Each colony and protectorate, including Algeria, has a separate budget.
In 59 B.C. a colony was established here by Caesar.
The colony, however, from 1821 had made a fair start in free industrial progress.
The colony of ants were very efficient when they all worked together.
The British colony sought independence from their country.
From the time of its foundation as a Greek colony to the present day it has always been a considerable emporium of commerce, and it was for two centuries and a half the capital of an empire.
The small colony was very self-sufficient, with just enough shops and farms.
The entire colony had the same religious views, so there was only the need for one church.
The next recorded expedition is a memorable one in the annals of Australian history - the despatch of a British colony to the shores of Botany Bay.
In the twelve years' rule of General Macquarie, closing with 1821, the colony made a substantial advance.
The Great Southern railway has a line to the seaward end of the pier, and affords direct communication with the interior of the colony.
Deurne, a few miles east of Helmond, the site of a prehistoric burial-ground, was an early fen colony.
He was also one of the grantees of the province of Carolina and took a leading part in its management; it was at his request that Locke in 1669 drew up a constitution for the new colony.
Charles Island, the most valuable of the group, is cultivated by a small colony.
About 130 the emperor Hadrian decided to rebuild Jerusalem, and make it a Roman colony.
Although the bill drawn up by the convention of 1891 was not received by the people with any show of interest, the federation movement did not die out; on the contrary, it had many enthusiastic advocates, especially in the colony of Victoria.
At this meeting all the colonies except New Zealand were represented, and it was agreed that the parliament of each colony should be asked to pass a bill enabling the people to choose ten persons to represent the colony on a federal convention; the work of such convention being the framing of a federal constitution to be submitted to the people for approval by means of the referendum.
Western Australia did not put it to the vote, as the Enabling Act of that colony only provided for joining a federation of which New South Wales should form a part.
The bill as amended was submitted to the electors of each colony and again triumphantly carried in Victoria, South Australia and Tasmania.
The Enabling Bill passed the various stages in the parliament of that colony, and the question was then adopted by referendum.
The convention was attended by Sir George Grey, who was publicly welcomed to the colony by New Zealanders resident in Sydney, and by other admirers, and his reception was an absolute ovation.
This was the planting of a colony of communistic per week for which such wages are payable, with the rates for overtime when those hours are exceeded.
It is now a centre of the trade in Malwa opium, with a wealthy colony of Bohra merchants.
Augusta occupies the site of the Indian village, Koussinoc, at which the Plymouth Colony established a trading post about 1628.
In the reign of Augustus, Agrippa fixed the newly mixed colony of Suevi and Menapii at Tournai, which continued throughout the period of Roman occupation to be of importance.
Politically the Malay Peninsula is divided into four sections: the colony of the Straits Settlements and the Federated Malay States; the independent Malay State of Johor, which is within the British sphere of influence; the non-federated states under British protection; and the groups of states to the north of Perak and Pahang which are now recognized as lying within the sphere of influence of Siam.
The colony of the Straits Settlements consists of the islands of Singapore, Penang and the Dindings, the territory of Province Wellesley, on the mainland opposite to Penang, the insignificant territory of the Dindings, and the town and territory of Malacca.
The population of the peninsula numbers about 2,000,000, of whom about 600,000 inhabit the colony of the Straits Settlements, about 900,000 the Federated Malay States, about 200,000 the Malay State of Johor, and about 250,000 to 300,000 the remainder of the peninsula.
The population of the peninsula includes about 850,000 Chinese, mostly immigrants or descendants of immigrants from the southern provinces of China, of whom about 300,000 reside in the colony of the Straits Settlements, 365,000 in the Federated Malay States,.
The colony of the Straits Settlements, and to a lesser extent the towns of the Federated Malay States, carry a considerable heterogenous population, in which most of the races of Asia find their representatives.
The Straits Settlements - Singapore, Malacca and Penang - were ruled from India until 1867, when they were erected into a crown colony under the charge of the Colonial Office.
Singapore is the political, commercial and administrative headquarters of the colony of the Straits Settlements, and the governor for the time being is ex officio high commissioner of the Federated Malay States, British North Borneo, Sarawak, the Cocos-Keeling and Christmas Islands, and governor of Labuan.
A numerous British colony resides at Mustapha, where there is an English club.
It was the chief town of the Samnites, who took refuge here after their defeat by the Romans in 314 B.C. It appears not to have fallen into the hands of the latter until Pyrrhus's absence in Sicily, but served them as a base of operations in the last campaign against him in 275 B.C. A Latin colony was planted there in 268 B.C., and it was then that the name was changed for the sake of the omen, and probably then that the Via Appia was extended from Capua to Beneventum.
After the Social War it became a municipium and under Augustus a colony.
The new town kept the old name until 313, when a Latin colony under the name Suessa Aurunca was founded here.
These advantages, however, scarcely benefited at all the Irish Roman Catholics, who were excluded from political life and from the corporate towns; and Cromwell's union meant little more than the union of the English colony in Ireland with England.
In spite of almost insuperable difficulties the colony took root, trade began, the fleet lay in wait for the Spanish treasure ships, the settlements of the Spaniards were raided, and their repeated attempts to retake the island were successfully resisted.
In 1728 fitful communication was restored by the then representative of the Ogasawara family, only to be again interrupted until 1861, when an unsuccessful attempt was made to establish a Japanese colony at Port Lloyd.
When Commodore Perry arrived in 1853, there were on Peel Island thirty-one inhabitants, four being English, four American, one Portuguese and the rest natives of the Sandwich Islands, the Ladrones, &c.; and when Mr Russell Robertson visited the place in 1875, the colony had grown to sixty-nine, of whom only five were pure whites.
English was the language of the settlers, and they regarded themselves as a British colony.
Chagrined at finding no notice taken of a wild scheme for founding a military colony in the South Seas which he had submitted to Pitt, he turned to Irish politics.
He became Astronomer Royal in Cape Colony in 1879 and retained that post till 1902.
He did much to advance stellar photography and its use in cataloguing the stars, and he was responsible for the geodetic surveys of Natal and Cape Colony, British Bechuanaland, German S.-W.
TOGOLAND, a German colony on the Gulf of Guinea, West Africa.
by the French colony of Upper Senegal and Niger, E.
by Dahomey, also a French colony.
The area of the colony is some 33,700 sq.
Beginning in the south-east corner of the Gold Coast colony this range, composed of quartzites and schists, extends beyond the borders of Togoland into upper Dahomey.
The greater part of the colony lies west and north of the chain and belongs to the basin of the Volta.
For a considerable distance the left bank of the Volta itself is in German territory, but its lower course is wholly in the Gold Coast colony.
It was the first German colony to dispense (1903-1904) with an imperial subsidy towards its upkeep. Several firms have acquired plantations in which coffee, cocoa, cotton, kola and other tropical products are cultivated.
Government, eec. - The colony is administered by a governor who is advised by a nominated council of unofficial members.
On the whole the history of the colony has been one of peaceful progress, interrupted now and again, as in 1903, by severe droughts.
It must have been rebuilt almost at once, for several bases exist, inscribed Augusto sacr(um) Perusia restituta; but, as we have seen, it did not become a colony until A.D.
The city continued to flourish under the Romans, who made it a colony, with the name Colonia Victrix Julia Nova Carthago.
A month later (10th March I 882) Rubattino made over his establishment to the Italian government, and on the 12th of June the Chamber adopted a bill constituting Assab an Italian crown colony.
Antoneili profited by the situation to obtain Mneleks signature to a treaty fixing the frontiers of the Italian colony and defining Italo-Abyssinian relations.
Meanwhile the Italian mint coined thalers bearing the portrait of King Humbert, with an inscription referring to the Italian protectorate, and on the 1st of January 1890 a royal decree conferred upon the colony the name of Eritrea.
In the colony itself General Baldissera, who had replaced General Saletta, delayed the movement against Mangash desired by Menelek.
After obtaining the establishment of an apostolic prefecture in Eritrea under the charge of Italian Franciscans, Baratieri expelled from the colony the French Lazarist missionaries for their alleged complicity in the Bath-Agos insurrection; and in March 1895 undertook the conquest of Tigr.
Before Nerazzini could reach Adis Ababa, Rudini, in order partially to satisfy the demands of his Radical supporters for the abandonment of the colony, announced in the Chamber the intention of Italy to limit her occupation to the triangular zone between the points Asmar, Keren and Massawa, and, possibly, to withdraw to Massawa alone.
It received a colony under Augustus, but appears to have suffered much from floods of the river Clanis.
In 1788-1789 the government of Bengal sought to establish in the Andamans a penal colony, associated with a harbour of refuge.
There was much sickness, and after two years, urged by Admiral Cornwallis, the government transferred the colony to the N.E.
With the colony the name also of Port Cornwallis was transferred to this new locality.
The commission reported favourably, selecting as a site Blair's original Port Cornwallis, but pointing out and avoiding the vicinity of a salt swamp which seemed to have been pernicious to the old colony.
The Andaman colony obtained a tragical notoriety from the murder of the viceroy, the earl of Mayo, by a Mahommedan convict, when on a visit to the settlement on the 8th of February 1872.
- Stauridium productum, portion of the colony magnified; p, polyp; rh, hydrorhiza.
- Colony of Hydractinia echinata, growthemselves; or, ing on the Shell of a Whelk.
on the other hand, the polyp .individuals produced by budding may remain permanently in connexion with the parent polyp, in which case sexual elements are never developed on polyp-individuals but only on medusa-individuals, and a true colony is formed.
Thus the typical hydroid colony starts from a " founder " polyp, which in the vast majority of cases is fixed, but which may be floating, as in Nemopsis, Pelagohydra, &c. The founder-polyp usually produces by budding polyp-individuals, and these in their turn produce other buds.
In this way the hydroid colony becomes composed of two portions of different function, the nutritive " trophosome," composed of non-sexual polyps, and the reproductive " gonosome," composed of sexual medusaindividuals, which never exercise a nutritive function while attached to the colony.
In such a colony of connected individuals, the exact limits of the separate " persons ” are not always clearly marked out.
- Polyps from a Colony indicated in the case of the polyps of Hydractinia, magnified.
In this manner the food absorbed by one individual contributes to the welfare of the whole colony, and the coenosarc has the 6 C FIG.
function of circulating and distributing nutriment through the colony.
The hydroid colony shows many variations in form and architec- ture which depend simply upon differences in the methods in which polyps are budded.
Such a colony may undergo two principal modifications.
A, colony of but grow in all planes Lar;B and C, young and adult medusae.
forming a felt-work; the result is a massive colony, such as is seen in the so-called Hydrocorallines (fig.
A fur- ‘ - ther peculiarity of this type of colony is that theentire coenosarcal complex is covered externally by a common layer of ectoderm; it is not clear how this covering layer is developed.
t "1j ' laterally from it; the result is an arborescent, tree-like colony (figs.
- Colony of Bougainvillea distinct types of budding are fruticosa, natural size, attached to the found, which are best deunderside of a piece of floating timscribed in botanical terminober.
- Portion of colony of Bougainvillea fruticosa (Anthomedusae-Gymnoblastea) more magnified.
Hence, in a colony of gymnoblastic hydroids, the oldest polyp of each system, that is to say, of the main stem or of a branch, is the topmost polyp; II ?a ` FIG.
As in other cases where animal colonies are formed by organic union of separate individuals, there is ever a tendency for the polyp-colony as a whole to act as a single individual, and for the members to become subordinated to the needs of the colony and to undergo specialization for particular functions, with the result that they simulate organs and their individuality becomes masked to a greater or less degree.
- In the Hydromedusae the medusa-individual occurs, as already stated, in one of two conditions, either as an independent organism leading a true life c2 a2 in the open seas, or as a subordinate individuality in the hydroid c colony, from which it is never set free; it then becomes a mere reproductive appendage or gono- phore, losing suc FIG.
Moreover, all the medusae budded from a given hydroid colony are either male or female, so that even the non-sexual polyp must be considered to have a latent sex.
In any case the daughter-individuals produced from the buds may be imagined as remaining attached to the parent and forming a colony of individuals in organic connexion with one another, and thus three possible cases arise.
The first case gives a colony entirely composed of polyps, as in many Hydroidea.
The second case gives a colony partly composed of polyp-individuals, partly of medusa-individuals, a possibility also realized in many colonies of Hydroidea.
The third case gives a colony entirely composed of medusa-individuals, a possibility perhaps realized in the Siphonophora, which will be discussed in dealing with this group.
The first step towards the formation of a mixed hydroid colony is undoubtedly a hastening of the sexual maturity of the medusaindividual.
In some cases both free medusae and gonophores may be produced from the same hydroid colony.
founder-polyp) nor its offspring by budding (polyps of the colony) have the power of becoming medusae, but only of producing medusae by budding.
In some cases, any polyp of the colony may bud medusae; in other cases, only certain polyps, the blastostyles, have this power.
Trophosome (only known in one genus), polyps with two tentacles forming a creeping colony; gonosome, free medusae with four, six or more radial canals, giving off one or more lateral branches which run to the margin of the umbrella, with the stomach produced into four, six or more lobes, upon which the gonads are developed; the mouth with four lips or with a folded margin; the tentacles simple, arranged evenly round the margin of the umbrella.
Solitary polyps are unknown in this sub-order; the colony may be creeping or arborescent in form; if the latter, the budding of the polyps, as already stated, is of the sympodial type, and either biserial, forming stems capable of further branching, or uniserial, forming pinnules not capable of further branching.
Other variations in the mode of growth or budding bring about further differences in the building up of the colony, which are not in all cases properly understood and cannot be described in detail here.
The hydroid genus Lafoea is remarkable for producing gonothecae on the hydrorhiza, each containing a blastostyle which bears a single gonophore; this portion of the colony was formerly regarded as an independent parasitic hydroid, and was named Coppinia.
a section apart, contrasting sharply with the families next to be mentioned, in none of which are free medusae liberated from the colony, so that only the characters of the trophosome need be considered.) 8.
- Hydrothecae sessile, biserial on the main stem, uniserial on the lateral branches or pinnules, which give the colony its characteristic feathery form; with nematophores.
(After coralline may be regarded as a form of Moseley.) hydroid colony in which the coenosarc forms a felt-work ramifying in all planes, and in which the chitinous perisarc is replaced by a massive calcareous skeleton.
In both cases the hydranth is extremely reduced and has no tentacles, and the polyp forms a colony by budding from the base.
- Diagram showing possible modifications of medusiform and hydriform persons of a colony of Siphonophora.
Gonostyles, appendages which produce by budding medusae or gonophores, like the blastostyles of a hydroid colony.
The gonostyles have been compared to the blastostyles of a hydroid colony, or to the manubrium of a medusa which produces free or sessile medusa-buds.
PN', concentric chamber of EC, Edge of colony prolonged bethe pneumatophore, showing yond the pneumatophore.
Huxley, therefore, considered a hydroid colony, for example, as a single individual, and each separate polyp or medusa budded from it as having the value of an organ and not of an individual.
Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.
this interpretation there is still a, Axis of the colony.
A further divergence of opinion arises from differences in the interpretation of the persons composing the colony.
It is possible to regard the cormus (I) as a colony of medusa-persons, (2) as a colony of polyp-persons, (3) as composed partly of one, partly of the other.
Chun (Hydrozoa ) maintains the older views of Leuckart and Claus, according to which the cormus is to be compared to a floating hydroid colony.
It may be regarded as derived from floating polyps similar to Nemopsis or Pelagohydra, which by budding produce a colony of polyps and also form medusa-buds.
Haeckel, on the other hand, is in accordance with Balfour in regarding a Siphonophore as a medusome, that is to say, as a colony composed of medusoid persons or organs entirely.
- Stephalia corona, a young colony.
The Siphonula produced buds on the manubrium, as many Anthomedusae are known to do, and these by reduction or dislocation of parts gave rise to the various appendages of the colony.
The Roman city, Augusta Treverorum, was probably fortified by Augustus about 14 B.C., and organized as a colony about A.D.
The bishop of London was treated as the diocesan bishop of the colonists in North America; and in order to provide for testamentary and matrimonial jurisdiction it was usual in the letters patent appointing the governor of a colony to name him ordinary.
BENI-ISRAEL (" Sons of Israel"), a colony of Jews settled on the Malabar coast in Kolaba district, Bombay presidency, chiefly centring in the native state of Janjira.
In Parnell is the former residence of Bishop Selwyn, who, arriving in the colony in 1842, assisted to draw up the constitution of the Anglican church.
The town was founded as capital of the colony in 1840 by Governor Hobson.
There is communication both south and north by rail, and regular steamers serve the ports of the colony, the principal Pacific Islands, Australia, &c. From 1853 to 1876 Auckland was the seat of the provincial government, and until 1865 that of the central government, which was then transferred to Wellington.
The conjoined organism is, in fact, a colony or association of the protoplasmic tinits, though each unit retains its independence.
With increase of number, however, and consequently enlargement of bulk in the colony, differentiation becomes compulsory.
The requirements of the several protoplasts must be met by supplies from without, and, as many of them are deep seated, varieties of need arise, so that various members of the colony are set apart for special duties, masses of them being devoted to the discharge of one function, others to that of another, and so on.
There is little wonder, then, that in a colony of protoplasts such as constitute a large plant a considerable degree of differentiation is evident, bearing upon the question of water supply.
The inter-relations of the members of a large colony of proto~ plasts such as constitute a tree, demand much adjustment.
Communication between the various protoplasts of the colony is, however, carried on by means of fine protoplasmic threads, which are continuous through the cell-walls.
All these points of structure can only be correctly interpreted after a consideration of the needs of the individual protoplasts, and of the large colony of which they are members.
This conception of,the plant as an aggregate or colony of independent vital units governing the nutrition, growth and reproduction of the whole cannot, however, be maintained.
Two British plants may be added which both reach North Africa: Sanicule eurojbaea extends from Abyssinia to the Cameroons and southwards to Cape Colony and Madagascar; Sambucus Ebulus reaches Uganda.
The great Phoenician colony of Carthage, founded before 800 B.C., perpetuated the commercial enterprise of the parent state, and extended the sphere of practical trade to the ocean shores of Africa and Europe.
He returned, after passing two winters in Canada; and on another occasion he also failed to establish a colony.
Admiral de Coligny made several unsuccessful endeavours to form a colony in Florida under Jean Ribault of Dieppe, Rene de Laudonniere and others, but the settlers were furiously assailed by the Spaniards and the attempt was abandoned.
The viceroys of Peru still persevered in their attempts to plant a colony in the hypothetical southern continent.
On the 18th of January 1788 Admiral Phillip and Captain Hunter arrived in Botany Bay in the " Supply " and " Sirius," followed by six transports, and established a colony at Port Jackson.
He soon, however, became entirely engrossed with colonial affairs, and, having impressed John Stuart Mill, Colonel Torrens and other leading economists with the value of his ideas, became a leading though not a conspicuous manager of the South Australian Company, by which the colony of South Australia was ultimately founded.
Wakefield seceded, and joined Lord Lyttelton and John Robert Godley in establishing the Canterbury settlement as a Church of England colony.
In 1853, after the grant of a constitution to New Zealand, he took up his residence in the colony, and immediately began to act a leading part in colonial politics.
These - as indicated by their supply from a branch of the hypoglossal nerve, which descends on either side of the trachea - are, so to speak, a detached, now mostly independent colony of glosso-pharyngeal muscles.
His African experiences suggested The African Colony (1903), A Lodge in the Wilderness (1906), and Prester John (1910).
Although an, active guerrilla warfare was waged against the Dutch during a large part of that period, they did much to promote the agricultural and commercial interests of the colony, especially under the wise administration of Maurice of Nassau.
m., is dependent for administrative purposes on Mauritius, and is regularly visited by vessels from that colony.
In the 1st century B.C. Buthrotum became a Roman colony, and derived some importance from its position near Corcyra, and on the main highway between Dyrrachium and Ambracia.
Agrippa made the fine natural harbour into the main naval station of the Mediterranean fleet, and founded a colony there probably in 31 B.C. The emperor Tiberius died in his villa here.
(b) Gaul proper first enters ancient history when the Greek colony of Massilia was founded (?
In 1892 he was elected to the Dominion Parliament, but in 1899 he interrupted his political career to serve in the South African War, where he commanded a mixed force of English and colonial scouts in western Cape Colony.
LAMPSACUS, an ancient Greek colony in Mysia, Asia Minor, known as Pityusa or Pityussa before its colonization by Ionian Greeks from Phocaea and Miletus, was situated on the Hellespont, opposite Callipolis (Gallipoli) in Thrace.
Dairy-farming is making some progress, especially in the Swiss colony near San Jose.
and the French colony of the Ivory Coast on the S.E.
But after deliberation and as the result of certain "frontier incidents" France modified her counter-proposals in 1907, and the actual definition of the northern and eastern frontiers of Liberia is as follows: Starting from the point on the frontier of the British colony of Sierra Leone where the river Moa or Makona crosses that frontier, the Franco-Liberian frontier shall follow the left bank of the river Makona up stream to a point 5 kilometres to the south of the town of Bofosso.
The colony was really founded by Jehudi Ashmun, a white American, between 1822 and 1828.
Of the "Hidden Seed" the greater number were Germans; they were probably descended from a colony of German Waldenses, who had come to Moravia in 1480 and joined the Church of the Brethren; and, therefore, when persecution broke out afresh they naturally fled to the nearest German refuge.
Enterprises: (1) Foreign missions in Labrador, Alaska, Canada, California, West Indies, Nicaragua, Demerara, Surinam, Cape Colony, Kaffraria, German East Africa, North Queensland, West Himalaya.
A colony enclosed by a common gelatinous test c. stigma.
Half of a large colony, the flagellates embedded in a common jelly.
Colony of Dinobryon sertularia, Ehr.; X200 (Chrysomcnadidae).
The colony of Serdica, founded here by the emperor Trajan, became a Roman provincial town of considerable importance in the 3rd and 4th centuries A.D., and was a favourite residence of Constantine the Great.
From the mines of Thrace, and perhaps from the harbour dues and from the mines of Laurium, he derived a large revenue; under his encouragement, Miltiades had planted an Athenian colony on the shores of the Thracian Chersonese; he had even made friends with Thessaly and Macedonia, as is evidenced by the hospitality extended by them to Hippias on his final expulsion.
Here, about 1590, was founded an independent military colony called the Setch, the members of which, recognizing no authority but that of their own elected officers, lived by fishing, hunting and making raids on the Tatars, and were always ready to assist their less fortunate countrymen in resisting Polish aggression.
In Africa Egypt opened her first line (between Alexandria and Cairo) in 1856, and Cape Colony followed in 1860.
Egypt Algiers and Tunis Cape Colony .
With the uninhabited dependency of South Georgia Island, to the E.S.E., they form the most southerly colony of the British empire.
The colony is self-supporting, the revenue being largely derived from the drink duties, and there is no public debt.
In 1764 the French explorer De Bougainville took possession of the islands on behalf of his country, and established a colony at Port Louis on Berkeley Sound.
On the representations of Great Britain the Buenos Aireans withdrew, and the British flag was once more hoisted at Port Louis in 1833, and since that time the Falkland Islands have been a regular British colony.
Despite its superior weapons and mode of warfare, the German east Baltic colony was constantly in danger of being overborne by the endless assaults of the dogged aborigines, whose hatred of the religion of the Cross as preached by the knights is very intelligible; and in 1218 Bishop Albert of Riga was driven to appeal for assistance to King Valdemar.
- The German islands form a crown colony.
back to the Mycenaean age (c. 1400-1100 B.C.) and seem to mark an Aegean colony: 2 but in historic times Citium is the chief centre of Phoenician influence in Cyprus.
It was during the Roman period a flourishing municipium, but perhaps never became a colony; and it is associated with no event more interesting than the assassination of M.
A colony with Latin rights was founded on Pontiae in 313 B.C. Nero, Germanicus's eldest son, and the sisters of Caligula, were confined upon it; while Pandateria was the place of banishment of Julia, daughter of Augustus, of her daughter Agrippina the elder, and of Octavia, the divorced wife of Nero.
Pilgrim Hall, a large stone building erected by the Pilgrim Society (formed in Plymouth in 1820 as the successor of the Old Colony Club, founded in 1769) in 1824 and remodelled in 1880, is rich in relics of the Pilgrims and of early colonial times, and contains a portrait of Edward Winslow (the only extant portrait of a "Mayflower" passenger), and others of later worthies, and paintings, illustrating the history of the Pilgrims; the hall library contains many old and valuable books and manuscripts - including Governor Bradford's Bible, a copy of Eliot's Indian Bible, and the patent of 1621 from the Council for New England - and Captain Myles Standish's sword.
From it have been transferred to the fireproof building of the Registry of Deeds many interesting historical documents, among them the records of the Plymouth colony, the will of Myles Standish, and the original patent.
When and how the town and the colony of Plymouth became differentiated is not clear.
Plymouth was never incorporated as a township, but in 1633 the General Court of the colony recognized it as such by ordering that "the chiefe government be tyed to the towne of Plymouth."
In 1686 the colony submitted to Sir Edmund Andros, who had been commissioned governor of all New England, and chose representatives to sit in his council.
- For the sources of the early history of Plymouth consult (George) Mourt's Relation, or Journal of the Plantation of Plymouth (Boston, 1865, and numerous other editions); William Bradford's History of the Plimouth Plantation (Boston, 1858, and several later editions), the most important source of information concerning Plymouth before 1646; the Plymouth Colony Records (12 vols., Boston, 1855-1861); the Records of the Town of Plymouth (3 vols., Plymouth, 1889-1903); J.
The Latin colony of Alba Fucens near the north-west corner of the lake was founded in the adjoining Aequian territory in 303, so that from the beginning of the 3rd century the Marsians were in touch with a Latin-speaking community, to say nothing of the Latin colony of Carsioli (298 B.C.) farther west.
22), Bagohi (Bagoas), governor of Judah, and Delaiah and Shelemiah sons of Sanballat (408-407 B.C.) They ignore any strained relations between Samaria and Judah, and Delaiah and Bagohi unite in granting permission to the Jewish colony to rebuild their place of worship. If this fixes the date of Sanballat and Nehemiah in the time of the first Artaxerxes, the probability of confusion in the later written sources is enhanced by the recurrence of identical names of kings, priests, &c., in the history.
At Alexandria in particular Alexander provided for a Jewish colony which soon became Hellenic enough in speech to require a translation of the Law.
C.) The Bruttii entirely lost their freedom at the end of the Hannibalic war; in 194 colonies of Roman citizens were founded at Tempsa and Croton, and a colony with Latin rights at Hipponium called henceforward Vibo Valentia.
Algoa Bay was the first landing-place of the British emigrants to the eastern province of Cape Colony in 1820.
In 194 B.C. it became a Roman colony.
Augustus is said to have conducted here a colony of veterans,' but the place never had any great importance, and the lagoons behind it made it unhealthy, though the construction of the Via Domitiana through it must have made it a posting station.
The site proving unfavourable, the colony was transferred to Twentyseven Mile Bluff, on the Mobile River, in 1702, and later to Mobile (1710).
During the next few years Fort St Peter and a small adjoining colony were established on the Yazoo River in Warren county, and some attempts at settlement were made on Bay St Louis and Pascagoula Bay.
The efforts (1712-1721) to foster colonization and commerce through trading corporations established by Antoine Crozat and John Law failed, and the colony soon came again under the direct control of the king.
numbering in 1907 nearly 5000, living mostly in Robeson county, are of mixed breed and have been named the Croatans, on the assumption (probably baseless) that they are the descendants of John White's lost colony of 1587.
The North Carolina State Hospital (for the insane) at Raleigh was opened in 1856 as a result of the labours of Miss Dorothea Lynde Dix (1805-1887); in connexion with it there is an epileptic colony.
After receiving from Queen Elizabeth a patent for colonization in the New World, Sir Walter Raleigh, in April 1584, sent Philip Amadas, or Amidas (1S501618), and Arthur Barlowe (c. 1550 - c. 1620) to discover in the region bordering on Florida a suitable location for a colony.
They returned in September with a glowing account of what is now the coast of North Carolina, and on the 9th of April 1585 a colony of about 108 men under Ralph Lane (c. 1530-1603) sailed from Plymouth in a fleet of seven small vessels commanded by Sir Richard Grenville.
The colony was established at the north end of Roanoke Island on the 17th of August, and about a week later Grenville returned to England.
Although greatly disappointed at the return of the first colony, Raleigh despatched another company, consisting of 121 persons under John White, with instructions to remove the plantation to the shore of Chesapeake Bay.
White soon returned to England for supplies, and having been detained there until 1591 he found upon his return no trace of the colony except the word " Croatan " carved on a tree; hence the colony was supposed to have gone away with some friendly Indians, possibly the Hatteras tribe, and proof of the assumption that these whites mingled with Indians is sought in the presence in Robeson county of a mixed people with Indian habits and occasional English names, calling themselves Croatans.
The first steps were taken in that direction just after the close of the proprietary period in 1729, but the work was not completed until 1815.1 The first permanent English colony in North Carolina was established at Albemarle on the Chowan river about 1660 by people from Virginia.
Sikes, The Transition of North Carolina from Colony to Commonwealth (Baltimore, 1898), based on the public records, is accurate, though dull.
The older histories of the colony are: Hugh Williamson, History of North Carolina (2 vols.
These workers then take on themselves the labour of the colony, some collecting food, which they transfer to their comrades within the nest whose duty is to tend and feed the larvae.
The population of the colony increases fast, and a well-grown nest contains several " queens " and males, besides a large number of workers.
The workers in question remain within the nest, suspended by their feet, and serve as living honey-pots for the colony, becoming so distended by the supplies of honey poured into their mouths by their foraging comrades that their abdomens become sub-globular, the pale intersegmental membrane being tightly stretched between the widely-separated dark sclerites.
The Mingals, who, conjointly with the Brahuis, occupy the hills south of Kalat to the limits of the Rajput province of Las Bela, claim Mongolian descent, and traces of a Mongolian colony have been found in Makran.
According to tradition it was invaded by an Aryan-speaking colony from the valley of the Ganges in the 6th century B.C. It received Buddhism from north India in the time of Asoka, and has had considerable importance as a centre of religious culture which has influenced Burma and Siam.
He was no longer an outlaw with a band of wandering companions, but a petty chieftain, head of a small colony of men, allied with families of Caleb and Jezreel (in Judah), and on friendly footing with the sheikhs south of Hebron.
(SeeABSALOM.) He was at the head of a small colony (i Sam.
zone, and they themselves produce other buds, so that a ramifying colony is created.
B, Portion of a colony of Syllis ramosa (from M`Intosh).
Elche is usually identified with the Iberian Helike, afterwards the Roman colony of Ilici or Illici.
He was a descendant of Francis Higginson (1588-1630), who emigrated from Leicestershire to the colony of Massachusetts Bay and was a minister of the church of Salem, Mass., in 1629-1630; and a grandson of Stephen Higginson (1743-1828), a Boston merchant, who was a member of the Continental Congress in 1783, took an active part in suppressing Shay's Rebellion, was the author of the "Laco" letters (1789), and rendered valuable services to the United States government as navy agent from the 11th of May to the 22nd of June 1798.
In the r3th century Pisan merchants founded there a colony, Portus Pisanus, which, however, soon disappeared during the migrations of the Mongols and Turks.
A Roman colony was sent to the place, as Strabo mentions, in the reign of Augustus.
south-west of the city of Manitowoc, is St Nazianz, an unorganized village near which in 1854 a colony or community of German Roman Catholics was established under the leadership of Father Ambrose Oswald, the primary object being to enable poor people by combination and cooperation to supply themselves with the comforts of life at minimum expense and have as much time as possible left for religious thought and worship. The title of the colony's land was vested in Father Oswald after the panic of 1857 until his death in 1874, when he devised the lands to "the colony founded by me."
The colony had no legal existence at the time, but was then incorporated as the "Roman Catholic Religious Society of St Nazianz," and as such sued successfully for the bequest.
Financially the colony was successful, but as there were some desertions and no new recruits after Father Oswald's death, there were few members by 1909.
There are no longer any traces of communism, and the colony's property is actually held by an organization of the local Roman Catholic church.
At the end of the 3rd century it appears as a colony, and in the 5th century it became an episcopal see, which (jointly with Teano since 1818) it still is, though it is now a mere village.
The approach of the " Monitor " and the Union gunboats up the James river caused a partial and temporary panic; President Davis appointed a day for prayer, and the families of some of the cabinet secretaries and many citizens fled the city precipitately; but confidence, restored by " Bacon's Rebellion," was auditor-general of the colony from 1687 until his death, and was a member of the committee which founded the College of William and Mary.
His son William (1674-1744), the founder of Richmond - and above referred to - was educated in England; returned to Virginia in 1696; succeeded his father as auditor-general of the colony, and was receiver-general in 1705-1716.
The great canal was not begun; irrigation works were started but were soon given up. The letters of Kleber and Menou (the successors of Bonaparte) show that the expenditure on public works had been so reckless that the colony was virtually bankrupt at the time of Bonaparte's departure; and William Hamilton, who travelled through Egypt in 1802, found few traces, other than military, of the French occupation.
MAYFLOWER, the vessel which carried from Southampton, England, to Plymouth, Massachusetts, the Pilgrims who established the first permanent colony in New England.
The Missouri colony for the feeble-minded and epileptic (1899) is at Marshall.
Two years later, with that degree of moral courage which was one of his distinguishing characteristics, as it has been of his descendants, he, aided by Josiah Quincy, Jr., defended the British soldiers who were arrested after the "Boston Massacre," charged with causing the death of four persons, inhabitants of the colony.
1743 Mark Catesby brought out in London his Natural History of Carolina - two large folios containing highly coloured plates of the birds of that colony, Florida and the Bahamas.'
Vineyards are cultivated by a German colony and large quantities of wine are made.
The iron tubular bridge which carries the line over the Nepean is the best of its kind in the colony, while the viaduct over Knapsack Gulley is the most remarkable erection of its kind in Australia.
One of Philip's ideals was the curbing of colonial "aggression" by the creation of a belt of native states around Cape Colony.
In 1849 he severed his connexion with politics and retired to the mission station at Hankey, Cape Colony, where he died on the 27th of August 1851.
Boston is the terminus of the Boston & Albany (New York Central), the Old Colony system of the New York, New Haven & Hartford, and the Boston & Maine railway systems, each of which controls several minor roads once in dependent.
Boston was the undisputed literary centre of America until the later decades of the 19th century, and still retains a considerable and important colony of writers and artists.
Government.-Beyond a recognition of its existence in 1630, when it was renamed, Boston can show no legal incorporation before 1822; although the uncertain boundaries between the powers of colony and township prompted repeated petitions to the legislature for incorporation, beginning as early as 1650.
There were various attempts to settle about its borders in the following years before John Endecott in 1628 landed at Salem as governor of the colony of Massachusetts bay, within which Boston was included.
In 1855 a number of For several years it was uncertain whether Cambridge, Charlestown or Boston should be the capital of the colony, but in 1632 the General Court agreed " by general consent, that Boston is the fittest place for public meetings of any place in the Bay."
The great English writers of Queen Anne's reign seem to have been but little known in the colony, and the local literature, though changed somewhat in character, showed but scant improvement.
At a later date, probably under Septimius Severus or Caracalla (beginning of 3rd century), Palmyra received the Jus italicum and the status of a colony; the executive officials of the council and people were called strategoi, equivalent to the Roman duumviri (NSI.
The town became a Moslem fortress and received a considerable Arab colony; for in the reign of Merwan II.
Like Barkly West, the town and district are named after Sir Henry Barkly, governor of Cape Colony, 1870-1877.
This deviation is the adoption of an aquatic mode of life by the European fresh-water spider (Argyroneta) and by the marine spider Desis, which is found on the shores of the Indian and Pacific Oceans from Cape Colony to eastern Australia.
Ceded to the Parthians by Hadrian, it became a Roman colony (Septimia Colonia Nisibis) under Septimius Severus.
Besides the University Library, there are a Public Library (1887), containing about 80,000 vols., the library of the Young Men's Institute (1826) and the collection of the New Haven Colony Historical Society.
As thus founded, New Haven was town and colony combined.
In1643-1644the colony was expanded into the New Haven Jurisdiction, embracing the towns of New Haven, Guilford, Milford, Stamford and Branford in Connecticut, and, on Long Island, Southold; but this "Jurisdiction" was dissolved in 1664, and all these towns (except Southold) passed under the jurisdiction of Connecticut, according to the Connecticut charter of 1662.
Atwater, History of the Colony of New Haven to its Absorption into Connecticut (New Haven, 1881); H.
Blake, Chronicles of New Haven Green (New Haven, 1898); Records of the Colony of New Haven 1638-1665 (2 vols., Hartford, 1857-1858), edited by C. H.
Hoadly; and the Papers and other publications (1865 sqq.) of New Haven Colony Historical Society.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
had but recently attempted, but also by the temporary destruction of their colony in Constantinople in 1171.
'BASUTOLAND (officially "The Territory of Basutoland"), an inland state and British crown colony of S.E.
On every side it is surrounded by British colonies, north by the Orange River Colony, south-west and south by Cape Colony, and east by Natal.
Trade is almost entirely with Orange River Colony and Cape Colony.
- Basutoland is a crown colony, of which the high commissioner for South Africa is governor.
About 1800 the country was occupied by various tribes of Bechuana, such as Batau, Basuto, Baputi, who then possessed the greater part of what is now Orange River Colony.
At the same time, if the Basuto were eager for cattle, the Boers were eager for land; and their encroachments on the territories of the Basuto led to a proclamation in 1842 from Sir George Napier, the then governor of Cape Colony, forbidding further encroachments on Basutoland.
The efforts at accommodation failed, and in 1852 General Sir George Cathcart, who had succeeded Sir Harry Smith as governor of Cape Colony, decided to take strong measures with the tribe, and proceeded with three small divisions of troops against Moshesh.
Boundary disputes at once arose but were settled (1858) by the mediation of Sir George Grey, governor of Cape Colony.
An expedition was despatched from Cape Colony and severe fighting followed.
The subjection of Basutoland to the control of the Cape government had by this time proved unsatisfactory, both to the Basuto and to Cape Colony.
The Cape government therefore offered no opposition to the appeal made by the Basuto themselves to the imperial government to take them over, and, moreover, Cape Colony undertook to pay towards the cost of administration an annual contribution of £18,000.
Consequently, in 1884, Basutoland ceased to be a portion of the Cape Colony and became a British crown colony.
Trade increased, and in 1891 Basutoland was admitted to the customs union, which already existed between Orange Free State, Cape Colony and British Bechuanaland.
The conversion of Basuto A land into a crown colony contributed alike to the Y pros perityof the Basuto,the security of the property of neighbouring colonists and a peaceful condition among the natives of South Africa generally.
The founding of a Roman colony on the site of Jerusalem (Dio Cass.
-c. 1586), with another party of Huguenots, established Fort Caroline at the mouth of the St Johns, but the colony did not prosper, and in 1565 Laudonniere was about to return to France when (on the 28th of August) he was reinforced by Ribaut and about 300 men from France.
In 1567 he returned to Spain in the interest of his colony.
In 196 B.C., when the town first appears in history, it was already in the possession of the Boii, and had probably by this time changed its name, and in 189 B.C. it became a Roman colony.
The village was founded as Oberlin Colony in 1833 (in 1846 it was incorporated as the village of Oberlin), by the Rev. John J.
Fairchild, Oberlin, the College and the Colony (Oberlin, 1883); D.
Coruncanius triumphed over the people of Vulsinii and Volci in 280 B.C., and the colony of Cosa was founded in their territory.
This calamity afforded the American people an opportunity to display their generosity toward their new colony.
to the north of Zutphen is the agricultural colony of Nederlandsch-Mettray, founded by a private benefactor for the education of poor friendless boys in 1851, and since that date largely extended.
In 1891 the town was made the administrative capital of the colony.
The Umbrian Nequinum was taken by the Romans after a long siege in 299 B.C., and a colony planted there against the Umbrians, taking its name from the river.
There are good survey maps of the British colony of Hong-Kong, of Wei-hai-Wei and of the country around Kiao-chou, and the establishment of topographical offices at Peking and Ngan-king holds out some promise of native surveys.
Of the Gambia Colony there is a map by Major E.
Cowie (1:250,000, 1904-1905); the survey of the Gold Coast Colony is being published by Major F.
This survey is rapidly superseding other maps, such as the surveyor-general's map of Cape Colony (I:127,000); A.
Until 1889 it formed part of the colony of the Windward Islands, but in that year it was joined to Trinidad, its legal and fiscal arrangements, however, being kept distinct.
Ten years later it became one of the wards of Trinidad, under a warden and magistrate; its revenue, expenditure and debt were merged into those of the united colony, and Trinidadian law, with very few exceptions, was made binding in Tobago.
It was a Greek colony founded by the Tarentines and Thurians in 432 B.C., the former being predominant.
It was founded by a Megarian colony, which soon subjugated the native Mariandynians and extended its power over a considerable territory.
Thereupon the Quakers, who were perhaps not without the -obstinacy of which Marcus Aurelius complained in the early Christians, rushed to Massachusetts as if invited, and the result was that the general court of the colony banished them on pain of death, and four of them, three men and one woman,were hanged for refusing to depart from the jurisdiction or for obstinately returning within it.
Even the careless Charles was moved to issue an order to the colony which effectually stopped the hanging of the Quakers for their religion, though it by no means put an end to the persecution of the body in New England.
In1677-1678five vessels with eight hundred emigrants, chiefly Quakers, arrived in the colony (then separated from the rest of New Jersey, under the name of West New Jersey), and the town of Burlington was established.
Notwithstanding certain troubles from claims of the governor of New York and of the duke of York, the colony prospered, and in 1681 the first legislative assembly of the colony, consisting mainly of Quakers, was held.
The trade with Abyssinia suffers owing to the absence of railway communication, which the neighbouring French colony possesses.
The only result of his enterprise was the abortive treaty for the cession to France of Zula, now in the Italian colony of Eritrea.
In 1884 Leonce Lagarde, subsequently French minister to Abyssinia, was sent to administer the infant colony.
Emmerich, formerly called Embrika and Emrik, originally a Roman colony, is mentioned in records so early as the 7th century.
2,722 The Mormons of Alberta are in the most southerly part of the province, and are a colony from the Mormon settlements in Utah, U.S. On coming to Canada they were given lands by the Dominion of Canada.
In 1510 and the following years King Ferdinand ordered a number of Africans to be sent to that colony for the working of the mines.
Indeed E the reign of Elizabeth passed without any English colony having been permanently established in America.
The French assembly, fearing the loss of the colony, repealed on the 24th of September the decree of the preceding May.
The planters now offered their allegiance to Great Britain; and an English force landed in the colony.
Canning carried against Buxton and his friends a motion to the effect that the desired ameliorations in the condition and treatment of the slaves should be recommended by the home government to the colonial legislatures, and enforced only in case of their resistance, direct action being taken in the single instance of Trinidad, which, being a crown colony, had no legislature of its own.
It was for some time thought that from Sierra Leone as a centre industry and civilization might be diffused amongst the nations of the continent; and in 1822 the colony (which in 1847 became the independent republic) of Liberia had been founded by Americans with a similar object; but in neither case have these expectations been adequately fulfilled.
It is said to have been an Alban colony: it was a member of the Latin league of 499 B.C. and became Volscian in 488.
In 1879 it came into the possession of Cape Colony and was granted municipal government in 1893.
It became a Roman colony under Augustus, who died at Nola.
It became a colony in 383 B.C. It was among the twelve Latin colonies that refused further help to Rome in 209 B.C. After the Social War it became a municipium.
In April Lord Rosmead resigned his posts of high commissioner for South Africa and governor of Cape Colony.
Between August 1897 and May 1898 he travelled through Cape Colony, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, Rhodesia and Basutoland.
His difficulties were increased when at the general election in Cape Colony the Bond obtained a majority.
He thereupon resigned the governorship of Cape Colony, while retaining the post of high commissioner.
The work of reconstructing the civil administration in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony could only be carried on to a limited extent while operations continued in the field.
Immediately following the conclusion of peace Milner published (June 21) the Letters Patent establishing the system of crown colony government in the Transvaal and Orange River colonies, and exchanging his title of administrator to that of governor.
In the latter part of 1904 and the early months of 1905 Lord Milner was engaged on the elaboration of a scheme to provide the Transvaal with a system of "representative" government, a half-way house between crown colony administration and that of self-government.
This seems to have been the only instance of an intercolonial provision for the return of fugitive slaves; there were, indeed, not infrequent escapes by slaves from one colony to another, but it was not until after the growth of anti-slavery sentiment and the acquisition of western territory, that it became necessary to adopt a uniform method for the return of fugitive slaves.
A colony of Germans sent over by John Law to the Arkansas removed to the Mississippi above New Orleans, and gave to its bank the name of the " German Coast," by which it is still known.
All the old codes of the Peninsula, as well as the laws of the Indies and special royal decrees and schedules, were in force in the colony.
The project of the Code Napoleon, however - the code itself not being available in Louisiana, though promulgated in France in 1804 - was used by the compilers in the arrangement and substance of their work; and the French traditions of the colony, thus illustrated, were naturally introduced more and more into the organic commentaries and developments that grew up around the Code Napoleon.
Thus so late as 1819, when the legislature ordered the compilation of such parts of King Alfonso's Siete Partidas (the most common authority in the colony) as were considered in force, this compilation filled a considerable volume.
La Salle attempted to settle a colony in 1684, but missed the Mississippi's mouth and landed in Texas, where he was murdered in 1687 by some of his followers.
In 1697, after Ryswick, Pierre le Moyne d'Iberville (1662-1706) was chosen to lead another colony, which reached the Gulf coast early in 1699.
The company accomplished much for the colony of Louisiana.
For forty years he was the life of the colony.
The company retained its grant of the colony until 1731, when it reverted to the crown.
This treaty was not made public for a year and a half, and Spain did not take full possession of the colony until 1769.
The news of the cession of the colony to Spain roused strong discontent among the colonists.
Nevertheless they compelled Ulloa to leave the colony or exhibit his credentials.
Spanish law and Spanish tongue replaced the French officially, but the colony remained essentially French.
The Spanish rulers made efforts to govern wisely and liberally, showing great complaisance, particularly in heeding the profit of the colony, even at the expense of Spanish colonial commercial regulations.
Bernardo de Galvez (1756-1794), a brilliant young officer of twentyone, when he became the governor of the colony, was one of the most liberal of the Spanish rulers and of all the most popular.
During the American War of Independence he gave valuable aid to the United States; and when Spain finally joined in the war against Great Britain, Galvez, in a series of energetic and brilliant campaigns (1779-1781), captured all the important posts in the British colony of West Florida.
The editions are as follows: Romance of the History of Louisiana (New York, 1837, 1848); Histoire de la Louisiane (2 vols., Nouvelle Orleans, 1846-1847); Louisiana: its Colonial History and Romance (N.Y., 1851); Louisiana: its History as a French Colony,.
Of the expenditure more than ten million dollars annually went for the public debt, 5.5 to 6 millions for the army and navy, as much more for civil administration (including more than two millions for purely Peninsular services with which the colony was burdened); and on an average probably one million more went for sinecures.
Lotteries which were an important source of revenue under Spain were abolished under the Republic. The debt resting on the colony in 1895 (a large part of it as a result of the war of 1868-1878, the entire cost of which was laid upon the island, but a part as the result of Spain's war adventures in Mexico and San Domingo, home loans, &c.) was officially stated at $168,500,000.
A school was established by the government in Key West, Florida (U.S.A.), in 1905, for the benefit of the Cuban colony there.
Under a succession of liberal governors (especially Luis de las Casas, 1790-1796, and the marques de Someruelos, 1799-1813), at the end of the 18th century and the first part of the 19th, when the wars in Europe cut off Spain almost entirely from the colony, Cuba was practically independent.
During these three years the great majority of offices were filled by Cubans, and the government was made as different as possible from the military control to which the colony had been accustomed.
Government, Trade, &c. - The colony of the Bahamas is under a British governor, who is assisted by an executive council of nine members, partly official, partly unofficial; and by a legislative council of nine members nominated by the crown.
There is also a legislative assembly of 29 members, representing 15 electoral districts; the franchise being extended to white and coloured men of 21 years of age at least, resident in the colony for not less than twelve months, and possessing land of a value of 5 or more, or being householders for six months at a rental not less than £2: 18s.
Many families of good character now settled at the Bahamas, and some progress was made in developing the resources of the colony, although this was interrupted by the tyrannical conduct of some of the governors who succeeded Captain Woodes Rogers.
There were also other causes that tended to retard the progress of the colony.
The neolithic station of Butmir, near Ilidze, was probably a lake-dwellers' colony, and has yielded numerous stone and horn implements, clay figures and pottery.
This toleration of religious orders, though it did not prevent occasional outrages, remained to the last characteristic of Turkish policy in Bosnia; and even in 1868 a colony of Trappist monks was permitted to settle in Banjaluka.
A farm of more than 1600 acres, the Cleveland Farm Colony, 11 m.
Greenland is a Danish colony, inasmuch as the west coast and also the southern east coast belong to the Danish crown.
The communication between the Norse settlements in Greenland and the motherland Norway was broken off at the end of the 14th and the beginning of the 15th century, and the Norsemen's knowledge about their distant colony was gradually more or less forgotten.
The Danish mission in Greenland has a yearly grant of £ 2000 from the trading revenue of the colony, besides a contribution of £880 from the state.
The area of the entire Danish colony is estimated at 45,000 sq.
In 986 he started again from Iceland with 25 ships, but only 14 of them reached Greenland, where a colony was founded on the south-west coast, in the present Julianehaab district.
In the beginning of the 12th century Greenland got its own bishop, who resided at Garolar, near the present Eskimo station Igoliko, on an isthmus between two fjords, Igaliksfjord (the old Einarsfjord) and Tunugdliarfik (the old Eriksfjord), inside the present colony Julianehaab.
The last ship that is known to have visited the Norse colony in Greenland returned to Norway in 1410.
In 1807-1814, owing to the war, communication was cut off with Norway and Denmark; but subsequently the colony prospered in a languid fashion.
It was proclaimed British territory on the 12th of March 1878, and was annexed to Cape Colony on the 7th of August 1884 (see Africa, § 5).
Its origin was ascribed to a Carian colony, whose memory was possibly preserved in Epicarus, the earlier name of the city; it was afterwards occupied by Ionians, and appears to have incorporated a body of Phlegyans from Thessaly.
In 1823 the first river steamboat reached St Paul; the Mississippi was soon afterwards opened to continuous if irregular navigation; and in 1826 a party of refugees from Lord Selkirk's colony on the Red River settled near Fort Snelling.
It is of volcanic origin, and is partly occupied by a penal agricultural colony.
Tipasa was founded by the Phoenicians, was made a Roman military colony by the emperor Claudius, and afterwards became a municipium.
During a two years' visit to England he sought earnestly to gain friends to his colony's cause, but returned to Boston in April 1776 convinced that a friendly settlement of the dispute was impossible.
Bizerta occupies the site of the ancient Tyrian colony, Hippo Zarytus or Diarrhytus, the harbour of which, by means of a spacious pier, protecting it from the north-east wind, was rendered one of the safest and finest.
The town became a Roman colony, and was conquered by the Arabs in the 7th century.
The name Eubea was given to the place in 1872 owing to a false identification with the Greek city of Euboea, a colony of Leontini, founded probably early in the 6th century B.C. and taken by Gelon.
The town was originally a Phoenician colony founded by Tyrians long before Carthage (Sallust, Jug.
Trajan made it a Latin colony under the title of Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetina; a dedication to the emperor Gordian the Good, found by M.
Siberia was for many years a penal colony.
The Samoyedes, who are confined to the province of Tobolsk, Tomsk ' See Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (in Russian, 2nd ed., St Petersburg, 1892).
i.; Yadrintsev, Siberia as a Colony (new ed., 1892); F.
Other works deserving special mention are: Ermolov, Siberia as a Colony (3rd ed., 1894); Jarilow, Ein Beitrag zur Landwirtschaft in Sibirien (Leipzig, 1896).
In 1885 he became Solicitor-General and in 1887 he was senior representative for his Colony at the first Imperial Conference held in London on the occasion of Queen Victoria's Jubilee.
According to tradition the temple of Minerva, founded by Diomede, contained the Trojan Palladium, and the town struck numerous bronze coins; but in history it is first heard of as on the Roman side in the Samnite Wars (321 B.C.), and in 315 or 314 B.C. a Latin colony was sent here.
In 181 he founded the colony of Aquileia.
Utica became a Roman colony under Hadrian, and the civitates liberae, municipia, castella, pagi and turres were peopled with Latins.
At the close of King Philip's War in 1676, Mount Hope Neck (which had been the seat of the vanquished sachem), with most of what is now the township of Bristol, was awarded to Plymouth Colony.
The first emperor planned to establish there a German colony, but the plan was not realized until 1845, when about 2700 colonists from Germany were located there.
western Cape Colony, is represented by the Brak and Ongers rivers, and, farther west, by the Zak and Olifants rivers, which, united as the Hartebeest, reach the Orange about 25 m.
Paterson, an English traveller, reached the river in its lower course, and in 1779 Paterson and Gordon journeyed along the west coast of the colony and explored the mouth of the river.
BATTUS, the legendary founder of the Greek colony of Cyrene in Libya (about 630 B.C.).
In another version, there was civil war in Thera; Battus, leader of one party, was banished, and, on applying to the oracle, was recommended to take out a colony to "the continent" (Schol.
116), no doubt rightly, calls the founder of the colony Aristoteles, while Justin (xiii.
It was founded by a colony of Achaeans led by Myscellus in 710 B.C. Its name was, according to the legend, that of a local prince who afforded hospitality to Heracles, but was accidentally killed by him and buried on the spot.
It was made a colony by the Romans at the end of the war (194 B.C.).
ALDABRA, the collective name of a group of islands in the Indian Ocean, forming part of the British colony of Seychelles.
ANGUILLA, or Snake, a small island in the British Indies, part of the presidency of St Kitts-Nevis, in the colony of the Leeward Islands.
The introduction of European immigrants dates from 1818 when a Swiss colony was located at Nova Friburgo, near Rio de Janeiro, and it was continued under the direction and with the aid of the imperial government down to the creation of the republic. Since then the state governments have assumed charge of immigration, and some of them are spending large sums in the acquisition of labourers.
to the vicinity of Santos, and sugar was the principal export of the colony.
He experienced considerable difficulty in founding this second colony, from the strenuous opposition of a neighbouring tribe, the Petiguares; at length he succeeded in clearing his lands of them, but not long afterwards he perished by shipwreck.
The Tupinoquins, the most tractable of the Brazilian tribes, made peace with the settlers, and the colony was founded without a struggle.
Duarte sailed with his wife and children, and many of his kinsmen, to take possession of his new colony, and landed in the port of Pernambuco.
Pedro de Goes obtained a grant of the captaincy of Parahyba between those of Sao Vicente and Espirito Santo; but his means were too feeble to enable him to make head against the aborigines, and the colony was broken up after a painful struggle of seven years.
It is worthy of observation, that Brazil was the first colony founded in America upon an agricultural principle, for until then the precious metals were the exclusive attraction.
It was named Sao Paulo, and has been at once the source whence knowledge and civilization have been diffused through Brazil, and the nucleus of a colony of its manliest and hardiest citizens, which sent out successive swarms of hardy adventurers to people the interior.
In order to secure the interest of Coligny, he gave out that his projected colony was intended to serve as a place of refuge for the persecuted Huguenots.
Many of them were forced by his tyranny to return to France; and ten thousand Protestants, ready to embark for the new colony, were deterred by their representations.
In 1612 the French attempted to found a permanent colony in the island of Marajo, where they succeeded in maintaining themselves till 1618.
The fleet soon after sailed, a squadron being detached against Angola, with the intention of taking possession of that colony, in order to secure a supply of slaves.
After this the Portuguese governed their colony undisturbed.
Brazil is the only instance of a colony becoming the seat of the government of its own mother country, and this was the work of Napoleon.
In the beginning of 1809, in retaliation for the occupation of Portugal, an expedition was sent from Para to the French colony of Guiana, and after some fighting this part of Guiana was incorporated with Brazil.
This conquest was, however, of short duration; for, by the treaty of Vienna in 1815, the colony was restored to France.
c. as under Roman supremacy, but is not included in the list of the Latin league of 499 B.C. In 406 it was stormed by the Romans, lost in 402, recovered in 400, unsuccessfully attacked by the Volscians in 397, and finally secured by the establishment of a colony of Roman citizens in 329 B.C. As such it frequently appears in history.
of the frontier of the Italian colony of Eritrea.
Siena was probably founded by the Etruscans (a few tombs of that period have been found outside Porta Camollia), and then, falling under the Roman rule, became a colony in the reign of Augustus, or a little earlier, and was distinguished by the name of Saena Julia.
Connected with the main railway system of the colony is the Darling Harbour Wharf 1260 ft.
The south-eastern sides of the mountains are in part covered with heavy timber, while the semi-tropical luxuriance of the coast belt has earned for Natal the title of " the garden colony."
There are also seventeen distinct coast streams in the colony.
Natal was from 1893 to 1910 a self-governing colony.
For 1909-1910, the last year of Natal's existence as a colony, the revenue, £4,035,000, again exceeded the expenditure.
The Roman-Dutch law, as accepted and administered by the courts of Cape Colony up to 1845 (the date of the separation of Natal from the Cape), is the law of the land, save as modified by ordinances and laws enacted by the local legislature, mostly founded upon imperial statute law.
When in 1824 the next attempt was made by Europeans to form a settlement at the bay, Cape Colony had passed from the Dutch into the ' possession of Great Britain, while in Natal great changes had come over the land as a result of wars between the natives.
These Kaffirs appear to have been more given to agriculture and more peaceful than their neighbours in Kaffraria and Cape Colony.
It was in this year that a petition from Cape Town merchants asking for the creation of a British colony at Natal was met by the statement that the Cape finances would not permit the establishment of a new dependency.
The next step was taken by the settlers at the port, who in 1835 resolved to lay out a town, which they named Durban, after Sir Benjamin d'Urban, then governor of Cape Colony.
At the same time the settlers, who numbered about 50, sent a memorial to the governor calling attention to the fact that they were acknowledged rulers over a large tract of territory south of the Tugela, and asking that this territory should be proclaimed a British colony under the name of Victoria and that a governor and council be appointed.
The first emigrant Boers to enter the country were led by Pieter Retief (c. 1780-1838), a man of Huguenot descent and of marked ability, who had formerly lived on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony and had suffered severely in the Kaffir wars.
This had been followed by an intimation from the governor of the Cape (MajorGeneral Sir George Napier) inviting the emigrants to return to the colony, and stating that whenever he thought it desirable he should take military possession of the port.
In sanctioning the occupation of the port the British government of the day had no intention of making Natal a British colony, but wished to prevent the Boers establishing an independent republic upon the coast with a harbour through which access to the interior could be gained.
This feeling was, however, changed by what Sir George (and many of the Dutch in Natal also) thought a wilful and unjustifiable attack (December 1840) on a tribe of Kaffirs on the southern, or Cape Colony, frontier by a commando under Andries Pretorius, which set out, nominally, to recover stolen cattle.
In this minute the farmers ascribed all their troubles to one cause, namely, the absence of a representative government, which had been repeatedly asked for by them while still living in Cape Colony and as often denied or delayed, and concluded by a protest against the occupation of any part of their territory by British troops.
C. Smith with a force of 263 men left his camp at the Umgazi,on the eastern frontier of Cape Colony, and marching overland reached Durban without opposition, and encamped, on the 4th of May, at the base of the Berea hills.
In April 1842 Lord Stanley (afterwards 14th earl of Derby), then secretary for the colonies in the second Peel Administration, wrote to Sir George Napier that the establishment of a colony in Natal would be attended with little prospect of advantage, but at the same time stated that the pretensions of the emigrants to be regarded as an independent community could not be admitted.
Although proclaimed a British colony in 1843, and in 1844 declared a part of Cape Colony, it was not until the end of 1845 that an effective administration was installed with Mr Martin West as lieutenant-governor, and the power of the volksraad finally came to an end.
In that year the external trade of Natal, almost entirely with Cape Colony, was of the total value of 42,000 - of which 32,000 represented imported goods.
From the time of the coming of the first considerable body of British settlers dates the development of trade and agriculture in the colony, followed somewhat later by the exploitation of the mineral resources of the country.
At the same time schools were established and various churches began or increased their work in the colony.
In 1856 the dependence of the country on Cape Colony was put to an end and Natal constituted a distinct colony with a legislative council of sixteen members, twelve elected by the inhabitants and four nominated by the crown.
They came under indentures, but at the expiration of their contract were allowed to settle in the colony.'
In 1866 the borders of the colony were extended on the southwest by the annexation of part of Kaffraria that had formerly been under the sway of the Pondo chief Faku, who found himself unable to maintain his authority in a region occupied by many diverse tribes.
There was scarcely an attempt to copy the policy, deliberately adopted in Cape Colony, of educating and civilizing the black man.
The Amahlubi, one of the highest in rank of the Bantu tribes of South Africa, fleeing from the cruelties of ' Between 1860 and 1866 some 5000 Indians entered the colony.
Prompt action by Sir Benjamin Pine, then lieutenant-governor of the colony, together with help from the Cape and Basutoland, prevented the success of Langalibalele's plan, and his own tribe, numbering some io,000 persons, was the only one which rebelled.
The chief was captured, and exiled to Cape Colony (August 1874).
But besides a commercial crisis the colony had been the scene of an ecclesiastical dispute which attracted widespread attention.
This led to a division among the Anglican community in the colony and the consecration in 186 9 of a rival bishop, who took the title of bishop of Maritzburg.
C.) Scarcely had the colony recovered from the shock of the Zulu War than it was involved in the revolt of the Transvaal Boers (1880-1881), an event which overshadowed all domestic concerns.
At In- gogo, Majuba and Laing's Nek, all of them situated within the colony, British forces had been defeated by the Boers.
Railways were still far from the Transvaal border, and Natal not only sent her own colonists to the new fields, but also offered the nearest route for prospectors from Cape Colony or from Europe.
Thus a new industry was added to the resources of the colony.
In 1882 the colony was offered Self- self-government coupled with the obligations of govern.
The leader of the party which sought responsible government was Sir John Robinson (1839-1903) who had gone to Natal in 1850, was a leading journalist in the colony, had been a member of the legislative council since 1863, and had filled various official positions.
In the following year Natal entered the Customs Union already existing between Cape Colony and the Orange Free State.
In July the Natal ministry J Y Y learnt that it was not the intention of the Imperial government to endeavour to hold the frontier in case hostilities arose, but that a line of defence considerably south of the frontier would be taken up. This led to a request on their part that if the Imperial government had any reason to anticipate the breakdown of negotiations, " such steps may be at once taken as may be necessary for the effectual defence of the whole colony."
During the Boer invasion the government and the loyal colonists, constituting the great majority of the inhabitants of the colony, rendered the Imperial forces every assistance.
As the nearest colony to the Transvaal, Natal was resorted to by a large number of men, women and children, who were compelled to leave the Transvaal on the outbreak of the war.
It was proposed to include in Natal such portions of the Harrismith and Vrede districts as were comprised by a line following the Elands river north from its source on the Basutoland border to its junction with the Wilge river, and thence drawn straight to the point where the boundaries of Natal, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony meet on the Drakensberg.
In consideration of this addition to her territory, Natal should take over a portion of the Orange River Colony debt, to be raised at the end of the war, to the amount of £ 200,000.
With regard, however, to the proposed transfer of territory from the Orange River Colony, the circumstances were different.
With some of the recommendations the Natal commissioners disagreed; in 1905, however, an act was passed by the Natal legislature imposing a poll-tax of £i on all males over 18 in the colony, except indentured Indians and natives paying hut-tax (which was 14s.
In 1906 a serious rebellion broke out in the colony, attributable ostensibly to the poll-tax, and spread to Zululand.
Thereupon the Natal ministry resigned, giving as their reason the importance of maintaining the authority of the colonial administration at a critical period, and the constitutional question involved in the interference by the imperial authorities in the domestic affairs of a self-governing colony.
Natal further built several railway lines in the eastern half of the Orange River Colony, thus opening up new markets for her produce and facilitating her transit trade.
Concurrently with the efforts made to reorganize their native policy the colony also endeavoured to deal with the Asiatic question.
An act of 1895, which did not become effective until 1901, imposed an annual tax of £3 on time-expired Indians who remained in the colony and did not reindenture.
The closing months of Natal's existence as a separate colony thus found her peaceful and prosperous.
Russell, The Garden Colony.
Mann), Natal, a History and Description of the Colony, &c. (London, 1876); J.
Twentieth-Century Impressions of Natal (London, 1906) deals with the peoples, commerce, industries and resources of the colony; the Census of the Colony of Natal, April 1904 (Maritzburg, 1905) contains a large amount of authoritative information; The Natal Almanac is a directory and yearly register published at Maritzburg.
C. Holden, History of the Colony of Natal (London, 1855); J.
Robinson's A Lifetime in South Africa (London, 1901); George Linton, or the First Years of an English Colony (London, 1876).
After long struggles the city fell into the hands of the Lucanians (who nevertheless did not expel the Greek colonists) and in 273 B.C. it became a Latin colony under the Roman rule, the name being changed to the Latin form Paestum.
In 194 a Roman colony was founded, with Latin rights, known for a time as Copiae, but afterwards by the old name of Thurii.
of the civet family, ranging from Cape Colony to Algoa Bay.
From the south-west to the north-east corners of the colony is 570 m.; east 1 Concil trident.
The latest classification of Molengraaff subdivides the beds as follows: - Beaufort beds of Cape Colony.
Kynaston, The Geology of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony, Handbook, British Association (Cape Town, 5905); Trans.
In May 1903 an inter-colonial council was established to deal with the administration of the railways in the Transvaal and Orange River Colony (known as the Central South African railways), the South African constabulary and other matters common to the Orange River and Transvaal colonies.
The accounts of the colony began, for normal purposes, with the year ending 30th of June 1903, and ended in June 1910 on the establishment of the Union.
The principal head in the allocation of this loan was the purchase of the railways in the two colonies at a cost of £13,520,000, while an additional £5,958,000 was devoted to the building of new lines, purchases of rolling stock, &c. The debt of the South African Republic was paid off; £542,000 went to make good the deficit on the administration for 1901-1902; the sum of £1,561,000 was paid to burghers of the Cape Colony and Natal as compensation for war losses; £3,000,000 was devoted to land settlement schemes and £2,000,000 to public works other than railways.
Courts of first instance are presided over by magistrates, the whole colony being divided into sixteen magisterial wards.
In accordance with the terms of the Education Act of 1907 of the Transvaal colony, state schools are provided for the free instruction of all white children in elementary subjects.
They left Cape Colony in 1835 and trekked to the Zoutpansberg.
It was used as a base by hunters and traders with the interior, and in its vicinity there gathered a number of settlers of European origin, many of them outcasts from Europe or Cape Colony.
Having failed with Brand, the Boers invited the Rev. Thomas Francois Burgers, a member of a well-known Cape Colony family and a minister of the Dutch Reformed Church, to allow himself to be nominated.
About this time gold reefs were discovered in the Zoutpansberg district near Marabastad, and a few gold seekers from Europe and Cape Colony began to prospect the northern portions of the Transvaal.
de Villiers, chief justice of Cape Colony, while President Brand of the Orange Free State gave the commission the benefit of his advice.
An attempt was made in 1888, after the conference held between Cape Colony, the Orange Free State and Natal, to induce the Transvaal to enter a customs union.
His hostility towards Great Britain and even Cape Colony led him to adopt a commercial policy both narrow and prejudicial to the interests of the gold industry.
In the furthering of this policy Tudhope was supported by Charles Leonard and his brother James Leonard, at one time attorney-general of Cape Colony.
from Cecil Rhodes, then prime minister of Cape Colony, and from Dr Jameson, leading to the Jameson Raid.
But on the very day Mr Chamberlain wrote his despatch the friends of the Transvaal government in Cape Colony and the Orange Free State invited Sir Dr W.
On the following day the Boer attack on an armoured train at Kraaipan, a railway station in Cape Colony south of Mafeking and close to the western frontier of the Transvaal, witnessed the first hostile shot of a bloody war, destined to plunge South Africa into strife for two years and a half.
In Natal practically the whole of the available defence force was swallowed up by the steady success of the invasion; on the western frontier two British towns were isolated and besieged; and Boer commandos were on the point of invading Cape Colony, where the Dutch population seemed on the verge of rebellion.
The army corps was about to arrive, practically as a whole unit, in South Africa; but it was evident that the exigencies of the situation, and the widely divided areas of invasion, would at least defer the execution of the plan which had been formed for an invasion of the Orange Free State from Cape Colony.
The first duty was to effect the relief of the British forces which had been rendered immobile, and another duty imposed by political circumstances was to relieve Kimberley (where Cecil Rhodes was), while the prospect of rebellion forbade the complete denudation of the central part of the colony.
Clery and some brigades were sent to Natal; Gatacre with less than a brigade, instead of a division, was despatched to Queenstown, Cape Colony; while Lord Methuen, with a division, was sent off to relieve Kimberley.
Cape Colony was invaded; while in Natal a flying column of Boers, pushing down from the Tugela, for a short time isolated the newly-arrived force under General (Sir) H.
The only bright spot, as far as the British were concerned, was to be found in northern Cape Colony, where General French, with two cavalry brigades and details, by his skilful tactics and wonderful activity kept at arm's length a superior force of the enemy in the vicinity of Colesberg, an achievement the more noteworthy since he had pitted against him both De la Rey and De Wet, two of the three men of military genius produced by the war on the Boer side.
When Lord Roberts arrived in Cape Town on the 10th of January 1900 the three garrisons were still invested, and the relieving forces were still maintaining their role of passive resistance, while at the same time restraining the Dutch in Cape Colony.
The commander-in-chief's first duty was to create a field army out of the tangle of units in Cape Colony.
The Natal invaders fell back to the mountains which enclose the north of the colony; Oliver and Schoeman retired from Cape Colony before the small forces of Gatacre and Clements; and the presidents of the republics, realizing that the British Empire was capable of more resistance than they had calculated upon, put forward feelers aiming at the restoration of the status quo before the war.
In the meantime rebellion had broken out in the Prieska district of Cape Colony, which was promptly quelled by Lord Kitchener.
Cape Colony to an alarming degree, while, as forerunners of the promised invasion, scattered bodies of Free Staters crossed the Orange River to swell the rebellion.
Kritzinger, Hertzog and bodies of Cape rebels raided Cape Colony as soon as they were able to cross the Orange, and Hertzog penetrated so far that he exchanged shots on the Atlantic coast with a British warship. All that the British forces under Sir Charles Knox and others could do was to localize the raids and to prevent Botha's .
He despatched French with a large force to clear the south-eastern districts of the Transvaal and for the rest maintained a force to watch De Wet, and organized a defence force in Cape Colony, while using the residue of his mounted men to sweep the country of stock, forage and inhabitants.
On the 10th of February De Wet, with five guns and 3000 men, carried out his promised invasion of Cape Colony.
By judicious use of the railway Kitchener concentrated sufficient troops in the colony to cope with the attempt, and, after being hunted for eighteen days, De Wet escaped back into the Orange River Colony with the loss of all his guns, munitions of war and half his force.
June brought little of, moment, though the Boers scored two minor successes, Kritzinger capturing the village of Jamestown in Cape Colony, and Muller reducing a force of Victorians at Wilmansrust, south of Middelburg.
Smuts, with a small force from the Magaliesberg, traversed Orange River Colony and stimulated the Cape rebels afresh.
But September showed some slight improvement in the situation in Cape Colony, where French was in supreme command.
In November an unsuccessful attempt was made by several columns to run De Wet to earth in the Lindley district, whither, after his second raid on Cape Colony, he had returned.
Lord Roberts held the post of administrator of the colony until his departure for England in December following, when he was succeeded by Sir Alfred Milner, the high commissioner.
It was not, however, until March 1901 that Milner, who resigned his governorship of Cape Colony, arrived at Pretoria to inaugurate a civil administration.
At the time the articles of peace were signed at Pretoria, more than 17,000 Boer children were 1 Milner became at the same time administrator of Orange River Colony.
Several of the reforms adopted for the Transvaal applied to or affected the sister colony.
More injurious than plots of this nature was the political agitation carried on in Cape Colony and in Great Britain.
An agreement was reached whereby a loan of £35,000,000, guaranteed by the imperial government, was to be raised for the benefit of the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony; a further loan of £30,000,000 was to be issued in instalments of £10,000,000 and paid into the British exchequer as the Transvaal's contribution towards the cost of the war.
With the proceeds of the first loan the debt of the South African Republic was paid off, the Transvaal and the Orange River Colony railways were bought by the state, and new railways and other public works were undertaken.
no tampering with the rights of Indians already in the colony.
1850) was attorney-general of Cape Colony 1898-1900, attorney-general of the Transvaal 1902, and acting lieutenant-governor of the Transvaal 1905.
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