Practically it came to be the theological dicta of the church, explained according to the philosophy of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators.
Statesmen and commentators alike professed to find in Magna Carta a number of political ideas which belonged to a later age, and which had no place in the minds of its framers.
again issued the two charters with only two slight alterations, and this is the final form taken by Magna Carta, this text being the one referred to by Coke and the other early commentators.
Modern commentators, who also print the various texts of the charter, are Richard Thomson, An Historical Essay on the Magna Carta of King John (1829); C. Bemont, in his Charles des libertes anglaises (1892); and W.
in 1040 at Mainz), a famous Talmudist and com mentator, his pupil Jacob ben Yaqar, and Moses of Narbonne, called ha-Darshan, the "Exegete," were the forerunners of the greatest of all Jewish commentators, Solomon ben Isaac (Rashi), who died at Troyes in 1105.
used, it gives the Book of Lupus, " De Metris Boetii," the "Vita Boetii " contained in some MSS., " Elogia Boetii," and a short list of the commentators, translators and imitators of the Consolatio.
Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.
Thus he was able often to recover the meaning of a passage which had long been buried under a heap of contradictory glosses, and he founded a school in which sobriety and common sense were added to the industry and ingenuity of former commentators.
After so many years the commentators had lost the key to this unusual term, and only knew that in common Greek "myrmex" meant an ant.
One of his commentators, C. J.
The mention of a particular water has caused trouble to the commentators.
The narrative presents a number of difficulties, which early commentators sought to solve with more ingenuity than success.
The apocryphal Neoplatonic treatises and the First views of the Arabian commentators obscured for the effects of first students the genuine doctrine of Aristotle, and the the new 13th century opens with quite a crop of mystical knowledge.
Permission was given to lecture on the logical books, both those which had been known all along and those introduced since 1128, but the veto upon the Physics is extended to the Metaphysics and the summaries of the Arabian commentators.
Albert was " the first Scholastic who reproduced the whole philosophy of Aristotle in systematic order with constant reference to the Arabic commentators, and who remodelled it to meet the requirements of ecclesiastical dogma " (Ueberweg, i.
The monotheistic influence of Aristotle and his Arabian commentators shows itself in Albert and Aquinas, at the outset, in the definitive fashion in which the " mysteries " y sof the Trinity and the Incarnation are henceforth detached from the sphere of rational or philosophical theology.
While some works of patristic writers are still of value for text criticism and for the history of early exegetical tradition, the treatment of the Psalms by ancient and medieval Christian writers is as a whole such as to throw light on the ideas of the commentators and their times rather than on the sense of a text which most of them knew only through translations.
The authorship of Dionysius was doubted by many of the early middleage commentators and grammarians, and in modern times its origin has been attributed to the oecumenical college founded by Constantine the Great, which continued in existence till 730.
Even as a boy he had intense pleasure in reading St Thomas Aquinas and the Arab commentators of Aristotle, was skilled in the subtleties of the schools, wrote verses, studied music and design, and, avoiding society, loved solitary rambles on the banks of the Po.
Captain Singleton, the last work of the year, has been unjustly depreciated by most of the commentators.
Somewhat later are the commentators on Terence and Horace, Helenius Acro and Pomponius Porphyrio.
The collection has been submitted to the closest criticism in ancient and modern times by a large number of commentators (for full list of the early commentators, see Adams's Genuine Works of Hippocrates, Sydenham Society, i.
The general estimate of commentators is thus stated by Adams: " The peculiar style and method of Hippocrates are held to be conciseness of expression, great condensation of matter, and disposition to regard all professional subjects in a practical point of view, to eschew subtle hypotheses and modes of treatment based on vague abstractions."
Polemon, Aristotle and Adamantius may also be named as having dealt with the subject; as also have the medical writers of Greece and Rome - Hippocrates, Galen and Paulus Aegineta, and in later times the Arabian commentators on these authors.
It is safer to give it the more reasonable dimensions of Caesar, and to accept the verdict of later commentators that it never extended west of the Scheldt.
The whole of Aristotle's works, presented in the Latin translations and notes of the Arabian commentators, were by him digested, interpreted and systematized in accordance with church doctrine.
At Bagdad, in the reign of Mamun (813-833), the son of Harun al-Rashid, philosophical works were translated by Syrian Christians from Greek into Syriac and from Syriac into Arabic. It was in his reign that Aristotle was first translated into Arabic, and, shortly afterwards, we have Syriac and Arabic renderings of commentators on Aristotle, and of portions of Plato, Hippocrates and Galen; while in the 10th century new translations of Aristotle and his commentators were produced by the Nestorian Christians.
Some of them (Themistius in particular) are known as commentators on the older philosophers, and others as the missionaries of mysticism.
Thus Fichte, Spinoza, Jakob Boehme and the Mystics, and finally, the great Greek thinkers with their Neoplatonic, Gnostic, and Scholastic commentators, give respectively colouring to particular works.
His exegesis, which was dominated by his polemics against the Jews, is characterized by a fidelity to the literal sense, the comparison with the Hebrew text, the direct use of Jewish commentators, a very independent attitude towards traditional interpretations, and a remarkable historical and critical sense.
The same list also refers to tentative notes (inroµvijµara i rcxecpn j anica), and the commentators speak of ethical notes (170tKa i) ro j viwaTa).
But modern commentators, possessed by the fallacy that Aristotle like a modern author must from the first have comtemplated a whole treatise in a regular order for definite publication, lose themselves in vain disputes as to whether to go by the traditional order of books indicated by their letters and known to have existed as early as the abstract (given in Stobaeus, Ed.
Perhaps something similar occurred to the Metaphysics, as Alexander imputed its redaction to Eudemus, and the majority of ancient commentators attributed its second opening (Book a) to Pasicles, nephew of Eudemus.
The commentators explain this to mean that an attribute as individual is inherent, as universal is a predicate.
It gives too much weight to Aristotle's logic, and too little to his metaphysics, on account of two prejudices of the commentators which led them to place both logic and physics before metaphysics.
This and other applications of the science of nature to the science of all being induced the commentators to adopt this order, and entitle the science of being the Sequel to the Physics (re, But Aristotle knew nothing of this title, the first known use of which was by Nicolaus Damascenus, a younger contemporary of Andronicus, the editor of the Aristotelian writings, and Andronicus was probably the originator of the title, and of the order.
The commentators themselves were doubtful about the order: Boethus proposed to begin with Physics, and some of the Platonists with Ethics or Mathematics; while Andronicus preferred to put Logic first as Organon (Scholia, 25 b 34 seq.).
After reading the remains of the Peripatetic school, the Greek commentators should be further studied in this edition.
The Latin commentators, the Arabians and the schoolmen show how Aristotle has been the chief author of modern culture; while the vindication of modern independence comes out in his critics, the greatest of whom were Roger and Francis Bacon.
Dyce for the Shakespeare Society in 1844, and connected by some commentators with Shakespeare, was written about 1590, and therefore gives a nearly contemporary view of More.
18 and by some commentators preferred for Gen.
in the Babylonian, Western in the Jerusalem Talmud), as was also that of the earlier commentators.
Though not a profound scholar, he was surpassed by few biblical commentators of his day in range of learning, and in soundness of judgment.
Two early commentators on the Constitution, St George Tucker in 1803 and William Rawle in 1825, declared that the sovereign states might secede at will.
From the absence of scales it was held by the Jews to be unclean, and some commentators suppose it to be the serpent of Matt.
Many sentences begin with a " when " or " on the day when" which seems to hover in the air, so that the commentators are driven to supply a " think of this " or some such ellipsis.
Neither the influx of new deities nor the diligence of the priestly authors and commentators availed to break down the cast-iron traditions with which the compilers of the Pyramid texts were already familiar.
The religious books were for the most part written in archaic language, which was only imperfectly understood by the priests of later times; and hence great scope was given to them to exercise their ingenuity as commentators.
This last was the collection first known and chiefly used in the West during the middle ages; and of its 134 only 97 have been written on by the glossatores or medieval commentators; these therefore alone have been received as binding in those countries which recognize and obey the Roman law, - according to the maxim Quicquid non agnoscit glossa, nec agnoscit curia.
ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS, pupil of Aristocles of Messene, the most celebrated of the Greek commentators on the writings of Aristotle, and styled, by way of pre-eminence, o E fl-yrl-riis (" the expositor"), was a Dative of Aphrodisias in Caria.
Among commentators and translators may be mentioned: Ewald (1837, 1867); Noyes (1836); Stuart (1852); Hitzig (1858); Zockler, in Lange's Bibelwerk (1866, Eng.
He has been given a fictitious importance by recent commentators, who have regarded him as the forerunner of the Alexandrian School of philosophy.
For the details of Plato's critique the reader should go not to the summaries of commentators, but to the dialogues themselves.
This prejudice, establishing itself in familiar speech, has descended from antiquity to modern times, colouring, when it does not distort, the narratives of biographers and the criticisms of commentators.
In the history of logic it is of importance because of its production of a whole series of commentators on the Aristotelian logic. Not only the Introduction of Porphyry, which had lasting effects on the Scholastic tradition, but the commentaries of Themistius, and Simplicius.
are at present accessible to us only in the form they had assumed in the Catena Patrum of Severus (compiled in 861), and to some extent in quotations by later Syriac commentators.
From the imperial point of view the sky bore the name of Ti, " ruler," or Shang Ti, " supreme ruler " (emperor); and later commentators readily took advantage of this to discriminate between the visible expanse and the indwelling spirit, producing a kind of Theism.
If Dauger was the "mask," it is just as well to remove a misunderstanding which has misled too many commentators.
Under these teachers he became familiar with the Talmud and, what was probably more important for his own development, with the philosophical writings of Ibn Ezra and Maimonides, Levi ben Gerson, Hasdai Crescas, and other representatives of Jewish medieval thought, who aim at combining the traditional theology with ideas got from Aristotle and his Neoplatonic commentators.
His inward break with Jewish orthodoxy dated, no doubt, further back - from his acquaintance with the philosophical theologians and commentators of the middle ages; but these new interests combined to estrange him still further from the traditions of the synagogue.
The Targum on both passages has " book of the law," an explanation which is followed by the chief Jewish commentators, making the incidents the fulfilment of passages in the Pentateuch.
The form is that of question and answer, and the method is rigidly scholastic. Of small intrinsic value, it is interesting partly as the first philosophical contribution of the Franciscans who were afterwards to take a prominent part in medieval thought (see Scholasticism), and partly as the first work based on a knowledge of the whole Aristotelian corpus and the Arabian commentators.
The sage was born, according to the historian Sze-ma Chien, in the year 550 B.C.; according to Kung-yang and Kuh-liang, two earlier commentators on his Annals of Lu, in 551; but all three agree in the month and day assigned to his birth, which took place in winter.
Some commentators have believed that Daniel was not an actual prophet in the proper sense, but only a seer, or else that he had no official standing as a prophet and that therefore the book was not entitled to a place among official prophetical books.
As many commentators have brought out, there can be little doubt that the doctrine of angels in Daniel is an indication of prolonged Persian influence.
In literature an age of poets had long since made way for an age of commentators and grammarians, who thought that the old poems must have been the work of gods.
The collection has had several commentators; we need only mention the commentaries of Photius (883), Zonaras (1120) and Balsamon (1170).
It seems impossible not to connect the latter with the Scottish Atteile or Atteal, to be found in many old records, though this last word (however it be spelt) is generally used in conjunction with teal, as if to mean a different kind of bird; and commentators have shown a marvellous ineptitude in surmising what that bird was.
Borne in a whirling chariot, and attended by the daughters of the sun, he reaches a temple sacred to an unnamed goddess (variously identified by the commentators with Nature, Wisdom or Themis), by whom the rest of the poem is spoken.
Some of them, notably Guizot and Maine de Biran,were theorists and commentators on the principles of government.
Ptolemy had no successor; he found only commentators, among the more noteworthy of whom were Theon of Alexandria (fl.
His work busied commentators such as Xenon, Minucian, Basilicus, Aelius, Theon, Zosimus of Gaza.
Dindorf (9 vols., Oxford, 1846-1851), with notes of previous commentators and Greek scholia; R.
It is admitted that Greeks, Romans, Aryans of India in the age of the Sanskrit commentators, Egyptians of the Ptolemaic and earlier ages, were as much puzzled as we are by the mythical adventures of their gods.
Stories of the theft of Prometheus are recorded by Hesiod, Aeschylus, and their commentators.
But the narrow limits of the Syrian studies, which added to a scanty knowledge of Aristotle some acquaintance with his Syrian commentators, were soon passed by the curiosity and zeal of the students in the Caliphate.
But for the next three centuries fresh versions, both of the philosopher and of his commentators, continued to succeed each other.
The Arabians, on the contrary, emphasized the idealist aspect which had been adopted and promoted by the NeoPlatonist commentators.
Questions of permanent and present interest took the place of outworn scholastic problems. The disputants ranged themselves under the rival commentators, Alexander and Averroes; and the immortality of the soul became the battle-ground of the two parties.
Jewish scholars held an honourable place in transmitting the Arabian commentators to the schoolmen.
Many commentators still understand the word / ?in, chol, in Job xxix.
The conception of reason in the world passed from him to Aristotle, to whom it seemed the dawn of sober thought after a night of disordered dreams. From Aristotle it descended to his commentators, and under the influence of Averroes became the engrossing topic of speculation.
On the authority of the two great commentators Pappus and Proclus, Euclid wrote four books on conics, but the originals are now lost, and all we have is chiefly to be found in the works of Apollonius of Perga.
An enormous amount of hard work will be needed from responsible commentators and politicians in the coming days to explain away the mass abstention.
To be fair, most commentators are not so bullish.
cameramany were there TV cameras but also newsreel cameramen, a feature color unit, sound commentators and still photographers.
Journalists and cultural commentators like to give names to social trends or groups, which they often categorize by characteristic language uses.
The diaries ' publication prompted some commentators to proclaim that the entire history of the Third Reich would have to be rewritten.
But I feel like kicking the TV myself every time I hear the commentators ' banalities and puerile references to 1966.
commentators invited to express their views on the subject.
If you believe the political commentators, this election is over before it has started.
Even the most tenuous link to 1966 is pounced upon by smug commentators from every angle.
many commentators have praised the calmness of Britain's response to the London bombings.
Disappointing are most pre-critical and conservative commentators, who descend too quickly to allegory, apologetics or medical materialism (e.g.
commentators on British politics.
Equally media commentators have been quick to demand Thames repair more pipes faster.
Or maybe English football commentators will never be allowed to mention 1966 again?
The commentators were expecting a single cutaway stunt but I was going to do a double cutaway.
The commentators have now dismembered the matter: ' Shock tactics - do they work?
Commentators tend to look to William's personal history to explain the emergence of his thought.
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