buildings are a large Chamber of Commerce, including the customs and port services, and a fine modern town hall.
Dunkirk is the seat of a sub-prefect; its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a branch of the Bank of France and a communal college; and it has a school of drawing, architecture and music, a library and a rich museum of paintings.
Its commerce is much facilitated by the system of canals which bring it into communication with Belgium, the coal-basins of Nord and Pasde-Calais, the rich agricultural regions of Flanders and Artois, and the industrial towns of Lille, Armentieres, Roubaix, Tourcoing, Valenciennes, &c. The roadstead is indicated by lightships and the entrance channel to the port by a lighthouse which, at an altitude of 193 ft., is visible at a distance of 19 m.
He reformed the coinage, developed trade and commerce and introduced numerous agricultural reforms, especially on his own estates, which he was never weary of enlarging, so that on his death he was the wealthiest landowner in Denmark.
Its medieval importance, due to the pilgrimages to the tomb of the saint and to the commerce in its wines, began to decline towards the end of the 13th century owing to the foundation of Libourne.
Potash alum is the common alum of commerce, although both soda alum and ammonium alum are manufactured.
The national government reserves for itself the exclusive right to direct the foreign affairs of the republic, to maintain an army and navy, to impose duties on imports, to regulate foreign commerce, to collect port dues, to issue money and create banks of issue, and to maintain a postal and national telegraph service.
The states are forbidden, likewise, to tax federal property, to tax inter-state commerce, to impose duties of their own on foreign imports, or to resist the execution of judicial sentences originating in other states.
For nearly thirty years the kings of Portugal paid no further attention to their newly-acquired territory than what consisted in combating the attempts of the Spaniards to occupy it, and dispersing the private adventurers from France who sought its shores for the purposes of commerce.
Before leaving Bahia, Dom John took the first step to emancipate Brazil, opening its ports to foreign commerce, and permitting the export of all Brazilian produce under any flag, the royal monopolies of diamonds and Brazil-wood excepted.
Notwithstanding this the sources of public wealth in Brazil were unaffected, and commerce continued steadily to increase.
It also has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange and a branch of the Bank of France.
Its bark forms a valuable article of commerce.
He served in the Congress of the Confederation from 1783 to 1786 and was there conspicuous for his vigorous insistence upon the right of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi River, and for his attempt, in 1785, to secure for the weak Congress the power to regulate commerce, in order to remove one of the great defects in the existing central government.
But it contained also a bold indictment of the whole system of foreign policy then in vogue, founded on ideas as to the balance of power and the necessity of large armaments for the protection of commerce.
He became a member of the chamber of commerce, and soon infused new life into that body.
Throughout his long labours in behalf of unrestricted commerce he never lost sight of this, as being the most precious result of the work in which he was engaged, - its tendency to diminish the hazards of war and to bring the nations of the world into closer and more lasting relations of peace and friendship with each other.
After a good deal of time spent in these preliminary and unofficial negotiations, the question of a treaty of commerce between the two countries having entered into the arena of diplomacy, Cobden was requested by the British government to act as their plenipotentiary in the matter in conjunction with Lord Cowley, their ambassador in France.
And when relations with America were becoming critical and menacing in consequence of the depredations committed on American commerce by vessels issuing from British ports, he brought the question before the House of Commons in a series of speeches of rare clearness and force.
Certain districts are distinguished for particular kinds of fruit, which form an important article of commerce both for inland consumption and for export.
There are besides an adequate number of training institutes for teachers, a great number of schools of commerce, several art schools - for design, painting, sculpture, music, &c. Most of these special schools are of recent origin, and are almost entirely maintained by the state or the communes.
Other ministers were Mr Károly de Hieronymi (commerce), Dr Lukacs (finance), Ferencz de Szekely (justice, education, public worship), Bela Serenyi (agriculture) and General Hazay (national defence).
The Arabian geographers of the 10th century speak of its mines of ruby and lapis lazuli, and give notices of the flourishing commerce and large towns of Waksh and Khotl, regions which appear to have in part corresponded with Badakshan.
Bar-le-Duc has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade arbitrators, a lycee, a training-college for girls, a chamber of commerce, a branch of the Bank of France and an art museum.
Wine, timber and iron are important articles of commerce.
It has important commerce in linen, flax, hemp, wool and seeds, and a considerable transit trade.
In 1869 he was appointed by Minghetti under secretary of state to the ministry of agriculture and commerce, in which capacity he abolished government control over commercial companies and promoted a state inquiry into the conditions of industry.
After the Revolution Nansen continued in high honour, but he chiefly occupied himself with commerce, and was less and less consulted in purely political matters.
In September a meeting of the chambers of mines and commerce was held at Johannesburg, and a letter on various matters of the greatest importance to the mining industry was addressed to the Boer executive.
Nevertheless, much had been done to establish order and restart commerce by the time peace was made.
After the almost total cessation of commerce during the war, there was in the last half of 1902 and the beginning of 1903 a great impetus to trade.
By the introduction of the Chinese the gold output from the mines was greatly increased, with the result that the Transvaal suffered less than any other part of South Africa from the restriction of commerce, which lasted for several years.
A board of trade arbitration and a school of commerce and industry are among the public institutions.
A large number of vessels are engaged in the nitrate trade, and Iquique ranks as one of the two leading ports of Chile in the aggregate value of its foreign commerce.
Aurillac is the seat of a prefect, and its public institutions include tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges and a branch of the Bank of France..
In the midst of the Annamese live Cambodians and immigrant Chinese, the latter associated together according to the districts from which they come and carrying on nearly all the commerce of the country.
Trade, which is in the hands of the Chinese, is for the most part carried on by sea, the chief ports being Tourane and Qui-Nhon, which are open to European commerce.
The coast outline of Venezuela is indented with a large number of gulfs and bays, comparatively few of which, however, are open to foreign commerce.
The great majority of these have only a limited commerce, restricted to domestic exchanges.
The commerce of these ports, both in the foreign and domestic trade, is small, tariff regulations being onerous, and the people too impoverished to be consumers of much beyond the barest necessaries of life.
The department of fomento is charged with the supervision of all matters relating to agriculture, stock-raising, mines, industries, commerce, statistics, immigration, public lands, posts, telegraphs and telephones.
Both honours were taken from it to be given to Santiago de Cuba; and for two centuries after this Baracoa remained an obscure village, with little commerce.
The commerce carried on by the river itself is supplemented by the numerous railways, which skirt its banks and converge to its principal towns.
In collaboration with his pupil Andre Reville, he wrote the chapters on "L'Emancipation des villes, les communes et les bourgeoisies" and "Le Commerce et l'industrie au moyen age" for the Histoire generate of Lavisse and Rambaud.
At the beginning of his reign he ordered a recast of the coinage, with serious results to commerce; civil officials were deprived of offices, which had been conferred free, but were now put up to auction; duties were imposed on exported merchandise and on goods brought into Paris; the practice of exacting heavy fines was encouraged by making the salaries of the magistrates dependent on them; and on the pretext of a crusade to free Armenia from the Turks, Charles obtained from the pope a tithe levied on the clergy, the proceeds of which he kept for his own use; he also confiscated the property of the Lombard bankers who had been invited to France by his father at a time of financial crisis.
The Latino-barbaric word Olibanum (quasi Oleum Libani), the common name for frankincense in modern commerce, is used in a bull of Pope Benedict IX.
Punt is identified with the Somali country, now known to be the native country of the trees that yield the bulk of the frankincense of commerce.
It is quite possible therefore that, in the course of their widely extended commerce during the one thousand years of their ascendancy, the Buddhists imported the true frankincense trees from Africa and Arabia into India, and that the accepted Indian species are merely varieties of them.
It is not probable that the sweet-smelling gums and resins of the countries of the Indian Ocean began to be introduced into Greece before the 8th or 7th century B.C., and doubtless XiOavos or X q /3avw-rOs first became an article of extensive commerce only after the Mediterranean trade with the East had been opened up by the Egyptian king Psammetichus (c. 664-610 B.C.).
The Society of Arts, John Street, Adelphi, was established in 1754 for the encouragement of arts, manufactures and commerce.
This authority, it was advised, should consist of 40 members, of whom II should be nominated by the London County Council and 3 by the Corporation of the City (supposing these bodies to accept certain financial responsibilities proposed in the direction of river improvements), 5 by the governors of the Bank of England from the mercantile community, 2 by the London Chamber of Commerce, and I each by the Admiralty, Board of Trade and Trinity House.
During the 8th century, when a more settled condition of life became possible, the trade and commerce of London increased in volume and prosperity.
He speaks of its wealth, commerce, grandeur and magnificence - of the mildness of the climate, the beauty of the gardens, the sweet, clear and salubrious springs, the flowing streams, and the pleasant clack of the watermills.
The commerce of Lake Ontario is limited in comparison with that of the lakes above Niagara Falls, and is restricted to vessels 1?
Temesvar is the most important centre of commerce and industry of south Hungary, and carries on a brisk trade in grain, flour, spirits and horses.
In 1831 Louis Philippe made him a peer of France and director-general of manufactures and commerce.
From the large masses great lenses and mirrors may be produced, while the smaller pieces are used for the production of the disks and slabs of moderate size, in which the optical glass of commerce is usually supplied.
Between Egypt and Syria there was frequent intercourse both of conquest and commerce.
Some light is thrown on the condition of the industry at the end of the 17th century by the Houghton letters on the improvement of trade and commerce, which appeared in 1696.
Bourgeois ministry of 1895-1896 as minister of commerce, industry, post and telegraphs, was vice-president of the Chamber from 1898 to 1902, and presided over the Budget Commission of 1899, 1901 and 1902.
Omdurman is the headquarters of the native traders in the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan, the chief articles of commerce being ivory, ostrich feathers and gum arabic from Darfur and Kordofan.
Slaves, beeswax, coffee, cotton and hides were formerly the chief articles of commerce.
With the development of commerce, and especially of the Katanga mines - in which the colony had a two-thirds interest - the prospects of balancing the budget became good.
Fareham owed its importance in medieval times to its facilities for commerce.
Under the second Assyrian empire, when Nineveh had become a great centre of trade, Aramaic - the language of commerce and diplomacy - was added to the number of subjects which the educated class was required to learn.
The citizens found themselves in opposition to the nobility of the hills around the city, Teutonic feudatories of Ghibelline sympathies, who interfered with their commerce.
The Florentines now undertook to open the highways of commerce towards Rome, for their city was already an important industrial and banking centre.
The details of manufacture of sugar from canes and of sugar from beetroots differ, but there are five operations in the production of the sugar of commerce from either material which are common to both processes.
But for all practical purposes the system of claying sugar is a thing of the past, and the bulk of the sugar of commerce is now purged in centrifugals, as indeed it has been for many years.
The table has been adapted from the Monthly Summary of Commerce and Finance of the United States, January 1907, prepared in the Bureau of Statistics, Treasury Department, Washington Government Printing Office, 1902.
On completing his legal studies he entered the service of the state in 1837; and after holding a series of minor posts was transferred in 1848 to the ministry of commerce, which was to be the sphere of his real life's work.
Commerce is lively and the exports to foreign countries are very considerable.
The town is the seat of a bishop, a court of assizes and a sub-prefect; it has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee for boys, a communal college and a training college for girls, and an ecclesiastical seminary.
This last event shows that the Etruscan power was formidable, and that by means of their fleet the Etruscans held under their exclusive control the commerce of the Tyrrhenian Sea.
Noumea is the seat of a superior tribunal, a tribunal of first instance, and a tribunal of commerce.
The commerce in 1888 amounted to £480,000, of which, 200,000 represented the trade with France.
Commerce and industry were not yet sufficiently developed to call for the creation of such associations.
In Germany, France and the Netherlands it occupies a less prominent place in the town charters and in the municipal polity, and often corresponds to the later fraternities of English dealers established either to carry on foreign commerce or to regulate a particular part of the local trade monopoly.
It has long ranked as one of the great centres of Chinese commerce and Chinese learning.
Next come the " regalias," similarly made of the best Vuelta Abajo tobacco; and it is only the lower qualities, " ordinary regalias," which are commonly found in commerce, the finer, and the " vegueras," being exceedingly high-priced.
The town, which obtained civic rights in 1200, also became the seat of the dukes of Schleswig, but its commerce gradually dwindled owing to the rivalry of Lubeck, the numerous wars in which the district was involved, and the silting up of the Schlei.
The relative weakness of territorial power in the North, after the fall of Henry the Lion of Saxony, diminished without however removing this motive for union, but the comparative immunity from princely aggression on land left the towns freer to combine in a stronger and more permanent union for the defence of their commerce by sea and for the control of the Baltic.
Cologne and the Westphalian towns, the most important of which were Dortmund, Soest and Munster, had long controlled this commerce but now began to feel the competition of the active traders of the Baltic, opening up that direct communication by sea from the Baltic to western Europe which became the essential feature in the history of the League.
Even more important than the assistance which the concentration of the German trade at Bruges gave to that leading mart of European commerce was the service rendered by the German counter of Bruges to the cause of Hanseatic unity.
Scandinavia had early been sought for its copper and iron, its forest products and its valuable fisheries, especially of herring at Schonen, but it was backward in its industrial development and its own commerce had seriously declined in the 14th century.
At the Hanseatic assembly of 1469, Dantzig, Hamburg and Breslau opposed the maintenance of a compulsory staple at Bruges in the face of the new conditions produced by a widening commerce and more advantageous markets.
A committee, chiefly promoted by the Wurttemberg government and the Stuttgart chamber of commerce, reported in 1901 that it was both desirable and practicable to dredge the river and to canalize it, from Esslingen down to Mannheim, and that the cost would probably be between 2 and 22 millions sterling.
The ordinary drug is distinguished in commerce as Vera Cruz jalap, from the name of the port whence it is shipped.
It is only occasionally met with in commerce.
They were the Venetians of the Caspian and the Euxine, the organizers of the transit between the two basins, the universal carriers between East and West; and Itil was the meeting-place of the commerce of Persia, Byzantium, Armenia, Russia and the Bulgarians of the middle Volga.
Owing to the political and commercial interests binding Florence to the Roman court, the Guelph element naturally prevailed there, while the growth of its trade and commerce necessarily compelled that state to encroach on waters subject to Pisan rule.
In 1897 Great Britain surrendered her commercial treaty with Tunisia and agreed (subject to a special temporary privilege regarding cotton goods) to allow her commerce and all other relations with Tunisia to be subjected to the same conditions as those affecting all such relations between Britain and France.
But the forests of Huanuco and Huamalios abound in species yielding the grey bark of commerce, which is rich in cinchonine, an alkaloid efficacious as a febrifuge, though inferior to quinine.
It contains many valuable articles on history, topography, botany, mining, commerce and statistics.
The immediate supervision and despatch of public administrative affairs is in the hands of the cabinet ministers - interior, foreign affairs, war and marine, finance and commerce, justice and public instruction, and public works and promotion (fomento).
The single standard has worked well, and has contributed much toward the recovery of Peruvian commerce and finance.
The Yangtsze Kiang is the principal river of the province, and is of great importance for foreign commerce, supplying direct water communication between some of the principal tea-growing districts and the neighbourhood of Hang-chow.
Of these, three are appointed by the governor (of whom one must be, and two at present are, members of the Chinese community); one is elected from the chamber of commerce, and one from the justices of the peace.
It is an important highway of commerce, especially for the cities of Norfolk, Portsmouth and Newport News, and is the chief rendezvous of the United States navy.
It was largely through the influence of Ellsworth, who took the principal part in the negotiations, that Napoleon consented to a convention, of the 30th of September 1800, which secured for citizens of the United States their ships captured by France but not yet condemned as prizes, provided for freedom of commerce between the two nations, stipulated that "free ships shall give a freedom to goods," and contained provisions favourable to neutral commerce.
Its most important trade by land, besides Austria, is done with Germany, Trieste being the entrepot for Germany's commerce with India and the Mediterranean countries.
Adrian is the seat of Adrian College (1859; co-educational), controlled by the Wesleyan Methodist Church in 1859-1867 and since 1867 by the Methodist Protestant Church, and having departments of literature, theology, music, fine arts, commerce and pedagogy, and a preparatory school; and of St Joseph's Academy (Roman Catholic) for girls; and 1 m.
Hakodate was opened to American commerce in 18J4.
The Spanish occupation of Oran (1509) struck a fatal blow at the European commerce of the town.
Matanzas is the second port of the island in commerce.
Its prosperity rapidly increased after the establishment of free commerce early in the 19th century.
Some of the most exquisite and most ingenious of these earlier productions, such as the magnificent iron eagle in the south Kensington Museum, the wonderful articulated models of crayfish, dragons, serpents, birds, that are found in many European collections, came from the studios of the MiyOchins; but these were the play of giants, and were not made as articles of commerce.
The upper chamber is composed of all the princes of the reigning family who are of full age; the chiefs of the mediatized families; the archbishop of Freiburg; the president -of the Protestant Evangelical church; a deputy from each of the universities and from the technical high school, eight members elected by the territorial nobility for four years, three representatives of the chamber of commerce, two of that of agriculture, one of that of trades, two mayors of municipalities, one burgomaster of lesser towns, one member of a district council, and eight members (two of them legal functionaries) nominated by the grand-duke.
He was interested in the development of agriculture and commerce; sought to improve education and the administration of justice, and was in general a wise and liberal ruler.
Calais has a board of trade-arbitrators, a tribunal and a chamber of commerce, a commercial and industrial school, and a communal college.
There are tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a board of trade-arbitrators, a chamber of commerce, an exchange (occupying the former cathedral of St Etienne), and an important branch of the Bank of France.
The 18th century was a brilliant period for the city; it became the seat of a bishopric, its streets were improved, its commerce developed, and an academy of science and letters founded; while its literary salons were hardly less celebrated than those of Paris.
Defoe's Review (1704-1713) dealt chiefly with politics and commerce, but the introduction in it of what its editor fittingly termed the "scandalous club " was another step nearer the papers of Steele and the periodical essayists, the first attempts to create an organized popular opinion in matters of taste and manners.
The first, treating of agriculture and domestic economy, was the Journal economique (1751-1772); a Journal de commerce was founded in 1759; periodical biography may be first seen in the Necrologe des hommes celebres de France (1764-1782); the political economists established the Ephemerides du citoyen in 1765; the first Journal d'education was founded in 1768, and the Courrier de la mode in the same year; the theatre had its first organ in the Journal des theatres (1770); in the same year were produced a Journal de musique and the Encyclopedia militaire; the sister service was supplied with a Journal de marine in 1778.
By a decree of the 17th of January 1800 the consulate reduced the number of Parisian journals to thirteen, of which the Decade was one; all the others, with the exception of those dealing solely with science, art, commerce and advertisements, were suppressed.
A Plan of English Commerce, containing very enlightened views on export trade, appeared in 1728.
The most important channel of the Ganges for commerce is the Hugli, on which stands Calcutta, about 90 m.
In 1827 the port was opened to commerce, national and foreign.
There are numerous educational institutions, including classical and modern schools, and schools of commerce, navigation and telegraphy.
In the 18th century Derby was the centre of a thriving commerce with the West Indies.
His father, Louis Chenier, a native of Languedoc, after twenty years of successful commerce in the Levant as a cloth-merchant, was appointed to a position equivalent to that of French consul at Constantinople.
In the provinces of Vilna, Kovno and Suvalki 71.4% of the population belong to the rural class, industry and commerce absorbing 12.8%.
See also the Post Office Directory, Transvaal (Johannesburg, annually), which contains specially prepared maps, and the annual reports of the Johannesburg chamber of commerce.
The importance of the fur of this animal as an article of commerce may be judged of from the fact that 15,000 skins were sold in one year by the Hudson's Bay Company as long ago as 1743.
From one of the mineral springs comes a heavily charged water known in commerce as "Eau de Vals," and in great request in Smyrna.
The gold chloride of commerce, which is used in photography, is really a hydrochloride, chlorauric or aurichloric acid, HAuC1 4.3H 2 O, and is obtained in long yellow needles by crystallizing the acid solution.
With the aid of its philosophy she created her new Christian theology; its polity furnished her with the most exact constitutional forms; its jurisprudence, its trade and commerce, its art and industry, were all taken into her service; and she contrived to borrow some hints even from its religious worship. With this equipment she undertook, and carried through, a world-mission on a grand scale.
This meant the opening up of the world to commerce and the extension of European civilization to vast areas formerly peopled by savages or half-civilized peoples.
Migrants proceeding long distances generally go by preference to one of the great cities of commerce or industry.
Greece she controlled the Italian and Adriatic trade-routes and secured a large share of the commerce with the western Greeks.
Henceforward their Levantine commerce dwindled, and in the west the Athenians extended their rivalry even into the Corinthian Gulf.
Nevertheless, they harassed Turkish commerce and made booty in minor engagements throughout the 16th and 18th centuries, and they took part as an allied Christian power in the great victory of Lepanto.
It is an important trade centre, the chief articles of commerce being gum, ivory, cattle and ostrich feathers.
Assen possesses schools (a gymnasium and burgher school), a chamber of commerce, a museum of antiquities and a court-house.
Though most of the land is under garden cultivation, the mass of the people is dependent more or less directly on mercantile pursuits; for, while the exclusive policy both of Chinese and Portuguese which prevented Macao becoming a free port till1845-1846allowed what was once the great emporium of European commerce in eastern Asia to be outstripped by its younger and more liberal rivals, the local, though not the foreign, trade of the place is still of very considerable extent.
Several kinds of aloes are distinguished in commerce - Barbadoes, Socotrine, hepatic, Indian, and Cape aloes.
The last chapter sketches the general state of society, the growth of commerce, manners, and literature in the middle ages.
It was in Bela's reign that the emperor Frederick I., in the spring of 1189, traversed Hungary with ioo,000 crusaders, on which occasion the country was so well policed that no harm was done to it and the inhabitants profited largely from their commerce with the German host.
After finishing his literary studies he was sent to Neuchatel to learn commerce and acquire the French language.
But at the end of a year he renounced the pursuits of commerce, returned to the university of Basel, and was admitted to the degree of bachelor in philosophy, and a year later, at the age of 18, to that of master of arts.
Chaumont is the seat of a prefect and of a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a lycee, training colleges, and a branch of the Bank of France.
Locally it is ruled by an Imperial governor (the Statthalter) who resides at Innsbruck, where, too, meets annually the local legislature or Diet (the Landtag), composed (according to the constitution of 1861) of 68 members; the archbishop of Salzburg, the bishops of Trent and Brixen, and the rector of the university of Innsbruck sit in person, while the great ecclesiastical corporations send four deputies, the chambers of commerce of Innsbruck, Trent and Rovereto each one, the nobles ten, the towns 13, and the peasants 34.
So far the operations had been confined to commerce destroying, or to the protection of trade by convoy.
Reflection had further shown them that to hamper their fleets by imposing the direct protection of a great flock of merchant ships on them was not even an effectual way to protect commerce.
By the terms of the peace England retained possession of New York, but the war, though it contained some passages glorious to her arms, was very disastrous to her commerce.
In this as in former wars, attacks on Dutch commerce preceded a formal declaration of hostilities.
In this war, which presented no features of a creditable kind, the loss to English commerce from Dutch cruisers was so great that it was found necessary to suspend the clause of the navigation act which forbade the purchase of foreign-built vessels.
For some time they willingly confined themselves to efforts to protect their commerce from French privateers.
Bona is in direct steamship communication with Marseilles, and is the centre of a large commerce, ranking after Algiers and Oran alone in Algeria.
The Imperial Ottoman Bank and the Banque de Salonique have branches in the city, and French is to a remarkable extent the language of commerce.
He held that the people, as distinguished from the nobles and the clergy, were the pith and fibre of nations; yet this same people had to become wax in the hands of the politician - their commerce and their comforts, the arts which give a dignity to life and the pleasures which make life liveable, neglected - their very liberty subordinated to the one tyrannical conception.
At the same time commerce was encouraged by the abolition of unauthorized tolls and by an improvement of the coinage; while the sale of arms to hostile peoples, and the trade in Christian slaves were forbidden.
Taking a lively interest in commerce and agriculture, Charles issued various regulations for the organization of the one and the improvement of the other.
The commerce is mostly in the hands of Jews.
Whereas in 1890 the foreign commerce was valued at £ 1, 3 1 3,73 0, in 1900 it only amounted to £408,350.
Possessed of immense wealth, which he had himself acquired in commerce, and held in high esteem as a judge, an interpreter of dreams and a depositary of the traditions of his race, his early accession to Islamism was a fact of great importance.
Tarrasa is now mostly a modern industrial town, with fine public buildings, including the royal college, built in 1864 for 450 students besides day scholars, the school of arts and handicrafts, the industrial institute, chamber of commerce, hospitals, town hall, clubs, theatres and many large textile factories.
It has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee and a naval school.
But on the 6th of February 1778, after the news of the defeat and surrender of Burgoyne had reached Europe, a treaty of alliance and a treaty of amity and commerce between France and the United States were signed at Paris by Franklin, Deane and Lee.
The commerce consists principally in wine, hides, horses, coal, wood and cereals.
The surveys and reports of Captain Moresby in 1874 brought home to Queensland (and Australia generally) the dangers possible to her commerce were the coasts opposite to Torres Strait and the entrance to the splendid waterway inside the Barrier Reef to fall into the possession of a foreign power.
Abraham Geiger's nephew Lazarus Geiger (1829-1870), philosopher and philologist, born at Frankfort-on-Main, was destined to commerce, but soon gave himself up to scholarship and studied at Marburg, Bonn and Heidelberg.
The exhibit in the Chamber of Commerce Building illustrates the resources of southern California.
Los Angeles is a port of entry, but its foreign commerce is relatively unimportant.
Already by 1660 New England products were an " important element in the commerce and industries of the mother country " (Weeden).
Codfish was perhaps the truest basis of her commerce, which soon came to include the West Indies, Africa and southern Europe.
The decline of commerce, however, had already begun, manufacturing supplanting it in importance; and this decline was rapid by 1850.
But in 1907 Boston was the second port of the United States in the magnitude of its foreign commerce.
For the better accommodation of the increasing commerce of the port of Boston, the commonwealth bought a considerable frontage upon the harbour lines and constructed a dock capable of receiving the largest vessels, and has supplemented the work of the United States government in deepening the approaches to the wharves.
Her leading politicians were out of sympathy with the conduct of national affairs (in the conduct of foreign relations, the distribution of political patronage, naval policy, the question of public debt) from 1804 - when Jefferson's party showed its complete supremacy - onward; and particularly after the passage of the Embargo Act of 1807, which caused great losses to Massachusetts commerce, and, so far from being accepted by her leaders as a proper diplomatic weapon, seemed to them designed in the interests of the Democratic party.
Douai is the seat of a court of appeal, a court of assizes and a subprefect, and has a tribunal of first instance, a board of trade-arbitrators, an exchange, a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France.
Auch is the seat of an archbishopric, a prefect and a court of assizes, and has tribunals of first instance and of commerce, a chamber of commerce, a lycee, training-colleges, a school of design, a branch of the Bank of France and an important lunatic asylum.
Antoine Megret d'Etigny, intendant from 1751 to 1767, did much to improve the city and its commerce.
The Persians took over the realm of their predecessors, and Gaza grew in importance as a seat of international commerce.
In commerce it had to compete with the highly developed maritime industry of Great Britain.
He used all sorts of expedients, sometimes dishonest, to replenish the treasury, and was even accused of having himself profited from the commerce in wheat.
The "safranine" of commerce is a tolusafranine.
Nearly $600,000,000 of " fiat money " had been thrust into the channels of commerce in addition to $346,000,000 of legal tender notes that had been issued during the Civil War.
In tracing the growth of Persia from a petty subject kingdom to a vast dominant empire, he has occasion to set out the histories of Lydia, Media, Assyria, Babylon, Egypt, Scythia, Thrace, and to describe the countries and the peoples inhabiting them, their natural productions, climate, geographical position, monuments, &c.; while, in noting the contemporaneous changes in Greece, he is led to tell of the various migrations of the Greek race, their colonies, commerce, progress in the arts, revolutions, internal struggles, wars with one another, legislation, religious tenets and the like.
The strongholds of these heretical opinions were the great towns, the centres of civilization, because there the growing sentiment of municipal independence, and the rise of a burgher class through commerce, created a spirit of criticism which was dissatisfied with the worldly lives of the clergy and their undue influence in affairs.
In 1820 a sixth age class was introduced for free white males, an age classification of four periods was applied to the free coloured and the slaves of each sex, and the number of aliens and of persons engaged in agriculture, in manufactures and in commerce was called for.
The law under which the census of 1840 was taken contained a novel provision for the preparation in connexion with the census of statistical tables giving "such information in relation to mines, agriculture, commerce, manufactures and schools as will exhibit a full view of the pursuits, industry, education and resources of the country."
Fine gold ingots (the " bar gold " of commerce) are usually about 400 oz.
The phosphatic rocks which occur among the sedimentary strata are the principal sources of phosphates for commerce and agriculture.
Naturally, therefore, a dense population, engaged mainly in manufacturing and commerce, has gathered around the shores of this harbour, the greatest number on Manhattan 'Island and the contiguous mainland in New York City, but large numbers also on western Long Island, in Brooklyn, on the smaller islands, and on the New Jersey side.
The physiography has enabled the state to become a great highway of commerce between the central part of the United States and the sea-coast, by rail and by water, along the Mohawk Gap and by other routes.
Other parts of the state, where connected with the main highway, are influenced by it to some extent; but away from the great natural route of commerce New York is not especially noteworthy either for it, density of population or for extensive manufacturing and commerce.
The establishment of a great highway of commerce through the state from New York City to Buffalo by the construction of the Erie Canal, opened in 1825, and later by the building of railways along the line of the water route, made the state's manufactures quite independent of its own natural resources.
From the very beginning of the occupation of New York by Europeans, commerce was much encouraged by the natural water-courses.
Buried in this clay-marl are found large deposits of the fossil resin which becomes the kauri gum of commerce; and on the surface extensive forests are still a great though diminishing source of wealth.
The king had, however, previously concluded treaties of "commerce and friendship" with the French, and by the Anglo-French agreement of August 1889 Jaman, with Bontuku, was recognized as French territory.
The city has a large commerce,and trade by water and rail in coal and grain, which are produced in the vicinity, is of special importance.
Its eggs are the wellknown "plovers' eggs" of commerce,' and the bird, wary and wild at other times of the year, in the breeding-season becomes easily approachable, and is shot to be sold in the markets for "golden plover."
Right back into British and even older times the main direction which commerce and travellers followed across southern and western England to the Straits of Dover and the Continent lay from Canterbury along the southern chalk slope of the North Downs to near Guildford, then by the Hog's Back to Farnham.
It was in early times abandoned for the road from Winchester to which the stream of travel and commerce from the Continent and the south and south-west of England was diverted.
Their commerce brought the Sabaeans under Christian and Jewish influence; and, though the old gods were too closely connected with their life and trade to be readily abandoned, the great change in the trading policy, already spoken of, seems to have affected religion as well as the state.
The territory has always been the centre of an active commerce, owing to its situation on the confines of Germany, France and Switzerland, and alongside the great highway of the Rhine.
Mr Reitz had no sooner got into office than a meeting was arranged with Mr Kruger, president of the Transvaal, at which various terms of an agreement dealing with the railways, terms of a treaty of amity and commerce and what was called a political treaty, were discussed and decided upon.
At the first of these conferences, held in Pretoria, the object of the Free State deputies were to arrange a general treaty of amity and commerce which would knit the states more closely together, and to come to some agreement with reference to the scheme for building a railway across the Free State from the Cape, to connect with a farther extension in the Transvaal to Pretoria.
Apart from a growing import trade in coal and machinery, its commerce has declined; but it is among the first twelve manufacturing places in Sweden, having large mechanical workshops.
He established the Federal Department of Commerce and Labor, the secretary of which has a seat in the cabinet, and in which there exists a bureau of corporations possessing the specific function of inspecting and supervising interstate corporations - an entirely new feature in American government.
Pierre Eyquem, Montaigne's father, had been engaged in commerce (a herring-merchant Scaliger calls him, and his grandfather Ramon had certainly followed that trade), had filled many municipal offices in Bordeaux, and had served under Francis I.
The central-European position of the kingdom has fostered its commerce; and its manufactures have been encouraged by the abundant water-power throughout the kingdom.
The Conciliation Act 1896 provides machinery for the prevention and settlement of trade disputes, and in 1892 a chamber of arbitration for business disputes was established by the joint action of the corporation of the city of London and the London chamber of commerce.
As the giver of luck he became a deity of gain and commerce (KEpS ios, 6.yopa70s), an aspect which caused his identification with Mercury, the Roman god of trade.
The duties of the revived board were made the same as they were in the beginning of the century, but the growth of commerce necessarily threw new administrative duties upon it.
Lord Jersey's committee in 1904 suggested that the president should be put on the same footing as a secretary of state, and be given the title of "minister of commerce and industry."
Next follow chapters on the literary renaissance of the nation, its progress in art, mathematics, chemistry and natural science; the magnificent development of agriculture, modern industry, commerce and finance; and in particular its flourishing selfgovernment, " which will be exercised in the fullest freedom," and in which " the communal organization embodies in the highest degree the conception of self-government " (p. 234), and " the independent sphere of activity unlimited in its fundamental principle " (p. 235) in that " State control is exercised seldom and discreetly " (p. 236).
Of the estimated net revenue of 2,102 millions of kronen, 432 millions (20.5%) came under the head of receipts from direct taxation, 905 millions (43%) under the head of receipts from indirect taxation and taxes on commerce, while 294 millions (14%) were the proceeds of State property and State institutions.
The university includes a college of arts and sciences, a school of commerce, an art depart ment and colleges of law and of music. In 1910 the university had 51 instructors and 385 students.
The chamber of commerce, and the Pabst, Mitchell, North-Western Life Insurance, Germania Sentinel and Wells buildings, are among the principal business structures.
Tommaso greatly encouraged commerce, reconstructed the ducal palace and commenced the library.
The course is carefully buoyed and lighted, for the Humber is an important highway of commerce, having on the Yorkshire bank the great port of Hull, and on the Lincolnshire bank that of Grimsby, while Goole lies on the Ouse a little above the junction with the Trent.
As met with in commerce true myrrh occurs in pieces of irregular size and shape, from a in.
But no other species equals the common herring in importance as an article of food or commerce.
After damaging British commerce in the North Atlantic, Jerome reached France with his ship in safety in August 1806.
The foreign commerce of Siam is very ancient.
Her commerce with India, China and probably Japan dates from the beginning of the Christian era or earlier, while that with Europe began in the 16th century.
Trade with her immediate neighbours is now insignificant, the total value of annual imports and exports being about £400,000; but seaborne commerce is in a very flourishing condition.