How to use Colony in a sentence
The colony of ants were very efficient when they all worked together.
In 59 B.C. a colony was established here by Caesar.
The British colony sought independence from their country.
The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in free industrial progress.
The small colony was very self-sufficient, with just enough shops and farms.Advertisement
Deurne, a few miles east of Helmond, the site of a prehistoric burial-ground, was an early fen colony.
A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club.
He was also one of the grantees of the province of Carolina and took a leading part in its management; it was at his request that Locke in 1669 drew up a constitution for the new colony.
After the Social War it became a municipium and under Augustus a colony.
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.Advertisement
Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.
A further divergence of opinion arises from differences in the interpretation of the persons composing the colony.
The bishop of London was treated as the diocesan bishop of the colonists in North America; and in order to provide for testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction it was usual in the letters patent appointing the governor of a colony to name him ordinary.
In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the constitution of the Anglican church.
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.Advertisement
The conjoined organism is, in fact, a colony or association of the protoplasmic tinits, though each unit retains its independence.
With increase of number, however, and consequently enlargement of bulk in the colony, differentiation becomes compulsory.
There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
He returned, after passing two winters in Canada; and on another occasion he also failed to establish a colony.Advertisement
Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
The colony was really founded by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, between 1822 and 1828.
Besides the University Library, there are a Public Library (1887), containing about 80,000 vols., the library of the Young Men's Institute (1826) and the collection of the New Haven Colony Historical Society.
In April 1842 Lord Stanley (afterwards 14th earl of Derby), then secretary for the colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted.Advertisement
The leader of the party which sought responsible government was Sir John Robinson (1839-1903) who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions.
Having failed with Brand, the Boers invited the Rev. Thomas Francois Burgers, a member of a well-known Cape Colony family and a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, to allow himself to be nominated.
A colony of these people, fleeing from persecution in Moravia, settled at Herrnhut in 1722 on a site presented by Count Zinzendorf.
About 1628 the religious troubles in England led to the emigration of a large number of Puritans; the colony of Massachusetts Bay was founded in 1628-1630 by settlers led by John Endicott and John Winthrop, and a church on congregational lines was founded at Salem in 1629, and another soon afterwards at Boston, which became the centre of the colony.
Although an, active guerrilla warfare was waged against the Dutch during a large part of that period, they did much to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, especially under the wise administration of Maurice of Nassau.
In the 1st century B.C. Buthrotum became a Roman colony, and derived some importance from its position near Corcyra, and on the main highway between Dyrrachium and Ambracia.
Agrippa made the fine natural harbour into the main naval station of the Mediterranean fleet, and founded a colony there probably in 31 B.C. The emperor Tiberius died in his villa here.
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
Dairy-farming is making some progress, especially in the Swiss colony near San Jose.
The colony of Serdica, founded here by the emperor Trajan, became a Roman provincial town of considerable importance in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., and was a favourite residence of Constantine the Great.
With the uninhabited dependency of South Georgia Island, to the E.S.E., they form the most southerly colony of the British empire.
The colony is self-supporting, the revenue being largely derived from the drink duties, and there is no public debt.
In 1764 the French explorer De Bougainville took possession of the islands on behalf of his country, and established a colony at Port Louis on Berkeley Sound.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
A colony with Latin rights was founded on Pontiae in 313 B.C. Nero, Germanicus's eldest son, and the sisters of Caligula, were confined upon it; while Pandateria was the place of banishment of Julia, daughter of Augustus, of her daughter Agrippina the elder, and of Octavia, the divorced wife of Nero.
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
From it have been transferred to the fireproof building of the Registry of Deeds many interesting historical documents, among them the records of the Plymouth colony, the will of Myles Standish, and the original patent.
When and how the town and the colony of Plymouth became differentiated is not clear.
Plymouth was never incorporated as a township, but in 1633 the General Court of the colony recognized it as such by ordering that "the chiefe government be tyed to the towne of Plymouth."
In 1686 the colony submitted to Sir Edmund Andros, who had been commissioned governor of all New England, and chose representatives to sit in his council.
The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the north-west corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that from the beginning of the 3rd century the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli (298 B.C.) farther west.
At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
Algoa Bay was the first landing-place of the British emigrants to the eastern province of Cape Colony in 1820.
In 194 B.C. it became a Roman colony.
Augustus is said to have conducted here a colony of veterans,' but the place never had any great importance, and the lagoons behind it made it unhealthy, though the construction of the Via Domitiana through it must have made it a posting station.
The site proving unfavourable, the colony was transferred to Twentyseven Mile Bluff, on the Mobile River, in 1702, and later to Mobile (1710).
During the next few years Fort St Peter and a small adjoining colony were established on the Yazoo River in Warren county, and some attempts at settlement were made on Bay St Louis and Pascagoula Bay.
The efforts (1712-1721) to foster colonization and commerce through trading corporations established by Antoine Crozat and John Law failed, and the colony soon came again under the direct control of the king.
The North Carolina State Hospital (for the insane) at Raleigh was opened in 1856 as a result of the labours of Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix (1805-1887); in connexion with it there is an epileptic colony.
After receiving from Queen Elizabeth a patent for colonization in the New World, Sir Walter Raleigh, in April 1584, sent Philip Amadas, or Amidas (1S501618), and Arthur Barlowe (c. 1550 - c. 1620) to discover in the region bordering on Florida a suitable location for a colony.
They returned in September with a glowing account of what is now the coast of North Carolina, and on the 9th of April 1585 a colony of about 108 men under Ralph Lane (c. 1530-1603) sailed from Plymouth in a fleet of seven small vessels commanded by Sir Richard Grenville.
The colony was established at the north end of Roanoke Island on the 17th of August, and about a week later Grenville returned to England.
Although greatly disappointed at the return of the first colony, Raleigh despatched another company, consisting of 121 persons under John White, with instructions to remove the plantation to the shore of Chesapeake Bay.
White soon returned to England for supplies, and having been detained there until 1591 he found upon his return no trace of the colony except the word " Croatan " carved on a tree; hence the colony was supposed to have gone away with some friendly Indians, possibly the Hatteras tribe, and proof of the assumption that these whites mingled with Indians is sought in the presence in Robeson county of a mixed people with Indian habits and occasional English names, calling themselves Croatans.
The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
These workers then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae.
The population of the colony increases fast, and a well-grown nest contains several " queens " and males, besides a large number of workers.
The workers in question remain within the nest, suspended by their feet, and serve as living honey-pots for the colony, becoming so distended by the supplies of honey poured into their mouths by their foraging comrades that their abdomens become sub-globular, the pale intersegmental membrane being tightly stretched between the widely-separated dark sclerites.
The Mingals, who, conjointly with the Brahuis, occupy the hills south of Kalat to the limits of the Rajput province of Las Bela, claim Mongolian descent, and traces of a Mongolian colony have been found in Makran.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
He was no longer an outlaw with a band of wandering companions, but a petty chieftain, head of a small colony of men, allied with families of Caleb and Jezreel (in Judah), and on friendly footing with the sheikhs south of Hebron.
Elche is usually identified with the Iberian Helike, afterwards the Roman colony of Ilici or Illici.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
In the r3th century Pisan merchants founded there a colony, Portus Pisanus, which, however, soon disappeared during the migrations of the Mongols and Turks.
A Roman colony was sent to the place, as Strabo mentions, in the reign of Augustus.
The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the "Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz," and as such sued successfully for the bequest.
Financially the colony was successful, but as there were some desertions and no new recruits after Father Oswald's death, there were few members by 1909.
There are no longer any traces of communism, and the colony's property is actually held by an organization of the local Roman Catholic church.
At the end of the 3rd century it appears as a colony, and in the 5th century it became an episcopal see, which (jointly with Teano since 1818) it still is, though it is now a mere village.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
His son William (1674-1744), the founder of Richmond - and above referred to - was educated in England; returned to Virginia in 1696; succeeded his father as auditor-general of the colony, and was receiver-general in 1705-1716.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
The Missouri colony for the feeble-minded and epileptic (1899) is at Marshall.
Two years later, with that degree of moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the "Boston Massacre," charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony.
Vineyards are cultivated by a German colony and large quantities of wine are made.
The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean is the best of its kind in the colony, while the viaduct over Knapsack Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind in Australia.
One of Philip's ideals was the curbing of colonial "aggression" by the creation of a belt of native states around Cape Colony.
In 1849 he severed his connexion with politics and retired to the mission station at Hankey, Cape Colony, where he died on the 27th of August 1851.
Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several minor roads once in dependent.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
Government.-Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822; although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for incorporation, beginning as early as 1650.
There were various attempts to settle about its borders in the following years before John Endecott in 1628 landed at Salem as governor of the colony of Massachusetts bay, within which Boston was included.
In 1855 a number of For several years it was uncertain whether Cambridge, Charlestown or Boston should be the capital of the colony, but in 1632 the General Court agreed " by general consent, that Boston is the fittest place for public meetings of any place in the Bay."
The great English writers of Queen Anne's reign seem to have been but little known in the colony, and the local literature, though changed somewhat in character, showed but scant improvement.
The town became a Moslem fortress and received a considerable Arab colony; for in the reign of Merwan II.
Like Barkly West, the town and district are named after Sir Henry Barkly, governor of Cape Colony, 1870-1877.
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
Ceded to the Parthians by Hadrian, it became a Roman colony (Septimia Colonia Nisibis) under Septimius Severus.
As thus founded, New Haven was town and colony combined.
In1643-1644the colony was expanded into the New Haven Jurisdiction, embracing the towns of New Haven, Guilford, Milford, Stamford and Branford in Connecticut, and, on Long Island, Southold; but this "Jurisdiction" was dissolved in 1664, and all these towns (except Southold) passed under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, according to the Connecticut charter of 1662.
On every side it is surrounded by British colonies, north by the Orange River Colony, south-west and south by Cape Colony, and east by Natal.
Trade is almost entirely with Orange River Colony and Cape Colony.
About 1800 the country was occupied by various tribes of Bechuana, such as Batau, Basuto, Baputi, who then possessed the greater part of what is now Orange River Colony.
At the same time, if the Basuto were eager for cattle, the Boers were eager for land; and their encroachments on the territories of the Basuto led to a proclamation in 1842 from Sir George Napier, the then governor of Cape Colony, forbidding further encroachments on Basutoland.
The efforts at accommodation failed, and in 1852 General Sir George Cathcart, who had succeeded Sir Harry Smith as governor of Cape Colony, decided to take strong measures with the tribe, and proceeded with three small divisions of troops against Moshesh.
Boundary disputes at once arose but were settled (1858) by the mediation of Sir George Grey, governor of Cape Colony.
An expedition was despatched from Cape Colony and severe fighting followed.
The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape Colony.
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
Consequently, in 1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a British crown colony.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
The conversion of Basuto A land into a crown colony contributed alike to the Y pros perityof the Basuto,the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally.
In 1567 he returned to Spain in the interest of his colony.
In 196 B.C., when the town first appears in history, it was already in the possession of the Boii, and had probably by this time changed its name, and in 189 B.C. it became a Roman colony.
Coruncanius triumphed over the people of Vulsinii and Volci in 280 B.C., and the colony of Cosa was founded in their territory.
In 1891 the town was made the administrative capital of the colony.
The Umbrian Nequinum was taken by the Romans after a long siege in 299 B.C., and a colony planted there against the Umbrians, taking its name from the river.
There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.
Until 1889 it formed part of the colony of the Windward Islands, but in that year it was joined to Trinidad, its legal and fiscal arrangements, however, being kept distinct.
Ten years later it became one of the wards of Trinidad, under a warden and magistrate; its revenue, expenditure and debt were merged into those of the united colony, and Trinidadian law, with very few exceptions, was made binding in Tobago.
It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 B.C., the former being predominant.
It was founded by a Megarian colony, which soon subjugated the native Mariandynians and extended its power over a considerable territory.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
Even the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the colony which effectually stopped the hanging of the Quakers for their religion, though it by no means put an end to the persecution of the body in New England.
In1677-1678five vessels with eight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then separated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established.
Notwithstanding certain troubles from claims of the governor of New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of Quakers, was held.
The trade with Abyssinia suffers owing to the absence of railway communication, which the neighbouring French colony possesses.
The only result of his enterprise was the abortive treaty for the cession to France of Zula, now in the Italian colony of Eritrea.
In 1884 Leonce Lagarde, subsequently French minister to Abyssinia, was sent to administer the infant colony.
Emmerich, formerly called Embrika and Emrik, originally a Roman colony, is mentioned in records so early as the 7th century.
In 1510 and the following years King Ferdinand ordered a number of Africans to be sent to that colony for the working of the mines.
Indeed E the reign of Elizabeth passed without any English colony having been permanently established in America.
The French assembly, fearing the loss of the colony, repealed on the 24th of September the decree of the preceding May.
The planters now offered their allegiance to Great Britain; and an English force landed in the colony.
Canning carried against Buxton and his friends a motion to the effect that the desired ameliorations in the condition and treatment of the slaves should be recommended by the home government to the colonial legislatures, and enforced only in case of their resistance, direct action being taken in the single instance of Trinidad, which, being a crown colony, had no legislature of its own.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.
It became a Roman colony under Augustus, who died at Nola.
It became a colony in 383 B.C. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 B.C. After the Social War it became a municipium.
In April Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of high commissioner for South Africa and governor of Cape Colony.
Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and Basutoland.
His difficulties were increased when at the general election in Cape Colony the Bond obtained a majority.
He thereupon resigned the governorship of Cape Colony, while retaining the post of high commissioner.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
Immediately following the conclusion of peace Milner published (June 21) the Letters Patent establishing the system of crown colony government in the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and exchanging his title of administrator to that of governor.
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
A colony of Germans sent over by John Law to the Arkansas removed to the Mississippi above New Orleans, and gave to its bank the name of the " German Coast," by which it is still known.
All the old codes of the Peninsula, as well as the laws of the Indies and special royal decrees and schedules, were in force in the colony.
The project of the Code Napoleon, however - the code itself not being available in Louisiana, though promulgated in France in 1804 - was used by the compilers in the arrangement and substance of their work; and the French traditions of the colony, thus illustrated, were naturally introduced more and more into the organic commentaries and developments that grew up around the Code Napoleon.
Thus so late as 1819, when the legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable volume.
La Salle attempted to settle a colony in 1684, but missed the Mississippi's mouth and landed in Texas, where he was murdered in 1687 by some of his followers.
In 1697, after Ryswick, Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville (1662-1706) was chosen to lead another colony, which reached the Gulf coast early in 1699.
The company accomplished much for the colony of Louisiana.
For forty years he was the life of the colony.
The company retained its grant of the colony until 1731, when it reverted to the crown.
This treaty was not made public for a year and a half, and Spain did not take full possession of the colony until 1769.
The news of the cession of the colony to Spain roused strong discontent among the colonists.
Nevertheless they compelled Ulloa to leave the colony or exhibit his credentials.
Spanish law and Spanish tongue replaced the French officially, but the colony remained essentially French.
The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), a brilliant young officer of twentyone, when he became the governor of the colony, was one of the most liberal of the Spanish rulers and of all the most popular.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
A school was established by the government in Key West, Florida (U.S.A.), in 1905, for the benefit of the Cuban colony there.
Under a succession of liberal governors (especially Luis de las Casas, 1790-1796, and the marques de Someruelos, 1799-1813), at the end of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th, when the wars in Europe cut off Spain almost entirely from the colony, Cuba was practically independent.
During these three years the great majority of offices were filled by Cubans, and the government was made as different as possible from the military control to which the colony had been accustomed.
Government, Trade, &c. - The colony of the Bahamas is under a British governor, who is assisted by an executive council of nine members, partly official, partly unofficial; and by a legislative council of nine members nominated by the crown.
Many families of good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some progress was made in developing the resources of the colony, although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of some of the governors who succeeded Captain Woodes Rogers.
There were also other causes that tended to retard the progress of the colony.
The neolithic station of Butmir, near Ilidze, was probably a lake-dwellers' colony, and has yielded numerous stone and horn implements, clay figures and pottery.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
Greenland is a Danish colony, inasmuch as the west coast and also the southern east coast belong to the Danish crown.
The communication between the Norse settlements in Greenland and the motherland Norway was broken off at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and the Norsemen's knowledge about their distant colony was gradually more or less forgotten.
The Danish mission in Greenland has a yearly grant of £ 2000 from the trading revenue of the colony, besides a contribution of £880 from the state.
The area of the entire Danish colony is estimated at 45,000 sq.
In 986 he started again from Iceland with 25 ships, but only 14 of them reached Greenland, where a colony was founded on the south-west coast, in the present Julianehaab district.
In the beginning of the 12th century Greenland got its own bishop, who resided at Garolar, near the present Eskimo station Igoliko, on an isthmus between two fjords, Igaliksfjord (the old Einarsfjord) and Tunugdliarfik (the old Eriksfjord), inside the present colony Julianehaab.
The last ship that is known to have visited the Norse colony in Greenland returned to Norway in 1410.
In 1807-1814, owing to the war, communication was cut off with Norway and Denmark; but subsequently the colony prospered in a languid fashion.
It was proclaimed British territory on the 12th of March 1878, and was annexed to Cape Colony on the 7th of August 1884 (see Africa, § 5).
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
In 1823 the first river steamboat reached St Paul; the Mississippi was soon afterwards opened to continuous if irregular navigation; and in 1826 a party of refugees from Lord Selkirk's colony on the Red River settled near Fort Snelling.
It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal agricultural colony.
Tipasa was founded by the Phoenicians, was made a Roman military colony by the emperor Claudius, and afterwards became a municipium.
During a two years' visit to England he sought earnestly to gain friends to his colony's cause, but returned to Boston in April 1776 convinced that a friendly settlement of the dispute was impossible.
Bizerta occupies the site of the ancient Tyrian colony, Hippo Zarytus or Diarrhytus, the harbour of which, by means of a spacious pier, protecting it from the north-east wind, was rendered one of the safest and finest.
The town became a Roman colony, and was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century.
The name Eubea was given to the place in 1872 owing to a false identification with the Greek city of Euboea, a colony of Leontini, founded probably early in the 6th century B.C. and taken by Gelon.
Siberia was for many years a penal colony.
The Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk ' See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1892).
In 1885 he became Solicitor-General and in 1887 he was senior representative for his Colony at the first Imperial Conference held in London on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
According to tradition the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony was sent here.
In 181 he founded the colony of Aquileia.
Utica became a Roman colony under Hadrian, and the civitates liberae, municipia, castella, pagi and turres were peopled with Latins.
At the close of King Philip's War in 1676, Mount Hope Neck (which had been the seat of the vanquished sachem), with most of what is now the township of Bristol, was awarded to Plymouth Colony.
The first emperor planned to establish there a German colony, but the plan was not realized until 1845, when about 2700 colonists from Germany were located there.
Paterson, an English traveller, reached the river in its lower course, and in 1779 Paterson and Gordon journeyed along the west coast of the colony and explored the mouth of the river.
It was founded by a colony of Achaeans led by Myscellus in 710 B.C. Its name was, according to the legend, that of a local prince who afforded hospitality to Heracles, but was accidentally killed by him and buried on the spot.
It was made a colony by the Romans at the end of the war (194 B.C.).
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
He experienced considerable difficulty in founding this second colony, from the strenuous opposition of a neighbouring tribe, the Petiguares; at length he succeeded in clearing his lands of them, but not long afterwards he perished by shipwreck.
The Tupinoquins, the most tractable of the Brazilian tribes, made peace with the settlers, and the colony was founded without a struggle.
Duarte sailed with his wife and children, and many of his kinsmen, to take possession of his new colony, and landed in the port of Pernambuco.
Pedro de Goes obtained a grant of the captaincy of Parahyba between those of Sao Vicente and Espirito Santo; but his means were too feeble to enable him to make head against the aborigines, and the colony was broken up after a painful struggle of seven years.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
In order to secure the interest of Coligny, he gave out that his projected colony was intended to serve as a place of refuge for the persecuted Huguenots.
Many of them were forced by his tyranny to return to France; and ten thousand Protestants, ready to embark for the new colony, were deterred by their representations.
In 1612 the French attempted to found a permanent colony in the island of Marajo, where they succeeded in maintaining themselves till 1618.
The fleet soon after sailed, a squadron being detached against Angola, with the intention of taking possession of that colony, in order to secure a supply of slaves.
After this the Portuguese governed their colony undisturbed.
Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of Napoleon.
In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.
This conquest was, however, of short duration; for, by the treaty of Vienna in 1815, the colony was restored to France.
Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans (a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was distinguished by the name of Saena Julia.
Connected with the main railway system of the colony is the Darling Harbour Wharf 1260 ft.
The south-eastern sides of the mountains are in part covered with heavy timber, while the semi-tropical luxuriance of the coast belt has earned for Natal the title of " the garden colony."
There are also seventeen distinct coast streams in the colony.
Natal was from 1893 to 1910 a self-governing colony.
For 1909-1910, the last year of Natal's existence as a colony, the revenue, £4,035,000, again exceeded the expenditure.
The Roman-Dutch law, as accepted and administered by the courts of Cape Colony up to 1845 (the date of the separation of Natal from the Cape), is the law of the land, save as modified by ordinances and laws enacted by the local legislature, mostly founded upon imperial statute law.
When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
These Kaffirs appear to have been more given to agriculture and more peaceful than their neighbours in Kaffraria and Cape Colony.
It was in this year that a petition from Cape Town merchants asking for the creation of a British colony at Natal was met by the statement that the Cape finances would not permit the establishment of a new dependency.
The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
At the same time the settlers, who numbered about 50, sent a memorial to the governor calling attention to the fact that they were acknowledged rulers over a large tract of territory south of the Tugela, and asking that this territory should be proclaimed a British colony under the name of Victoria and that a governor and council be appointed.
The first emigrant Boers to enter the country were led by Pieter Retief (c. 1780-1838), a man of Huguenot descent and of marked ability, who had formerly lived on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony and had suffered severely in the Kaffir wars.
This had been followed by an intimation from the governor of the Cape (MajorGeneral Sir George Napier) inviting the emigrants to return to the colony, and stating that whenever he thought it desirable he should take military possession of the port.
In sanctioning the occupation of the port the British government of the day had no intention of making Natal a British colony, but wished to prevent the Boers establishing an independent republic upon the coast with a harbour through which access to the interior could be gained.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
In this minute the farmers ascribed all their troubles to one cause, namely, the absence of a representative government, which had been repeatedly asked for by them while still living in Cape Colony and as often denied or delayed, and concluded by a protest against the occupation of any part of their territory by British troops.
C. Smith with a force of 263 men left his camp at the Umgazi,on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony, and marching overland reached Durban without opposition, and encamped, on the 4th of May, at the base of the Berea hills.
Although proclaimed a British colony in 1843, and in 1844 declared a part of Cape Colony, it was not until the end of 1845 that an effective administration was installed with Mr Martin West as lieutenant-governor, and the power of the volksraad finally came to an end.
In that year the external trade of Natal, almost entirely with Cape Colony, was of the total value of 42,000 - of which 32,000 represented imported goods.
From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country.
At the same time schools were established and various churches began or increased their work in the colony.
In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the crown.
They came under indentures, but at the expiration of their contract were allowed to settle in the colony.'
In 1866 the borders of the colony were extended on the southwest by the annexation of part of Kaffraria that had formerly been under the sway of the Pondo chief Faku, who found himself unable to maintain his authority in a region occupied by many diverse tribes.
There was scarcely an attempt to copy the policy, deliberately adopted in Cape Colony, of educating and civilizing the black man.
The Amahlubi, one of the highest in rank of the Bantu tribes of South Africa, fleeing from the cruelties of ' Between 1860 and 1866 some 5000 Indians entered the colony.
Prompt action by Sir Benjamin Pine, then lieutenant-governor of the colony, together with help from the Cape and Basutoland, prevented the success of Langalibalele's plan, and his own tribe, numbering some io,000 persons, was the only one which rebelled.
The chief was captured, and exiled to Cape Colony (August 1874).
But besides a commercial crisis the colony had been the scene of an ecclesiastical dispute which attracted widespread attention.
This led to a division among the Anglican community in the colony and the consecration in 186 9 of a rival bishop, who took the title of bishop of Maritzburg.
At In- gogo, Majuba and Laing's Nek, all of them situated within the colony, British forces had been defeated by the Boers.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
Thus a new industry was added to the resources of the colony.
In 1882 the colony was offered Self- self-government coupled with the obligations of govern.
In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
In July the Natal ministry J Y Y learnt that it was not the intention of the Imperial government to endeavour to hold the frontier in case hostilities arose, but that a line of defence considerably south of the frontier would be taken up. This led to a request on their part that if the Imperial government had any reason to anticipate the breakdown of negotiations, " such steps may be at once taken as may be necessary for the effectual defence of the whole colony."
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
As the nearest colony to the Transvaal, Natal was resorted to by a large number of men, women and children, who were compelled to leave the Transvaal on the outbreak of the war.
It was proposed to include in Natal such portions of the Harrismith and Vrede districts as were comprised by a line following the Elands river north from its source on the Basutoland border to its junction with the Wilge river, and thence drawn straight to the point where the boundaries of Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony meet on the Drakensberg.
In consideration of this addition to her territory, Natal should take over a portion of the Orange River Colony debt, to be raised at the end of the war, to the amount of £ 200,000.
With regard, however, to the proposed transfer of territory from the Orange River Colony, the circumstances were different.
In 1906 a serious rebellion broke out in the colony, attributable ostensibly to the poll-tax, and spread to Zululand.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
Natal further built several railway lines in the eastern half of the Orange River Colony, thus opening up new markets for her produce and facilitating her transit trade.
Concurrently with the efforts made to reorganize their native policy the colony also endeavoured to deal with the Asiatic question.
An act of 1895, which did not become effective until 1901, imposed an annual tax of £3 on time-expired Indians who remained in the colony and did not reindenture.
The closing months of Natal's existence as a separate colony thus found her peaceful and prosperous.
Twentieth-Century Impressions of Natal (London, 1906) deals with the peoples, commerce, industries and resources of the colony; the Census of the Colony of Natal, April 1904 (Maritzburg, 1905) contains a large amount of authoritative information; The Natal Almanac is a directory and yearly register published at Maritzburg.
After long struggles the city fell into the hands of the Lucanians (who nevertheless did not expel the Greek colonists) and in 273 B.C. it became a Latin colony under the Roman rule, the name being changed to the Latin form Paestum.
In 194 a Roman colony was founded, with Latin rights, known for a time as Copiae, but afterwards by the old name of Thurii.
From the south-west to the north-east corners of the colony is 570 m.; east 1 Concil trident.
In May 1903 an inter-colonial council was established to deal with the administration of the railways in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony (known as the Central South African railways), the South African constabulary and other matters common to the Orange River and Transvaal colonies.
The accounts of the colony began, for normal purposes, with the year ending 30th of June 1903, and ended in June 1910 on the establishment of the Union.
Courts of first instance are presided over by magistrates, the whole colony being divided into sixteen magisterial wards.
In accordance with the terms of the Education Act of 1907 of the Transvaal colony, state schools are provided for the free instruction of all white children in elementary subjects.
They left Cape Colony in 1835 and trekked to the Zoutpansberg.
It was used as a base by hunters and traders with the interior, and in its vicinity there gathered a number of settlers of European origin, many of them outcasts from Europe or Cape Colony.
About this time gold reefs were discovered in the Zoutpansberg district near Marabastad, and a few gold seekers from Europe and Cape Colony began to prospect the northern portions of the Transvaal.
An attempt was made in 1888, after the conference held between Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and Natal, to induce the Transvaal to enter a customs union.
His hostility towards Great Britain and even Cape Colony led him to adopt a commercial policy both narrow and prejudicial to the interests of the gold industry.
In the furthering of this policy Tudhope was supported by Charles Leonard and his brother James Leonard, at one time attorney-general of Cape Colony.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
In Natal practically the whole of the available defence force was swallowed up by the steady success of the invasion; on the western frontier two British towns were isolated and besieged; and Boer commandos were on the point of invading Cape Colony, where the Dutch population seemed on the verge of rebellion.
The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.
The first duty was to effect the relief of the British forces which had been rendered immobile, and another duty imposed by political circumstances was to relieve Kimberley (where Cecil Rhodes was), while the prospect of rebellion forbade the complete denudation of the central part of the colony.
Clery and some brigades were sent to Natal; Gatacre with less than a brigade, instead of a division, was despatched to Queenstown, Cape Colony; while Lord Methuen, with a division, was sent off to relieve Kimberley.
The only bright spot, as far as the British were concerned, was to be found in northern Cape Colony, where General French, with two cavalry brigades and details, by his skilful tactics and wonderful activity kept at arm's length a superior force of the enemy in the vicinity of Colesberg, an achievement the more noteworthy since he had pitted against him both De la Rey and De Wet, two of the three men of military genius produced by the war on the Boer side.
When Lord Roberts arrived in Cape Town on the 10th of January 1900 the three garrisons were still invested, and the relieving forces were still maintaining their role of passive resistance, while at the same time restraining the Dutch in Cape Colony.
The commander-in-chief's first duty was to create a field army out of the tangle of units in Cape Colony.
The Natal invaders fell back to the mountains which enclose the north of the colony; Oliver and Schoeman retired from Cape Colony before the small forces of Gatacre and Clements; and the presidents of the republics, realizing that the British Empire was capable of more resistance than they had calculated upon, put forward feelers aiming at the restoration of the status quo before the war.
In the meantime rebellion had broken out in the Prieska district of Cape Colony, which was promptly quelled by Lord Kitchener.
Cape Colony to an alarming degree, while, as forerunners of the promised invasion, scattered bodies of Free Staters crossed the Orange River to swell the rebellion.
Kritzinger, Hertzog and bodies of Cape rebels raided Cape Colony as soon as they were able to cross the Orange, and Hertzog penetrated so far that he exchanged shots on the Atlantic coast with a British warship. All that the British forces under Sir Charles Knox and others could do was to localize the raids and to prevent Botha's .
He despatched French with a large force to clear the south-eastern districts of the Transvaal and for the rest maintained a force to watch De Wet, and organized a defence force in Cape Colony, while using the residue of his mounted men to sweep the country of stock, forage and inhabitants.
On the 10th of February De Wet, with five guns and 3000 men, carried out his promised invasion of Cape Colony.
By judicious use of the railway Kitchener concentrated sufficient troops in the colony to cope with the attempt, and, after being hunted for eighteen days, De Wet escaped back into the Orange River Colony with the loss of all his guns, munitions of war and half his force.
June brought little of, moment, though the Boers scored two minor successes, Kritzinger capturing the village of Jamestown in Cape Colony, and Muller reducing a force of Victorians at Wilmansrust, south of Middelburg.
Smuts, with a small force from the Magaliesberg, traversed Orange River Colony and stimulated the Cape rebels afresh.
But September showed some slight improvement in the situation in Cape Colony, where French was in supreme command.
In November an unsuccessful attempt was made by several columns to run De Wet to earth in the Lindley district, whither, after his second raid on Cape Colony, he had returned.
Lord Roberts held the post of administrator of the colony until his departure for England in December following, when he was succeeded by Sir Alfred Milner, the high commissioner.
It was not, however, until March 1901 that Milner, who resigned his governorship of Cape Colony, arrived at Pretoria to inaugurate a civil administration.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
Several of the reforms adopted for the Transvaal applied to or affected the sister colony.
More injurious than plots of this nature was the political agitation carried on in Cape Colony and in Great Britain.
Notwithstanding the remonstrances of the Indian government, the imperial authorities could not effectively intervene; a self-governing colony (in which whites alone possessed the franchise) must be allowed to take its own course.
It is close to the site of the ancient Aquinum, a municipium in the time of Cicero, and made a colony by the Triumviri, the birthplace of Juvenal and of the emperor Pescennius Niger.
A colony was planted here by the Triumviri.
Their sect however continued to spread in Bulgaria, where in 969 John Zimiskes settled a new colony of them at Philippopolis.
In 1828 a colony of them settled in Russian Armenia, bringing with them a book called the Key of Truth, which contains their rites of name-giving, baptism and election, compiled from old MSS., 1 we know not when.
The tenure of the presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate election Guzman Blanco was declared to be duly and legally chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so long in vogue; and President Rojas Paul, Blanco's locum tenens, was forced to flee the country and take refuge in the Dutch colony of Curacoa.
It is known that Salerno, a Roman colony, in a situation noted in ancient times for its salubrity, was in the 6th century at least the seat of a bishopric, and at the end of the 7th century of a Benedictine monastery, and that some of the prelates and higher clergy were distinguished for learning, and even for medical acquirements.
He had lived in Cape Colony, and there, as is supposed, had observed the manner in of the which the whites formed their soldiers into disciplined regiments.
His influence, however, extended from the Limpopo to the borders of Cape Colony, and through the ravages of Swangendaba and Mosilikatze the terror of the Zulu arms was carried far and wide into the interior of the continent.
Over this tract, the first patroonship granted in the colony, he had the usual powers and rights of a patroon.
This plan provided for a representative governing body to be known as the Grand Council, to which each colony should elect delegates (not more than seven or less than two) for a term of three years.
Here is a Protestant colony, known as "the Settlement" and founded in 1834.
These towns are not known to have been Greek colonies; but the foundation of Aspendus was traditionally ascribed to the Argives, and Side was said to be a colony from Cyme in Aeolis.
The legend related by Herodotus and Strabo, which ascribed the origin of the Pamphylians to a colony led into their country by Amphilochus and Calchas after the Trojan War, is merely a characteristic myth.
Many of the specimens discovered by Layard at Nineveh have all the appearance of being Roman, and were no doubt derived from the Roman colony, Niniva Claudiopolis, which occupied the same site.
The town and district form a small ethnographical island, having been peopled in the 18th century by a colony of Takruri from Darfur, who, finding the spot a convenient resting-place for their fellow-pilgrims on their way to Mecca and back, obtained permission from the negus of Abyssinia to make a permanent settlement.
During that period rubber fell from being 77% to 15 in value of the exports of produce of the colony, though the quantity exported-3,000-4,000 tons - was about the same.
The abandonment of the trading monopolies of the old Congo Free State, and the taking over of its loans put a severe strain on the resources of the colony.
With the development of commerce, and especially of the Katanga mines - in which the colony had a two-thirds interest - the prospects of balancing the budget became good.
This left the governor-general, and the council of government free to deal with matters affecting the colony as a whole, including the preparation of the budget.
The governor-general had, however, practically no authority in the province of Katanga, which, in 1910, except that it had no separate budget, became a separate colony.
Even in the distant colony at Kara Euyuk near Kaisariyeh (Caesarea) in Cappadocia cuneiform tablets show that the Assyrian settlers used it in the 5th century B.C. In Babylonia a different system was adopted.
The first settlers came from the New Haven Colony in 1640; but the Dutch, on account of the exploration of Long Island Sound by Adrian Blok in 1614, laid claim to Greenwich, and as New Haven did nothing to assist the settlers, they consented to union with New Netherland in 1642.
By a treaty of 1650, which fixed the boundary between New Netherland and the New Haven Colony, the Dutch relinquished their claim to Greenwich, but the inhabitants of the town refused to submit to the New Haven Colony until October 1656.
Six years later Greenwich was one of the first towns of the New Haven Colony to submit to Connecticut.
Formerly it was the old Genoese colony of Olchionia, and has still the ruins of a 13th-century Genoese castle.
The industrial development of the place started with a colony of bleachers, attracted by the clear waters of the Wupper, who in 1532 were granted the exclusive privilege of bleaching yarn.
This fact gave rise in ancient times to the false idea that the tapeworm originated from the union of these segments; and in modern times it has led to the view that the tapeworm is not a segmented organism (the monozoic view), but is a colony composed of the scolex which arises from the embryo and of the proglottides, which are asexually produced buds that, upon or before attaining their full size and maturity, become separated, grow, and, in some cases, live freely for a time, just as the segments of a strobilating jelly-fish grow, separate and become sexual individuals (the polyzoic view).
The colony is administered by a governor, who exercises military power through a marine infantry colonel, and civil power with the assistance of a privy '- A similar usage exists in Malay; see paper by Yule in Jour.
The flora and fauna belong for the most part to those of New Zealand, on which colony the islands are also politically dependent, having been annexed in 1887.
The colony possesses representative institutions but not responsible government.
During this period a portion of the 42% duty was returned to the colony in the form of the governor's salary.
For three years after the peace of Amiens in 1802 the colony enjoyed uninterrupted calm, but in 1805 it was only saved from falling into the hands of the French by the timely arrival of Admiral Cochrane.
The rupture between Great Britain and the United States in 1812 caused privateering to be resumed, the trade of the colony being thereby almost destroyed.