Pierre reaching the house first went into Prince Andrew's study like one quite at home, and from habit immediately lay down on the sofa, took from the shelf the first book that came to his hand (it was Caesar's Commentaries), and resting on his elbow, began reading it in the middle.
He commenced his great work on the textual criticism of the Scriptures; and at the instigation of his friend Ambrosius, who provided him with the necessary amanuenses, he published his commentaries on the Old Testament and his dogmatic investigations.
In his Biblia Illustrata (4 vols.), written from the point of view of a very strict belief in inspiration, his object is to refute the statements made by Hugo Grotius in his Commentaries.
In 1818, to counterbalance the influence of the Bible Society and especially of Scott's Commentaries, he began to edit with selected notes the Family Bible of the Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge.
He also published commentaries on portions of Cicero (especially the De finibus), on Ausonius, Juvenal, Curtius Rufus, and other classical authors.
See commentaries of Gunkel and Cheyne.
3578, and the commentaries (Driver leaves the phrase); also Jastrow, Relig.
Burmann was rather a compiler than a critic; his commentaries show immense learning and accuracy, but are wanting in taste and judgment.
Torelli's monumental edition of the works with the commentaries of Eutocius, published at Oxford in 1792, folio, remained the best Greek text until the definitive text edited, with Eutocius' commentaries, Latin translation, &c., by J.
The Cartesianism of Holland was a child of the universities, and its literature is mainly composed of commentaries upon.
This side of his preparation was finished by a close study of Scripture, the results of which are contained in his commentaries, In omnes Epistolas Divi Apostoli Expositio, his Super Isaiam et Jeremiam, and his In Psalmos.
But the pupil soon found his teacher to be a charlatan, and taught himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and astronomy.
For the history of the Levites in the post-exilic and later ages, see the commentaries on Numbers (by G.
loc., and the commentaries on Neh.
His extant commentaries (those on Canticles, on the Prophets, on the book of Psalms and on the Pauline epistles - the last the most valuable) are among the best performances of the fathers of the church.
In addition to these complete commentaries, we have fragments of some others (of that on Isaiah, for example), principally met with in catenae.
Among modern editions of separate plays with commentaries the following are probably the most useful: Amphitruo by Palmer, 1890,1890, and Havet, 1895; Asinaria by Gray, 1894; Aulularia by Wagner, 1866 and 1876; Captivi by Brix, 6th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1910; an English edition of this work by Sonnenschein (with introduction on prosody), 1880; same play by Lindsay (with metrical introduction), 1900; Epidicus by Gray, 1893; Menaechmi by Brix, 4th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1891; Miles gloriosus by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1886; by Brix, 3rd ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1901; by Tyrrell, 3rd ed., 1894; Mostellaria by Lorenz, 2nd ed., 1883; by Sonnenschein, 2nd ed., 1907; Pseudolus by Lorenz, 1876; Rudens by Sonnenschein, 1891, editio minor (with a metrical appendix), 1901; Trinummus (with a metrical introduction) by Brix, 5th ed., revised by Niemeyer, 1907; by Gray, 1897; Truculentus by Spengel and Studemund, 1898.
His principal work is a series of commentaries on five of the lyrical anthologies included in the miscellaneous Nikaya.
As being a constant object of study numerous commentaries have been written on the Talmud from the earliest times till the present.
Both add notes and explanations of their own, and both have in turn formed the text of commentaries.
(partly in Arabic) not only numerous Responsa, but also treatises on law, commentaries on the Mishnah and the Bible, a lexicon called in Arabic al-Hawi, and poems such as the Musar Haskel, but most of them are now lost or known only from translations or.
The commentaries of the Geonim have been mentioned above.
Maimonides also wrote an Arabic commentary on the Mishnah, soon afterwards translated into Hebrew, commentaries on parts of the Talmud (now lost), and a treatise on Logic. His breadth of view anti- and his Aristotelianism were a stumbling-block to the orthodox, and subsequent teachers may be mostly classified as Maimonists or anti-Maimonists.
His original works are mostly biblical commentaries and some additional matter on the Moreh.
His original works are commentaries and perhaps a treatise on immortality.
He wrote on grammar (Sepher ha-galui and Sepher Zikkaron), commentaries on Proverbs and the Song of Solomon, an apologetic work, Sepher ha-berith, and a translation of Balhya's Ilobhoth ha-lebhabhoth.
about 1190) also wrote on grammar and some commentaries, wrongly attributed to Ibn Ezra.
His great work, the Mikhlol, consists of a grammar and lexicon; his commentaries on various parts of the Bible are admirably luminous, and, in spite of his anti-Christian remarks, have been widely used by Christian theologians and largely influenced the English authorized version of the Bible.
In the East, Tanhum ben Joseph of Jerusalem was the author of commentaries (not to be confounded with the Midrash Tanhuma) on many books of the Bible, and of an extensive lexicon (Kitab al-Murshid) to the Mishnah, all in Arabic.
about 1340), wrote poems (Behinath ha-`olam), commentaries on agada and a defence of Maimonides against Solomon Adreth.
1340), wrote a large number of treatises on grammar and philosophy (mystical), besides commentaries and piyyutim.
at Algiers 1444) in his Magen Abhoth and in his numerous commentaries.
1508) wrote commentaries (not of the first rank) on the Pentateuch and Prophets and on the Moreh, philosophical treatises and apologetics, such as the Yeshu`oth Meshiho, all of which had considerable influence.
1648) wrote his Beth Yehudah, and probably Qol Sakhal, against traditionalism, besides many controversial works and commentaries.
The earliest account is that contained in the Commentaries of Julius Caesar.
Through Livingston, Legare was appointed American chargé d'affaires at Brussels, where from 1833 to 1836 he perfected himself in civil law and in the German commentaries on civil law.
He translated into Latin Aristotle's Analytica Priora et Posteriora, the Topica, and Elenchi Sophistici; and he wrote commentaries on Aristotle's Categories, on his book lrEpi Epµnvcias, also a commentary on the Isagoge of Porphyrius.
The high reputation it had in medieval times is attested by the numerous translations, commentaries and imitations of it which then appeared.
But, when increased knowledge of Aristotle's texts (and of the commentaries) led to the victory of a supposed Aristotelianism over a supposed Platonism, Albertus Magnus, and his still more distinguished pupil Thomas Aquinas, mark certain doctrines as belonging to faith but not to reason.
So, brilliantly, Wellhausen's Gospel commentaries and Introduction.
He deepened and extended his acquaintance with Greek, particularly with his favourite authors Homer and Xenophon; and, to crown all, he succeeded in achieving the third perusal of Blackstone's Commentaries.
He had previously written his commentaries on the epistles to the Galatians (1865), Philippians (1868) and Colossians (1875), the notes to which were distinguished by sound judgment and enriched from his large store of patristic and classical learning.
These commentaries may be described as to a certain extent a new departure in New Testament exegesis.
Before Lightfoot's time commentaries, especially on the epistles, had not infrequently consisted either of short homilies on particular portions of the text, or of endeavours to enforce foregone conclusions, or of attempts to decide with infinite industry and ingenuity between the interpretations of former commentators.
He published also translations into French with commentaries of Hegel's works: Logique de Hegel (Paris, 1859; 2nd ed., 1874); Philosophie de la nature de Hegel (1863-65); Philosophic de l'esprit de Hegel (1867-69); Philosophie de la religion de Hegel (1876-78, incomplete).
His family had been distinguished for piety and exegetical skill, but though he was known in the Jewish community by commentaries on certain books of the Bible, he never seems to have accepted any rabbinical post.
Part of his writings consist of commentaries on the portions of Aristotle then known, or rather of commentaries on the commentaries of Averroes.
That the substance of the Physiologus was borrowed from commentaries on Scripture 4 is confirmed by many of the sections opening with a text, followed up by some such formula as "but the Physiologus says."
The history of the Physiologus has become entwined from the beginning with that of the commentaries on the account of creation in Genesis.
Erigena translated Dionysius into Latin along with the commentaries of Maximus, and his system is, essentially based upon theirs.
4 On the questions raised see the commentaries upon 2 Sam.
They are divided into Scholia (o-mua)vet, short annotations, mostly grammatical), Homilies (edifying expositions grounded on exegesis), and Commentaries (r6pot).
The most important parts are the homilies on Jeremiah, the books of Moses, Joshua and Luke, and the commentaries on Matthew, John and Romans.
In one of his epistles he describes how he recovered Quintilian, part of Valerius Flaccus, and the commentaries of Asconius Pedianus at St Gall.
For the older works see Dickler (in Lange's Comm.); for Jewish commentaries see Zedner, Cat.
In 1857 he undertook with other scholars a Theologisch-homiletisches Bibelwerk, to which he contributed commentaries on the first four books of the Pentateuch, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi, Matthew, Mark, Revelation.
Schmidt gives a full bibliography of the numerous writings of Menius, who translated several of Luther's biblical commentaries into German.
For the other numerous commentaries and for further biographical and literary particulars of Jalal-uddin, see Rieu's Cat.
Bibliography.-The best commentaries on Ephesians are by C. J.
Similar maps illustrating the Commentaries exist at St Sever (1050), Paris (1203), and Tunis; others are rectangular, the oldest being in Lord Ashburnham's library (970).
The third or theological class of writings consists mainly of commentaries, or of works which, if not commentaries in name, are so in fact.
Among the most widely circulated were the commentaries on Jeremiah, Isaiah and Ezekiel, the Vaticinia pontificum and the De oneribus ecclesiae.
The commentaries on the Jeitakas (i.
The project of the Code Napoleon, however - the code itself not being available in Louisiana, though promulgated in France in 1804 - was used by the compilers in the arrangement and substance of their work; and the French traditions of the colony, thus illustrated, were naturally introduced more and more into the organic commentaries and developments that grew up around the Code Napoleon.
Procopius's theological writings consist of commentaries on the Octateuch, the books of Kings and Chronicles, Isaiah, the Proverbs, the Song of Songs and Ecclesiastes.
206), while blaming the diffuseness of these commentaries, praises the writer's learning and style, which, however, he considers too ornate for the purpose.
An incisive introduction discusses the ecclesiastical tradition, modern criticism; the second, the first and the third Gospels; the evangelical tradition; the career and the teaching of Jesus; and the literary form, the tradition of the text and the previous commentaries.
Commentaries: - O.
See the separate commentaries on Joel by Credner (1831), Wiinsche (1872), Merx (1879).
Nowack and Marti should also be consulted (see their respective series of commentaries); also G.
Of older commentaries the most valuable is Pocock's (Oxford, 1691).
Of commentaries the following are important: Domesday Studies (ed.
A glorious record of their sufferings is to be found in the Diary of Sozzini, the Sienese historian, and in the Commentaries of Blaise de Monluc, the French representative in Siena.
Their chief works are in the shape of commentaries upon the writings of "the philosopher."' Their problems and solutions alike spring from the master's dicta - from the need of reconciling these with one another and with the conclusions of Christian theology.
As aids to the study of logic, the doctors of this period, beside the commentaries and treatises of Boetius (q.v.), possessed two tracts attributed to St Augustine, the first of which, Principia dialecticae, is probably his, but is mainly grammatical in its import.
The real germs of Realism and Nominalism are to be found in the 9th century, in scattered commentaries and glosses upon the statements of Porphyry and Boetius.
Hundreds of commentaries were written upon it.
" These writings contained," says Haureau, " the text of the Organon, the Physics, the Metaphysics, the Ethics, the De anima, the Parva naturalia and a large number of other treatises of Aristotle, accompanied by continuous commentaries.
The spread of the Amalrican doctrine led to fierce persecutions, and the provincial council which met at Paris in 1209 expressly decreed " that neither the books of Aristotle on natural philosophy, nor commentaries on the same, should be read, whether publicly or privately, at Paris."
1245), the first Scholastic who was acquainted with the whole of the Aristotelian works and the Arabian commentaries upon them.
This was a natural result of acquaintance with Aristotle's De anima and the numerous Greek and Arabian commentaries upon it, and it is observable in most of the writers that have still to be mentioned.
He also wrote commentaries on logical and physical works of Aristotle.
Neckam also wrote Corrogationes Promethei, a scriptural commentary prefaced by a treatise on grammatical criticism; a translation of Aesop into Latin elegiacs (six fables from this version, as given in a Paris MS., are printed in Robert's Fables inedites); commentaries, still unprinted, on portions of Aristotle, Martianus Capella and Ovid's Metamorphoses, and other works.
To these may be added (excluding general commentaries on the Old Testament) the two acute but wayward commentaries of Hitzig (1836, 1863-1865), that of Delitzsch (1859-1860, then in shorter form in several editions since 1867; Eng.
The mass of literature on the Psalms is so enormous that no full list even of recent commentaries can be here attempted, much less an enumeration of treatises on individual psalms and special critical questions.
His pupil Richer has left us a detailed account of his system of teaching at Reims. So far as the trivium is concerned, his text-books were Victorinus's translation of Porphyry's Isagoge, Aristotle's Categories, and Cicero's Topics with Manlius's Commentaries.
In the more recent commentaries (e.g.
A Nestorian contemporary of Isaac, Dadhisho`, who was catholicus of Seleucia from 421 to 456, composed commentaries on Daniel, Kings and Ecclesiasticus.
Like Ibas he had been employed at Edessa in translating the commentaries of Theodore.
He was the author of many commentaries, homilies, epistles, canons and hymns.
His translation, which was edited by Bickell with an introduction by Benfey, must be distinguished from the much later Syriac translation made from the secondary Arabic version and edited by Wright in 1884.2 Ilannana of I.Iedhaiyabh, who nearly produced a disruption of the Nestorian Church by his attempt to bridge over the interval which separated the Nestorians from Catholic orthodoxy, was the author of many commentaries and other writings, in some of which he attacked the teaching of Theodore of Mopsuestia.
- Here we may first mention George, Bishop of the Arabs (f724), who wrote commentaries on Scripture, and tracts and homilies on church sacraments, and finished the Hexaemeron of Jacob of Edessa.
in the beginning of the 7th century and a prolific author, wrote many commentaries and theological discourses.
Elias of Merv, who belongs to the 2nd half of the 7th century, compiled a Catena patrum on the Gospels and wrote many commentaries.
Moses bar Kepha (f903), one of the most fertile of 9th-century authors, wrote commentaries, theological treatises and many liturgical works.
5, 7; see commentaries and special dictionaries of the Bible.
He was also the reviser of commentaries on the New Testament in the series of H.
The Herophilists still reverenced the memory of Hippocrates, and wrote numerous commentaries on his works.
Alexander of Aphrodisias, who lived and wrote at Athens in the time of Septimius Severus, is best known by his commentaries on Aristotle, but also wrote a treatise on fevers, still extant.
The medical literature of this period is extremely voluminous, but essentially second-hand, consisting mainly of commentaries on Hippocrates, Galen, Avicenna and others, or of compilations and compendia still less original than commentaries.
Van Swieten's commentaries on the aphorisms of Boerhaave are thought more valuable than the original text.
Petri epistolam (1641), and also his commentaries on Genesis (1637) and on Deuteronomy (1658).
- In addition to most commentaries on Colossians and to Dr M.
Vocabularies, grammars and interlinear translations were compiled for the use of students as well as commentaries on the older texts and explanations of obscure words and phrases.
The poem is based, not directly on the New Testament, but on the pseudo-Tatian's harmony of the Gospels, and it shows acquaintance with the commentaries of Alcuin, Banda and Hrabanus Maurus.
For the man of the towns its vocabulary was too copious to be easily understood, and in the age of linguistic studies many commentaries were written to explain words and idioms.
Kennedy (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1903), to which may be added the older commentaries of C. J.
Baljon (1904) are worthy of notice, as well as the Roman Catholic commentaries by P. Beelen (Louvain, 1852) and A.
There are brief popular commentaries in German by A.
Garcia, Le Peron contemporain (Paris, 1907); Garcilasso de la Vega, Royal commentaries of the Incas, 5609 (Hakluyt Society's Publications); A.
- The chief modern commentaries are those of Nowack (Die Kleinen Propheten, 1897; 2nd ed., 1904) and Marti (Dodekapropheton, 1904), where detailed references to the older literature may be found; cf.
About this time he read Bucer's commentaries on the Gospels and the Psalms and also Zwingli's De vera et falsa religione; and his Biblical studies began to affect his views.
Vermigli published over a score of theological works, chiefly Biblical commentaries and treatises on the Eucharist.
P. Migne, Cursus Patrologiae Latinae, viii., include commentaries on Galatians, Ephesians and Philippians; De Trinitate contra Arium; Ad Justinum Manichaeum de Vera Came Christi; and a little tract on "The Evening and the Morning were one day" (the genuineness of the last two is doubtful).
There are also extant portions of commentaries on the Gospels from his pen.
In that case a clergyman refused the communion 1 Stephen's Commentaries, bk.
see the commentaries (e.g.
In his Commentaries, by laying aside the ornaments of oratory, he created the most admirable style of prose narrative, the style which presents interesting events in their sequence of time and dependence on the will of the actor, rapidly and vividly, with scarcely any colouring of personal or moral feeling, any oratorical passion, any pictorial illustration.
Besides arranging the works, he seems to have written paraphrases and commentaries, none of which is extant.
He was the author of an ars grammatica and commentaries on Plautus, Virgil's Aeneid and probably Horace.
and commentaries, and after a searching investigation concluded that the creed was written in Gaul between 420 and 430, probably by Hilary of Arles.
Ommanney, who was successful in the discovery of new documents, notably early commentaries, which contained the text of the creed embedded in them, and thus supplied independent testimony to the fact that the creed was becoming fairly widely known at the end of the 8th century.
and commentaries were found and collated by the Rev. A.
From the 8th century, if not from earlier times, commentaries were written on it.
' On the variant traditions in the Hebrew text and the Septuagint, see the commentaries on Kings.
4, and the commentaries.
His commentaries are valuable because of his knowledge of Greek and Hebrew, his varied interests, and his comparative freedom from allegory.
14; see the commentaries).
by Holtzmann, Julicher, Weiss, Zahn, Davidson, Salmon, Bacon and the standard Commentaries of Meyer and Holtzmann, the International (Bigg) and other series, contain discussions of authorship and date.
In this spirit he wrote commentaries upon portions of Aristotle, and upon the Summa of Aquinas, and towards the end of his life made a careful translation of the Old and New Testaments, excepting Solomon's Song, the Prophets and the Revelation of St John.
and the commentaries of H.
Commentaries on the book were written by Andreas, archbishop of Caesarea, in the 5th century, and Arethas in the 9th.
Throughout these later commentaries a strong antipapal interest which identified the pope with the Antichrist holds a central place - a doctrine which, as we have seen, goes back historically to the immediate disciples of Joachim and like-minded Franciscans.
generally the commentaries on Gen.
Under Nicholas I., he was engaged in the codification of the Russian law (published in 1830 in 45 vols.), on which he also wrote some important commentaries.
Nicolaus also wrote comedies and tragedies, paraphrased and wrote commentaries on parts of Aristotle, and was himself the author of philosophical treatises.
2, C. 51; Blackstone, Commentaries.
(on the text, see the commentaries).
See further the commentaries.
p. 298; Hengstenberg's Die Geschichte Bileams and seine Weissagungen (1842); the commentaries on the scriptural passages, especially G.
The most recent editions of the text, or of portions of it, with and without commentaries are the following: - H.
The German commentaries on the Minor Prophets by Nowack (2nd ed., 1903) and (especially) Marti (1904) must not, however, be neglected.
Also commentaries on special passages, especially Driver and Bevan on Daniel, and G.
Of the many commentaries the most valuable are those of Paulus Diaconus (the earliest, c. 800), of Calmet and of Martene (Migne,, Patrol.
At Zurich he laboured for a period of twenty-eight years, during which, besides commentaries on The Psalms (1835-1836; 2nd ed..
Of the Academy's edition one volume was published at Berlin in 1897, containing the Commentaries on Daniel and on the Song of Songs, the treatise on Antichrist, and the Lesser Exegetical and Homiletic Works, edited by Nathanael Bonwetsch and Hans Achelis.
He wrote commentaries on the Zohar, the "Bible of the Kabbalists," but is best known as the critic and expander of the Shulhan Aruch of Joseph Qaro (Caro) (q.v.).
Robertson); commentaries on the Acts of the Apostles; Sir W.
He also composed commentaries on the lyric and comic poets and on Thucydides and Demosthenes; part of his commentary on this last author was first published in 1904.
The opening pages of his commentaries on the Iliad and the Odyssey dwell with enthusiasm on the abiding influence of Homer on the literature of Greece.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
containing commentaries on the Gospels, 169 on Acts and Epistles, 66 on the Apocalypse, 1072 lectionaries of the Gospels and 287 of Acts and Epistles, making a grand total of 3698 MSS.
3, 18 (see commentaries).
37, seq., and commentaries on Chronicles (q.v.).
For other discussions, apart from commentaries on Genesis, see B.
/n==Authorities== - The principal ancient authorities for the life of Caesar are his own Commentaries, the biographies of Plutarch and Suetonius, letters and speeches of Cicero, the Catiline of Sallust, the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the histories of Appian, Dio Cassius and Velleius Paterculus (that of Livy exists only in the Epitome).
Settegast, Halle, 1881) based on the Pharsalia of Lucan, and the commentaries of Caesar (on the Civil War) and his continuators (on the Alexandrine, African and Spanish wars).
Other works by Hirsch were Horeb, and commentaries on the Pentateuch and Psalms. These are marked by much originality, but their exegesis is fanciful.
Commentaries on the Gospels of St Matthew, St Mark and St Luke, we are told by the heading in one of the MSS.
The Wycliffite authorship of the Commentaries on the Gospels, on which the learned editors base their argument, is, however, unsupported by any evidence beyond the fact that the writer of the Prologue to Matthew urges in strong language " the propriety of translating Scripture for the use of the laity."
-The Biblical text found in these Commentaries is in fact so far removed from the original type of the Early Version as to be transitional to the Late, and, what is still more convincing, passages from the Early Version, from both the Old Testament and the New Testament, are actually quoted in the Commentary.
parliament, 1543; at the same time it was enacted that all notes and marginal commentaries in other copies should be obliterated, and that " no woman (unless she be a noble or gentle woman), no artificers, apprentices, journeymen, servingmen, under the degree of yeomen.
He wrote commentaries on the Pentateuch and some other parts of the Scriptures.
Ford; Joseph Story, Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States (5th ad., 2 vols., Boston, 1891); James Kent, Commentaries on American Law (14th ad., 4 vols., ibid..
Although he refers to Caesar's Commentaries once by name, and evidently made use of them in other passages, he but imperfectly availed himself of that work.
Among the authentic works of Nicolaus of Lyra are: (1) two commentaries on the whole Bible, one (Postilla litteralis, 1322-1331) following the literal sense, the other (Postilla mystica seu moralis, 1339) following the mystic sense.
They are, in short, neither independent works, nor mere commentaries, but Aristotle's first drafts of his Ethics.
- The Aristotelian philosophy is to be studied,first in Aristotle's works, which are the best commentaries on one another; the best complete edition is the Berlin edition (1831-1870), by Bekker and Brandis, in which also are the fragments collected by V.
In Germany there has been a host of commentaries, among which we may mention the Organon edited (1844-1846) by F.
He was the author of several works in philosophy, theology and canon law, including commentaries on the Scriptures and on the Sentences of Peter Lombard, and is sometimes referred to as famosissimus doctor.
His Commentaries on St John's Gospel (1881), on the Epistle to the Hebrews (1889) and the Epistles of St John (1883) resulted from his public lectures.
His commentaries rank with Lightfoot's as the best type of Biblical exegesis produced by the English Church in the 19th century.
23, or in the midst of the Egyptians) see the recent commentaries.
(1907), pp. 159-217; the histories of Israel and commentaries on the book of Exodus.
Only a few fragments of his work, apparently en titled Commentaries on the Writings of Moses, are quoted by Clement, Eusebius and other theological writers, but they suffice to show its object.
Suidas states that he was of the same age as Theon of Alexandria, who wrote commentaries on Ptolemy's great work, the Syntaxis mathematica, and flourished in the reign of Theodosius I.
But it would seem incredible that two contemporaries should have at the same time and in the same style composed commentaries upon one and the same work, and yet neither should have been mentioned by the other, whether as friend or opponent.
It is more probable that Pappus's commentary was written long before Theon's, but was largely assimilated by the latter, and that Suidas, through failure to disconnect the two commentaries, assigned a like date to both.
He also wrote commentaries on Euclid's Elements (of which fragments are preserved in Proclus and the Scholia, while that on the tenth Book has been found in an Arabic MS.), and on Ptolemy's `Ap/20vcKfi.
His commentaries on Plato and Ptolemy are lost.
Of the commentaries we have - (1) one on the Isagoge of Porphyry (Venice, 1500 fol.); (2) one on the Categories (Venice, 1503 fol.), the authenticity of which is doubted by Brandis; (3) one on the De Interpretatione (Venice, 1503 fol.).
Other commentaries on the Topics and the first six books of the Metaphysics still exist in manuscript.
Among Benedict's works are commentaries on part of the Psalms and on the Gospel of.
40, and that of the anointing of Christ in Bethany given by Mark and Matthew, are among the chief problems. The controversy has given rise to a great mass of literature, discussions of which will be found in the lives of Christ, the biblical encyclopaedias and the commentaries on St John.
i., 1903); and, for America, Bouvier's Law Dictionary, and Kent's Commentaries on American Law.
In 1693 his series of Biblical commentaries began with that on Genesis; the series was not completed until 1731.
On the other side, Von Soden's Hand-Commentar (2nd ed., 1893) and Franz Koehler's popular commentaries Die Schriften des N.
His commentaries on the Scriptures were the first application on an extensive scale of the principle affirmed by Scaliger, that, namely, of interpretation by the rules of grammar without dogmatic assumptions.
Simson's contributions to mathematical knowledge took the form of critical editions and commentaries on the works of the ancient geometers.
of the Bible or important texts, and in most printed books, (b) the Rabbinic(or Rashi) character, used in commentaries and treatises of all kinds, both in MS. and in printed books, (c) the Cursive character, used in letters and for informal purposes, not as a rule printed.
Nawawi's collection of the forty (actually forty-two) chief traditions has been frequently published with commentaries in Cairo.
So great were his learning and piety that he was regarded as an incarnation of Siva, and his works (commentaries on the Vedanta Sutras, the Bhagavad Gita and the Upanishads) exercised a permanent influence on Hindu thought.
It is to him we owe the commentaries on seven of the shorter canonical books, consisting almost entirely of verses, and also the commentary on the Netti, perhaps the oldest Pali work outside the canon.
His publications were connected with biblical criticism and interpretation, some of them being for popular use and others more strictly scientific. To the former class belong the Biblical Cyclopaedia, his edition of Cruden's Concordance, his Early Oriental History, and his discourses on the Divine Love and on Paul the Preacher; to the latter his commentaries on the Greek text of St Paul's epistles to the Ephesians, Colossians, Philippians and Galatians, published at intervals in four volumes.
Other commentaries apparently by him have been ascribed to various writers, principally to the great Anselm.
His commentaries on the Categories, De Interpretatione, De Sensu, and other works of Aristotle are frequently referred to by later writers, but have not come down to us.
Commentaries on Plato, mentioned by Porphyry in his life of Plotinus, have also been lost.
Commentaries on books 1 -4, 7 (in part), and 8 of the Nicomachean Ethics are preserved; that on book 8 was printed with those of Eustratius and others by Aldus Manutius at Venice in 1536.
He also wrote commentaries - the majority of which are lost - on a great number of the scriptural books.
In his commentaries he also made contributions to the comparative philology of Hebrew and Arabic.
Moses Kimhi also composed commentaries to the biblical books; those on Proverbs, Ezra and Nehemiah are in the great rabbinical bibles falsely ascribed to Abraham ibn Ezra.
After the completion of his great work he began to write commentaries on portions of the Scriptures.
His commentaries have been frequently reprinted, many of them in Latin translations.
They were in German, not in Latin; they were expositions of his own experience, of his own views, of his own methods of curing, adapted to the diseases that afflicted the Germans in the year 1527, and they were not commentaries on the text of Galen or Avicenna.
But there are traces of fixed lessons coming into existence in the course of this century; Origen refers to the book of Job being read in Holy Week (Commentaries on Job, lib.
Nicephorus was also the author of lists of the emperors and patriarchs of Constantinople, of a poem on the capture of Jerusalem, and of a synopsis of the Scriptures, all in iambics; and of commentaries on liturgical poems.
Besides this he wrote Cogitationes et dissertationes theologicae, on the principles of natural and revealed religion (2 vols., Geneva, 1737; in French, Traite de la verite de la religion chretienne) and commentaries on Thessalonians and Romans.
At one time he was secretary to the Chief Rabbi; in 1853 he became tutor in the Rothschild family and enjoyed leisure to produce his commentaries and other works.
His commentaries are of permanent value, not only because of the author's originality, but also because of his erudition.
The commentaries of the brothers Tzetzes have been edited by C. O.
Very little is known about the members of this school, and there has been much discussion as to whether the Pythagorean literature which was widely published at the time in Alexandria was the original work of 1st-century writers or merely reproductions of and commentaries on the older Pythagorean writings.
(6) An enormous mass of personal impressions taking the form of Commentaries, Memoirs and Diaries (Tagebuc/zer).
He wrote a number of very valuable commentaries on Habakkuk (1843), Genesis (1852, 4th ed.
Thousands of commentaries on the Koran, some of them of prodigious size, have been written by Moslems; and even the number of those still extant in manuscript is by no means small.
(For modern editions, commentaries, &c., see Mahommedan Religion: Bibliography).
Besides commentaries on the whole Koran, or on special parts and topics, the Moslems possess a whole literature bearing on their sacred book.
- In addition to the various English and German commentaries on Exodus included under the head of the Pentateuch, the following English works are especially worthy of mention: S.
McNeile, The Book of Exodus (Westminster Commentaries) (1908); also the articles on "Exodus" by G.
Schepss showed that many of the additions to the text are to be traced not to Alfred himself, but to the glosses and commentaries which he used, still there is much in the work which is solely Alfred's and highly characteristic of his genius.
As these jurists had in their commentaries upon the leges, senatus consulta and edicts of the magistrates practically incorporated all that was of importance in those documents, the books of the jurists may substantially be taken as including (i.) and (ii.).
too far, and indeed attempted what was impossible, when he forbade all commentaries upon the Digest.
After his return from Persia Simplicius wrote commentaries upon Aristotle's De coelo, Physica, De anima and Categoriae, which, with a commentary upon the Enchiridion of Epictetus, have survived.
To the student of Greek philosophy his commentaries are invaluable, as they contain many fragments of the older philosophers as well as of his immediate predecessors.
In this as in the previous studies a compendium is learned by heart, and explanations are given from commentaries and noted down by the students word for word.
From 1522 to 1524 he was busy with the translation of the Bible and in publishing commentaries.
The Pali Text Society is still publishing two volumes a year; and the Russian Academy has inaugurated a series to contain the most important of the Sanskrit works still buried in MS. We have also now accessible in Pali fourteen volumes of the commentaries of the great 5th- century scholars in south India and Ceylon, most of them the works either of Buddhaghosa of Budh Gaya, or of Dhammapala of Kancipura (the ancient name of Conjeeveram).
See, for the progress of the idea in Jewish and New Testament times, the modern commentaries on Revelation and the 2nd Epistle to the Thessalonians; Bousset, Antichrist (1895), and the article "Antichrist" in the Encyclop. Biblica; R.
The work was declared to be the sole source of nonstatute law: commentaries on the compilation were forbidden, or even the citing of the original works of the jurists for the explaining of ambiguities in the text.
To the years of his presbyterate and episcopate belong the great mass of homilies and commentaries, among which those On the Statues, and on Matthew, Romans and Corinthians, stand out preeminently.
Some of the commentaries and homilies are translated in the Oxford Library of the Fathers.
Commentaries by Alexander on the following works of Aristotle are still extant: - the Analytica Priora, i.; the Topica; the Meteorologica; the De Sensu; and the Metaphysica, i.-v., together with an abridgment of what he wrote on the remaining books of the Metaphysica.
His commentaries were greatly esteemed among the Arabians, who translated many of them.
C. Orelli, Zurich, 1824; and his commentaries on the Metaphysica by H.
Editions, with copious commentaries, of Tibullus (ed.
He was the author of a number of Biblical commentaries (no longer extant), which are said to have been characterized by great erudition.
The Hebrew text is discussed in all recent commentaries; see also Dyserinck, in Theol.
The humanist Vives was brought from Italy to teach Latin, and the reader in theology was instructed to follow the Greek and Latin Fathers rather than the scholastic commentaries.
28 seq., see the commentaries) even ascribes to Solomon the import of horses from Kue and Musri (Cilicia and Cappadocia).
His historic fame came from the Christian Schoolmen, whom he almost initiated into the system of Aristotle, and who, but vaguely discerning the expositors who preceded, admired in his commentaries the accumulated results of two centuries of labours.
The Latin editions of his philosophical works comprise the Commentaries on Aristotle, the Destructio Destructionis (against Ghazali), the De Substantia Orbis and a double treatise De Animae Beatitudine.
The Commentaries of Averroes fall under three heads: - the larger commentaries, in which a paragraph is quoted at large, and its clauses expounded one by one; the medium commentaries, which cite only the first words of a section; and the paraphrases or analyses, treatises on the subjects of the Aristotelian books.
The great commentaries exist only for the Posterior Analytics, Physics, De Caelo, De Anima and Metaphysics.
Consult also the Commentaries of Afonso Dalboquerque, W.
His chief work was the Syntagmation, but he wrote many others, including commentaries on the Gospels, the Psalms, and Romans.
This council, which consisted of five hundred members, compiled three commentaries on the Buddhist faith.
These commentaries supplied in part materials for the Tibetan or northern canon, drawn up at a subsequent period.
The Kanishka commentaries were written in the Sanskrit language, perhaps because the Kashmir and northern priests who formed his council belonged to isolated Aryan colonies, which had been little influenced by the growth of the Indian vernacular dialects.
Cicero's method was to construct a commentaries or skeleton of his speech, which he used when speaking.
In 1712 he published a carefully punctuated and annotated edition (folio 1712, octavo 1720) of Caesar's Commentaries, with elegant engravings, dedicated to the duke of Marlborough.
In the history of logic it is of importance because of its production of a whole series of commentators on the Aristotelian logic. Not only the Introduction of Porphyry, which had lasting effects on the Scholastic tradition, but the commentaries of Themistius, and Simplicius.
Hypatia, according to Suidas, was the author of commentaries on the Arithmetica of Diophantus of Alexandria, on the Conics of Apollonius of Perga and on the astronomical canon (of Ptolemy).
commentaries, viz., H.
The commentaries of Barnes, Clarke and Ernesti are practically superseded; but Heyne's Iliad (Leipzig, 1802) and Nitzsch's commentary on the Odyssey (books i.-xii., Hanover, 1826-1840) are still useful.
His tenets are expounded in various works, especially in his commentaries on the Vedantasutras and the Bhagavadgita.
Madhva - who after his initiation assumed the name Anandatirtha - composed numerous Sanskrit works, including commentaries on the Brahma sutras (i.e.
Imperfect acquaintance with authors whom they studied in Latin translations made by Jews from Arabic commentaries on Greek texts, together with almost total ignorance of natural laws, condemned them to sterility.
It was, however, the fundamental division for the early French writers on finance, and it survives for England as late as Blackstone's Commentaries.
4, cp. nahash, " serpent") is obscure; see the commentaries.
After his commentaries (on Romans, the Gospel of John, the Sermon on the Mount and the Epistle to the Hebrews) and several volumes of sermons, his best-known books are Stunden christlicher Andacht (1839; 8th ed., 1870), intended to take the place of J.
commentaries) were published at Venice in four volumes in 1836.
With the exception of his commentaries on scripture, nearly all his extant Syriac works are composed in metre.
His commentaries on the O.T.
Of the many commentaries the first place must be given to that of R.
Most important of all, however, is Joseph Caro's Shullhan `Aruk (" prepared table "), which came in the age of printing (1565), leapt into popularity, and has been, in its turn, the subject of many commentaries and hand-books.
it presupposes a knowledge which made commentaries a necessity even, as we have seen, to the Jews themselves.
A good idea of its heterogeneity is afforded by the English translations of Talmudic and other commentaries by P. I.
This was probably the time when he composed his voluminous commentaries (many of which still exist in manuscript) and divided the Bible into chapters.
In both these poems, the language of which was so obscure that they required special commentaries, his model appears to have been Parthenius of Nicaea.
6; on the text see the commentaries.
Among commentaries may be noticed those of Kalkar (in Latin) (1836); O.
Laetus a,lso wroth commentaries on classical authors, and promoted the publication of the editio princeps of Virgil at Rome in 1469.
Among his numerous works are commentaries on Joel and Amos (1897); Deuteronomy (1902); Daniel (1901);(1901); Genesis (1909); the Minor Prophets, Nahum to Malachi (1905); Job (1905); Jeremiah (1906); Leviticus (1894 Hebrew text, 1898 trans.
The more certain writings of Philoponus consist of commentaries on Aristotle.
It is no longer necessary for serious criticism to refute the objections to its authenticity raised during the 19th century in certain quarters;12 as Macaulay said of the authenticity of Caesar's commentaries, "to doubt on that subject is the mere rage of scepticism."
The powers of the Shah (Shahanshah,2 or king of kings) over his subjects and their property were absolute, but only in so far as they were not opposed to the shar, or divine law, which consists of the doctrines of the Mahommedan religion, as laid down in the Koran, the oral commentaries and sayings of the Prophet, and the interpretations by his successors and the high priesthood.
A ducal commission, appointed to find a means for ending the interminable strife between the rival academic parties, entrusted Eck with the preparation of fresh commentaries on Aristotle and Petrus Hispanus.
He had a marvellous capacity for work, and between 1516 and 1520, in addition to all his other duties, he published commentaries on the Summulae of Petrus Hispanus, and on the Dialectics, Physics and lesser scientific works of Aristotle, which became the text-books of the university.
During these early years Eck was still reckoned among the "modernists," and his commentaries are inspired with much of the scientific spirit of the New Learning.
2162-3, and the commentaries.
Sometimes they were expanded versions of its episodes, sometimes what may be called commentaries or companion volumes.
His scientific writings are all in the form of commentaries, and it was not until his seventieth year that (with the exception of a brief tract on the De insomniis of Hippocrates) he felt that any of them were sufficiently complete to be given to the world.
His other scientific works, Commentaries on Theophrastus' De causis plantarum and Aristotle's History of Animals, he left in a more or less unfinished state, and they were not printed until after.
The importance of these writings as throwing light on the geography and history of India and adjoining countries, during a very dark period, is great, and they have been the subject of elaborate commentaries by modern students.
Amongst later ones we may mention the commentaries of Ruperti (1819) and C. F.
The most useful English commentaries are those of J.
Moreover, the commentaries of Cleanthes, Aristo and Sphaerus on Heraclitean writings (Diog.
- Commentaries: Dillmann-Ryssel, Die Bucher Exodus and Leviticus (1897); Driver and White, SBOT.
The chief sources from which he drew were: (1) the Church History, the Life of Constantine and certain theological works of Eusebius; (2) the Church History of Rufinus; (3) certain works of Athanasius; (4) the no longer extant /vva-ycoy'i of the Macedonian and semi-Arian Sabinus - a collection of acts of councils with commentaries, brought down to the reign of Theodosius I.
The sentences soon attained immense popularity, ultimately becoming the text-book in almost every theological school, and giving rise to endless commentaries, over 180 of these being written in England.
Besides the Sententiae, Lombard wrote numerous commentaries (e.g.
Amongst them may be mentioned a history of the dispute with Palamas; biographies of his uncle and early instructor John, metropolitan of Heraclea, and of the martyr Codratus of Antioch; funeral orations for Theodore Metochita, and the two emperors Andronicus; commentaries on the wanderings of Odysseus and on Synesius's treatise on dreams; tracts on orthography and on words of doubtful meaning; a philosophical dialogue called Florentius or Concerning Wisdom; astronomical treatises on the date of Easter and the preparation of the astrolabe; and an extensive correspondence.
Galen, who in his youth was carefully trained in the Stoic philosophy, was an unusually prolific writer on logic. Of the numerous commentaries and original treatises, a catalogue of which is given in his work De propriis libris, one only has come down to us, the treatise on Fallacies in dictione (IIepi TWV KaTa T1jv M Gi' oocio-µarouv).
(Orlando Bandinelli), pope from 1159 to 1181, was a Siennese, and as a teacher of canon law in Bologna composed the Stroma or the Summa Magistri Rolandi, one of the earliest commentaries on the Decretum Gratiani.
1905, strong in philology and external criticism), and Denney (Expositor's Greek Testament, 1901, a masterpiece of theological exposition), to which the Roman Catholic commentaries of A.
Commentaries on Rabelais, independent of editions, have been numerous from the work of Jean Bernier, Jugement et nouvelles observations sur les ceuvres ...
Of the continuations of Caesar's Commentaries - the eighth book of the Gallic war, the history of the Alexandrian, African and Spanish wars - the first is generally allowed to be by Hirtius; the Alexandrian war is perhaps by him (or Oppius); the last two are supposed to have been written at his request, by persons who had taken part in the events described, with a view to subsequent revision and incorporation in his proposed work on military commanders.
"Such things as are reported either before or at the foundation of the city, more beautiful and set out with poets' fables than grounded upon pure and faithful records, I mean neither to aver nor disprove" (Praef); and of the whole history previous to the sack of Rome by the Gauls (390 B.C.) he writes that it was obscure "both in regard of exceeding antiquity, and also for that in those days there were very few writings and monuments, the only faithful safeguard and true remembrancers of deeds past; and, besides, whatsoever was registered in the commentaries of the priests and in other public or private records, the same for the most part, when the city was burned, perished withal."
Beside the theological and political works above quoted, Occam wrote Summa Logices (Paris, 1488, Oxford, 1675) commentaries on Porphyry's Isagoge, on the Categoriae, De Interpretatione and Elenchi of Aristotle.
See commentaries by Th.
C. Allen (in the series of International Critical Commentaries, 1907); also books on the Four Gospels or the Synoptic Gospels cited at the end of GOSPEL.
After holding very numerous sessions, the "congregation" was able to decide nothing, and in 1607 its meetings were suspended by Paul V., who in 1611 prohibited all further discussion of the question "de auxiliis," and studious efforts were made to control the publication even of commentaries on Aquinas.
Preuschen gives thirty-eight titles, besides orations and letters, but it is doubtful whether all of the Commentaries mentioned really existed.) Bibliography.
1886), Constitutional History of the Presbyterian Church the United States (2 vols., 1839-1840); The Way of Life (1841); Commentaries on Ephesians (1856); 1 Corinthians (1857); 2 Corinthians (1859); Systematic Theology (3 vols., 2200 pp., 1871-1873), probably the best of all modern expositions of Calvinistic dogmatic; and What is Darwinism?
But he chanced upon some of Zwingli's works and Bullinger's commentaries on St Paul's epistles; and after some molestation in England and some correspondence with Bullinger on the lawfulness of complying against his conscience with the established religion, he determined to secure what property he could and take refuge on the continent.
profitably work, and the school devoted itself hence forth almost exclusively to the writing of commentaries on Aristotle, e.g.
In the and century Aspasius and Adrastus of Aphrodisias wrote numerous commentaries.
Alexander's commentaries formed the foundation of the Arabian and Scholastic study of Aristotle.
For long list of commentaries, &c., cf.
The most important commentaries on the epistle are those of Matt.
He was the author of editions of several classical authors, of which the most important were: the complete works of Cicero (2nd ed., 1869-1874); Clement of Alexandria (1831-1834); Euripides (1841-1867), in continuation of Pfiugk's edition, but unfinished; Terence (1838-1840), with the commentaries of Donatus and Eugraphius.
Cousin's collection, besides giving extracts from the theological work Sic et Non (an assemblage of opposite opinions on doctrinal points, culled from the Fathers as a basis for discussion, the main interest in which lies in the fact that there is no attempt to reconcile the different opinions), includes the Dialectica, commentaries on logical works of Aristotle, Porphyry and Boethius, and a fragment, De Generibus et Speciebus.
Translations and Commentaries.
Meyer, Israeliten, pp. 400 sqq.; and the commentaries on Chronicles (q.v.).
Among his numerous writings, which became very popular among students, are De ortu scientiarum, De tempore, De Universali, and some commentaries on Aristotle.
The collection has had several commentators; we need only mention the commentaries of Photius (883), Zonaras (1120) and Balsamon (1170).
tion began to appear; the collections of texts, the number of which continued to increase, were clearly separated from the commentaries in which the canonists continued the formation and interpretation of the law.
The commentaries not so entirely concerned with the text were called Apparatus; and Summae was the name given to general treatises.
But as time goes on, the works gradually lose the character of commentaries on the text, and develop into expositions of the law as a whole.
The commentaries of Innocent IV.
In addition to commentaries and dictionary articles, see E.
For other texts, translations, commentaries and monographs see the excellent bibliography contained in the Gru ' ndriss d.
The text and earlier commentaries are in the - the most archaic form of the Celtic or Gaelic language.
Studien (1910), and the commentaries on (all or portions of) the Minor Prophets by A.
These were followed by commentaries on Job, Ezekiel, Nahum, Habakkuk and Zephaniah, in the Cambridge series; and a Bible-class primer on The Exile and Restoration.
Jacob also wrote two commentaries on the Pentateuch.
Among his publications are: Commentaries on the Law of Bailments (1832); Commentaries on the Constitution of the United States (3 vols., 1833), a work of profound learning which is still the standard treatise on the subject; Commentaries on the Conflict of Laws (1834), by many regarded as his ablest work; Commentaries on Equity Jurisprudence (2 vols., 1835-1836); Equity Pleadings (1838); Law of Agency (1839) Law of Partnership (1841); Law of Bills of Exchange (1843); and Law of Promissory Notes (1845).
And the characteristic task for living theologians was to consist in writing commentaries on the Lombard's Sentences; for a time these Sentences themselves had been suspected, but they gained immense influence.
The systems of the leading schoolmen must rank above their commentaries upon the Lombard's Sentences, as the greatest of all systems of theology.
Commentaries on the Biblical passages especially Burney and Skinner on Kings, Meyer and A.
Compelled to abdicate, he withdrew to a monastery, where he busied himself with writing commentaries on the Scriptures.
This law was derived partly from Moses, partly from the utterances of the later prophets, partly from oral tradition and from the commentaries and supplementary maxims of generations of students.
S.) A complete edition of Filelfo's Greek letters (based on the Codex Trevulzianus) was published for the first time, with French translation, notes and commentaries, by E.
A conservative scholar, Godet was the author of some of the most noteworthy French commentaries published in recent times.
His commentaries are on the Gospel of St John (2 vols., 1863-1865; 3rd ed., 1881-1888; Eng.
(Paris, 1854) contains no fewer than forty-seven treatises, commentaries and collections of sermons.
Among those works with which Hugh of St Victor may almost certainly be credited may be mentioned the celebrated De sacramentis christianae fidei; the Didascalicon de studio legendi; the treatises on mysticism entitled Soliloquium de arrha animae, De contemplatione et ejus operibus, Aureum de meditando opusculum, De arca Noe morali, De arca Noe mystica, De vanitate mundi, De arrha animae, De amore sponsi ad sponsam, &c.; the introduction (Praenotatiunculae) to the study of the Scriptures; homilies on the book of Ecclesiastes; commentaries on other books of the Bible, e.g.
Besides preaching every day in each alternate week, he taught theology three days in the week, attended weekly meetings of his consistory, read the Scriptures once a week in the congregation, carried on an extensive correspondence on a multiplicity of subjects, prepared commentaries on the books of Scripture, and was engaged repeatedly in controversy with the opponents of his opinions.
Mention may also be made of a treatise on orthography, of which a fragment (on Quantity) has been preserved; a tract on prosody; commentaries on Hephaestion and Dionysius Thrax; and grammatical notes on the Psalms.
The Greek commentaries ascribed to Ulpian are especially defective on the historical side, and give little essential aid.
230, note I, and the commentaries).
8-16) which belongs more The historical problems are noticed in all biblical histories, and in the commentaries on Joshua and Judges.
- See the commentaries of Dillmann, Steuernagel Holzinger (German), or the concise edition by H.
Rollock wrote Commentaries on the Epistles tc the Ephesians (1590) and Thessalonians (1598) and Hebrews (1605), the book of Daniel (1591), the Gospel of St John (1599) and some of the Psalms (1598); an analysis of the Epistle to the Romans (1594), and Galatians (1602); also Questions and Answers on the Covenant of God (1596), and a Treatise on Effectual Calling (1597).
Driver's Genesis in the "Westminster Commentaries" (seventh ed., 1909).
and the commentaries).
53 one can still perceive that the present text has endeavoured to obscure the older belief that the God of Abraham was not the God of his "brother" Nahor (see the commentaries).
These are divided by Caesar in his Commentaries into three groups: the Aquitanians to the south of the Garonne; the Celts, properly so called, from the Garonne to the Seine and the Marne; and the Belgae, from the Seine to the Rhine.
Besides minor works, such as a recension of the Prayer-Book (Siddur), the Pardes and ha-Orah, Rashi wrote two great commentaries on which his fame securely rests.
These were the commentaries on the whole of the Hebrew Bible and on about thirty treatises of the Talmud.
His commentary on the Pentateuch, in particular, has been printed in hundreds of editions; it is still to Jews the most beloved of all commentaries on the Mosaic books.
An important feature of Rashi's commentaries is the frequency of French translations of words.
Arabian philosophy, at the outset of its career in the 9th century, was able without difficulty to take possession of those resources for speculative thought which the Latins had barely achieved at the close of the 12th century by the slow process of rediscovering the Aristotelian logic from the commentaries and verses of Boetius.
It was in this spirit that Porphyry, Themistius and Joannes Philoponus composed their commentaries on the treatises of the Peripatetic system which, modified often unconsciously by the dominant ideas of its expositors, became in the 6th and 7th centuries the philosophy of the Eastern Church.
The commentaries of the Arabians in this respect supplied nutriment more readily assimilated by the pupils than the pure text would have been.
The provincial council of Paris in 1209, which condemned Amalricus and his followers, as well as David of Dinant's works, forbade the study of Aristotle's Natural Philosophy and the Commentaries.
In 1215 the same prohibition was repeated, specifying the Metaphysics and Physics, and the Commentaries by the Spaniard Mauritius (i.e.
It was not till about the middle of the 12th century that under the patronage of Raymond, archbishop of Toledo, a society of translators, with the archdeacon Dominicus Gundisalvi at their head, produced Latin versions of the Commentaries of Avicenna, and Ghazali, of the Fons Vitae of Avicebron, and of several Aristotelian treatises.
No satisfactory explanation of this title has yet been given from the Hebrew (see the commentaries).
More recently there have appeared commentaries by E.
In matters of exegesis he is, like Hilary, an Alexandrian; his chief productions are homiletic commentaries on the early Old Testament narratives, e.g.
Many commentaries have been written on this work, the fullest being that of Ibn Ya`ish (d.
He was the author of Biblical commentaries both in Greek and Coptic, and is said to have composed many hymns.
His Commentaries on the Laws of the United States (1836) contains some of his more important legal opinions.
On Biblical questions, see Dillmann's commentaries and the Bible dictionaries.
Among his works, which were first collectively published in 1867-1876, are Absolutissimus de octo orationis partium constructione libellus (Antwerp, 1530), Rudimenta Grammatices (London, 1539), Daily Devotions, Monition to a Godly Life, Epistolae ad Erasmum, and commentaries on different parts of the Bible.
1, and the commentaries), and, while the " Philistines " for once march north to Jezreel to deliver their attack, David's presence is not discovered until Aphek is reached (xxix.).
- See further the commentaries of M.
Michael Scott, the translator of some treatises of Aristotle and of the commentaries of Averroes, Leonardo of Pisa, who introduced Arabic numerals and algebra to the West, and other scholars, Jewish and Mahommedan as well as Christian, were welcome at his court.
Concerning The Federalist Chancellor James Kent (Commentaries, i.
See SY Racuse (for the siege operations), commentaries on Thucydides and the Greek histories.
He was a voluminous author, and his works included topographical and biographical treatises, commentaries on Helvius Cinna and the poems of Virgil, and disquisitions on agriculture and bee-keeping.
There are still extant commentaries on the First Alcibiades, Parmenides, Republic, Timaeus and Cratylus.
Cousin (Paris, 1864) contains the treatises De providentia et fato, Decem dubitationes, and De malorum subsistentia, the commentaries on the Alcibiades and Parmenides.
Most recent editions of individual works are: Commentaries on the Parmenides, French translation with notes by A.
Thomas Taylor, the "Platonist," translated the commentaries on the Timaeus and Euclid, The Theology of Plato, the Elements of Theology, and the three Latin treatises.
In my online commentaries on Acts, I take Maccoby's view that Paul was a roman agent provocateur.
The 1917 donation is of 700 v of Dante editions, translations and commentaries, many of 19 th and 20 th cent.
commentarypropriate, reviews are also accompanied by commentaries by other workers in the field or editorial comment.
commentaryk is the account of his visit and his insightful, often interactive commentaries.
Each session was organized with short introductory presentations, followed by commentaries from panel discussants before opening the discussion to the audience.
editorials entitled " Nine Commentaries on the Communist Party.
All the nonsense referred to in the above commentaries can be traced back to the modern failure to teach physics.
Disk one has no less than 4 audio commentaries then you get disk 2 for a whole plethora more.
roundup of developments at QCA, and commentaries on these.
technicality commentaries rarely talk of the technicalities of these laws.
transliterated form with many different translations and commentaries.
His numerous commentaries on Aristotle were widely read and frequently reprinted, the best-known edition being one printed at Paris in 1654 in fourteen volumes (including the Opuscula).
His diwan has been published with commentary at Beirut, 1887, &c.; with the commentaries of Burini (d.
Accordingly Aquinas prepared himself on this side by commentaries on Aristotle's De Inter pretatione, on his Posterior Analytics, on the Metaphysics, the Physics, the De Anima, and on Aristotle's other psychological and physical writings, each commentary having for its aim to lay hold of the material and grasp the method contained and employed in each treatise.
But the pupil soon found his teacher to be but a charlatan, and betook himself, aided by commentaries, to master logic, geometry and the Almagest.
15 (more technical); also the larger commentaries on Exodus-Joshua and the ordinary critical works on Old Testament literature.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
I, 3); he attacked the Commentaries of Julius Caesar, accusing their author of carelessness and credulity, if not of deliberate falsification (Suet.
He also composed liturgical poems. At the end of the Ilth century Judah ibn Bal'am wrote grammatical works and commentaries (on the Pentateuch, Isaiah, &c.) in Arabic; the liturgist Isaac Gayyath (d.
1805), author of Shire Tiphe'reth, a long poem on the Exodus, Diblue Shalom, a plea for liberalism, Sepher ha-middoth, on ethics, besides philological works and commentaries.
Dionysius was also the author of several rhetorical treatises, in which he shows that he has thoroughly studied the best Attic models: The Art of Rhetoric (which is rather a collection of essays on the theory of rhetoric), incomplete, and certainly not all his work; The Arrangement of Words (IIEpi 6uv%o-Ews ovo,uarwv), treating of the combination of words according to the d